Summary and Analysis of Grigsby’s Argument

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Painting is a form of art that helps artists to express their inner feelings and emotions. This paper will discuss the arguments presented by Grigsby on the painting of “the Intervention of the Sabine women” which was created by Jacques-Louis David.

In summary of the history of art, Jacques-Louis David was one of the most renowned artists in the society. During his time in prison, he was able to put up a painting from his imaginative and creative mind (Grigsby, 319). The painting that was known as “the intervention of the Sabine women” presented men in the society negatively. David presented the men in his painting as being nude which was not an acceptable thing in the society. Despite, the painting hanging in various museums in the society today, it raises controversial issues that are worth investigation. This is the reason, why Grigsby was concerned about the image portrayed by the painting. First off, Grigsby is much concerned about the reasons why David portrayed the men in his painting as nude while the women were well covered. Grigsby is concerned about the content of the painting since it is contrary to the societal expectations (Grigsby, 320). In light of this, she termed the painting as having been improper and historically inaccurate. Her argument seems to be solid since most of the scholars in the society were not only concerned with the issue of presenting the male gender but also on the female intervention issue. However, the two issues were both considered separately by scholars.

Grigsby shows a lot of connection that arises between artists and the people in the society. Most of the artistic works that are presented by artists to the society play a role in the process of mounting individual or social characters. In her argument, she shows that artists tend to influence the fashion of many people in the society. This has been observed in many societies where people tend to do their dressing based on some factors presented by popular artists (Grigsby, 326). Basing her argument on David’s painting, Hersilia was a woman who was likened to the real women of post-revolutionary France. According to Grigsby, David as artists was responsible for the collapse of such popular high art and classical fashion. Hersilia, as depicted by Grigsby was one of the women that dressed based on the female protagonist of David’s pre-revolutionary paintings (Grigsby, 329). For this reason, the presentation of the “Intervention of the Sabine women’ negatively influenced people’s fashion in the society.

Further, it is evident from Grigsby’s argument that most of the art that is presented by artists arises from societal issues. The male who is presented as being nude is seen as a reflection of the modern man stripped bare, humiliated before the society due to his vulgar cultural practices. This description given by Grigsby on how the men are portrayed from their immorality is viable evidence.

In making her arguments regarding David’s painting, she uses historical information that she relates to modern happenings. She does an analysis of the works of art that were presented in the past and how they played a role in influencing the society. Most of them influenced the society positively while some of the art led to a collapse of morality among other factors in the society.

Her argument is captivating in that she is sure to back up the information presented with solid evidence. Grigsby has an opinion which she strongly stands for in regard to David’s painting. All through her argument, she is focused on criticizing the painting in that it has the positive impact on the society in terms of morality, fashion among other factors. Therefore, she is incredibly staunch in supporting her argument on the painting of “intervention of Sabine women’. Further, Grigsby is not only concerned on how the artist portrayed the male gender in the painting but also the female gender. Therefore, she was not biased in her argument in relation to the piece of art.

However, a part of her argument is not interesting enough. Grigsby is seen to so much focus on the negative aspects of the painting rather than appreciate the outstanding piece of art work. Despite the inaccurate depiction of the male and female gender presented in the painting, Grigsby should have pointed out the positive aspects of the painting in the long run. This part did not seem interesting throughout the arguments she presented.

In conclusion, art should be used in the society to pass important information. As a medium of communication to the society, artists should consider the elements they use to present their intended information to their target audience. It is evident that a piece of art could cause great impact on the society either positively or negatively. For this reason, all artists should be careful in the design and presentation of their artwork to the audiences.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works cited

Grigsby, Darcy Grimaldo. “Nudity a la grecque in 1799.” The art bulletin June 1998: 311-335. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3051235.

 

 

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Summary and Analysis of Grigsby’s Argument

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Painting is a form of art that helps artists to express their inner feelings and emotions. The sections of this paper will discuss on the arguments presented by Grigsby on the painting of “the intervention of the Sabine women” which was created by Jacques-Louis David.

In summary of the history of art, Jacques-Louis David was one of the most renowned artists in the society. During his time in prison, he was able to put up a painting from his imaginative and creative mind (Grigsby, 319). The painting which was known as “the intervention of the Sabine women” presented men in the society negatively. David presented the men in his painting as being nude which was not an acceptable thing in the society. Despite, the panting hanging in various museums in the society today, it raises controversial issues which are worth investigation. This is the reason, why Gitsby was concerned about the image portrayed by the painting. First off, Gitsby is much concerned about the reasons why David portrayed the men in his painting as nude while the women were well covered. Gitsby is concerned about the content of the painting since it is contrary to the societal expectations (Grigsby, 320). In light of this, she termed the painting as having been improper and historically inaccurate. Her argument seems to be solid since most of the scholars in the society were not only concerned with the issue of presenting the male gender but also on the female intervention issue. However, the two issues were both considered separately by scholars.

