Annotated Bibliography: Do Preadolescents Taking Oral Steroids Experience A Greater Amount Of Bone Loss Than Those Preadolescents Taking Inhaled Steroids?

Annotated Bibliography: Do Preadolescents Taking Oral Steroids Experience A Greater Amount Of Bone Loss Than Those Preadolescents Taking Inhaled Steroids?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Name

Course Code

Professor

Date

Kelly H, Sternberg A, Lescher R.  Effect of inhaled glucocorticoids in childhood on adult height. N Engl J Med. 2012; 367:904–12.

Inhaled corticosteroids have become a  contemporary medical approach in treating various diseases like asthma in both young and adult patients. This research study that was retrieved from the internet focused on how bone mass of an individual is reduced because of the gradual and systematic use of steroids.  Kelly et al. (2012) undertook a study using a CAMP trial to determine the impact of steroids on bone mass decrease. In their study, they demonstrated that continues use of inhaled steroids resulted in an initial decrease in the height of people who were used in the study, especially in the pre-pubertal age.  Another fundamental finding of their study was that the decreasing height was not cumulative and progressive with increased and continuous use of the Inhaled corticosteroids. This research findings is very important for the study because it provides a basis for understanding the initial impact of inhaled steroids. The reader is able to realise that inhaled steroids have an effect of reducing the bone mass, but this is not progressive or cumulative over time. Therefore, from this literature review we identify that inhaled steroids cause bone mass reduction in pre-adolescence compared to post-adolescence.

Drescher W, Schlieper G, Floege J,  Eitner F.  Steroid-related osteonecrosis-an update. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010; 26(1):1728–31.

This article was retrieved from the internet and explained the process of bone formation as a complex process that requires a proper understanding before relating to reducing bone mass. The pathogenic processes that occur in the bone are as a result of several mechanisms. For instance, Osteonecrosis is a condition that is believed to be caused by inhaled steroids that have a major impact on increasing the bone marrow fat. As such, the intra-osseous pressure within the bone increases while bone perfusion is highly decreased. Consequently, fat embolism, hypercoagulability and reduced blood flow results from inhaled steroids and promote fatigue fractures of the bone (Drescher et al., 2010). Similarly, they found out that osteocyte apoptosis is a major factor in causing osteonecrosis condition. This research finding is important for the study because it tries to explain the pathogenic processes that results from inhaled steroids that cause bone mass reduction. The reader is able to understand the initial processes within the body that cause bone mass reduction.

Khan N, Abbas A, Almukhtar R, Khan A. Prevalence and predictors of low bone mineral density in males with ulcerative colitis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 98(1):2368–75. 

The objective of this particular study that was retrieved from the internet was to find out the impact of steroids in preadolescents and post-adolescents when it is ingested through the mouth or inhaled. Here, the ideal requirement of the study is to compare the impact of bone reduction caused by steroids when it is inhaled or ingested through the mouth. Khan et al., (2013) have indicated through their study that persistent low bone mineral density (BMD)  was found to increase to about 15% in all people found to using steroids. This research findings is very important for the study because it provides the reader with a preliminary information about steroids. The researcher is clearly informed that using steroids leads to a situation of low bone mineral density in the body. Here, the reader is made aware that both inhaled and oral steroids specifically have an impact on bone mass reduction in the body.

Kim H, Zhao H, Kitaura H. et al. Glucocorticoids suppress bone formation via the osteoclast. J Clin Invest. 2006; 116(1):2152–60.

Various steroids are believed to cause bone mass reduction in human beings according to this article that was retrieved from the internet. For instance Kim et al., (2006) established that glucocorticoids have a greater impact on bone mass reduction through hindering the osteoclastogenesis process in the body. Here, they argued that the process of osteoclast formation is highly hindered by glucocorticoid receptor cells located within the osteoblast and osteoclasts. On the other hand, their study revealed that steroids do not influence osteoclast apoptosis compared to osteoblasts process. They argue that steroids are concerned with prolonging osteoclast survival (Kim et al., 2006). The most important finding of their study is that steroids can practically impair the process of bone resorption by the osteoclasts through hampering the process of cytoskeleton formation because of the macrophage initiating factor. This research finding is also important to the study because it indicates that steroids can strategically reduce bone mass in the body. Also, it gives a precise understanding of the process that result in reduced bone mass to which the objective of the study can be pegged.

Georgiou K, Hui S, Xian C. Regulatory pathways associated with bone loss and bone marrow adiposity caused by aging, chemotherapy, glucocorticoid therapy and radiotherapy. Am J Stem Cells. 2012; 1(1)1:205–24.

This article was retrieved from the internet. While exploring the topic, it is important to ensure that the process of bone formation is critically understood by the reader. For instance, the researcher should be able to understand the osteoblastogenesis process so that the impact of steroids is clearly comprehended. Georgiou et al. (2012) have postulated that glucocorticoids retard the process of osteogenesis whilst it rapidly promotes osteoblast apoptosis, which has a major influence in reducing bone formation. In addition, they have presented that continuous oral ingestion of glucocorticoid has been realised to have a major impact on the osteogenic potential within the mesenchymal stem cells located within the bone marrow. As a result, the process leads to adipogenic differentiation that is consequently a major factor in reducing the osteoblastogenesis process. Here, the reader is provided with basic information regarding how oral steroids influence bone formation processes like osteoblastogenesis. Therefore, the reader can specifically draw a distinction between the impact of oral steroids to bone mass reduction in the body.

