English Essay

English Essay

Student’s name

Institution

Part I INVENTORY TOPICS

  1. The following are the possible topics, and each topic has three academic topic subjects.
    Academic subject
    A) E-waste (Electronics and electric waste), possible academic subject’s topics:
    1. Level of awareness on E-waste disposal
    2. Hazards related to E-waste
    3. E-waste disposal management

    Social issue
    B) Alcoholism
    1. Health risks of alcoholism
    2. Vulnerable population to Alcoholism
    3. Social impacts on Alcoholism
    Scientific subject
    C) Revolution of the Earth
    1. Earth orbits shape
    2. Changing seasons
    3. Causes of changes in weather
    PART II
    Controlling idea statement
    Evaluating the four topics I select academic subject.
    Personal interest: Electronics and Electricals
    Academic subject: E-waste
    Possible academic topic: level of awareness on e-waste disposal.
    Idea Statement
    To investigate the level awareness on e-waste disposal in Columbia Southern University
    PART III
    Short proposal
    Waste of Electrical and Electronic gadgets is described as e-waste in general, or Electronic waste is definite in diverse ways by different researchers. (Davis at el, 2008) And electronic waste guides (2009) define e-waste as obsolete, end-of-life or discarded appliances that use electricity. On the other hand, (Peralta at el 2005) establish e-waste as “electronic products that no longer please the requirements of the original purchase”. The term e-waste comprises computers and their peripherals, fridges, consumer electronics, etc. that have been disposed of off by immediate users. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that 50 million tones of electronic waste are produced each year and that only 15-20% is recycled worldwide, and the rest goes to the landfills and incinerators (EPA 2011). Proper disposals or reuse of electronic waste can prevent health problems, create jobs and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In many countries worldwide, the level of awareness has not improved recently. Which point out the need for creating awareness and provision of incentives to the growing population in Columbia Southern University?
    Research proposal.
    Waste of Electronic and Electrical gadgets is described as e-waste, or Electronic waste is distinct in diverse ways by different researchers. (Bwalya et al., 2012) And electronic waste guides (2009) define e-waste as obsolete, end-of-life or discarded appliances that use electricity. On the other hand, (Pauli, 2010) describe e-waste as “electronic gadgets that no longer suit the requirements of the innovative purchase”. The term e-waste comprises computers and their peripherals, fridges, consumer electronics, etc. that have been predisposed off by firsthand users. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that 50 million tones of electronic waste are produced each year and that only 15-20% is recycled worldwide, and the rest goes to the landfills and incinerators (Hester 2011). Proper disposals or reuse of electronic waste can prevent health problems, create jobs and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In many countries worldwide, the level of awareness has not improved recently. Which point out the need for creating awareness and provision of incentives to the growing population in Columbia Southern University?
    Purpose Statement
    This study will try to ascertain how sustainable electronic waste is disposed of and its significant harm on human wellbeing and the environment.
    Columbia Southern University has in the recent years invested in university sustainable task force, which has advocated going beyond energy consumption beyond greenhouse gas reduction and resource conservation. Over the last few years, Columbia Southern university has been characterized by increased population and technological advances. As a result, these electronics pile up as wastes in various institution departments, students hostiles, and staff residents as during their homes. While others are carelessly disposed off in various unregulated area inform of garbage or donation to the developing nations (Friis, 2012).
    The university has put into place sustainability measures by committing to a long-term sustainable goal. The university is openly challenging some of misperceptions involved in sustainability activities such the initiatives are too complicated and costly to implement (Dornfeld et al. 2012). However, these very initiatives seem not to be efficient and effective due to inadequate technology used and limited effort to manage the e-waste. Also, most Columbia Southern university community is not conscious of the already existing structural measures involved in disposal and handling of electronic waste. There also seem to be insufficient knowledge on how to efficiently handle and sustainably manage electronic waste disposal within the University.
    The rationale of the study consequently is to examine the level of awareness on sustainable electronic waste management and disposal within Southern Columbia University.
    Statement qualification
    Despite the sustainable task force structures in place, there is still a gap in knowledge and awareness among the Columbia Southern University community on the issues of electronic waste disposal and management. The result of this research will help in designing awareness programs for addressing this concern more efficiently, and it is also for the purpose of completion of my academic requirement (Identification of the knowledge gap).
    Tentative argument
    The study will aid in identifying the knowledge gap existing in academics and be a benchmark for further study in the future. In adding up, the study outcome can be used as reference in academics and be a credible source of information for policy makers in decision-making process.