Gitsby shows a lot of connection that arises between artists and the people in the society. Most of the artistic works that are presented by artists to the society play a role in the process of mounding individual or social characters. In her argument, she shows that artists tend to influence the fashion of many people in the society. This has been observed in many societies where people tend to do their dressing based on some factors presented by popular artists (Grigsby, 326). Basing her argument on David’s painting, Herosilian was a woman who was likened to the real women of post-revolutionary France. According to Gitsby, David as an artists was responsible for the collapse of such popular high art and classical fashion. Herosilia as depicted by Gitsby was one of the women that dressed herself based on the female protagonist of David’s pre-revolutionary paintings (Grigsby, 329). For this reason, the presentation of the “intervention of the Sabine women’ negatively influenced people’s fashion in the society.

Further, it is evident from Gitsby’s argument that most of the art that is presented by artists arises from societal issues. The male who is presented as being nude is seen as a reflection of the modern man stripped bare, humiliated before the society due to his vulgar cultural practices. This description given by Gitsby on how the men are portrayed from their immorality is viable evidence.

In making her arguments in regard to David’s painting, she uses historical information which she relates to modern happenings. She does an analysis of the works of art that were presented in the past and how they played a role in influencing the society. Most of them influenced the society positively while some of the art led to collapse of morality among other factors in the society.

In most of her arguments, she is sure to back up the information presented with solid argument. What is likeable about her is the fact that she has an opinion which she strongly supports. All through her argument, she is focused on criticizing David’s painting in that is does not create positive impact in the society. Therefore, she is incredibly staunch in supporting her argument on the painting of “intervention of Sabine women’.

In conclusion, art should be used in the society to pass important information. As a medium of communication to the society, artists should consider the elements they use to present their intended information to their target audience. It is evident that a piece of art could cause great impact on the society either positively or negatively. For this reason, all artists should be careful in the design and presentation of their artwork to the audiences.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works cited

Grigsby, Darcy Grimaldo. “Nudity a la grecque in 1799.” The art bulletin June 1998: 311-335. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3051235.

 

 

LOUISIANA STATE PENITENTIARY “ANGOLA PRISON”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LOUISIANA STATE PENITENTIARY “ANGOLA PRISON”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Introduction

The state of Louisisna has the prison capital. The Louisiana State Penitentiary otherwise named the Angola prison is the biggest maximum security prison in America. The prison is a good piece to examine and understand the prison system in the US and its social-political implications. The prison also has a rich history on slavery in America which majority believe is still practiced to date. Today, incarceration rates in the US have risen to approximately 500%[1]. The prison is founded on the mission to provide custody, control, care and treatment of offenders by enforcing laws and management programs to ensure safety for all, offenders, staff and the public[2]. However, one cannot fail to notice the disaproportionate racial composition of the prisoners. Angola prison is the basis on which we explore the slavery legacy, racial disparity and its social and political implications.

Political History

The prison has been used by politicians to gain support. Louisiana’s penal history is unique because of its politicization since its initial lease in 1944. Reforms at the facility have been slow. The legislators paid no attention to reforms with a focus on the cash deficits facing the prison in the 1930s[3]. The political leaders including governors were opposed to penal reforms as they would mean the loss of the cheap leased labor and financial disruptions. They favored unprofessional staff the facility as they were easier to patronage and preserve their personal political interests. Politicians supervise Education, highways, hospitals. Governor Robert Kennon is remembered for his significant impact in modernizing the penal system at the facility. He introduced professional staff and increased staff numbers. Initially, convicts would be used as guards in the facility. Politics of punishment along with race politics continue to thrive in the facility.

Politics has influenced the reform process negatively with slow and unpredictable changes. Focus is on reaping big profits. There is a need to keep politics from the prison. In addition, laws against discrimination need to be enacted.  Police reforms need to focus on equal treatment for crimes to end the disproportionate incarceration for blacks and to ensure equal treatment for crimes.

History, Ideology Implications

The prison sits on 18,000 acres that were formerly a slave-breeding plantation. The naming of the prison originated from the Africans who worked on the then Angola plantation. After the emancipation of the slaves in 1865, the plantation was turned into a prison. One would expect the state to end brutality against blacks and slavery.  Previously, the state operated leased prisons with prisoners being leased out to private companies. Leasing prisoners led to much abuse as they worked on private farms. The expectation is that the trend is different in the 21st century. However, the prison is a representation of brutality and modern slavery.

Racial disparity and continued torture for the black people is evident in the prison. Statistics show that one in three blacks face incarceration in America. Moreover, the possibility of a black being sentenced without parole is 23 times higher than a white’s[4].  The prison has the majority of incarcerated as black, taking 70%. One remarkable case is that of the Angola three who were falsely accused of murder in a case riddled with inconsistencies, corruption, and bribery. Additionally, blacks are assigned roles in the farm while whites take up easier roles[5].The blacks are a minority in the US, and the statistics should also be reflected in prison populations. Ironically, this is not the case because there is witch-hunt for black prisoners. A lot has to be done to explain why blacks continue to perish in the prison at rates disproportionate to their numbers in the population[6].