Kelly H, Harold SN Potential adverse effects of inhaled corticosteroids. J Allergy Clin Immunol.  2003; 112(1): 469–78.

Continuous use of inhaled steroids has been found to have a prevalent effect in hindering hypothalamo-pituitary axis (Kelly, 2013), according to this article retrieved from the internet. This causes periodic cataracts, thinning, osteoporosis and retarded growth in children. Conversely, they found out that the effects are different based on the kind of steroid used. More, importantly, they revealed that the detrimental impacts of inhaled steroids are severe in aged people. Here, the reader is clearly informed that the quality of bone formation becomes severe with decreasing quality of life of human beings. Thus, this research finding is very important for understanding the effects of inhaled steroids on bone health and other systematic therapeutic strategies within the body.

Grossman JM, Gordon R, Veena KR, Chad D, Caplan R, Chen W, Curtis JR et al,. American College of Rheumatology. Task Force on Osteoporosis Guidelines: Recommendations for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;  39(1):1791-1801.

 

The objective of the study is to find out whether oral or inhaled steroids have different impacts to bone loss among pre and post adolescences. The American College of Rheumatology (2005) established that only oral steroids can systematically be used for reducing bone loss. This finding is important for the study because it demonstrates that oral steroids have a greater impact on the process of bone loss in human beings. They also indicated that there is no standard treatment of inhaled corticosteroid that result on bone loss. Therefore, the reader is able to identify that inhaled steroids have a greater impact of contributing bone loss.

Kerstjens H, Postma DS, van Doormaal JJ, van Zanten AK, Brand PL, Dekhuijzen PN, et al. Effects of short-term and long-term treatment of inhaled corticosteroids on bone metabolism in patients with airways obstruction. Dutch CNSLD Study Group. Thorax. 2006;  49(1):652-656.

In their study retrieved from the internet, Kerstjens revealed that inhaled steroids do not have a long-term effect on metabolic markers. Here, the markers used in their study do not indicate any influence of inhaled steroids. This finding is important for the study because it indicates that inhaled steroids have no impact on developing osteoporosis. Therefore, the reader can strategically conclude that inhaled steroids do not have a severe impact of bone loss compared to oral steroids

References and Search Criteria

Kelly H, Sternberg A, Lescher R.  Effect of inhaled glucocorticoids in childhood on adult height. N Engl J Med. 2012; 367:904–12.

This ource was retrieved from the internet.  I was searching for the effects of inhaled glucocorticoids when I found it online. The source is free and downloadable. The link is http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Effect+of+inhaled+glucocorticoids+in+childhood+on+adult+height+by+kelly

Drescher W, Schlieper G, Floege J,  Eitner F.  Steroid-related osteonecrosis-an update. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010; 26(1):1728–31.

I found this article online when I searched for Steroid-related osteonecrosis. The article is free and downloadable through the link http://ndt.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/05/19/ndt.gfr212.full.pdf

Khan N, Abbas A, Almukhtar R, Khan A. Prevalence and predictors of low bone mineral density in males with ulcerative colitis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 98 (1):2368–75. 

This article is free and can be downloaded from the internet. I searched for “low bone mineral density in males” and there it was. The link for download is http://press.endocrine.org/doi/pdf/10.1210/jc.2013-1332

Kim H, Zhao H, Kitaura H. et al. Glucocorticoids suppress bone formation via the osteoclast. J Clin Invest. 2006; 116(1):2152–60.

This article is downloadable from the internet as a free resource. I searched for the topic “How Glucocorticoids suppress bone formation” and I found it. The link is http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1518793/

 

Georgiou K, Hui S, Xian C. Regulatory pathways associated with bone loss and bone marrow adiposity caused by aging, chemotherapy, glucocorticoid therapy and radiotherapy. Am J Stem Cells. 2012; 1(1)1:205–24.

I found this article online when I searched for Regulatory pathways associated with bone loss. The article is free and downloadable through the link http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3636730/

 

Kelly H,  Harold SN. Potential adverse effects of inhaled corticosteroids. J Allergy Clin Immunol.  2003; 112(1): 469–78.

This article is available online. I found it after searching for adverse effects of inhaled corticosteroids. The link that it can be downloaded from is http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(03)01870-0/fulltext

 

Grossman JM, Gordon R, Veena KR, Chad D, Caplan R, Chen W, Curtis JR et al,. American College of Rheumatology. Task Force on Osteoporosis Guidelines: Recommendations for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;  39(1):1791-1801

This resource was retrieved from the internet after searching for the “Recommendations for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.” The downloading link is http://www.rheumatology.org/portals/0/files/ACR%202010%20Recommendations%20for%20the%20Prevention%20and%20Treatment%20of%20Glucocorticoid-Induced%20Osteoporosis.pdf

Kerstjens H, Postma DS, van Doormaal JJ, van Zanten AK, Brand PL, Dekhuijzen PN, et al. Effects of short-term and long-term treatment of inhaled corticosteroids on bone metabolism in patients with airways obstruction. Dutch CNSLD Study Group. Thorax. 2006;  49(1):652-656.

This resource was retrieved from the internet by searching for Effects of short-term and long-term treatment of inhaled corticosteroids on bone metabolism. The link that it can be downloaded from is http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8066559/Effects_of_short_term_and_long_term_treatment_with_inhaled_corticosteroids_on_bone_metabolism_in_patients_with_airways_obstruction__Dutch_CNSLD_Study_Group_

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s


%d bloggers like this: