The Jew of Malta and Othello plays views on Religion and Criminality

The Jew of Malta and the Othello Plays views on Religion and Criminality

Question Three

In the Jew of Malta, there are three religions involved, they are Christianity, Jewish, and the Muslim Turks. The play begins with Barabbas, who is a Jewish merchant waiting for news about the arrival of his ships. After the confirmation that the ships had safely arrived at Malta from East, three men come to visit him with some news from the Maltese governor, Ferneze. The Turkish Sultan demands some tribute from Malta, which has accumulated for ten years. As a result, the governor orders all the Jews to give half of their estate to the governor to help him pay tribute to the Turks. All the three men accompanying Barabbas to the senate house are Jews. When Barabas considers and claims the action to be unfair, the governor confiscates all his ships in the Malta. Fernezes is a Christian and the religious language he uses against the Jews is not fair. He does not mention of Christians or Muslim Turks assisting him pay the tribute. As a result, Barabas declares revenge against the governor and all Christians. Barabas makes his decision about Christians basing his argument on the actions of only one Christian, Fernezes, and the Maltese governor (Eder, 2011).

The Othello play is displays some religious aspects and imagery. The play begins in the streets of Venice where two young men Roderigo and Lago shouts from outside the house of the Duke of Venice, Brabantio that his daughter, Desdemona had eloped with Othello, the Moor. Roderigo had failed in winning Desdemona hand in marriage and is accusing Othello of using witchcraft that is against the religion of Othello. Othello confesses that he won his wife in a clean and transparent way by sharing his adventure and true love with her. Othello had promoted Cassio in the workplace where Roderigo expected a promotion. The Duke of Venice, Brabantio is a Jew while Othello is a Christian, and he was very mad when he realized his daughter’s marriage to the Christian. After the case is presented to the officers of Venetian court and solved, Othello is set free to marry Desdemona. The religious imagery of the play is revealed when the Duke appoints Othello to the general in the defense against the Turks. He is a Jew, and he does not like the Muslim Turks. Othello is sent to Cyprus with his wife accompanying him in the next ship. The Christians, Muslim Turks, and Jews have enmity based on religious beliefs. Each of them receives religious teaching and morals to love and respect each other unfortunately, they do not observe the teachings (Shakespeare & Holste, 2002).

From the play the Jew of Malta, the governor also takes away, the Barabas house and converts it into a convent. This is a way of punishing the Jew for not cooperating in assisting the state in paying tribute to the Turks. Every Jew was supposed to give half of his estate to the governor, Fernezes, but Barabas refused. All his wealth was taken away and used by Christians which hurts him. To prove the religious conflict, he uses his daughter Abigal to revenge against the Maltese governor. According to (Kelsall, 2001) Abigail, is in a romantic relationship with Mathias, who is a friend to Lodowick, the Fernezes daughter. Coincidentally, Lodowick also had some interest in Abigail. With the help of Ithamore, the Turkish slave that Barabas bought from Fernezes, he creates a conflict between the two young men, and they end up killing each other. Ithamore is a Muslim Turk, who also hates Christians just like his boss Barabas. They are both criminals, and they work together in eliminating Christians from Malta. He makes them believe that his daughter is interested in them which is a lie. Abigal is very sad when he realizes that his father set a trap to kill Mathias. Barabas did not like the two Christians and did not want them anywhere close to his daughter, and hence he killed them. Barabas referred to Christians as thieves. This was an abusive language, whereas, he was a murderer. Barabas notes that he is just following Christian examples by quoting from the act in Catholic Christian teaching, “Faith is not to be kept with heretics”, where all the heretics are not Jews as McAdam, (2009) confirms. The Jew uses this to defend his evil actions against Christians.

Desdemona is accused of infidelity by Iago. Iago works to ensure divorce between Othello and his wife. He had been given some money by rich Rodinego to work for the divorce. Cassio got drunk after influence by Iago and Othello accused him of causing disturbance. Therefore, Desdemona, Othello’s wife promised Cassio that she would talk with her husband to ensure they reconciled and that he was not demoted. Iago, who is the husband to Emillia, a servant of Desdemona, accused Desdemona of infidelity. In the religious definition, infidelity was viewed as a severe offense in the Christian religious beliefs.As a result, Othello becomes very furious and orders Iago to kill Cassio. Othello goes ahead to kill his wife out of infidelity. The religious beliefs regarding infidelity does not allow the husbands to kill their wives. However, Othello goes ahead and does it. Therefore, the religious term infidel is revealed here. Othello, an African Christian does not follow on his Christian teachings and beliefs. He is unfaithful to his religious teachings. Therefore, in the act of redefining the religious term in the play, a Christian should follow the religious teachings and beliefs (Shakespeare, The tragedy of othello, the moor of venice, 2014). Othello is wrong and unreligious in the Christian faith by killing his wife and commanding Iago to kill Cassio. Killing is not taught in the Christian religion. Idolatry is also revealed where the Duke, believes that Othello used witchcraft to marry his daughter. Nevertheless, Desdemona confesses to love truly Othello.

An aspect of renegade is also revealed in the Jews of Malta. This refers to an act of moving from one religion to another that opposes it. After Abigal, Barabas daughter realized that his father caused the death of his love, Mathias, she joins convent where she becomes a Christian (Logan, 2013). The first time when she went to the convent in pretense to become a Christian, she wanted to get gold from his father’s house that was converted into the convent by the fernezes, the Maltese governor. She converted back to Jew after getting the gold. Abigal was serious for converting to Christianity for the second time after learning how evil her father was. Unfortunately, Barabas killed all the nuns and his daughter by poisoning them using rice porridge. Barabas had also confused the priests by promising them that he would convert to Christianity. Barabas did not to convert to Christianity but wanted to set a trap to the two priests. Due to greediness for money, the two priests started fighting for Barabas to join their church. Marlowe, Gill, & Rowland, The complete works / 4 The Jew of Malta., (2005) puts it clearly that the focus was not to preach the religious practices to Barabas but to benefit from his wealth. Unfortunately, they both lost their lives. Barabas kills the two Friars after inviting them into his house. Abigal had confessed of her father’s criminal offense to the two priests, Jacomo and Bernadine of killing Lodowick and Mathias before she died. Therefore, renegade, idolatry, and infidel are redefined as in the two plays as described (Marlowe & Ellis, 2003).

