Visual Rhetoric

Introduction

Visual rhetoric

Visual rhetoric is the recent topical development of an academic framework unfolding how visual pictures communicate, as opposed to auditory, verbal, or other messages. Visual rhetoric falls under a cluster of terms known as rhetoric literature. This group is split under three categories; visual learning, visual thinking and visual communication/rhetoric. To communicate visually, visual learning and thinking must first occur. The following figure illustrates these ideas.

Visual literacy

Visual thinking                     visual learning                         visual rhetoric/communication

Metaphoric   visualization     design of           read pictures           art                   media

Thinking     materials

Source of imagery      research on learning                            aesthetics

 

Right brain/left brain

Mental nodes

Source: Purdue owl

Link: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/691/01/

Looking at different pictures or images, one is able to know what the image is trying to communicate. This is facilitated by factors such as where the picture has been taken from, the style of the picture or the mood of the picture.

Why we study visual rhetoric

Ben Barton and Marthalee Barton in their book “Toward a Rhetoric of Visual for the Computer Era” state that, “as technical communication teachers we adopt a more rhetorical orientation to presenting visuals, that we develop better case studies for visuals, and that we apply principles from Gestalt psychology to improve the visual literacy of students” (Moore and Fitz, 1993). Thus, looking at Barton’s argument, it is clear we study visual rhetoric to develop further understanding of texts, and know how to integrate visuals into text. All in all, knowledge on visual rhetoric helps humans understand at first glance what an image is relaying. For example, looking at the following image helps humans understand the mood is of academic balance.
Source: Stanford University (2015)                   link; http://www.stanford.edu/

When prospective college students visits websites trying to decide on university of choice, and comes across this image, many students are likely to be captured by the structure. This is because the structure acts as a persuasive visual piece designed to show what Stanford means. Additionally, the goal of the image is to convince you that Stanford is the place you belong.

Visual rhetoric in action

Visual communication can only be effective after visual thinking and learning have occurred. Visual thinking and learning strategies are used by teachers to facilitate discussions of art images to achieve positive outcomes for teachers and students. Researchers have come up with the following argument to show how VTS is important in visual rhetoric. “Visual thinking strategy (VTS) delivers a way to push-start a procedure of learning to think deeply appropriate in most subjects from poetry to math, science and social studies. Art is a crucial discussion topic because it enables students to use existing visual and cognitive skills to develop confidence and experience, learning to use what they already know to figure out what they don’t; and explore other complex subject matters alone and with peers”.

VTS is known widely for increasing students’ growth in education from the native speakers and challenged students to great achievers in education. Because of this reason, teachers enjoy VTS and believe is one among many strategies that can be used to reach all type of students.

On the other hand, visual learning is used mostly by visual learners as it helps students learn from images or graphs rather than memorizing. Integrating visual thinking and learning, students are able to see the big picture of complex and simple systems. In other words, visual learning is much better in some situations than verbal learning (Johnson-Sheehan & Baehr, 2001). For example, in geometry, physics and in computer science because graphics application and visual components are widely applied. After a student is able to use visual learning and thinking strategies, communicating visually becomes easier. Look at the following images; from visual thinking- visual learning to visual rhetoric.

Image 1 (visual thinking)

In this image one is able to think what is going on by using objects to clarify if what he/she is thinking is correct.

Image 2 (visual learning)

In this image, the person is in the process of learning, and after seen a table, she is able to pronounce it correctly.

Image 3 (visual rhetoric/communication)

This image conveys the message itself, looking at it the student or anyone is able to know what the image goal is. Like in this image, the message is clear, in that meat is harmful to your health.

Use of typography

To achieve the rhetorical effect desired in documents, students should consider a variety of textual elements such as font. Mackiewicz (2004) quotes Bartram statement who states that type face or font is “that aspect of typeface that imbues it with the power to evoke in the perceiver certain emotional and cognitive responses”. Thus, fonts convey different moods and feelings, and can evoke anger, agitation, silliness, scariness, strength or friendliness. In this situation, students should always ensure that they select font that conveys rhetorical effect they want to achieve. Some fonts are used unwisely and therefore tend to stimulate emotions which are out of place. Even though students writing is not termed as professional, students must make an effort to ensure their writing is convenient and relevant. This is because increased attention has been applied to typeface since is one element of visual rhetoric. For example, Mackiewicz (2004) quotes a statement from “A Concise Guide to Technical Communications” which states, “The style of type you choose makes a big difference in how audiences read and react to your document. Typefaces have personalities. Some convey seriousness; others convey humor; still others convey a technical quality”

It is therefore important for students to create ethos and establish first impression in their work. This act earns trust and interest of the person reading the work. According to Brumberger (2004), in documents, typography plays the role of verbal and visual element, hence, for any writer to achieve the purpose of their document, the writer should draw their arguments based on visual rhetoric. The more a writer and a reader interacts with the texts, the more their thoughts are shaped, and their thinking is guided by how communication is structured. Brumberger (2004) quotes McLuhan and Fiore (1967) statement which contemplates with this idea. It states, “Hearing was the primary means of sensory and social orientation before the development of the phonetic alphabet; the phonetic alphabet shifted the focus to the eye, and printing extended that shift”.

Theories of visual thinking and visual rhetoric

Visual thinking and visual rhetoric have no exact period in which they can be traced from. Many scholars argue that visual thinking and rhetoric has been practiced as long as there have been images. Since then, theories have emerged which argue and try to explain the phenomena that surrounds visual rhetoric. The same arguments have revolved around typeface with different scholars such as Gill (1983) arguing the importance of matching typeface with documents. Differences in rhetorical visual started emerging when technology increased. The use of computers facilitated most of designers work. Since then, designers have started to assume that a reader relates with the article both verbally and visually to make meaning. In many cases, the text is usually perceived to shape the reader, but in other ways, scholars such as Ede and Lunsford (1984) argue that readers can also bring their expectations and experience to the script (Brumberger, 2004).

