Affirmative action laws are drafted with an aim of providing equality to women and the less fortunate in terms of labor and education (Johnson & Green, 2009). Affirmative action today mainly focuses on education and employment. A few higher learning institutions practice Affirmative action in the selection of qualified students. In practicing Affirmative action in education, there are two outstanding methods in which this is achieved. One of these is to set different examination cut-offs for the Black-American students and the minorities in society. Another method would be to focus on the results but ensure there is a positive competition that is motivated by offering incentives (Sidanius, 2008). In terms of labor, some of the Opponents of affirmative action argue that it leads to reverse discrimination that results in fewer jobs to white males and that it affects productivity because people with fewer skills are hired (Fryer & Loury, 2003).

Numerous alternatives to Affirmative action exist (Johnson & Green, 2009). In education, for instance, colleges could admit a certain percentage of top students from each high school. This would ensure that diverse students are admitted to each college. Another alternative would be to offer scholarships that would be in locations that have a big number of minorities. Wealth measures are another alternative to Affirmative action policies that rely on race (Fryer & Loury, 2003). Statistics by Pew Research Center show that the median wealth of white families stands at $ 113,149, that of the black at $5,677 and Hispanics at $6,325.

Affirmative action policies are still necessary for both education and labor. The reason being, they continue to offer opportunities that the minority people in the society lack due to their racial or economic factors (Johnson & Green, 2009). Statistics proves that minority students at the undergraduate and higher levels of learning perform worse than the white male students. It can be noted that undergraduate Black-American students perform better at selective colleges when compared with those in non selective colleges in America (Fryer & Loury, 2003). The fact is a proof that Affirmative action has had positive effects in education. Statistics shows that even if each white, employed worker were replaced by a black unemployed worker, only a minimum of 1% of white employees would be affected. This fact shows that affirmative action does not offer reverse discrimination.


Fryer, R., & Loury, G. (2003). Color-blind affirmative action. Cambridge, Mass.: National         Bureau of Economic Research.

Johnson, J., & Green, R. (2009). Affirmative action. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood    Press/ABC-CLIO.

Sidanius, J. (2008). The diversity challenge: Social identity and intergroup relations on the          college campus. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.


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