Malta, Venice, and Cyprus are figured as areas of religious identity, criminality, sexual and gender issues related to the two plays. Barabas commits all his crimes in Malta; he killed the nuns and his daughter in the convent that is located in Malta. Barabas is not happy with the Maltese governor and hence figure the place as an area of committing crimes for revenge. The two priests, Jacomo, and Bernadine, were also killed in Malta. When the prostitute whom Ithamore had fallen in love advised him to blackmail Barabas, she was also poisoned by Barabas. Barabas is a Jew, who is a criminal. By the end of the play, he also killed Ithamore after learning his plan with the prostitute to blackmail him of his gold. In the same way, all the religious conflicts take place in Malta. The Christians, Jews and Muslim Turks in Malta are enemies to each other. Towards the end of the play, Barabas wanted to kill Turkish sultan’s son Selim Calymath, who was sent to collect the tribute from the Malta governor. Fortunately, Fernezes stopped him.

In Venice, Othello is a male general who is sent to Cyprus to fight against Turks. The issue of gender and sexuality comes in. The duke selects a male defense general basing his argument on gender. The crimes also take place in Cyprus where Cassio and Desdemona are killed. All the crimes are based on religious rhetorical beliefs. Barabas kills his daughter for converting to Christianity, which is a rhetoric, religious belief. All the other nuns did not deserve to die. That was an issue between him and his daughter. According to Hall, (2009) the Duke is also seen to have some rhetoric, religious beliefs. He believes that Othello used witchcraft to win his daughter’s hand in marriage.

In conclusion, the two plays, The Jew of Malta and Othello involves religious beliefs and imagery. The characters like Barabas are Jews, and they hate Christians who have been revealed through the criminal acts of killing them. The governor is also not fair to Jews because, he takes the house of Barabas and convert it into a convent. Barabas defends his evil action from the fact that a Christian, Fernezes took away all his wealth. Infidel, Renegade and idolatry are religious terms redefined in the two plays. Malta, Venice, and Cyprus are viewed and defined by the characters with rhetoric, religious beliefs as the places for religious identity, sexuality and crime re-fashioning. The evils that revolve around the three areas are linked to rhetoric, religious beliefs. Barabas kills Christians as a result of rhetoric beliefs about Christianity. However, he is a criminal because he kills even Ithamore, a Muslim Turk, who was his servant. He also had intentions of killing Calymath, who is the son of Sultan; he comes to get tribute from Malta. However, Fernezes stops him from killing the innocent young man. Barabas is a criminal and a selfish man.

References

Eder, K. (2011). T. S. Eliot, The Jew of Malta: Farcical and symbolical elements, anti-Christian elements, anti-Muslim elements, dramatic technique. München : GRIN Verlag GmbH.

Hall, J. L. (2009). Othello: a guide to the play. Westport, Conn. [u.a] : Greenwood Press.

Kelsall, M. (2001). Christopher Marlowe. Leiden: Brill.

Logan, R. A. (2013). The Jew of Malta: a critical reader. London: Arden Shakespeare.

Marlowe, C., & Ellis, H. (2003). The Jew of Malta. New York: Dover Publications.

Marlowe, C., Gill, R., & Rowland, R. (2005). The complete works / 4 The Jew of Malta. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

McAdam, I. (2009). The irony of identity: self and imagination in the drama of Christopher Marlowe. Newark: University of Delaware Press; London: Associated University Presses, cop.

Shakespeare, W. (2014). The tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice. Minneapolis: First Avenue Editions.

Shakespeare, W., & Holste, G. (2002). Othello. Hauppauge, NY: Barron’s Educational Series.

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Explication and analysis of Emily Dickinson poetry

Introduction

I like to see it lap the Miles is a short poem written by Emily Dickinson. This essay is going to discuss the Explication and the analysis of this poem. Emily correlates two forms of transportation of her time with a figurative and sound device. The imagery usage by Dickinson helps the reader to create intense images as well as sounds that are similar towards what the speaker of the poem is experiencing (Abad 89). The speaker is watching a train but describes it like a horse. The comparison seems to be apparent since the behavior of the “horse” only stops to feed. Besides one moment that it stops to refuel, the entire poem only talks about how the “Horse” is running nonstop. It is described being a “promoter than a star” meaning it is quick and efficient. The implication is that the train can transport goods or people readily like the horse used to do before the invention of the train. The train is the new invention during the time of the narrator.

The poem contains figurative language like hyperbole and personification. For example, the train is stopping in order to feed itself at the tank; it is licking the valleys up, and also making prodigious steps.. Emily uses hyperbole in “prompter than a star” in order for the audience to visualize the image of the speed of the train that is traveling fast like the star. The sound devices in the poem are the alliteration, onomatopoeia, and consonance. The onomatopoeia in the poem aids the reader in understanding the imaging of the shouting of the Boanerges. The consonance keeps the flow of the song and also emphasizing the words by repeating letter “s.” All this makes the poem more creative (Priddy and Bloom 185).

For the successful creation of the descriptive images, the poem uses figurative and sound devices. The continuous comparison between the train and the horse was auspiciously done with the persistent use of onomatopoeia and personification. Each literary device used in the poem was utilized very gainfully by effectively showing the readers that the train and the horse are being compared.

In analyzing about Dickinson’s “I like to see it lap the Miles,” first we ought to understand that the poem is in the form of a riddle. An essay about a poem like this would mostly start with an explication of what the poem “means”. Hence, it ought to be done following the line-by-line analysis. By so doing, the riddle in the poem is easily solved.

The starting line of the poem introduces a narrator “I” who is not known. The subject “it” is also introduced and is unidentified. Following the deeds of “it”, it is easy to ascertain its identity. In the first line, it “laps” the miles, which is a seemingly animalistic thing to do that is devouring or rather drinking the miles. The metaphor continues to manifest in the next line, as it will also “lick the Valleys up”. At this particular time, what seems to be proposed is the swift move of an animal. On surveying on line three through seven, the train is depicted making prodigious steps whereby it is stopping so that it can refuel itself to be enabled climb along the mountains which are piled. It is now clear that what is being revealed is something different from an animal. It is large; its movements not only do the “lapping” and “Lick” over very vast miles, but also can “step” around mountains. By now, we have an idea that Dickinson is presenting us with an imaginative view of a train, although one may wish to follow variant readings creative (Priddy and Bloom 185).

.           Following the actions of the train, one comes to an understanding that the subject of the poem is about the “iron horse” of the first railways. In stanza three, it appears that the train has pared a quarry “to fit its Ribs” which might be thought to be its tracks. As it tours between them, the train is “complaining all the while, In Horrid hooting stanza “. In this case, Dickinson suggests the great whistle of the train and the noise. The poem continues to journey along together with the train and increases its speed as it approaches its ending destination (Dickinson, Mesmer, and Wolff 57).