Other scholars, such as Rudolph Arnheim (1969) argue that seeing and thinking cannot be separated, and that the line separating the two was drawn incorrectly in works of Plato and ancient Greece. During the time, restraints such as mathematics were highly honored while sensory undertakings such as seeing and art were not valued at all. Today, this trend continues to be experienced and witnessed in education curricula where fields like mathematics are highly treasured. The entire theory of visual rhetoric is supported by Arnheim arguments since it supports the argument that seeing and thinking are interconnected process. In his theory, Arnheim believes verbal and visual thinking, and seeing and thinking are one particular thing which fall under the same hierarchy. Despite visual rhetoric attracting the society as days go on, Brumberger (2004) argues that there is a model that perceives verbal and visual language to contribute to communication even though not equally.

Konstelnick (1989) arguments on the other hand, are almost the same as those of Arnheim but differ in that Konstelnick believes in ‘cognitive interdependence between visual and verbal thinking”. In his theory, Konstelnick believes verbal and visual language work together interactively for effective communication. Brumberger (2004) states that through his arguments, Konstelnick proposed the “12-cell matrix of visual communication” model. In the model, Konstelnick recognizes four stages of visual rhetoric in which according to him he believes the levels communicate with readers at some way. Through his arguments, Konstelnick enables the readers to integrate his work with rhetorical role of topography.

Common tools for discussing the visual rhetoric of an artifact or object

The study of visual rhetoric is not the same as that of visual or graphic design because it puts emphasis on imageries as sensory languages of social importance, as contrasting to morally visual contemplation. Visual rhetoric has been loomed from a range of theoretical fields of learning such as graphic arts antiquity, grammar, semiotics, ethnic studies, commerce and practical communiqué, dialogue communication, and traditional communication. However, the outcome can be challenging to distinguish the precise relations amid diverse portions of the field of visual rhetoric. Visual rhetoricians have analyzed several artifacts such as diagrams, portraits, statue, computer games, charts, netsides, announcements, cinemas, structural design, broadsheets, or snapshots. Despite visual rhetoric been connected with parts such as promotion and marketing, today, it is connected to science. For example, Nathan Stormer, a scientists, uses visual rhetoric in images surrounding reproduction and uses ‘the miracle of life’ as his artifact. Therefore, visual rhetoric of an artifact or object has been discussed by different scholars using different tools.

How images make meanings

Photographs, illustrations and diagrams are widely used by professional writers and designers to communicate. According to Harrison (2003), visuals in text have rapidly increased in both public and private documents especially brochures and reports. Online documents are using widely visual illustrations to communicate, and thus, visuals have dominated the internet. For example, when an organization needs to advertise its products, online platforms serves as the best method to so. This is because designers can design their products to be as captivating as possible and attractive. In other cases, during board meetings in organizations, especially those organizations that deal with art and design, designers have variety of photos which they display around for members to select. According to Harrison (2003), she would struggle to make the right choice and she states, “What I needed was an informed vocabulary that would enable me to articulate my reactions when visuals were being selected, tested and evaluated during designs and layout”.

Advertisers on the other hand use visuals in portraits and billboards to convey their messages. This has seen many advertisers conveying messages without any need to use verbal language. In many cases, organizations find this process easier than advertising through media and newsletters. According to Faigley (n.d), texts have body language, and looking at the text one is able to know exactly the message conveyed. Faigley argues that Sarah, a commoner who had decided to move to Lakewood, was highly interested in deer. However, after sometime when she nearly run over one deer and found ticks on her leg, she started viewing the deer from a different perspective. So, according to Faigley, Sarah wrote a small article about deer in the newsletter. Despite her efforts, Sarah realized very few were interested in the article. Her friend pointed that the article was too detailed for people to consider reading it through. So she tried something new, she decided to make a brochure which needed many decisions and designs. But since computers are available, design was not as hard as it would be if she would have designed the brochure with hand.

Nevertheless, Sarah’s brochure sold out, and many people were interested to see the information that was been communicated. According to Lunsford and Ruszkiewicz (n.d), this is known as the power of visual rhetoric because it leaves a mark in the memories of the viewers and readers. For example, the images of 9/11 were portrayed everywhere including movies, computer screens, t-shirts and even billboards. In argument, one could say the images were trying to take peoples attentions, which in fact was successful. The memory was left intact and continues to be there even today when someone mentions the events. For example, look at the following billboard;

The billboard shows that gambling takes place in the resort, and everything is found under one roof. Looking at the billboard, even after a glance the audience is able to know the kind of information is been conveyed. Despite billboards been expensive as means of advertisements, many business people find them more reliable and convenient to communicate. This is because the message is said out clearly, and no power or cost is endured by the target audience to get the information unlike verbal communication, which target audience have to endure other expenses such as power costs.

How to make concepts more accessible to new audience

Information and theories in this chapter have been made more accessible to new audience by giving credit and using images to portray and convey the information. Students have to ensure their work is referenced and that the concept of their work is clear, informative, and professional and that the tone used is attractive to the reader. This enables new audience to have interest to continue exploring the work further to know more about the content. For example, in the beginning of this chapter, a brief overview of the whole content to be outlined in the chapter was provided. This enables a new audience to have idea of what is been talked about giving them a chance to know which areas to read deeply. Use of contents, figures and executive summary before the start of a chapter helps new audience to know what they are really looking for. In other cases, for example, information in this chapter can be accessible through the internet, where everyone nowadays has access to.

Conclusion

Knowing different theories and concepts can help students analyze visual dimensions of their documents and designs. Arguments such as those of Arnheim and Konstelnick should be put into considerations by writers and students because the theories stresses of the relationship between visual and verbal language. Therefore, to integrate the two theories successfully in visual rhetoric, learners should know how to visual think and learn. If new in the area of writing using visual rhetoric especially students, it is always advisable to use the simple visuals, use interpersonal metafunction, and one or two elements of the metafunction. Throughout the work ensure you develop confidence and that what you write is stress free, thus, you will be able to engage fully the readers. Hence, professional communicators are likely to find the value of your work.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Brumberger, E (2004). The Rhetoric of Typography: Effects on Reading Time, Reading Comprehensions, and Perception of Ethos. Technical Communication 51(1), 13-24.