References

Bwalya, K. J., & Zulu, S. (2012). Handbook of research on e-government in emerging economies: Adoption, e-participation, and legal frameworks. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.

CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Downfield, D. A., & Linke, B. S. (2012). Leveraging technology for a sustainable world: Proceedings of the 19th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, USA, and May 23-25, 2012. Heidelberg: Springer.

Friis, R. H. (2012). The Praeger handbook of environmental health. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.

Hester, R. E., & Harrison, R. M. (2009). Electronic waste management. Cambridge, UK: RSC Pub.

Pauli, G. A. (2010). The blue economy: 10 years, 100 innovations, 100 million jobs. Taos, NM: Paradigm Publications.

Annotated bibliography

Bwalya, K. J., & Zulu, S. (2012). Handbook of research on e-government in emerging economies: Adoption, e-participation, and legal frameworks. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference

E-waste is defined as the waste as a waste of electronic and electrical Equipments(WEEE).Also the term E-waste comprises consumer such as electronic such as fridges ,computers and their peripherals that have been disposed by the first hand consumers. However the term is also used usually to describe all wastes contained electrically power-driven components which are valuable but perilous and may require exceptional handling and recycling methods. Some other definitions renders to products that are fully useful but no longer serve the desires of the original purchaser as e-waste. Disposal of products of previous products should be termed as e-waste if it will be useful and safely used by the secondly user at any time its life time. Considering the opportunity to re-use the product again

CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Downfield, D. A., & Linke, B. S. (2012). Leveraging technology for a sustainable world: Proceedings of the 19th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, USA, May 23-25, 2012.           Heidelberg: Springer

Electronic and electrical equipment are popular in recent world and have large effects on environment. For instance in Japan there legislations that require users to return back selected products to recycling facilities. The ratio of recycled material out of the collected volume of the products is higher than the collected amount to the production amount which is not sufficient. Evaluating the waste for example e home appliances composition rates nearly 70 percent today. For laptops, pcs it ranges about 10 percent while other small medium size electronics such mobile phone covers smaller percentage. The outflow of electronic wastes possesses a greater danger to environment and human health.

Friis, R. H. (2012). The Praeger handbook of environmental health. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.

Polychlorinated biphenyls are extensive environmental contaminants and persist for years because their resistance to photolytic, biological and chemical degradation. According half lives of PCB congeners varies from months to years. For instance the PCB 153 congener was found in the highest concentration in human adipose tissue, where the same levels of cogner were found to be very low in environmental and commercial samples. Human liver micromes was found not to metabolize PCB 155 under different conditions resulting in a very long half life PCBs are lipophilic compounds and they tend to biomagnified and bio-accumulate in the food chain. From the research done they are found in large amounts in avian predators and sport caught fish, especially those near the top of ecosystems food chains. Chemical composition of the PCBs include one of the top ten chlorinated biphenyls.the possible 209 compounds are known as congeners PCBs

Hester, R. E., & Harrison, R. M. (2009). Electronic waste management. Cambridge, UK: RSC Pub.

The chapter tries to introduce the topic off electronic waste and its management in the relation to our universal need to act in a more sustainable manner. There also attempts to set the scene for more detailed coverage of specific subjects in the chapter. It is definite that while the world population increasing access to ever growing types and quantities of electrical and electronics equipments has numerous benefits but associated with serious issues need to be addressed, not just the end of the product life but throughout the products lifecycle. Challenge is to design further processes, procedures and materials that will enable greater use to be made of WEEE. it also be important that new environmentally related legislation are appropriately designed, wherever it is implemented does not differ heavily in scope from other similar legislations if implemented in the coming years.