The narrator adores surveillance the train roaming from side to side of the state making her imagine that it is a type of a giant horse character, moving fast and far licking up the countryside. She believes that the train is feeding itself at thanks in an ostensibly way, by either filling with new passengers at the stations or being refueled.

There is a significance use of the riddle in this poem “I like to see it lap the Miles.” it emphasizes the disconnection between this enigmatic creature from the natural domain that it subsists combinable with emulates. Dickinson gives the train action in the poem whereby it laps, it crawls, it licks, it feeds alone, it shows emotions, it is supercilious, it complains. In so doing, she isn’t complicating the riddle, rather creates an implicit comparison between all creatures of the natural world that do feed on themselves, complain, crawl and this train. By doing the description by comparing it to the natural world language, she creates a striking connection between the world and that train (Eissinger 78).

On the analysis of the topics and strategies in this poem, Dickinson tries to address a new technology forthrightly. The obvious theme portrayed is the effect the new technology might have on the landscape, the animal, and the people it will supplant. The other less obvious theme is on how the senses ought to be used in order to understand something that is totally new (Dickinson, Mesmer, and Wolff 57). The reader has an obligation of understanding that the subject of the poem is a train by hearing and seeing it, rather than being told directly.

Works Cited

Abad, Gemino H. In Another Light: Poems and Essays. Quezon City: U of the Philippines P, 1976. Print.

Dickinson, Emily, Edric Mesmer, and Virginia E. Wolff. I’m Nobody! Who Are You?: Poems by Emily Dickinson. New York: Scholastic Inc., 2002. Print.

Eissinger, Richard A. Library Instruction for the 21st Century: A Special Loex-of-the-West Theme Issue ; Plus Library Instruction and Information Literacy 1997. Ann Arbor: Pierian Press, 1998. Print.

Priddy, Anna, and Harold Bloom. Bloom’s How to Write About Emily Dickinson. New York: Bloom’s Literary Criticism, 2008. Print.

Solotaroff, Ted, and Nessa Rapoport. The Schocken Book of Contemporary Jewish Fiction. New York: Schocken Books, 1996. Print.

How Perceptual processes affect The Elderly

My analysis is based on the elders persona or elderly market segment (Age 60 and above).I will explain how the key concepts or keywords listed below affect the elderly personas.

Keywords:

Gestalt

Hedonic Consumption

Audio- watermarking

Halo-effect

Gamification

Recognition

Actual Self

Pleasure principles

Identity marketing

Gestalt

This is a German word which means whole or complete. Gestalt refers to an overall pattern that guides principles of perceptual organization. According to Gestalt psychology, the whole is more significant or greater than the sum of its parts (p. 195)

The elderly, due to long buying experience and many years of continued consumption of products, have become familiar with particular brands. The elders have also become accustomed to certain messages regarding their preferred brands, as such they are receptive to messages from manufacturers of these brands that use closure principle. For example many males among the elders have used Gillette shaving blades for years and can identify with any message from Proctor & Gamble on Gillette shavers such that at the mention of Gillette they can finish the message with the slogan “The best a man can get”.

The elderly, like other consumers, tend to group together objects that share similar physical characteristics. For example, all washing detergents are grouped together because they have similar packaging and share similar colored liquid character. Most of these detergents have pictures of washing machines or laundry on their package covers. Based on the similarities, all household detergents are grouped together and during shopping an elder can pick any from the supermarket shelf, since one will serve the same purpose just as the next one on the shelf.

Hedonic Consumption

Hedonic consumption focuses on a consumer’s emotional experience of a product. The elderly have over time observed manufacturing costs going down and consumption going up, they gradually want to buy things that provide additional experiences. This suggests that the elderly have a preference for products that appeal to their needs or to the emotional aspects of consumer’s interaction with products. The elders’ tendency have a preference for a microwave oven that can cook, defrost, grill, bake and make popcorn is a case in point , to show how the elders demand a product that delivers hedonic value. The elderly also spur demand for products that they derive satisfaction from, like pure ground coffee which always stimulates them and makes them alert. This is because the sensations we experience are context effects that subtly influence how we think about products we encounter. Some encounters can lead to consumers detesting the product or feeling positively predisposed to it depending on the level of positive sensations experienced from using the product.

Audio- Watermarking

A well-known trick used by producers and musicians to weave a sound motif into a piece of music (p. 180). This is based on the psychological fact that music and sounds affect people’s feelings and behaviors. It is a form of sensory marketing which emphasizes on the link between our senses and product experiences. Radio and T.V commercials commonly make use of this form of marketing.

The elders especially have a tendency to remember sounds associated with particular events especially those that left a pleasant feeling. If a product is associated with a positive memory, the elderly are more likely to opt for it than any other product which has no memory attached to it. Creators of sensory marketing campaigns emphasize on the sensory characteristics of products that sticks with the customers, helping them remember the product in a positive and unique way. This strategy works well with children and the elderly and they are the main target group of radio and T.V advertisements that use jingles and similar sounds, because they are easy to remember and are associated with products that appeal to them. The audio messages are in the form of jingles or songs that usually trigger memories of the past. This gives the product a unique sensory quality, separate from the competition.

Halo-effect

Halo-effect refers to the reaction of people to other similar stimuli, the same way they responded to the original stimulus. This happens when the consumers assume that the similar product or the imitation, shares the same characteristics with the original product (p. 210). The elderly are sometimes duped into thinking that imitation or copy products are the original products that are widely known. In the market ,there are many “look-alike” products made in China and Taiwan. They range from motor-vehicle and motor-cycle spare parts, consumer electronics , cosmetics and beauty products. The elderly have often confused imitation or copy “Nikke”, “sonny”, “Phillips”and “everyday” for the original brands of Nike shoes, SONY electronics, Philips electronics & eveready batteries. When the quality of the copy is compromised as it is in most instances, the consumers are more positively predisposed towards the original. In rare cases ,the elderly discover the quality of the original and copy are equal and in such instances they conclude that the price they pay for the original is not worth it and opt for the imitation which is usually of a lower price.

Gamification

This is the action of adding gaming elements to everyday tasks. Applying basic principles of gaming like winning, losing, challenges, rewards and penalties to motivate consumers and employees. The elderly have been incorporated into the idea of gamification which was previously not practiced in the mainstream business environment. Organizations are now borrowing from gaming by involving customers in various challenges with motivation to progress to the next level with a system of rewards and penalties. Successful candidates get to enjoy benefits ranging from cash to discounted prices and complimentary goodies. Gaming is important for the elderly as for everybody else as it has benefits and important elements like creating a dynamic digital environment, promoting rapid feedback and enhancing healthy competition in a low risk environment.

Popular gaming names include Aherk! That promotes negative reinforcement, Gympact which encourages workout and penalizes inconsistency and work or die which is a remedy for writer’s block. Fitocracy is a weight-loss game that the elderly can engage in because it encourages achievement of physical fitness (p. 217 ) . Gamification incorporates many aspects of business and life in general with a common need to motivate and reward people to achieve excellence. These include repeat business, brand loyalty, social marketing, employee performance and bulk purchasing.

Recognition

To measure memory for product information, either recognition or recall technique is used. Consumers will more easily remember an advert or product message if it is presented to them than to recall one without being given any clues. The elderly bear memories from the past and even if they might not recall messages, they will easily recollect an advert from the past if prompted with an image or sound clip. The elderly also tend to keep in their memory, adverts that stuck in their minds because they were positively disposed towards the product. For the elderly, any product they recall because it has always been in their minds, Is a product they can readily purchase again. Recognition as well as recall methods play a vital role in purchase decisions by the elderly. Recognition is more important to the elderly since there are a multitude of options to choose from which can cause confusion if one does not have enough data on all the products available. In the battle of recall versus recognition, I think recognition is better because the results are more reliable in that they are more durable. The results from recall tests expire after a very short period and are therefore not very reliable. Apart from reliability, recognition is a simpler process and the consumer has more retrieval cues source from. Elders are more likely to recognize as they need prompting to recall, many of them recall products because of long-term consumption in the past.

Actual Self

This refers to our own realistic appraisal of qualities we possess or do not possess, based on a genuine personal evaluation. We buy products that help us to reach the ideal standard we have set for ourselves based on this personal appraisal. We also purchase products that are in conformity to the actual self. The elderly make purchase decisions based on how they perceive themselves and buy products that represent that image. For instance, when purchasing clothing items, the elderly shop in places where they can find the right items and purchase those that appear to create an image they would want to portray to others. This is impression management where we work hard to manage what others think of us. The elderly are also influenced by societal expectations and strive to conform to what society finds acceptable. In the market for clothing items for instance, there is segmentation based on gender, sex and age, and as such you find sections for ladies wear, children’s wear, gents wear and even within these, there is further demarcation like teens wear. It is unacceptable therefore for the elderly to purchase and put on attire meant for teenagers.

Pleasure principle

This refers to a basic desire to maximize pleasure an avoid pain. It is a desire that guides our behavior and the id operates on this principle, according to Sigmund Freud (p. 260). The id is illogical and selfish and directs the individual’s psychic energy towards pleasurable exploits without regard to consequences. The opposite of the id is the superego and it counters the id. The superego is the person’s conscience, using societal rules to counter the id’s selfish gratification.

The ego is the mediator between the id and the superego and tries to strike a balance between the opposing forces using the reality principle. The pleasure principle underlines consumer behavior by bringing out the importance of unconscious motives that guide our purchases. This means elderly make purchase decisions based on guidance from the pleasure principle even without their knowledge. Because the pleasure principle operates in the subconscious mind, it works covertly and hence the customer cannot point out accurately the basis for their decision or their true motivation when they choose a product. According to Freud, there is the possibility that the ego relies on symbolism in products to reach a compromise between the demands of the id and prohibition of the superego (p. 260).

Identity Marketing

Identity marketing is a promotional strategy whereby consumers alter some aspects of their selves to advertise for a branded product (p. 276).

This is done so that the product can identify and be in touch with the market. For a product to be acceptable in the market especially among the elderly, they must identify with it and trust that the product will meet their needs. Identity marketing gives the product validation and empowers a product to be accepted based on the fact that people are receptive to products that have an identity that they can recognize. Just like they trust people they know, consumers develop trust for products that portray a human side. This point is especially poignant for the elderly because they are not receptive to new ideas and products. They view any new product with aloofness and mistrust and so identity marketing is the right strategy to reach the elderly.

Sources

Solomon, M.R. (2015). Consumer Behavior: buying, having and being (11Th ed.). Pentrice Hall.

 

 

 

 

The Role of Organizational Behavior in the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and the Changes Made

Introduction

The case study chosen for the report is the Deepwater Horizon oil spill that discharged huge volumes of oil in the Gulf of Mexico resulting in economical and environmental damage as different stakeholders including fishermen, wildlife, tourism businessmen and the oil industry were affected. The spill resulted in negative reputation experienced by BP as the spill was attributed to negative behavior among some of the employees at BP. This paper will be an annotated bibliography and will cover different aspects including corporate social responsibility, disclosure, risk management and employee behavior in organizations. Through this, there will be a better understanding on how organizational behavior led to the oil spill and the organizational changes that have been made at BP and other companies to prevent recurrence of such a spill.

Bibliography

Kurtz, R.S. (2013). Oil spill causation and the Deepwater Horizon spill. The Review of Policy

Research, 30(4), pp. 366-380.

This article by Kurtz asks the question of who was to blame for the spill. In addition, Kurtz also asks if such a catastrophic spill can happen anywhere in the future. Through analysis, Kurtz asserts that the Deepwater Horizon spill affected due to avoidable factors and shortcomings which have been seen in other spills. Among the shortcomings include policy imperfections, weak regulatory regime, organizational deviance and deficiencies in inter-organizational structure. It can be seen that employees at BP were operating without laying much emphasis to safety and security. Some of the decisions which are considered inappropriate, risky or ethically questionable were considered as viable within the organization. Due to the weak regulatory environment, some of the decisions were not challenged by law enforcers (Kurtz, 2013).

Skogdalen, J.E., Utne, I.B. & Vinnem, J.E. (2011). Developing safety indicators for preventing

offshore oil and gas deepwater drilling blowouts. Safety Science, 49(9), pp. 1187-1199.

This article by Skogdalen, Utne & Vinnem (2011) seeks to answer the question of whether the oil spill was a result of systematic failure in the deepwater drilling industry. In this article, the authors assert that there were different levels of failure that resulted in the oil spill. The levels include: work and technological system, the staff level, the management level, the company level, the regulators and association level and the government level. It can be seen that most of the levels do include the behavior exhibited by BP and how the company did not consider the issue of safety during the process. The authors recommend that more research should be done to determine indicators that can be used to ensure safety to prevent occurrence of such spills in future.