Faigley (n.d). Designing Texts. 434-447

Harrison, C (2003). Visual Social Semiotics: Understanding how Still Images make Meaning. Technical Communication (50)1, 46-60.

Johnson-Sheehan, R & Baehr, C (2001). Visual-Spatial Thinking in Hypertexts. Technical Communication 48(1), 22- 30.

Lunsford &Ruszkiewicz (n.d). Visual Arguments. Technical Communication 410-441.

Mackiewicz, J (2004). What Technical Writing Students Should Know About Typeface Personality.J. Technical Writing and Communication, 34(1 & 2), 113-13.

Moore, P & Fitz, C (1993). Using Gestalt Theory to Teach Document Design and Graphics. Technical Communication Quarterly 2(4), 389- 407.

 

 

 

 

Strategic Planning

Strategic planning is defined as organizational administration activity that is used to focus energy and resources, make sure that the staff and other stakeholder are working toward a common goal, strengthen operations within the organization, assess and adjust the organization’s direction of response to changing surroundings, establish agreement around intended results, and set priorities (Hans, Hulshof, Houdenhoven, & Erwin ,2012, p. 316). Strategic planning is a closely controlled effort that aims at producing fundamental actions and decisions that guide and shape what an organization truly is, its customers, its operations, and why it operates continuously focusing on the future of the organization (Hans et al., 2012, p. 320). A strategic plan is a manuscript that is useful in communicating with the organization about the goals of the organization, actions that are needed to realize those goals and all the other important elements that were formulated in the planning exercise. Strategic implementation process turns strategies and plans that were developed into actions so that the goals and objectives of the strategic plan can be realized. (Senge & Peter, 2014). Strategic plan development and the implementation process are important for any organization that needs to realize its hidden and unexploited potential.

They may vary in sizes and shapes, but all strategic plans have the same components. The strategic plan should have a communication lay-out strategy that is important for the success of the development and execution of any strategic plan. Communication is important and is used in assigning of employees to roles that are needed in the planning process (Swayne, Erwin, Duncan & Ginter, 2012). For a successful undertaking in the establishment of a strategic plan, a Strategic Planning Task Force made up of organization leaders should be formed. The task force should meet regularly and come up with clear and defined deliverables in every meeting. Organization objectives should be specific, realistic, action-oriented, measurable, and time-bound. Objectives are important in realizing the organization’s goals and vision. Tasks should also be assigned to departments or individuals to achieve the goals of the organization in case of a specific actionable event. Tasks should be specific, realistic, action-oriented, measurable, and time-bound too (Grigoroudis, Orfanoudaki & Zopounidis, 2012, p 112). Implementation strategy should also be the most important element of a strategy plan. Aligning of resources and prioritizing initiatives should be included in a tactical strategy as soon as the strategic plan has been put in place. The implementation process is aimed at pulling all the pieces of the strategic plan together to ensure collectively that the plan is feasible and that no pieces are missing. It is important to monitor the challenges and the success of planning initiatives and assumptions of the strategic plan during the implementation process. When monitoring the success of the strategic plan, measurement criteria defined in the objectives and goals must be looked into. Monitoring is important because it may be essential to review the plan and its suppositions if elements of the strategic plan are not balancing. Also, every organization must have a short and concise vision statement that answers the question of what the organization will look like in the future. A mission is also included and should be a definition of what the organization is. A strategic plan should also have a guiding principle and core beliefs that are passionate, distinctive and enduring and consist of accepted rules in the organization (Grigoroudis et al., 2012, p. 106).

Many methodologies exist for strategic management and planning development, and most of them follow a similar pattern.

  • First, assessment or analysis is conducted; an understanding is developed on the current external and internal environments.
  • Secondly, strategy formulation where an effective formulation of strategic management and an essential organization level strategic plan is accepted.
  • Thirdly, strategy execution is employed, and the strategic plan becomes operational.
  • Lastly, sustainment or evaluation management phase is implemented where monitoring of culture, performance, data reporting, communication, and other strategic administration issues are anticipated to occur.

Having a good strategy management framework provides any organization with sustainable competitive advantage (Grigoroudis et al., 2012, p. 108). Strategic management will aid organizations in making wise decisions because the organization has a vision that it wants to achieve and a mission for doing it. Having an objective and a goal to achieve is a clear indication that the organization knows what it wants to do and who it needs to get there and will focus on limited finances, resources, and people (Rennke et al., 2013). A targeted and a contentful approach to opportunities and markets guide the sales and marketing efforts, business decisions, and distributions ultimately mean more profit to the bottom line and a stronger market position.

The job of an organization leader is to make sure that a successful implementation of a strategic plan (Rennke et al., 2013). An organization leader must be committed to implementing the plan that will move the company forward. Strategic plan demands a lot from an organization such as, identifying internal processes that will drive the plan forward, committing resources, money, and enough time needed to sustain the plan and to using readily accessible resources and attaining maximum outcomes with them. Strategy planning, strategy management, and implementation process are important for any organization that needs to grow. It is important to understand that strategy management is a process not an event and should be given time to take effect and a meaningful process can then be noted.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Swayne, Linda E., W. Jack Duncan, and Peter M. Ginter. Strategic management of health care                 organizations. John Wiley & Sons, 2012.

Senge, Peter M. The fifth discipline fieldbook: Strategies and tools for building a learning                        organization. Crown Business, 2014.

Grigoroudis, E., E. Orfanoudaki, and C. Zopounidis. “Strategic performance measurement in a                 healthcare organisation: A multiple criteria approach based on balanced scorecard.”                 Omega 40.1 (2012): 104-119.