Pauli, G. A. (2010). The blue economy: 10 years, 100 innovations, 100 million jobs. Taos, NM: Paradigm             Publications.

The ideas of tormenting science and realizing resource-efficient,  competitive economy and low carbon production in the 21st century. It remarkable that some the greatest opportunities for jobs will come from replicating the waste free efficiency of ecosystems. If humans could only unravel the fascinating processes, structures, and designs of production and manufacturing of electronic and electrical. Then we would have new and transformational solutions to the many challenges faced by the a planet of six million people prospected to raise by nine billion by 2050

The blue economy gives an opportunity to this fresh and forward looking field.varous pioneering advances will convince institutions, and government’s leaders to explore and develop sustainable sciences at their foundation of these developments. Technology demonstrates that we can find methods of using renewable and environmental friendly materials to minimize wastes in our homes and landfills.

 

 

 

 

Research paper draft 1

2.0 Literature review
2.1 Introduction
Communication and Information Technologies play an essential function in areas of development such as health and education. (White et al. 2013). However, ICTs are expensive to maintain and acquire.
Materials such as software and hardware in developing regions have led to consumption of second-hand products and software piracy (Friis, 2012). Besides affordability factors, (Maczulak et al. 2010) suggest that e-waste is “imported illegally as used goods or internally generated in an effort to bridge the so-called digital divide”. Economically, urbanization and the increasing demand for consumer goods in different regions of the world have amplified the supply and demand of electronic products (Adela et al., 2012).leading to increased volume of e-waste. Robinson (2009) “computers, mobile telephones and television sets will contribute 9.8 million tons in e-waste stream by 2015”. Indicating statistics shows a go up of 4.2 million in e-waste flow from 2010 to 2015 consequential from computers, mobile telephones, and television sets. Greenpeace in 2008 estimated that, 25% and 20% of the e-waste is recycled safely in Europe and USA. China and India have the biggest population in the world and extensive informal recycling sectors. Ninety-nine percent of India’s e-waste goes to unofficial recycling workshops. This reveals that the most significant segment of e-waste produced internationally is not appropriately recycled.
2.2 Awareness on Electronic Waste Management
U.S. does have a small level recycling shrubbery for the recovery of valuable metals from spent industrial and automotive catalysts; these small-scale pyrometallurgical processing plants are an alternative for recycling electronic refuse in the United States. Electronic trash is also recycled on to a great extent lesser level using hydrometallurgical processes, which make use of acidic leaching agents to recuperate metals. The global rate of e-waste recycling has been estimated at 13% (Li, 2007.) while approximates of recycling in the United States vary from 13.6% to 26.6% by 2010.
Columbia Southern university sustainability task force strategies of creating environmental community education are weak. This according to a review done by (Peter et al., 2008) on Sustainable Environmental policies and practices to institutions. Almost half of the Columbia Southern university community is unaware that United States has legislation that criminalizes the dumping of electronic waste.
It investigated whether Columbia Southern university community appreciates the environment of e-waste, the laws concerning the discarding of e-waste and if they recognize the legislation that has been passed regarding e-waste. Close to half (48%) of the respondents are unaware that the law has been passed making it illegal to dump electronic waste.
2.3) Electronic Waste Recycling and Disposal
The use of electronics products has grown over the past few years in United States, changing the rapidity and the approach in which we get information, entertainment and communicate. According to the Consumer Electronics Association (CEA), majority of the Americans own roughly 24 electronic products per family unit.
In the United States, 3.4 million tons of e-waste is produced of which only 25% was recycled. 75% was trashed in incinerators or landfills. US exports 50-80% of its e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, and diverse African Countries, as revealed by the Basel Action Network (BAN). It is lawful in the U.S., in spite of international law to the opposing, to allow export of e-waste. (BAN, 2011)