The penal system reflects torture and dehumanization not so different from slavery period. Several malpractices have happened there including solitary confinement and strip searches[7]. Death row inmates are also exposed to extreme heat conditions that expose them to disease. Forced labor on the plantation for the blacks is evident with meagre earnings. Non-violent offenders are locked up with no parole. A report by ACLU notes that 79% of inmates on a life sentence without parole die in jail for non-violent drug offences. Further, these are mostly poor black Americans trying to feed their families. In Louisiana, the percentage of the black population serving sentences without parole is 91.4 %. Most of these serve the sentences for minor, non-violent offences. This is worsened by unequal treatment for whites and blacks with similar crimes. Prisoners are coerced into participating in the rodeo as a show to the public on Sundays in October and once in April[8]. The aim of entertainment cannot be achieved in a tradition of dehumanization and brutality as experienced by inmates at the prison[9]. Such acts reflect ancient slavery.

Emphasis on profits continues to be a major goal in Angola as was with slavery. Though prisoners are taught skills, the emphasis is to make money for the prison. They manufacture plates, mattresses, and brooms among others. The for-profit prison has to ensure maximum capacity full to continue receiving cheap labor for their production and farms. Slavery is witnessed with the black prisoners working in the cotton fields of Angola prison earning around four cents per hour. Use of modern slavery to ensures the prison is self-supported. The government should raise payments per hour to the prisoners or erase the forced labor altogether.

Response to Social and Political Situation

Recidivism is a major challenge. The majority of released prisoners are paid the small amounts to use as they search for work. This is part of the amounts they worked for while in custody. However, the amounts are barely enough to sustain them till they gain alternative employment. As a result, the majority of released prisoners turn to crime. The result is that they end up returning to the prison. This trend has been a challenge to efforts to rehabilitate the prisoners. Several measures have been put in place. Focus on restorative justice is the new initiative for effective rehabilitation. The initiative is expected to counter recidivism and will also be a cost reduction measure. Restorative justice guides the victim in taking responsibility for their crimes and mitigating further harm. Recidivism will reduce, and crime will be prevented. The program is also cost-effective[10]. The victim-offender dialogue is the strategy to achieve restorative justice[11]. The prison has also adopted a faith based strategy to rehabilitation[12]. The turn to religion is expected to reverse the rising trends on incarceration. Recidivism for inmates on the faith-based program is also lower. The initiatives are instrumental in crime reduction.

Given the brutal history of Angola Prison and the inhumane conditions that inmates continue to face at the prison, several lawsuits have been filed by inmates. Federal intervention has not helped end the brutality at the prison. 2013 was the year when three inmates filed a federal lawsuit protesting the unbearable heat condition faced by the death row prisoners. The section housing the death row inmates experienced high temperatures during the summers, hitting up to 126 degrees. Though the judge ruled in their favor, the prison appealed the case against providing air conditioning. The appeal reveals a lack of commitment to improving conditions.

Policy Implications

Given harsh criticism, the state department has taken efforts to reduce incarceration rates. The residential Probation and Parole Revocation Centre is set to divert technical offenders to short term program. The inmates will then be released to community supervision. Apart from creating savings and offering a program safer than incarceration; the initiative will provide rehabilitation for anger management and substance abuse treatment.

The 13th amendment is to blame for the slavery at the prison. The dehumanizing incarceration of blacks conjures images of slavery. Black men are still hoeing, ploughing and picking cotton and other crops. These were the same roles played by slaves. The amendment has a critical loophole, “except as a punishment for crime”[13]. This clause allowed the use of inmates as a source of cheap labor. Till today, the prison carries a legacy of slavery with it. Abolishing the slavery legacy requires legislative reforms. Over-policing and bias of the black community have to stop. Political interest must focus on reforms and amendments to existing laws to reverse the trend on slavery and racism.

 

 

Bibliography

American Civil Rights Union (ACLU). “A Living Death: Life Without Parole for Nonviolent Offenses.” American Civil Rights Union. 2013. https://www.aclu.org/files/assets/111813-lwop-complete-report.pdf (accessed Nov 7, 2015).

Angola Museum. History of Angola Prison. 2015. http://www.angolamuseum.org/history/history/ (accessed Nov 7, 2015).

Anon. “13th Amendment to the US Constitution.” Sept 30, 2015. http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/13thamendment.html. (accessed Nov 8, 2015).

Bergeron, Roy L. “Faith on the Farm: An Analysis of Angola Prison’s Moral Rehabilitation Program Under the Establishment Clause.” Louisiana Law Review 71, no. 4 (2011): 1222-1257.

Cain, Burl. “Louisiana State Penitentiary.” Nov 05, 2015. oc.la.gov/pages/correctional-facilities/louisiana-state-penitentiary/ (accessed Nov 7, 2015).

Carleton, Mark T. Politics and Punishment: The History of the Louisiana State Penal System. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana University Press, 1994.

Cohen, Patricia. “Tower and Cell, Signifying Much More Than a Prison.” The New York Times. July 8, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/09/arts/design/an-angola-tower-and-cell-are-bound-for-national-mall.html?_r=0 (accessed Nov 7, 2015).

DeMott, Benj. That Floating Bridge. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2013.

Gould, Mary Rachel. “Discipline and the Performance of Punishment: Welcome to “The Wildest Show in the South”.” Liminalities: A Journal of Performance Studies 7, no. 4 (2015): 1-29.

Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections. Fiscal Year 2008-2009 Annual Report. Annual Report, Baton Rouge: Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections, 2009.

Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections. Master Plan: Where we are-Where we are Going: A report to the State. Baton Rouge: Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections, 2003.

Martin, Lori Latrice, Kenneth Fasching-Varner, Molly Quinn, and Melinda Jackson. “acism, Rodeos, and the Misery Industries of Louisiana.” The Journal of Pan African Studies 7, no. 6 (2014): 60-83.

Mauer, Marc, and Ryan S. King. Uneven Justice: State Rates of Incarceration By Race and Ethnicity. Research, NW: The Sentencing Project, 2007.

McGaughty, Lauren. “Letter to Feds says Angola says Angola Conditions are Cruel.” The Times, July 14, 2013: A-6.

 

 

 

 

[1] Marc Mauer and Ryan S. King, Uneven Justice: State Rates of Incarceration By Race and Ethnicity (The Sentencing Project, 2007)

[2] Cain Burl, Louisiana State Penitentiary, 2015

[3] Carleton, Mark T. Politics and Punishment: The History of the Louisiana State Penal System (Louisiana University Press, Baton Rouge, LA 1994)

[4] American Civil Rights Union (ACLU) A Living Death: Life Without Parole for Nonviolent Offenses, 2013

[5] Martin et al, Racism Rodeos, and the Misery Industries of Louisiana, 2014

[6] Patricia Cohen, Tower and Cell, Signifying Much More Than a Prison The New York Times, 2013

[7] , Lauren McGaughty, Letter to Feds says Angola says Angola Conditions are Cruel, 2013

[8] Mary Rachel Gould, Discipline and the Performance of Punishment: Welcome to “The Wildest Show in the South” 2015

[9] Mary Rachel Gould,  Discipline and the Performance of Punishment: Welcome to “The Wildest Show in the South” 2011

[10]  Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections Master Plan: Where we are-Where we are going: A report to the State, 2003.

[11] Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections Master Plan: Where we are-Where we are going: A report to the State, 2003.

[12] Roy L. Bergeron, Faith on the Farm: An Analysis of Angola Prison’s Moral Rehabilitation Program Under the Establishment Clause 2011

[13] Anon, 13th Amendment to the US constitution, 2015

LOUISIANA STATE PENITENTIARY “ANGOLA PRISON”

LOUISIANA STATE PENITENTIARY “ANGOLA PRISON”

Why do People Drop out of College?

Most people drop out of college for various reasons that affect them. Some of the reasons are peer related, and others are unavoidable. The rate at which people or rather students drop out from school is increasing rapidly. Moreover, school is not taken seriously, as it was before and, therefore, there are many dropouts. Most students of nowadays do not or rather do not have their interests based on education. In addition, most students have no value in their studies anymore.

One of the main reasons for school dropouts is peer influence that is associated with the indulgent in drug dealing activities and other issues affecting peers (Russell 30). Once a peer indulges in drugs, he or she is unlikely to proceed with his or her education. Drugs affect the normal functioning of the mind as well as the behaviour of a student. Therefore, it is impossible for a student to perform well in school when he or she is indulging in drugs.

Another reason for school drop outs is the lack of interests in their respective studies. Besides, once a student lacks interest in his or her education, they lack motivating factors or rather motivating abilities in their studies. Motivation is a key factor to success in the students and students tend to withdraw once they find difficulty in a particular field of study.

Financial circumstances could also be other reasons for causing dropouts in school. A particular parent could not afford to pay fees for his or her students. Therefore, a student is forced to stay away from school, and he or she gets withdrawn from their respective schools. In most cases, these dropouts frequently occur at the university level.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Rumberger, Russell W. Dropping Out: Why Students Drop Out of High School and What Can Be Done About It. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2011. Print.

Dystopian Fiction Analysis

The story “2 B R O 2 B” by Kurt Vonnegut is a dystopian fiction story that revolves around a future world where the population is controlled and death is not as common and certain. The American population is fixed at 40 million citizens and giving birth is no longer as simple and outright. The population is not as large as it used to be in the past and people no longer have to scramble for resources. Death in the story is voluntary whereby one dials the number “2 B R O 2 B” if he wishes to die and books an appointment with the department facilitating the process. The controlled population means that people no longer reproduce at will since this can only increase the population almost close to the levels it used to be before the program was implemented. People wishing to have children need to first find a volunteer to die so that the child can take the place of the dead volunteer. Failure to find a volunteer leaves the government with no choice but to kill the baby since it will upset the fixed population and create chaos in the society. Although the short story “2 B R O 2 B” is not a broad or realistic representation of the American culture, it represents some of the common values, ideals and fears present in the modern society.

The ideals of the story are similar to some of the ideals popular among the young generation such as in the movies hunger games, divergent and insurgent. The popularity of the movies among the young adults is quite high and this shows that the idea that Vonnegut had of society in the story is one that other people usually imagine or would love to experience. The fascination of the young adults with such movies is captured through the high anticipation of these movies and the subsequent reception of the movies once they are released. In the movie divergent, for example, anyone entering adulthood has to choose a side that he or she feels best suits him from a choice of about five factions. Tris makes the choice of dauntless but it is soon discovered that she is a divergent and can consequently not fit into any of the factions. Tris thus has to come up with ways of protecting herself from the seniors within the faction who want to kill her once they discover she is a divergent. The movies divergent and hunger games explore similar themes to the story and the popularity of these movies is proof of the similarities between the ideals in the story and the ideals of the young adult generation in modern society.

The protagonist in the story is in a dilemma created by the dystopian society and this dilemma is characteristic of the ideals and values of modern American society. Wehling’s wife is pregnant and this means that Wehling has to find a volunteer to die in order for the child to accommodate the space left behind by the volunteer. Wehling’s task is made all the more difficult by the fact that his wife is expecting triplets and this means that he has to find three volunteers if all the children are to live. Presently, Wehling has only found one volunteer who is his maternal grandfather. Wehling does not want to lose his grandfather but he still wants all of his children to live. It leaves him at crossroads on how to best handle the situation and it is clearly disturbing him as can be seen through his reaction as he sits in the hospital waiting room. The thought of having his maternal grandfather die for the child to live is not pone he is prepared to live with as is the thought of two of his children being killed because there is no space for the two toddlers. The dilemma that Wehling finds himself in is consistent with the ideals and values of the modern American society. The modern American society values life and not one normal person wants to see another die. The American society values life and fears death and this is the same reaction that Wehling exhibits in the story. The protagonist thus shows that the ideals and fears in the dystopian society that he lives in are not as different to those of the modern American society at least for some of the people in the dystopian society. It shows that even in a dystopian society, there are people who are prepared to fight for the humanity of the world and this is encouraging for all those with the interests of the human race at heart.

Vonnegut’s story is this quite relatable with the modern generation in spite of the dystopian nature of the story and this reveals that the content is not as farfetched as it might initially appear. Vonnegut accurately captures some of the ideals, values and fears in the modern American society in the story despite its dystopian nature.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Burger, Neil. Divergent. United States of America: Lionsgate, 2014. Film.

Lawrence, Francis. & Gary Ross. The Hunger Games. United States of America: Lionsgate, 2012. Film.

Vonnegut, Kurt. “2 B R 0 2 B.” World of Science Fiction, 1962. Web. 14 Nov. 2015.

 

 

Name: Student number: “How Shopping malls construct a good environment to solve its noise pollution problem?”

 

 

Name:

Student number:

“How Shopping malls construct a good environment to solve its noise pollution problem?”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Executive Summary

Noise pollution in shopping malls is an issue that need to be resolved by constructing a good environment. Noise pollution can be said to be a hazard on the perspective of both the employees and the customers at the shopping malls. Customers will want to shop in a good environment where there is no noise pollution and where they can be able to discuss purchase decisions with their family members and friends without disturbance. Business people would also want to discuss issues in the restaurants without disturbance of high music being played in other stores within the mall. Noise pollution also makes the work environment for the employees who report high stress levels after working in a mall where there is noise pollution.

The employees find it challenging to concentrate with their work, listen to customer needs and communicate effectively while working in a mall where there is high level of pollution. From these two perspectives, it is important to construct a good environment within the shopping malls that will ensure that the employees and the customers can enjoy. One of the suggestions for achieving this is establishing a central control system for the music in the shopping mall as well as having policies that regulate the volume of the music that is played by each of the stores. This kind of regulation will ensure that some of the stores do not play loud music at the cost of the other stores within the same shopping mall.

 

 

 

Introduction

Noise pollution in shopping malls is a common occurrence where there is need to construct an environment that is favorable for the shoppers as well as the employees working in the malls. One of the ways in which shops influence shoppers to make purchases is by playing loud music which triggers them to spend on purchasing items they desire. If different shops in a mall play different loud music, this results to noise pollution and high stress levels among the employees and shoppers. There have been numerous complaints from shoppers as well as employees about malls that are noisy which interferes with their operations. The shopping malls attract a large number of people who are after making purchases and who are hopeful of having a good shopping experience at the malls. The employees also work in the shopping malls on a full time basis and therefore would want an environment that is not stressing and where their health is not at risk. This shows the importance of constructing good environment in the shopping malls where there is no noise pollution.

The main reason for this topic is to highlight the challenge of noise pollution in the shopping malls and justify the need to construct environment that is free from such pollution. The research will explore the issue of noise pollution from the aspect of the customers as well as that of the employees in the shopping malls. This impacts of this kind of pollution will be highlighted in addition to recommendations on how shopping malls can construct an environment that is free from noise pollution.

Analysis

Noise pollution in the shopping malls has a negative impact on the customers who visit the malls for shopping. Most of the customers do not like to be exposed to noise when going on with their business. This is especially the case with the elderly customers who find loud music irritating and would rather go shopping in malls that are silent or with regulated sound systems (Consumers Association of Penang, 2013). One of the main reasons why loud music is played in stores in the shopping malls is to attract customers to make purchases. However the volume and quality of the music played determine whether the customers will actually go to the store or not. There are customers who specifically avoid the stores that are playing loud music. In addition, if there are many stores in the same mall playing different loud music, this causes noise pollution and some of the customers will actually avoid the mall (Shastri & Trivedi, 1998).

There are also customers who go shopping with their families and would want to go about their shopping in a relaxed mood. Noisy pollution however makes it impossible for them to shop at peace and the noisy malls become extremely unsuitable for the young children. This also applies to business people who would want to sit in restaurants in the malls to discuss business (Agarwal, 2005). With the noise pollution, the business people find the malls unfavorable and will opt for other places where there is no disturbance. The restaurants within a mall therefore are likely to lose customers as a result of disturbance from the other shops within the mall that play loud music. The noisy malls make it unfavorable for offering certain services such as library or healthcare services where the customers want an environment which is silent and with no form of disturbance (Wang, Hung, & Pereira, 2005).

There are some shops in the shopping malls that play scary sound effects that negatively affect the customers especially those with children. A good example is the cinema halls and game stores that are likely to play loud and scary sounds which scares the customers doing shopping in other parts of the mall. In addition, there are some customers who may find the music being played in the shopping malls not favorable for them and this causes a negative feeling. The shopping malls have a responsibility to ensure that they provide a good environment for all the customers and one of the ways of doing this is by regulation noise (Murphy & King, 2014).

Some of the customers judge the value of the malls based on the environment built. The noisy malls are viewed as targeting the younger generation and hence not favorable for the older people. According to Shastri & Trivedi (1998) most of the customers prefer the malls that are not noisy but those that play soft and regulated music which they can enjoy in the course of their shopping. Customers in silent malls are able to discuss the purchase decisions with their family members and friends which is extremely challenging while shopping in noisy malls (Agarwal, 2005).

From the customer perspective therefore, it is important to construct a good environment free from noise pollution where the customers can enjoy doing their shopping. This does not however happen with some of the malls that have been reported to be excessively noisy and where the customers are constantly complaining of stress while shopping in the malls. Despite there being other factors that influence the choice of the malls that customers visit, noise pollution will definitely keep them off. The management of the malls should therefore take into consideration the customer aspects and influence of noise pollution to construct an environment that is free from pollution (Murphy & King, 2014).

The second aspect of noise pollution in the shopping malls is on the employees. The staff who are employed to work in the shops spend a long time there and for this reason they have the greatest impact of working in a noisy environment. Noise in the shopping malls cause distraction on the employees where they are not able to fully concentrate on the work that they are doing (Consumers Association of Penang, 2013). This increases the error rates in their operations which is costly and which could also result to accidents at the mall. For this reason it is important to ensure there is good environment for the employees to concentrate on their work such as ensuring there is no noise pollution (Wang, Hung, & Pereira, 2005).

High noise levels in the shopping malls make the work of the employees challenging. It makes it difficult to communicate with the customers and understand their needs and this could be a reason for poor service which the employees do not have control over. This is especially the case with the employees who are offering services to the customers in the malls and have to listen to the customers in order to understand their preferences (Consumers Association of Penang, 2013). In addition, employees are forced to shout to their colleagues or customers when working in a noisy environment and this tires them hence lowering their productivity.  Noise therefore lowers the efficiency of communication and the level of interaction between employees and other parties in the shopping malls which should not be the case (Milne, 2009).

Another major impact of the high noise levels for the employees is cases of high stress levels. Employees who work in a noisy environment are more likely to complain about high stress levels as compared to those that work in malls that are silent or which have controlled sound systems. Some of the employees do not like listening to loud music and working under such an environment increases their levels of job dissatisfaction (Wang, Hung, & Pereira, 2005). To increase the productivity and motivation of the employees in the shopping malls it is important to ensure that they are working in a good environment where they do not have to bear with high noise levels. There are cases where some of the shops in the malls repeat the same music or audio recordings for a long period of time and this is annoying for the employees.  In most cases however the employees do not have control over the noise pollution as it arises from other shops (Shastri & Trivedi, 1998).

Loud music or noise pollution has negative impacts such as impairing the earing system of the people who are exposed to such environment. Employees who listen to loud music for a long period of time as such could end up having hearing problems. In his book Bugliarello (2008) explains that one of the major causes of hearing problems is listening to loud music over long hours. This means that the noise pollution in the malls pose a risk on the employees and measures should be taken to ensure that the environment is favorable for them. Employees in shopping malls have reported noise pollution as one of the challenges that they have to bear with on a daily basis especially when working near the noisy shops (Murphy & King, 2014).

From the above analysis, the employee aspect is another important consideration that should influence the management to construct a good environment in the malls free from noise pollution. The shop owners expect that the employees will be productive enough and offer the best services to attract customers to the shops and the mall. This cannot however be achieved if the right environment is not established for them to work. The malls that have noise pollution are likely to report poor performance from the employees as compared to those that have a good environment. The employee aspect therefore makes it necessary to find ways to overcome the noise pollution in the malls so that the employees can be productive (Wang, Hung, & Pereira, 2005).

It is important to take into consideration how the shopping malls are constructed and how they ensure that there is no noise pollution. This is because the kind of environment that is created determines the number of customers that are attracted to the mall. The malls also have a responsibility to ensure that they take care of the health of the customers and employees that work there. They should therefore ensure that the employees are not being exposed to noise pollution which could have a negative impact on their hearing ability (Milne, 2009).

The manner in which the malls construct a favorable environment is determined by different factors including the goals of the management, the expertise of the people involved as well as the conduct of the shops that occupy the malls (Wang, Hung, & Pereira, 2005).  The high levels of noise pollution that is reported in the shopping malls arise as a result of the shops failing to take social responsibility in creating a good environment. Most of them as such play the loud music with the aim of attracting customers and making sales with no consideration on the impact they have on the other shops, the customers and the other employees in the same mall. The shops will therefore have to be more responsible in regards to the environment that create to ensure that they do not create an unfavorable environment with excessive noise (Murphy & King, 2014).

How the Shopping mall built environments influence people

The kind of environment that the shopping malls create have a major influence on the kind of people they attract and how the customers rank them. Shopping malls that are noisy for instance are ranked lowly by the customers as they are associated with a high degree of disturbance and stress. The customers find it stressing to do their shopping in an environment where there is too much noise and where it is difficult to coordinate activities. According to Hildebrand (2005) most of the shoppers are usually mature people who have been through challenging tasks during the day other stressing activities where they would want a silent and relaxed environment to do their shopping at peace. If the shopping malls are noisy then they find the environment not being favorable for them and are likely to go for other shopping opportunities where there is less discomfort (Wang, Hung, & Pereira, 2005).

 

 

Recommendations to prevent noise pollution in the Shopping mall

The fact that noise pollution has negative impact on shopping malls means that there is need to come up with initiatives that will make it possible to construct a noise free environment.  From the two perspectives of the customers and employees, noise pollution is not favorable as it causes stress and discomfort despite many of the shops playing high volume music in order to influence the customers to make purchases. This cannot be justified given the fact that when each of the shops play a different kind of high volume music, then this constitutes noise and is not favorable for anyone in the shopping malls (Milne, 2009).

There are various ways in which the shopping malls can built environment to prevent cases of noise pollution. One of these is by having a centralized music system which will ensure that each store does not have to play its own music. This will ensure that the music that is played in the mall is controlled from a central location which ensures that there is no noise pollution. There should also be regulation on the kind of music that is being played in the malls to ensure that it is appropriate for all the people in the malls and that some do not feel offended. In this way the shopping malls will offer a better experience for both the customers and the employees who spend their time in the mall (Wang, Hung, & Pereira, 2005).

To regulate noise pollution in the malls, it should be constructed in a manner that the noisy shops are placed in separate locations from others areas where high volume should be avoided. The cinemas and games stores for instance should be located separately from the banks, clinics, books stores and other shops which are sensitive to noise. The cinemas and games store should not be allowed to play loud scary sound effects which scare away customers and cause discomfort on the employees working in the malls. Where possible, these kind of businesses that are noisy should not be allowed in the shopping malls in order to create a silent environment that is favorable for everyone (Milne, 2009).

Another recommendation will be for the shopping malls to have a policy guideline for all the shops which will limit them from playing loud music. All the parties in the shopping mall should be able to come to an agreement on the policy which will be favorable for all of them so that some do not play loud music at the expense of other stores. This will ensure that there is discipline in the stores and that they cooperate in establishing a good environment for the customers as well as the employees. For this to be achieved however there has to be common understanding between the stores as well as with the employees who are responsible for regulating the music in each store. There will be need for the different stakeholders to understand the need for the steps that are being taken and how they will help to improve the environment at the shopping mall (Lara, 2006).

It would also be recommendable for the malls to be constructed and instilled with sound proof material that help to absorb and lower the noise levels in the mall. There are sound experts who are able to advice on the best material for construction which will help to regulate the noise levels arising from the particular mall. Such experts should be consulted at the construction stage of the mall to ensure that all the appropriate construction material is used. The design of the malls also determines the noise levels where the open malls are likely to be less noisy as compared to the malls that are enclosed (Lara, 2006).

Other recommendations for constructing a good environment in the shopping malls and ensuring there is no noise pollution would be for have enclosure areas which are sound proof where the noisy shops can be located. This will ensure that they do not cause disruption in other parts of the mall and that they can be allowed to play the loud music that they would want to (Inseth, 2011). The shops that intend to play loud music can also come up with treatment measures that will ensure that the sound that they play does not go outside shops. This could be done by working with sound experts to ensure that the noise is adequately regulated. Indoor insulations on the buildings is also a measure which would lower the levels of noise pollution in the malls as it help in making the building noise tolerant (Wang, Hung, & Pereira, 2005).

Conclusion

In conclusion, noise pollution has become a major issue in most of the shopping malls today. Noise pollution in the malls mainly occurs when each of the shops play different loud music and other sound effects that cause distraction. This can be evaluated from the aspects of customers as well as that of the employees who work in the malls on a fulltime basis. The customers find it stressing to do their shopping in a noisy environment and would prefer a more silent shopping environment. Noisy shopping malls make it difficult for the shoppers to consult with family members and friends in making purchase decisions. Customers are also not able to hold business meetings or discussions in the malls as a result of the noise pollution making the environment unfavorable for them. In addition there are shops that play loud scary sound effects that scare away the customers such as cinemas and game stores.