Hans, Erwin W., Mark Van Houdenhoven, and Peter JH Hulshof. “A framework for healthcare                planning and control.” Handbook of healthcare system scheduling. Springer US, 2012.         303-320.

Rennke, Stephanie, et al. “Hospital-initiated transitional care interventions as a patient safety        strategy: a systematic review.” Annals of internal medicine 158.5_Part_2 (2013): 433-            440.

 

Suncor Energy Company recruitment and selection process

 

 

 

 

Suncor Energy Company recruitment and selection process

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Suncor Energy Company recruitment and selection process

Company Background

Suncor energy is a Canadian company which has focused in the development of sustainable energy (Suncor.com, 2015). It is a major producer of oil where its target is to have the capacity of production of a million barrels of oil per every day. It has however invested in the renewable energy sector where it has invested in wind power programs which have generated power capacity of 295 megawatts (Suncor.com, 2015). The company is also researching on the use of solar energy and other forms of renewable energy with the aim of reducing carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. Due to its large size, the company has a large workforce which is managed by its robust human resource department. For recruitment and selection purposes, the company aims in identifying employees who are highly creative, positive, collaborative and innovative at all times (Suncor.com, 2015). Due to its work in the energy sector, majority of its employee work in the business and engineering fields as the two fields constitute the areas where the company is greatly involved

  • Recruitment and selection process involved in the company

Recruitment and selection process refers to how organizations fills vacancy position either by employing individuals from within the firm or employing individuals outside the firm (Catano, 2005). The recruitment and selection process is an extensive process which involves the identification of gap in knowledge skills and experience with the aim of getting the right individuals to fill such gaps. Recruitment at Suncor energy is carried out and coordinated by the Suncor recruitment team and the departments that have an open position as shown below

  1. Need assessment- this process involve the establishment on whether there is any skills needed to carryout the company processes (Catano, 2005). The departments of the organizations are tasked in identifying an open position in their department and establishing the number of the employees they require. They are then required to notify the recruitment team on the skills which they may find appropriate to fill the open position. A vacancy can either be a new vacancy or a replacement vacancy.
  2. On the basis of the job profile given by any department to the recruitment team, the team is tasked in establishing on whether an internal or external recruitment is required. Suncor energy human resource policy requires the company to give chance to internal employees to fill a position before seeking to get employees from the external sources (Heneman, 2007). In case of an internal recruitment, the position is advertised to employees using their employees’ portal and emails to ensure they have the information regarding the job opening. There is great focus by the company to inform all employees regarding an open position as employees who are not informed may cite such an action as a career discrimination (Suncor.com, 2015). This is against the company policy which aims for non-discrimination on the basis of gender, color, religious beliefs and disability.
  3. The implementation of external recruitment differs on whether the employees required by the firm are for a junior position or a senior position. Suncor defines a junior position as a vacant position where experience of less than two years is required. Junior position may also include the recruitment of fresh graduates who are recruited in every year with the aim of employing new talents to ensure the company has a sufficient employee tool required for implementation of its objectives. New positions whether for senior or junior are usually advertisement on the company website and on traditional and digital media (Suncor.com, 2015). It is hence common for the company to advertise in the newspapers and also to advertise on digital platforms such as the social media accounts regarding a new position.
  4. When the position advertised for is for junior employees, the company will receive a lot of applications and will shortlist the applicants based on their information on the resume. The company has a policy of carrying out physical interviews when the number of applicants who are shortlisted is low. However, when the number is high, it is the principle of the company to carryout telephone interviews with the aim of reaching a large pool of applicants for a short period. During the interviews, different tests such as aptitude tests are carried out with the aim of having qualified and talented individuals to fill the organization positions (Suncor.com, 2015). The interviews for junior position may be few or many depending on the position which is open and the urgency the new employees are required in the organization.
  5. For senior positions which require experience of two or more years, psychometric tests are usually carried out after the shortlisting of the applicants before they are exposed to the interviewing processes. The aim of such tests is to measure the communication skills and to determine whether the applicants can meet the desirable characteristics of innovativeness, creativity and being team players (Suncor.com, 2015). Physical interviews are then carried out by the recruitment committee members where it may be composed by members of the department with the vacant position. It is normal for employees for senior position to attend three interviews where the in the last interview, they are required to make a presentation regarding their area of specialization before an interviewing panel.
  6. The applicant then receive offer or reject emails to inform them on whether they have been successful in the recruitment process. Once one is accepted from the recruitment process, they are given the employment contractor where terms of work and remuneration are negotiated. The recruitment committee then communicates their decision to the department with the open position which is tasked in issuing an appointment letter (Suncor.com, 2015). The process of feeling a junior position usually takes approximately three months while the time taken to fill a senior position takes a period of five months.

 

The recruitment process used by Suncor Energy can be referred to as an analytical recruitment process as it involve the use tests such as the aptitude and psychometric tests for the different positions which are advertised (Suncor.com, 2015). It is also carried out based on a set down procedure and all employees are assed in accordance with the four aims of finding employees who are inn0vative, collaborative, positive and creative at all times (Werner, 2014). The process is structured and carried out by the recruitment team which consists of professional human resource individuals who have the ability of implementing an objective and straightforward recruitment process.

1.2. Why is the selected method used?

There are different reasons which explain why Suncor Energy Company chooses an analytical selection process rather than using an intuitive selection process. The first advantage of using an analytical method is that it helps the organization to come up with a structured procedure of recruiting and selection process which ensures that only qualified and talented individuals are employed by the company (Catano, Wiesner & Hackett, 2015). By coming up with a structured process, the hiring process is hence clear to all the stakeholders who are involved with the company operations leading to less conflicts arising from the recruitment and selection activity.  A structured procedure also makes it possible for one to validate the findings of the process as a repeat of the process is required to generate the results which were released when the process was carried out at a different time (Werner, 2014).

An analytical selection process is procedural and hence the reason it is favored due to its consistency. Its consistency makes the process uncorrupted y individuals who may wish to employ their cronies or relatives. Its consistency ensures that the recruitment committee can be able to defend the process they have used in recommending an individual to top management and the shareholders of the company (Catano, Wiesner & Hackett, 2015). Consistency also makes the recruitment work faster as one understands what they are looking for in a candidate and they have basis for making their recruitment decisions. Another reason which explains why the method is used is due to the ability of the analytical process to maintain standards. In Canada, there are indiscrimination laws which are required to be adhered to during the recruitment process. Through the use of the analytical process, it is possible for the company to comply with international labor and the Canadian labor standards (Catano, Wiesner & Hackett, 2015). This is due to the way the standards are integrated in the analytical process when coming up with the considerations which are made in making employment decisions.

1.3. Describe the validity and reliability of the selection method.

The use of the analytical selection process has been validated and reliability measured through research which has been carried out among companies of the same size with Suncor Energy Company. The research showed that there is positive correlation between employees who perform well in aptitude tests and their performance. Of the company concentrates on education qualification only, it is likely to lose the opportunity of employing new employees who are likely to be focused and talented in their field of work. Human resource experts have a similar concession that psychometric tests are ideal in disclosing the communication ability, innovativeness and the ability of employees in collaborating with other employees (Catano, Wiesner & Hackett, 2015). The success of behavioral and cognitive tests in the recruitment of qualified employees in the organizations has been tested and researched on where the company found out that employees who were employed based on the intuitive process were less productive in comparison with the employees who were employed using the analytical process.

1.4. Describe the potential advantages and disadvantages of the process

The advantages of the use of the analytical process for recruitment and placement purposes at Suncor Energy Company are shown below. They include

  1. Through the use of analytical process for recruitment and placement purposes, the company can be able to defend its recruitment decisions in case of human rights litigation (Catano, Wiesner & Hackett, 2015). The company can be able to prove its process was free and fair by validating any action and decision which was made during the recruitment process.
  2. Another advantage is that the process enables the company to employ effective employees in comparison with other process used. The analytical process requires the recruitment officers to be objective and hence the reason they are likely to employ the individuals who fit to the organization shared values and who are talented and ready to work for the organization interests (Catano, Wiesner & Hackett, 2015).
  3. The process used by the organization has also enhanced productivity as it prefers internal recruitment before considering the external recruitment (Heneman, 2007). This motivates the employees of the company to work better so that they are considered for a higher open position.

The use of the analytical methods has also some disadvantages as shown below

  1. Lack of flexibility – Due to the way the process is procedural, it may lack flexibility required in dealing with human resource changes that may arise in the organization (Heneman, 2007).
  2. Makes applicants uncomfortable – Some applicants may also be fearful with the tests implemented with the system and hence affect their comfort in being who they are in the organization (Werner, 2014).
  3. Employ individuals who do not fit to the organization culture- The organizations values are subjective in nature and hence the use of the analytical recruitment and selection process may lead to the employment of individuals who do not fit to the organization culture (Heneman, 2007).

Conclusion

The paper discloses the Suncor Energy organization background and its selection process that it utilizes in the employment of its employees. It has also disclosed the reason why the method is used such as consistency and maintaining of the recruitment standards. There is also an explanation on the validation and reliability of the method used. The discussion on the disadvantages of the method shows that despite the benefits the use of the analytical process will bring to the organization, there are some disadvantages such as the flexibility of the process used.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Catano, V. (2005). Recruitment and selection in Canada. Toronto: Thomson Nelson.

Catano, V., Wiesner, W., & Hackett, R.  (2015). Recruitment and Selection in Canada. 6th        Edition, Toronto, ON: Nelson

Heneman, H. (2007). Staffing organizations. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.

Suncor.com, (2015). Students and New Grads – Careers – Suncor. [online] Available at:             http://www.suncor.com/en/careers/345.aspx?linkid=sm10 [Accessed 29 Sep. 2015].

Werner, J. (2014). Human Resource Development ≠ Human Resource Management: So What Is           It?. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 25(2), pp.127-139.

 

Starbucks Case

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Starbucks Case

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Introduction

The workers’ freedom of association is crucialto their effective operation in any organization.Besides fulfilling their assigned obligations, workers ought to have a body that fights for their rights, lobby for good working conditions, push for higher remunerations and generally voicing their pleas to their employers. This is achieved through a union, which tables workers’ needs and concerns of relevant parties, including labor departments and the government.Two theories, (The Webbs theory and Selig Perlman’s theory), are used to explain the situation in the Starbucks’ unionization of the workers’ case. Similarly,the probable outcomes of the situation and the reason behind that opinion will be addressed.This essay looks at the formation of unions to fight for workers’ rights.

Emergence of trade unions is a source of relief to workers in industrialized work structures (McQuarrie, 2015).In reference to Starbucks’ case on unionization of workers, the Webbs’ theory: The Effects of Industrialization best explains the situation. In Starbucks – leader in premium-price caffeine fixes, some employees were pushing for unionization efforts at several of the company’s Manhattan cafes. However, the company was against the union supporters and as a result, it fired three of them, who wereMr. Gross, Joe Agins Jr. and Isis Saenz.A Starbucks manager is also alleged to have illegally prohibited employees from talking about wages and other terms of employment.The Webbs theory comes in handy, as it highlights some of the benefits of having a union; one being, negotiating workers’ terms and conditions with the employer. This would result to improved members’ lives, fair and consistent rules in the workplace and adequate wage rates. Despite the frequent wrangles between Starbucks and the Starbucks Workers Union (SWU), the workers stand a better chance of airing their grievances.The union is reported to persistently pressure Starbucks by demonstrating outside shops and handing petitions to management demanding improvements in working conditions.