Environmental Management for Sustainable Development

Introduction

Environmental issues have become one of the emotive topics in the whole world. There is increased environmental degradation across the globe and a lot of international conferences are being held to discuss the issue, but what is shocking is that no significant change is being realized. This is partly because the world fears taking the responsibility for their actions and there have been increased blame game, especially among the developed countries, which are the most polluters, due to selfish interest. One such country that has experienced increased environmental degradation is the United Kingdom, especially London city. According to London Climate Change Partnership (LCCP) (2002), the main cause of environmental pollution in London is its transport system, which is the main source of greenhouse emission in the city and its environs.

The report focuses on the environmental friendly and sustainable transport systems in London. Issues to be covered in this work include the impact of current transport systems on the environment of London and its people, how to reduce the impact of environmental pollution, and how to implement renewable energy systems in the new transport systems. In addition, the work will cover new transport systems which are environmentally friendly. This report, therefore, aims at providing enough information, which will help in in replacing the current transport systems with the new environmentally friendly transport systems in London.

Impact of Current Transport Systems on Environment

The world’s number one polluter is a transport system since it is the major consumer of the petroleum products in the world. One of the way the system pollutes the environment is through greenhouse emissions of gases, which leads to global warming. Some of the gases emitted by the locomotives are nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide gases, which reacts with air, causing excess carbon dioxide in the air which leads to global warming. Nitrogen oxide gas also reacts with moisture in the air leading to acid rains which are very corrosive (Bows et al, 2006). The current transport system in London has led to a lot of negative impacts on the environment like increased temperatures, acid rains, rise in sea levels, floods and storms, which affects the lives of people living in London and the whole economy of the United kingdom.

One of the adverse impact of the current transport system in London is global warming (“LCC”, 2002). Global warming is caused by excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere in the environment. Research has shown that road transport is the main contributor of global warming due to the emission of excess of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere. Some of the results of global warming include a rise in sea level and increased storm, which the country is experiencing now (“LBC”, 2003).

Another impact of transport system in the environment is noise pollution. This majorly come from big trucks, airplanes and trains. Most of these trains and aircraft stations are located near London city which negatively affect the lives of local people. Even though people may not be aware, noise pollution comes with health problems. People living and working in areas prone to noise have been noticed to be developing similar diseases (Akerman and Hojer, 2006). Research shows that noise pollution cause diseases like sleep disturbance, psychological problems and cardiovascular diseases. The high number of large vehicles, trains and airplanes in London affects the health of the people. This will end up affecting the economy as a whole. Therefore, the current transport systems in London affect the health of people living within and around the city.

London is also experiencing increased air pollution. Research from environmentalists show that the contributor to air pollution is road transport. Road transport locomotives harmful gases in the air like carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, fine dust and soot, benzene and hydrocarbon gases which come with a lot of effects on the lives of many living in London and UK’s economy as a whole. It is estimated that about 12000-24000 people due of air pollution in the UK. One of the disease that has claimed the lives of many people in London due to air pollution is asthma. This disease is caused by nitrogen oxides and ozone gas, which come from locomotives. This also has a bearing on the economic performance since, according to the National Asthma Campaign, the government of the UK spends about £1 billion every year on asthma patients. Very many people are also being admitted in hospitals and government of UK estimates that between 14000-24000 people are being admitted in hospitals due to air pollution. The current transport systems cost the government and people of the UK their lives and money due to air pollution associated with it.

Another issue that is related to the transportation system is land take. It has been observed that transport systems tale a large chunk of land in in London. Road transport alone takes about of the total land available i9n the UK, which is about 2004km2, according to the Department of Transport. Heavy vehicles take about 150km2 of the total land. This show that the land available for other human activities has reduced. City occupants are therefore forced to concentrate on a small piece of land within the city, which compromises the space available for housing and other human activities leading to environmental degradation.

Prevention of the Impacts of Transport system Environmental Degradation

Governments all across the globe are doing all that they can reduce the impacts transport systems in environmental degradation. Determination to reduce the impacts should not only be aimed at reducing the impact, but they should be sustainable as well. Some of the steps that the London government should take to reduce the impacts include improving infrastructure, use of alternative fuels, use of public transport, use of electric vehicles, use of bicycles, and purchase of carbon offsets.

One of the areas that the government should concentrate on is the improvement of the existing infrastructure. Appropriate infrastructural development will be able to improve the capacity of other transport networks leading to efficiency and conservation of the environment. In order to ensure that the development is sustainable, the developers should do a proper impact assessment to ascertain that the infrastructural development is sustainable in the long run. The investment should focus on better railways, water transport, and public transport.

The main transport system polluter is road transport and therefore the government of London should concentrate on the construction of efficient and modern railway lines to replace road transport. Railway transport is more environmentally friendly compared to road transport and at the same time it will be able to connect other parts of the city adequately. In order to ensure that railway transport is sustainable, electric train should be used since they do not pollute the environment and at the same time they are faster.

Petroleum products contribute to a larger percentage of polluters. Therefore, finding alternative fuels will help in reducing the level of pollution caused by transport systems. Currently, there are a variety of fuels in the market that are environmentally friendly and the government should come up policies to ensure that the public uses those fuels in transport. Such environmentally friendly fuels include E-85, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and compressed natural gas. These fuels contain low content of carbon and, therefore, do not pollute the environment like the normal fuels.

One way of reducing congestion in the city is the reduction of the vehicles accessing the city. The majority of people in London prefer using their private vehicles when moving from one place to another. In the London city alone, there are about 26 million trips made a day by people when they are doing their business in the city. This figure shows that the city is congested with both human and traffic jams. However, government and city planners should come up with the strategy of making public transport attractive to the people. This can be achieved by making public transport attractive to the public. First, public transport should be accessible and a proper and efficient service made for the public. For instance, the mode of payment and inquiry should be through mobile phone in order to reduce congestion in the public transport parks. This strategy will reduce the impact of transport systems on the environment.

Government and local authorities should promote initiatives that enhance the use of a vehicle as a means of transport. This will reduce the impact of transport systems on the environment since vehicles do not use any fuel and therefore there will be reduction carbon dioxide emission in the environment. However, to achieve this, the government should develop and expand infrastructures which enable cyclist to easily move from one place to another. A separate paths and tunnels should be developed for cyclists to motivate them to use their vehicles when moving from one place to another.

Finally, the public should be made to transact their business online. With the current technology, there is no need for one to move to the city to do the shopping or transact a business that can easily be done online. This will reduce the number of people moving to the city, which will reduce the number of private vehicles accessing the city. A good infrastructure should be put in place to allow this online transaction to reduce the negative impacts of the transport system on the environment. This will result to another effect on health since bicycles a form of exercise and therefore cyclists will maintain physical fitness. This will reduce health problems leading to productive labor force.

Implementation of Renewable Energy Systems in the New Transport system

A new transport system is important to reduce environmental degradation that the country is witnessing today. However, this is only possible if a new set of renewable energy is put in place to reduce the use petroleum products in the current transportation system. Some of the renewable energy that should be considered are solar energy, wind energy, electric energy and biofuel energy (Banister and Hickman, 2006). Will ensure that London is free from the transport system environmental pollution,   which will ensure that residents of the city are healthy and London economy is thriving.

The use of electricity in transport system has gained momentum and is viewed as one of the ways to keep the environment clean and also to save on fuel consumption since the volume of fuel is also reducing (Willowa and Connel, 2003). Therefore, the best way to save the economy and to save the environment is through the use of electricity in transport system. Some of the advantages associated with the electricity powered locomotives are that it leads to less pollution since there is no exhaust leading to less environmental pollution. Another advantage that it comes with is that the world London will not be depended on the oil prices to improve its economy. In addition, electricity provides a perfect way to harvest both solar and wind energy, which can further be used in other means of transport.

Currently, there are fully developed electric train and electric vehicles which can be used in the new transportation system. What need to be done by the concerned authorities is to put systems in place which makes it possible for people to use electric trains and vehicles. Since electric vehicle uses battery, many charging centers should be developed, which are easily accessible. This can also be enhanced through the use of the modern technology by developing a swap station where the batteries are charged using the modern technology. This will encourage more people to use the electric transport system in order to save the environment. Apart from reduction in environmental degradation, it will also lead to economic stability in London since it will not rely so much on oil, which always determine the market forces (“International Energy Agency”, 2006). The same should apply to other means of transport like a train.

Another new means of transport that is highly sustainable is the use of bicycle since it only requires the use of human energy which is renewable. However, this means of transport have been shunned by the majority since it is associated with lower class people (Cairns et al., 2004). But all is not lost since more people are now embracing the bicycle as their means of transport. What the government need to do is to put systems and structures in place to motivate and facilitate this healthy and clean means of transport.

First, exclusive lanes should be set aside for bicycles only to enable smooth movement of cyclists. At the same time, bicycle locking facilities should be set aside in a safe place where cyclists can leave their bicycles when engaging in other activities within the city. Finally, since one is more likely to sweat when biking, showers should be placed in the designated places in the city at workplaces to enable cyclists to freshen up. The use of the bicycle will be sustainable if all these facilities and infrastructure are put in place.

Recommendations    

The current transport system contributes to environmental degradation that London and its people are experiencing today. The main source of energy used in the current transportation system oil, which is expensive and at the same time pollutes the environment. Despite heavy reliance on oil in the transportation system, there are cheaper and environmentally friendly alternatives, which are sustainable and will significantly reduce the level of environmental degradation. These alternatives are recommended below:

  • Creation of an online platform. The new technology allows people to transact a lot of businesses online. Therefore, an online platform should be created to prevent people from driving to the city to access services, which do not need one to travel since they are available online.
  • Make bicycle the most viable alternative to the current transportation system. It does not need to use any fuel and it makes the society physically fit. What needs to be done is only to put facilities and infrastructures in place to motivate and facilitate the use of bicycles.

Conclusion

It is clear that the current transportation system leads to environmental degradation. This has led to increased global warming, which comes with other environmental disasters like rise in sea level and increased storm in the city. Environmental degradation affects all the sectors of the economy, especially health sector. However, there are solution to environmental degradation that is caused by the current transport systems in London. What needs to be done to save the situation is the use of safe and healthy renewable energies like bio fuel and electricity. Therefore, in order to solve these environmental degradation associated with the current transportation system, ne transport systems must be put in place.

LEGAL ASPECT OF OIL AND GAS

Legal aspect of oil and gas

The oil and gas venture are subjected to a few sorts of dangers that undermine their operations and benefit. The dangers confronted by the oil and gas organizations can be isolated into upstream dangers, midstream dangers, and downstream dangers (Rogers & Ethridge, 2013). In the upstream, the oil and gas organizations are continually confronted with political dangers and instability as political environment change with time. Much of the time, the national governments get to be protectionist and this represents an incredible test for the oil and gas industry (Lajili & Zéghal, 2005). Because of steady changes in the political administration of the host nations, the oil and gas administrators as a rule end up in new situations with abnormal laws being established to unwelcoming political pioneers. In the upstream, the oil and gas administrators are always confronted with wellbeing, security, and ecological dangers that wreck their operations (Minassian & Jergeas, 2003). The oil and gas businesses are likewise confronted with money related dangers if there should be an occurrence of threatening financial environment with the high cost of operations. In the later past, there have been uplifted environmental change concerns with a dubious vitality arrangement that make the eventual fate of their operations obscure. In the midstream, the dangers is not as high as in the upstream on the grounds that it basically includes transportation, handling, and stockpiling of oil and gas items. In the midstream, oil and gas operations are subjected to wellbeing and dangers that are identified with transportation, transforming, and stockpiling of the oil and gas saves (Chen et al, 2014). In the downstream, the dangers in oil and gas operations are additionally lessened like the case in the midstream. The unpredictability in the oil costs is one of the most serious dangers that oil and gas organizations confronts in the downstream since it has the capability of directing the benefit levels acknowledged by such wander.

The substances confronting the oil and gas industry have drastically changed in the later past since the business has gotten to be more unsafe than some time recently. The oil and gas industry is exceedingly subjected to the dangers because of multi-jurisdictional operations that happen in the unstable worldwide economy (Aslaksen & Vigerust, 2007). Furthermore, the joint endeavor extends, the extent of the agreement has like wisely confused the business exchanges in the oil and gas industry (Stenis & Hogland, 2011). Aside from the ecological dangers and the human capital, the legitimate aftermath identified with the obligation in undertaking the oil and gas operations has enormously debilitated the whole business. Also, the oil and gas industry have experience expanded taxation rate, geopolitical instability, over regulation, and protectionist propensities of a few states (Schroeder & Jackson, 2007). In the setting of oil and gas industry, dangers are those circumstances that uncover the operations of the oil and gas into surprising peril. In this respect, there is a high capability of the financial specialists in the oil and gas industry losing the worth for their venture. In a few examples, the dangers that emerge in the process of the oil and gas investigation has the capability of bringing on damage and even death toll (Hinkelmann & Swidler, 2004).

The greater the dangers, the higher the likelihood that the operations of the oil and gas speculators are subjected to danger, harm, damage, risk, or the loss of the whole venture. The increased obligation related wellbeing, security, and ecological consistence represent a noteworthy danger to oil and gas organizations. In this respect, the dangers identified with wellbeing, security, and natural consistence ought to be decently disseminated among the partners so that the danger does not rest with the foreman alone (Cordner, 2011). A plan realized, such that the partner’s impart the benefits are they are to impart the dangers as was on account of British Colombia and Alberta-BC in Canada. Aside from ecological dangers, the lawful dangers have increased in the oil and gas industry, taking after a progression of rates that have brought about expensive prosecution. In this respect, there has been an in number accentuation on the holder administrator imparting danger to builders, suppliers, and field administration organizations to minimize the impact of such dangers on one single element. To illuminate such dangers, assertions must advance around the agreement forms over the entire endeavor to seal all the conceivable lawful escape clauses that may demonstrate excessive at last. Moreover, the contractual understandings must have the capacity to adjust to always show signs of changing business and monetary environment so they are coupled with the everyday substances of the business environment (Tayyebi, Chenani, & Kashkooli, 2014).

There are two sorts of repayments mostly the basic and the common reimbursements whereby, the indemnitor consents to assume liability of the indemnitee where misfortune is knowledgeable about straightforward circumstances. This chiefly happens on account of basic repayment. On the other hand, as an afterthought of common repayment, all the gatherings are fiscally in charge of what happens to one another. The scope of repayment is relied on upon the transactions made by included gatherings. Characteristics are cooked for by common repayment with great arrangements being put aside. This is on account of; guideline is paid by the option contractual statements, which keeps away from carelessness and illogical practice in the oil and gas industry. Expenses on gas and oil industry are being catered for through dodging of protection layers with high premiums whereby, this happens in the rearrangements of contractual arrangements (Pies, Beckmann & Hielscher, 2010). In common reimbursement, one gathering is willing to spare the other at risk time, regardless of the fact that it implies through the utilization of the other party assets regardless of the flaw event (Minassian & Jergeas, 2003). Straightforward repayments besides can be said to be one-sided after that one and only gathering is in charge of assuming responsibility of alternate needs while common reimbursements are respective with all gatherings needing to assume responsibility of the needs and disappointments of each other. Wards are decently situated aside before the laws are executed to guarantee that they are decently joined to evade hazard events in the both businesses (Mubin & Mannan, 2013).

The danger undertaking between the gatherings included in the endeavor, demonstrate to have a major issue with the gas and oil industry. At the point when common reimbursement is shown in a given organization, the organization is not in need of a protective cover as the repayment deals with all matters event to the organization in general (Pongsiri, 2004). A ton of protection spread prompts covers layers of protection and higher protection premium prompting ascent in expense and low degrees of profitability. Aside from expense decrease shared reimbursements support in shortening the time of contractual arrangements and with the help of organization of agreement profited to the organization. There was the re-owning of foundations and relationship as an aftereffect of the improvement of reimbursement statements in the oil and gas industry prompting the advancement model of the agreement. Muhindo, Zhou & Mzuza, (2014) contend that repayment tries to abstain from wording issues in the understanding and the implementation of the oil and gas organization laws. Issues with the wording of the agreement can conceivably bring about a case and misfortunes to the gatherings in the oil and gas contracts. At the point when managing the upholding of provisos, any that is in clash with the oil and the gas organization is left aside. Through guaranteeing tedium is kept away from, danger has been accounted for to decrease in the gas and oil industry, mostly between the foreman and the administrator.

Repayment primarily concentrates on general society concerns basically in the creating nations (Tayyebi, Chenani & Kashkooli, 2014). At the point when a man is harmed in a position of work, he should be repaid with prompt impact through the utilization of the right channels. The formal position is not left aside when pay is an issue to the builders (Muralidhar, 2010). The rejection of risk for significant harms is profoundly considered by repayment. The execution of the right venture level contract administration arrangement can likewise viably be utilized to drive development and to dodge the issues that accompany an agreement (Enyinda, Briggs, Obuah & Mbah, 2011). An agreement administration arrangement will guarantee that an organization enhances their effectiveness, expand their benefit, improve their administration, reinforce their key sway and to diminish the general change (Cordner, 2011). Moreover, an agreement administration arrangement will guarantee that the oil and gas organization conveys on their dedication and save their greatest notoriety that would empower them to get more contracts.

Propelled contract administration considers quick designation for contract learning applicable to one another over the endeavor to help spread the conceivable danger. Contract administration arrangement likewise guarantees that agreement age properly by minimizing presentation to rebelliousness hazard with controls around filing and airs (Pongsiri, 2004). Consistency and exactness are likewise energized by shortening arrangement cycles with the point of minimizing lawful dangers (Chen et al, 2014). The accessibility of data innovation abilities in the gas and oil commercial enterprises helps the organization to check the danger that may confront the administration. The way data is overseen is changed by the capacities of Information Communication and Technology for better circulation in the organization. There are five abilities used to energize the utilization of vitality experiences into the two organizations for their benefit proportions (Muralidhar, 2010). These abilities are comprehensive of the venture wide administration that is connected with data and insight of the organization to guarantee that it is decently utilized and consolidated adequately (Sarkar & Sarkar, 2013). Taking after the enhanced weight and rivalry, these two organizations have ad libbed a strategy for operations that energize the support of the current environment, wellbeing and security of all laborers in the associations (Pongsiri, 2004). IT is equipped for dealing with the unstructured and organized data that is helpful in arranging and the support of every last one of the wells where oil is extricated from.

The utilization of big business, data security to all information frameworks and the organization process in the learning of the individuals show in the both organizations will support to ensure data security for the accomplishment of the two organizations (Lajili, & Zéghal, 2005). Because of data security, following could be possible from business to individual innovations, in this way, the administration is in a superior position of relating to the kind of individuals its working with. The most ideal method for moderating danger will be by considering of creating methodologies that an organization and the host nation utilizes as a part of the blend with innovation that will be useful to backing its operations. Innovation is helpful in business examination, the use of combination and in operation of the substance administration, prompting danger lessening toward the end (Muralidhar, 2010). The improvement of business methodology is best in the recognizable proof of the association’s work process in making of great endorsements towards the association that will have lessened its hazard rate. The organizations should take a gander at the ranges of high weakness and concentrate on changes that will empower them to advance. The administrative weight should be enhanced to have the capacity to search for the obliged arrangements of making g the organization’s progress by staying away from dangers (Lajili & Zéghal, 2005).

The danger administration arrangement in the oil and gas industry is not extremely compelling since it has not figured out how to face out the significant dangers confronted by oil and gas organizations. Then again, the strategy in the oil and gas industry has attempted to streamline the lawful obstacles that have negative results to the oil and gas operations (Cordner, 2011). The arrangement in the oil and gas industry has a tendency to experience the ill effects of ecological approach that has a tendency to advance environmentally friendly power vitality arrangements and shirking of nursery gasses. According to Hinkelmann & Swidler (2004), in the course of recent decades, there have been a great deal of objection and concentrate on the ecological corruption and this has a negative effect on the arrangements coordinated at enhancing the states of the oil and gas industry.

The danger administration in the middle of the IOC and the host nation has changed in the later past since the host states have incorporated an adjustment provision to keep drawing in remote speculation into the oil and gas industry (Chen et al, 2014). Since there is an in number relationship between the dependability and value of ventures, the adjustment condition fortifies the lawful relationship between the outside financial specialists and the host states. Consequently, this lessens the danger includes and expands the level of interest in the oil and gas industry of the host express that has passed such a statement. The host nation is in this manner anticipated that would watch the legitimate components that are detailed in organization with the IOC to lessen the dangers in the oil and gas industry (Mark & Dorfman, 2012). Repayment conditions are one of the statements that are gone for lessening the dangers in the oil and gas industry.

There are two sorts of reimbursements essentially the straightforward and the shared repayments whereby, the indemnitor consents to assume liability of the indemnitee where misfortune is knowledgeable about basic circumstances (Muralidhar, 2010). Nonetheless, as an afterthought of common repayment, all the gatherings are fiscally in charge of what happens to one another. The scope of repayment is relied on upon the arrangements made by included gatherings. Eccentricities are cooked for by shared reimbursement with great arrangements being put aside. Expenses on gas and oil industry are being provided food for through evading of protection layers with high premiums whereby, this happens in the disentanglement of contractual transactions. In shared repayment, one gathering is willing to spare the other in a threat time, regardless of the possibility that it implies through the utilization of the other party assets regardless of the deficiency event. Straightforward repayments so far as that is concerned can be said to be one-sided after that stand out gathering is in charge of assuming responsibility of alternate needs while common reimbursements is respective with all gatherings needing to assume responsibility of the needs and disappointments of each other (Mubin & Mannan, 2013). In this way, the repayment conditions have been compelling in lessening the dangers in the oil and gas part.

In summary, the vitality business is extremely muddled because of the degree and the way of the exercises that are multi-jurisdictional. Dealing with the dangers in oil and gas assertions can be as unsafe as taking care of the operations through and through. At the point when not legitimately took care of, the danger included in the oil and gas operations are enormous to the point that they come about into huge money related and reputational misfortunes, which can even result toward the end of the organizations included. Compelling understanding in the oil and gas industry is end-to-end, coordinated, and sufficiently adaptable to handle the issues that may emerge sometime during undertaking execution. An agreement administration guarantees that the life cycle of the undertaking is proactively dealt with the point of guaranteeing that the diversions of every last one of the partners are met. All the business players likewise need to be included in the plan and arranging of the oil and gas assertions to guarantee that all are fulfilled by the methodology and to lessen the shots of future suit.

Bibliography

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Enhancing Employee Job Satisfaction and Motivation

Introduction

Nearly all workers at Plastico Packing have a low job satisfaction and are not adequately motivated to work at the firm. This is evident from the high employee turnover, inconsistent production quality, and complaints from the workers. The major reasons for the lack of adequate motivation include; inability to work as a team, lack of interpersonal skills and lack of a good employee benefits scheme. Generally, employees who are intrinsically motivated have a tendency to produce higher output and develop professionalism in the workplace. The Problems at Plastico Packaging can hence be eradicated by designing a plan to intrinsically motivate the workers. Therefore, to enhance job satisfaction and consequently enhance employee motivation, it is recommended that the jobs be redesigned, and an intrinsic rewards scheme be established at the company. The following is the recommended plan for resolving the problems at Plastico Packaging.

Job Redesign Plan

The jobs at Plastico Packaging should be planned in a way that enhances teamwork and provide equal opportunities for all genders. As currently is, the reporting system is not aligned to enhance efficiency. It is impossible to point express responsibility for the poor quality or even good work to the people who are directly responsible for such output. To eliminate this, the plan should enhance procedural justice and interaction justice by ensuring process consistency and respect for dignity and transparency within the system. The jobs should be strictly based on the production process with teams manning each production stage and a supervisor attached to every stage or depending on the need. For instance, a team of machine operators, inspectors/ packers, utility workers and a machine technician should be in charge of bag making. All this workers should be directly responsible to one supervisor who would in turn be responsible for the output from the team. In case the output from the team is below the averages acceptable, the responsible supervisor should be held accountable for the team. Further, rewards should be set to the team if the output by the team is above the acceptable averages. The promotion within the line of operation would also be based on inherent qualities and experiences rather than other aspects such as gender.

Intrinsic Motivation Techniques

Offering equal opportunities for advancement

One of the greatest shortcomings of the work environment for the employees at the company is in regards to opportunities for advancement. This is evident from the high employee turnover that also increased as one goes above the hierarchy. This implies that the opportunities for advancement also diminish along the hierarchy. To ensure that the employee perceive a long-term engagement to the company, Plastico Packaging should provide equal opportunities for all employees to climb the ladder. This would motivate the employees to contribute more to the company because they acquire a vested interest in its growth (Ashdown, 2014).

Mentoring and Education

Plastico Packaging should regularly enhance its employee’s capacity through regularly mentoring and training. The lack of adequate mentoring is evident from the fact that its takes at least six months to train a bag making supervisor to an operator. Mentoring and training should be done on a regular basis to ensure that employees are adequately equipped and can transition into other jobs with ease. In addition, the company should offer regular feedback on performance and reward the exceptional workers (Ashdown, 2014).

References

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Ashdown, L. (2014). Performance management.

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