The employees in the malls also find it extremely challenging to work in a noisy environment. Noise pollution causes stress and distraction on the employees as well as making it challenging for them to communicate with the clients on their needs. For this reason, it is important for the shopping malls to be able to construct a favorable environment which is free from noise pollution for the customers to do their shopping and employees to work. This can be done by ensuring that the malls are constructed in the right manner, having a central music and sound control center as well as ensuring that the noisy shops are placed in separate locations. The malls should also have policies to regulate noise pollution in the shopping malls that are to be observed by all the shops.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Agarwal, S. K. (2005). Noise pollution. New Delhi, India: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation

Bugliarello, G. (2008). The impact of noise pollution: A socio-technological introduction

Consumers Association of Penang. (2013). Noise pollution: An awareness problem in Penang. Penang, Malaysia: Consumers’ Association of Penang.

Hildebrand, J. L. (2005). Noise pollution and the law. Buffalo, N.Y: Hein

Inseth, Z. (2011). Noise pollution. Chanhassen, MN: Child’s World

Lara, S. A. (2006). Noise pollution: Effects and control. Chichester u.a: Wiley

Milne, A. (2009). Noise pollution: Impact and countermeasures. Newton Abbot [etc.: David and Charles

Murphy, E., & King, E. A. (2014). Environmental noise pollution: Noise mapping, public health, and policy. Amsterdam: Elsevier

Shastri, S., & Trivedi, M. B. (1998). Noise pollution, its scientific and legal perspective. Jodhpur: Divyajyoti Prakashan

Wang, L. K., Hung, Y.-T., & Pereira, N. C. (2005). Advanced Air and Noise Pollution Control. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press

Effects of Gender and Communication on Leadership Emergence in Small Task-Oriented

 

 

 

 

 

 

Effects of Gender and Communication on Leadership Emergence in Small Task-Oriented Groups

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Effects of Gender and Communication on Leadership Emergence in Small Task-Oriented Groups

The concept of leadership has always received much attention and spawned research in a bid to cultivate effectiveness. A host of factors that determine the success of leadership has been perceived differently across varying contexts and through time. Generally, scholars establish the connection between leadership and surrounding factors due to the leadership environment and come up with virtues that can aid leadership success. Gender and communication have been held as factors determining the emergence of leaders. This study seeks to elucidate the nature of the relationship between gender, communication, and emergent leadership in small task-oriented groups.

Hawkins (1995) conducted a tailored research to address the connection of gender and communication to the emergence of leadership. She carried out a review on past literature seeking to gather relevant information with which to build her research. Among the reviews included the works of authors like Owen (1986), and Marby (1989). However, Hawkins identified flaws in these studies significant enough to distort reality. The summaries of the works pointed to a notion that men were likely to emerge as leaders as compared to women in small task groups. In addition, the literature suggested that little discrepancies in task-relevant communication existed between male and female leaders.

Hawkins explains that these studies did not meet criteria and, thus, lacked validity for two reasons. First, adequate communication, investigation requires one to focus on actual communication rather than that which is rated by self (the emergent leader) or others (such as the followers). Therefore, instead of evaluating the ratings by followers, these researchers would do well to evaluate the communication content itself. Secondly, investigating communication behavior in a small group requires an approximated real-world experience. Hawkins explains that an ideal small group meets four conditions. That is, it must have a history; strains and incentives to retain members; empirical lasting task; and solidarity between members.

Hawkins set a study underway that met the criteria discussed above. As such, it can be claimed that her study was realistic and focused. In the study, Hawkins (1995) found out that task-relevant communication is the single most significant determinant of emergent leadership. The implications of this finding on the traditional notion of task/social maintenance as a requirement for an effectively functioning group are profound. Traditionally, it would be due for individuals who are socially active and yet communicate their tasks effectively to emerge as leaders. The data in this research and analytical results confound this intuition absolutely. While the importance of task relevance gains approval from the findings of this study, some aspects of the same study indicate that social maintenance was also reported within the groups. Hawkins explains that self-disclosures and personal inquiry dominated task-irrelevant communication. Moreover, she points out that this was occasionally prompted by the topic discussion. The relevance of this finding is cannot be overlooked. While emergent leaders rise from their focus on tasks, social interaction can add to the welfare and progress of the entire group.

The findings on the effect of gender in this research were of secondary concern. Having established that task-relevant communication was a determining factor for emergent leadership, Hawkins further identifies that there is no significant difference in the content of communication by both genders. Females were as much capable of engendering task-relevant communication as males. The implication of this finding is that females and males have equal capabilities or probabilities of emerging as leaders as long as their communication behavior is task-relevant.

In conclusion, the findings of this research confound the traditional notions of male superiority over females with respect to leadership. The most important implication of this research with regard to the traditional notion is that task-irrelevant communication behaviors by males would risk their chance to emerge as leaders much as it would to females.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Hawkins, K. W. (1995). Effects of gender and communication content on leadership emergence in small task-oriented groups. Small Group Research, 26(2), 234-249.