A study published this year by Greenpeace International, the quantity of mobile phone users around the world will get to the two billion mark. The sales of other electronic gadgets have also been noted to grow exponentially at 400 percent yearly.
2.4) Stakeholders in Electronic Waste Management
E-waste management is a multi-stakeholders strategy and part of integrated solid waste management, built on the 3R concept (reduce, reuse and recycle), Value Chain Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment. E-waste presents an incredible chance to develop sustainable recycling industries around universities and colleges (Greenpeace 2008).
Stakeholders involve educational institutes, manufacturers, public, IT industries, and private sector establishments, corporate and business houses along with scrap dealers, recyclers and wholesaler. Among these diverse stakeholders, are primarily responsible for the generation or production of the E-waste. They produce the E-waste and afterward pass it to the scrap dealers. Some of the manufacturers maintain that they carry out Take-Back services or practice Extended Producer Responsibilities. A research conducted by Greenpeace in the year 2008 reveals that global giants such as Apple, Sony Ericsson Microsoft, Toshiba, Philips, and Panasonic, have no take-back services.
2.5) Methods of Electronic Waste Disposal
2.5.1Dumping of e-waste to developing nations by developed countries
The European Environment Agency estimates that up to 1.3 million tons of disposed Electronic and Electrical paraphernalia are exported from the EU yearly mostly to Asia and Africa. In 2005, 18 European seaports were inspected, and 47% of waste vault for export was not being exported lawfully. In 2003, 23,000 metric tons of undeclared e-waste from the United Kingdom was unlawfully exported to Asia and India, Africa. Eighty percent of e-waste produced in the United States seemingly contributes to the global “hidden flow” of e-waste. The put into practice of industrialized countries exporting e-waste to industrializing countries has become universal place for a diversity of reasons. Stringent environmental regulations and High labor costs for hazardous waste disposal in developed countries promote the exportation of e-waste to less regulated countries and less developed. (UN 2012 report)
2.5.2Recycling and re-using of e-waste
Globally, the use of electronic products has developed significantly precedent two decades (UNEP 2010). Due to this insist of electronic devices experienced, countries have ended up importing new technologies to enhance their efficiency and productivity in service deliverance. Once these gadgets are no longer valuable, they are waste problem that cause environmental damage. Electronic devices contain 60 different elements; hazardous and expensive, (UNEP, 2008). Re-using and Recycling have been utilized all around the world to decrease the amount of e-waste being disposed of to landfills. Some electronic devices are not completely faulty and therefore exported and refurbished abroad to the developing nations. Once they go beyond repair, these rudiments are detached and recycled. (UNEP, 2012) .However, recycling of e-waste has not been effectual due to insufficient legislations and policies and skills and inadequate technology
2.5.3 Incineration.
One strategy for dealing with electronics waste in the world has been incinerating the flammable portion of the waste moreover to decrease its volume earlier to ponder or land filling valuable metals in the residual ash and Incineration emission generates energy. E-Waste incineration is popular in Japan where land is a scarce resource. Sweden and Denmark lead in using the energy generated by combustion for more than a century, in localized combined power and heat amenities supporting district heating schemes (Heron, 2004).
2.5.4 Land filling.
It is extensively used methods for disposal of e-waste. Traditional land filling, trenches are made on the flat surfaces. Soil dug from the trenches and waste bits and pieces is covered, by a thick layer of soil. Modern techniques secure landfill are provided with some services like, impervious liner made up of clay or plastic, leach ate collection basin that transfer and collects the leach ate to waste water handling plant. Lead percolate from wrecked lead with glass, such as the cone glass of cathode glimmer tubes from monitors and TVs. Cadmium leaches into ground water and soil. In addition, it is known that mercury and cadmium are emitted in a diffuse form or via the landfill gas incineration plant. (EPA, 2012)

Research paper final draft

Formal sentence outline

Abstract

  • Introduction

1.1 Purpose statement

1.2 Statement qualification

1.3 Tentative argument

2.0 literature review

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Awareness on electronic waste management