A union serves as an intermediary between the workers and the legal structures within a region or country. The Webbs theory points out another benefit of a union, which is, lobbying governments to enact laws guaranteeing basic minimum employment standards. This would lead to the representation of workers’ interests at a higher level, that of key decision makers (McQuarrie, 2015).Starbucks workers were lucky that the National Labor Relations Board intervened in the firing case. Administrative judge, Mindy E. Landow, made a ruling upon Starbucks that the company had illegally fired the employees, thus violating federal labor laws. In addition, Starbucks had also broken the law by issuing negative job evaluations to union supporters and prohibiting employees from discussing the union.To their relief, the judge ordered that Starbucks fired workers be reinstated and receive back wages. In March 2006, the unionreached a settlement of $2,000 as back payand reinstatement of two New York baristas who had beenfired illegally.

A company’s corporate image is key to its success. Starbucks ruined its corporate image and reputation for social responsibility and sensitivity to workers’ rights following the legal wrangle with SWU.The consequences involved a decrease in demand of their coffee following an economic decline, an overall loss of flair for the brand and a sliding stock price. As highlighted in both The Webbs and Perlman’s theories, industrialization caused a separation between capital and labor (McQuarrie, 2015).In this context, Starbucks exercised capitalism in a factory-based economy. The company provided capital and controlled how labor was used in the production process. From The Webbs’ analysis, the division between capital and labor made owners and business people to exploit labor for their own gain to maximize their return on their investment, by minimizing production cost including wages. A similar scenario was witnessed at Starbucks, where the company laid off some of its workers, thus reducing its production cost by minimizing wages. The company’s shares are said to have reduced by over 50% in value in 2008, while rival firms such as Dunkin Donuts and McDonald’s (MCD) continued to grab market share among coffee drinkers. The discriminatory treatment of the pro-union workers set the company crumbling down.

To be successful in representing the workers’ concerns to capitalists, unions need the support of the middle class and upper class (not just the working class).This is a suggestion by theoristSelig Perlman (McQuarrie, 2015).The Starbucks Workers Union had managed to woo the support of the middle classand upper class (the audience and the legal forces) and hence made it easier for them to reach out to the capitalist company, Starbucks. It is reported that the Starbucks’ core audience comprises of people who are paying attention to employee relations. This means that the company’s employee mishandling is not only critiqued by the union, but also by the potential customers. As Pearlman says, gaining more support from the middle class and upper class would help the union’s concerns more widely circulated and noticed. However, Pearlman discourages unions from letting the middle class or upper class dominate them, the reason being, they might be sympathetic to the union’s goals and thus not sensitive to workers’ concerns. The theorist proposes to unions to adopt the psychology of the laborerwho, unlike the middle or upper class, has had experience of work scarcity, lack of jobs and/ or difficulty in finding jobs in the highly competitive market. Their views are shaped by practical realities and are thus more sensitive to workers’ concerns.

If unions supported some capitalism principles rather than reject them outright, they would be seen as cooperative and not radical, thus gain more acceptances by society, beyond the working class. Perlman pointed out such principles such as respect for the ownership of private property (McQuarrie, 2015).If SWU had their limits in their approach of the workers’ rights issue, probably the company would have been more willing to compromise on the workers’ concerns.A certain court document said that the union staged demonstrations which intimidated customers and employees. Their supporters were alleged to engage in uncouth behavior such as vandalism and blocking access to stores. Instead of such misconduct, they would have peacefully requested the Starbucks management to come to an agreement on how they are going to improve their treatment for the workers.

Despite the many instances of employees being ill-treated, several scholars have made positive remarks about the company.Fellner (2008) acknowledges that Starbucks treats workers better than many other restaurant companies. The author of The Starbucks Experience, Joseph Michelli said that the company has been amazing in the way they treated their employees.

Perlman proposes that unions should focus on creating economic security and opportunity for members rather than focusing on ownership of businesses. He felt that this strategy would create a stable, long-term basis for union existence (McQuarrie, 2015).The Starbucks Workers Union partly went contrary to Perlman’s proposal, by focusing on taking possession of the means of production and abolishing the wage system. However, SWU put economic security of their members at its heart. In a certain instance, one member of the union, Anna Hurst, once suffered heat stroke on the job, prompting her store manager to take her off the schedule for two weeks.Some union supporters approached the manager and demanded him to compensate Hurst for the two weeks he put her off schedule. A non-recommendable act that the union did was leafleting customers and picketing on New Year’s Eve.

One of the union’s key objectives is to protect workers’ interests against pressures caused by owner’s or business person’s financial situation. This is one aspect that The Webbs identified in their theory, which is the effects of industrialization (McQuarrie, 2015).Starbucks appeared to disregard this aspect of working their employees overtime in exchange for health coverage. It is reported that, an employee is subjected to twenty or more hours per week to be eligible for health coverage. For those who want full-time work of more than 32 hours weekly, they must be open to work at least 70 percent of a store’s operating hours. This is an oppressive schedule that hinders employees from engaging in other important aspects of their lives. The union comes in handy to advocate for fair and convenient working hours.

The Webbscontemplated that poor working conditions are not merely workplace problems, but also, a portrayal of larger societal problems (McQuarrie, 2015). Clarence Belnavis, managing partner in the Northwest office of the National Labor and Employment law firm, Fisher &Phillips, LLP cited that Starbucks is not the only company experiencing employee relations problems. It is a widely spread crisis. One of the external factors influencing poor work conditions is a bad economy, something that is beyond an organization’s/ company’s control.

This is a case of the Starbucks Company versus the Starbucks Workers Union. The probable outcome is that Starbucks, as an organization, is likely to lose its labor forces. This is because the workers may quit due to the unfavorable working conditions they are subjected to. The few who may remain are likely to enjoy better treatment, since the companywould not like to completely lose its work force. Furthermore, having ruined its reputation, the least it can do is improve on its employee relations. For the union, it is likely to get more members who may feel that their job security and rights are being fought for. Eventually, the overall morale of the workers will be boosted and they will be more willing to work in whichever organization, since they are assured of their rights being protected.