2.3 Electronic waste recycling and disposal

2.4 Stakeholders electronic waste management

2.5 Methods of electronics waste disposal

2.5.1Dumping of e-waste to developing nations by developed nations

2.5.2 Recycling and re-using of e-waste

2.5.3 Incineration

2.5.4 Land filling

3.0 Conclusion

4.0 References

ABSTRACT

The fast pace of innovation both within United States and abroad, along with the increasing affordability of electronic goods due to economic development, has led to the rapid turnover of electrical, electronic consumption and thus enormous amounts of electronic waste (or e-waste). In addition to the sheer volume that must be managed include: electronics contain highly toxic chemicals that make difficult in waste handling process and can be harmful to the environment and human health. However, there is defined policy formulated but weak implementation to address electronic waste. There are four objectives in this study; to evaluate the level of awareness on sustainable electronic waste disposal among the public, to assess and evaluate electronic waste disposal methods, to evaluate the stakeholders involvement in electronic waste management and to evaluate information dissemination channels on electronic waste disposal. Public awareness of e-waste hazards is critical to both active participations in management systems and the ability to put pressure on both consumer and producer compliance. Thus, the study here will attempt to assess the level of awareness that all the stakeholders have on the sustainable electronic waste disposal and management within united state.

1.0 introduction

Waste of Electronic and Electrical gadgets is described as e-waste, or Electronic waste is distinct in diverse ways by different researchers. (Bwalya et al., 2012) And electronic waste guides (2009) define e-waste as obsolete, end-of-life or discarded appliances that use electricity. On the other hand, (Pauli, 2010) describe e-waste as “electronic gadgets that no longer suit the requirements of the innovative purchase”. The term e-waste comprises computers and their peripherals, fridges, consumer electronics, etc. that have been predisposed off by firsthand users. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that 50 million tones of electronic waste are produced each year and that only 15-20% is recycled worldwide, and the rest goes to the landfills and incinerators (Hester 2011). Proper disposals or reuse of electronic waste can prevent health problems, create jobs and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In many countries worldwide, the level of awareness has not improved recently. Which point out the need for creating awareness and provision of incentives to the growing population in Columbia Southern University?
1.1 Purpose Statement
This study will try to ascertain how sustainable electronic waste is disposed of and its significant harm on human wellbeing and the environment.
Columbia Southern University has in the recent years invested in university sustainable task force, which has advocated going beyond energy consumption beyond greenhouse gas reduction and resource conservation. Over the last few years, Columbia Southern university has been characterized by increased population and technological advances. As a result, these electronics pile up as wastes in various institution departments, students hostiles, and staff residents as during their homes. While others are carelessly disposed off in various unregulated area inform of garbage or donation to the developing nations (Friis, 2012).
The university has put into place sustainability measures by committing to a long-term sustainable goal. The university is openly challenging some of misperceptions involved in sustainability activities such the initiatives are too complicated and costly to implement (Dornfeld et al. 2012). However, these very initiatives seem not to be efficient and effective due to inadequate technology used and limited effort to manage the e-waste. Also, most Columbia Southern university community is not conscious of the already existing structural measures involved in disposal and handling of electronic waste. There also seem to be insufficient knowledge on how to efficiently handle and sustainably manage electronic waste disposal within the University.
The rationale of the study consequently is to examine the level of awareness on sustainable electronic waste management and disposal within Southern Columbia University.
1.2 Statement qualification
Despite the sustainable task force structures in place, there is still a gap in knowledge and awareness among the Columbia Southern University community on the issues of electronic waste disposal and management. The result of this research will help in designing awareness programs for addressing this concern more efficiently, and it is also for the purpose of completion of my academic requirement (Identification of the knowledge gap).