Conclusion

In a capitalist economy, the workforce undoubtedly needs a union to represent their needs and concerns before relevant bodies. These include the labor department, the employer and even the government, lest the capitalists take advantage of the labor force to enrich themselves. All in all, there is a need for mutual respect between the capitalists and the unions, lest the employees suffer the consequences. It is hard to have a win-win situation, but with a degree of compromise, nothing is impossible.

 

 

References

Fellner, K. (2008). Wrestling with Starbucks: Conscience, capital, cappuccino.New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

McQuarrie, F. (2015).Industrial relations in Canada.New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

 

Trade Union Problems at Starbucks

 

 

 

 

Trade Union Problems at Starbucks

 

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Institution:

 

Trade Union Problems at Starbucks

The problem with Starbucks and its workers is that of a capitalist seeking to maximize profits while ensuring minimal production costs. Both Webbs and Perlman ably describe this phenomenon in their theories of why trade unions arose. They both concur that trade unions came into being after the industrial unions with owners and business people seeking to maximize their gain at the expense of their workers. According to Webbs, workers were agitated by the poor living conditions and to their pay at the workplace (Webb & Webb, 1920). In effect, noticing the divisions between the rich and poor aggravated their need to seek for better pay so that they could be able to meet their needs adequately. In effect, the problems at the workplace can only be solved if issues in the society are addressed.

In his theory, Perlman notes that capitalism was a major catalyst for the development of unions. He further argues that through the industrial revolution, there was the need to separate the owners of labor as well as the givers of capital (Perlman, 1922). However, for the workers and laborers to present their case effectively to capitalists, they required an able form of representation. This implies that the working class was not adequate to content with the influence and power of the capitalists. Thus, the support of the middle-class people was imperative. Nonetheless, it was also necessary that these groups respect certain aspects of capitalism, to win their support one way or the other (Perlman, 1922). These are like the right to own property. Thus, it was impossible that unions agree to all these tenets to gain the support of capitalist, thus, the push and shove behavior. Essentially, what motivates trade unions according to Perlman is the laborer psychology, as these are people with an experience of limited job opportunities. Thus, while these groups strive to ensure that their members have jobs, they also try to ensure that they balance the tenets of capitalism with fair gains for the workers (Perlman, 1922).

Overall, while webs advocate that the development of unions is to ensure social change for the workers, Perlman states that the trade unions should be able to ensure they provide equal standards and opportunities for the workers. The analysis of both theories is applicable in understanding the dilemma facing Starbucks. Essentially by using webs theory as a benchmark, Starbucks is a capitalist business with the need to ensure maximum gains and limited costs. Primarily, Starbucks operates in a competitive coffee markets with other key players like Mc Donald’s. In effect, the company is struggling to ensure that they retain their top most position in the market being that they have long been credited as the undisputed premium coffee makers. According to Webbs, such businesses operating in a competitive climate are not able to raise their product prices for fear of losing their customers (Webb & Webb, 1920). With the low product cost, it is quite difficult to maximize company profits unless the production costs are cut down. With the use of machinery, such costs are fixed and the only possible avenue to cut down on costs is through offering a minimum wage pay to their workers. Primarily, through one of the company reports, the company seeks to reduce the total contribution due to the employees by trimming their contributions (James, 2009).

The issue with Starbucks is the need to control the behavior and the productivity of the workers. Webbs states that capitalistic business and business owners dictate work practices for their workers to ensure a maximum gain. Mostly, the management wants to define what is right or bad for the employees with no consideration of what they want. As such, it is not the right and mandate of the company to decide whether or not the workers should decide if they should have one or not (James, 2009). Such is the typical behavior of the sentiments expressed by the CEO of the company who thinks that the workers get significant benefits, and they should be content. This contends the view purported by Perlman when he states the reasons for developing a trade union. The latter says that workers and capitalist have nothing in common. In effect, it is inadequate for capitalist and high class to assume that they understand the struggle of the laborer.

According to Webbs, it is imperative that the work lives of workers are improved owing to their weak social state. To ensure such improvements, trade unions are to ensure that they advocate for mutual employee interests and collective bargaining (Webb & Webb, 1920). Through the mutual insurance objective, members can accumulate funds by paying membership fees and later, these monies are given to workers with an inability to go to work. One of the ways that these payments could be made was through friendly payments for sick or injured workers or out of work payments for those whose jobs were closed (Webb & Webb, 1920). The former is a typical case of the need to improve Starbucks workers lives. It is apparent that Starbucks does not consider social conditions of their employees or need to alleviate their position should they experience health difficulties. When Anna Hurst is taken off her schedule for two weeks following a stroke, this is evident that she would not get paid for the month (Herbst, 2008). Was it not those members of her trade union and baristas marched into the manager’s office demanding for her compensation, and then the company would not be bothered at all. Such an incident highlights the need to form trade unions as capitalists hardly care for the social needs of their workers. In fact, they are more enthusiastic about creating wider social discrepancies than narrowing them.

Secondly, Perlman correctly explains the issue with trade unions when they are either congested with the upper class, middle class or laborers. Perlman argues that there is a need to ensure that the trade unions have a balanced membership of the three societal levels to ensure that they can gain support from capitalists in power (Perlman, 1922). For instance, most of the laborers working at Starbucks are the baristas, who are also considered to be part-time employees of the company. Nonetheless, their poor pay implies that they hardly live a comfortable life, and their working hours as well, limit their flexibility to get other jobs, to balance their jobs. In effect, they perfectly understand the idea of work scarcity and are a perfect representation of the people that the trade union represents. Thus, this is the main group of people that are involved with the trade unions, making about 300 members (Herbst, 2008). However, they have the inability to represent themselves and contend with the power and influence of their employer thus, the involvement with the national labor relations board. In effect, this board acts a possible contender for the power and influence possessed by the corporation.