1.3 Tentative argument
The study will aid in identifying the knowledge gap existing in academics and be a benchmark for further study in the future. In adding up, the study outcome can be used as reference in academics and be a credible source of information for policy makers in decision-making process.
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Introduction

Communication and Information Technologies play an essential function in areas of development such as health and education. (White et al. 2013). However, ICTs are expensive to maintain and acquire.
Materials such as software and hardware in developing regions have led to consumption of second-hand products and software piracy (Friis, 2012). Besides affordability factors, (Maczulak et al. 2010) suggest that e-waste is “imported illegally as used goods or internally generated in an effort to bridge the so-called digital divide”. Economically, urbanization and the increasing demand for consumer goods in different regions of the world have amplified the supply and demand of electronic products (Adela et al., 2012).leading to increased volume of e-waste. Robinson (2009) “computers, mobile telephones and television sets will contribute 9.8 million tons in e-waste stream by 2015”. Indicating statistics shows a go up of 4.2 million in e-waste flow from 2010 to 2015 consequential from computers, mobile telephones, and television sets. Greenpeace in 2008 estimated that, 25% and 20% of the e-waste is recycled safely in Europe and USA. China and India have the biggest population in the world and extensive informal recycling sectors. Ninety-nine percent of India’s e-waste goes to unofficial recycling workshops. This reveals that the most significant segment of e-waste produced internationally is not appropriately recycled.
2.2 Awareness on Electronic Waste Management
U.S. does have a small level recycling shrubbery for the recovery of valuable metals from spent industrial and automotive catalysts; these small-scale pyrometallurgical processing plants are an alternative for recycling electronic refuse in the United States. Electronic trash is also recycled on to a great extent lesser level using hydrometallurgical processes, which make use of acidic leaching agents to recuperate metals. The global rate of e-waste recycling has been estimated at 13% (Li, 2007.) while approximates of recycling in the United States vary from 13.6% to 26.6% by 2010.
Columbia Southern university sustainability task force strategies of creating environmental community education are weak. This according to a review done by (Peter et al., 2008) on Sustainable Environmental policies and practices to institutions. Almost half of the Columbia Southern university community is unaware that United States has legislation that criminalizes the dumping of electronic waste.
It investigated whether Columbia Southern university community appreciates the environment of e-waste, the laws concerning the discarding of e-waste and if they recognize the legislation that has been passed regarding e-waste. Close to half (48%) of the respondents are unaware that the law has been passed making it illegal to dump electronic waste.
2.3) Electronic Waste Recycling and Disposal
The use of electronics products has grown over the past few years in United States, changing the rapidity and the approach in which we get information, entertainment and communicate. According to the Consumer Electronics Association (CEA), majority of the Americans own roughly 24 electronic products per family unit.
In the United States, 3.4 million tons of e-waste is produced of which only 25% was recycled. 75% was trashed in incinerators or landfills. US exports 50-80% of its e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, and diverse African Countries, as revealed by the Basel Action Network (BAN). It is lawful in the U.S., in spite of international law to the opposing, to allow export of e-waste. (BAN, 2011)
A study published this year by Greenpeace International, the quantity of mobile phone users around the world will get to the two billion mark. The sales of other electronic gadgets have also been noted to grow exponentially at 400 percent yearly.
2.4) Stakeholders in Electronic Waste Management
E-waste management is a multi-stakeholders strategy and part of integrated solid waste management, built on the 3R concept (reduce, reuse and recycle), Value Chain Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment. E-waste presents an incredible chance to develop sustainable recycling industries around universities and colleges (Greenpeace 2008).
Stakeholders involve educational institutes, manufacturers, public, IT industries, and private sector establishments, corporate and business houses along with scrap dealers, recyclers and wholesaler. Among these diverse stakeholders, are primarily responsible for the generation or production of the E-waste. They produce the E-waste and afterward pass it to the scrap dealers. Some of the manufacturers maintain that they carry out Take-Back services or practice Extended Producer Responsibilities. A research conducted by Greenpeace in the year 2008 reveals that global giants such as Apple, Sony Ericsson Microsoft, Toshiba, Philips, and Panasonic, have no take-back services.

2.5) Methods of Electronic Waste Disposal
2.5.1 Dumping of e-waste to developing nations by developed countries

The European Environment Agency estimates that up to 1.3 million tons of disposed Electronic and Electrical paraphernalia are exported from the EU yearly mostly to Asia and Africa. In 2005, 18 European seaports were inspected, and 47% of waste vault for export was not being exported lawfully. In 2003, 23,000 metric tons of undeclared e-waste from the United Kingdom was unlawfully exported to Asia and India, Africa. Eighty percent of e-waste produced in the United States seemingly contributes to the global “hidden flow” of e-waste. The put into practice of industrialized countries exporting e-waste to industrializing countries has become universal place for a diversity of reasons. Stringent environmental regulations and High labor costs for hazardous waste disposal in developed countries promote the exportation of e-waste to less regulated countries and less developed. (UN 2012 report)
2.5.2 Recycling and re-using of e-waste
Globally, the use of electronic products has developed significantly precedent two decades (UNEP 2010). Due to this insist of electronic devices experienced, countries have ended up importing new technologies to enhance their efficiency and productivity in service deliverance. Once these gadgets are no longer valuable, they are waste problem that cause environmental damage. Electronic devices contain 60 different elements; hazardous and expensive, (UNEP, 2008). Re-using and Recycling have been utilized all around the world to decrease the amount of e-waste being disposed of to landfills. Some electronic devices are not completely faulty and therefore exported and refurbished abroad to the developing nations. Once they go beyond repair, these rudiments are detached and recycled. (UNEP, 2012) .However, recycling of e-waste has not been effectual due to insufficient legislations and policies and skills and inadequate technology
2.5.3 Incineration.
One strategy for dealing with electronics waste in the world has been incinerating the flammable portion of the waste moreover to decrease its volume earlier to ponder or land filling valuable metals in the residual ash and Incineration emission generates energy. E-Waste incineration is popular in Japan where land is a scarce resource. Sweden and Denmark lead in using the energy generated by combustion for more than a century, in localized combined power and heat amenities supporting district heating schemes (Heron, 2004).
2.5.4 Land filling.
It is extensively used methods for disposal of e-waste. Traditional land filling, trenches are made on the flat surfaces. Soil dug from the trenches and waste bits and pieces is covered, by a thick layer of soil. Modern techniques secure landfill are provided with some services like, impervious liner made up of clay or plastic, leach ate collection basin that transfer and collects the leach ate to waste water handling plant. Lead percolate from wrecked lead with glass, such as the cone glass of cathode glimmer tubes from monitors and TVs. Cadmium leaches into ground water and soil. In addition, it is known that mercury and cadmium are emitted in a diffuse form or via the landfill gas incineration plant. (EPA, 2012)

3.0 Conclusion

Creation of awareness among citizens of United States for e-waste consumption and disposal management can solve the problems associated with e-waste. Sustainable e-waste disposal and utilization can save the environment and humanity from health issues and the depletion of resources.

4.0 References

  1. Bwalya, K. J., & Zulu, S. (2012). Handbook of research on e-government in emerging economies: Adoption, e-participation, and legal frameworks. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.
  2. CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Dornfeld, D. A., & Linke, B. S. (2012). Leveraging technology for a sustainable world: Proceedings of the 19th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, USA, May 23-25, 2012. Heidelberg: Springer.
  3. Friis, R. H. (2012). The Praeger handbook of environmental health. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.
  4. Hester, R. E., & Harrison, R. M. (2009). Electronic waste management. Cambridge, UK: RSC Pub.
  5. Pauli, G. A. (2010). The blue economy: 10 years, 100 innovations, 100 million jobs. Taos, NM: Paradigm Publications
  6. White, K. K., & Duram, L. A. (2013). America goes green: An encyclopedia of eco-friendly culture in the United States. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.
  7. Maczulak, A. E. (2010). Waste treatment: Reducing global waste. New York: Facts on File.
  8. Adeola, F. O. (2012). Industrial disasters, toxic waste, and community impacts: The health effects and environmental justice struggles around the globe. Lanham, Md: Lexington Books.
  9. Li, A. (2007). Persistent organic pollutants in Asia: Sources, distributions, transport and fate. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  10. Eljarrat, E., & Barceló, D. (2011). Brominated Flame Retardants. Berlin: Springer Berlin.
  11. Information on chemicals in electronic products. (n.d.). Norden (UN report)
  12. In Gaurina-Medjimurec, N. (2015). Handbook of Research on Advancements in Environmental Engineering.(EPA,2012)

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