First, the reaction of Starbucks to the labor problem is a continuous violation of the right to collective bargaining. Workers all over the country have been predisposed with the right to bargain collectively for fair pay and equal working standards. According to Perlman, the idea of trade unions is to ensure that workers can get equal opportunities in the workplace as well as standards. Mainly, Starbucks policy on trade unions seems to violate this thought through the premise that such formations are unnecessary. In fact, the company CEO states that considering that the workers have a health policy plan, they should be grateful. Such sentiments and reasoning are likely to impact on the workers and trade unions, worsening the already poor relationship (Herbst, 2008). In effect, every time the union tries to present the complaints of the workers, their legibility is questioned and motive crushed.

It is possible that the problems with Starbucks and trade unions will become worse in future. Starbucks is likely to lose their social appeal due to their highly capitalistic nature. While the company asserts that they are socially conscious, this should be eminent win the way they relate to their employees as their staffs are their first social obligation. In effect, it is possible that the public will slowly pull away from the brand, despite their premium pricing, in search of socially responsible competitors.

 

References

Herbst, M. (2008, Dec 30th). Starbucks union blues. Bloomberg. Retrieved from http://www.bloomberg.com/bw/stories/2008-12-30/starbucks-union-blues

James, A. (2009, Feb 16). Starbucks spars over union: Drives to organize build to tense legal dispute. Seattle PI. Retrieved from http://www.seattlepi.com/business/article/Starbucks-spars-over-union-1300300.php

Perlman, S. (1922). A history of trade unionism in the United States. London, UK: Macmillan Publishers.

Webb, S., & Webb, B. (1920). The history of trade unionism. London, UK: Longmans.

 

Recruitment and Selection Process: A Case Study of Habanero Consulting Group

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Recruitment and Selection Process: A Case Study of Habanero Consulting Group

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Institutional Affiliation
Selection and Recruitment Process: A Case Study of Habanero Consulting Group

Introduction

Habanero Consulting Group is a privately owned information and technology consulting company. The company has been rated as one of the best companies that one can work with in Canada. As it can be seen from its website, http://www.habaneroconsulting.com,the company’s success when it comes to the management of employees starts from the time the employees are hired. The company makes sure that all the employees who are hired are aware of their work. This means that the employees are aware that their contribution can make to the overall success of the company. According to Catano, Wiesner and Hackett (2015), a company usually has an opportunity to lay the foundation of its success by making sure that the hiring process is taken seriously. One of the values of the company is working values where the company believes that when one is passionate about what he or she is doing, then every part of one’s life becomes motivated.

Habanero’sSelection and Recruitment Process

It is important to note that the company marketsitself on the website by giving potential employees various reasons as to why they should join Habanero. The website states that the company is passionate on the fostering of a culture where most of the employees thrive. At this point, the company states that its hiring process is thorough in order to help all the potential candidates are a good fit. According to Berman, Bowman, West, Van Wart, (2015), ensuring that the candidates fit or satisfy the demands of the company is the main step that an organization takes towards becoming successful. The use of this method also means that the employees or the candidates are provided with a chance to appreciate as well as understand what it is like to work for Habanero.

Selection Process

In order for the company to choose employees to work for it, it has adopted an intuitive process. This is largely because of the fact that much of the process does not have as scientific aspect. All the elements of the process are founded on what the company believes is the best way to select employees to work in various departments. The process is longer as compared to a normal selection and recruitment process, which shows that Habanero wants to have employees who are competent enough and who are fit enough to work in the company. The following is the process:

  1. Submission of the resume. This is the first step that was addressed by Catano, Wiesner and Hackett (2015) where they argued that most of the companies require the candidates to submit their resumes to the company. According to the authors, it is after the HR department has advertised the job with the minimum qualifications that are acceptable by the company. This is then followed by a panel of experts who are supposed to go through the resumes in order to shortlist the candidates who meet the minimum requirements for the specific job.
  2. Once the candidates have been shortlisted, the next step is the initial chat. The aim of the initial chat ensures that the company is able to learn more about the candidate and what they may be looking for in looking or applying for the job.
  3. The next step of the process is the capability assessment where the company is able to evaluate the skills of the candidates based on the role that they will be carrying out in the company. This is crucial in that most of the candidates are left out at this point.
  4. The next step is the step where the company gets to briefly meet the candidate for some time around 30 minutes. This meeting is meant to make the candidate know the members of the company. On the same note, the company gets a chance to get to understand the potential candidate.
  5. After the brief meeting, the candidate is then subjected to a comprehensive interview for a period of two and half hours. In this the company wants to understand the motivational factors for the employees as well as the areas that he or she has excelled in.
  6. The reference checks is the other part that follows the comprehensive interview where the company will call the references in order to ascertain that whatever you have written on your resume is true.
  7. The final step is where the selected employees meet the top management officials before they can officially join the company as an employee.

Reason for the Selection

The reason as to why the company uses this method is due to the fact that the organization is only able ensure that it has hired the best employees by using the selection and recruitment process. It is the wish of every organization to attract and employ the best employees, which means that it will do everything it takes in order to achieve this fate. Habanero is not an exemption. The company mainly relies on the competence as well as the professionalism of the employees. For this reason the company has to ensure that it understand every employee characteristics, their work rate as well as theirmotivating factors. This justifies the reason as to why the process is long.

Validity and Reliability of the Selection Process

A critical look at the selection process used by the organization reveals that some of the elements of the process are job related. This means that most of the things found in the process are meant to ensure that the organization clearly understands the candidate in relation to the job in question in terms of the experience of the candidate. I can be argued that he validity tells you is the characteristic that is being measured in this case by the selection process is related to the job qualifications as well as requirements. The selection process used by Habanero can be said to be testing the character of the candidate in relation to the job qualification, as well as requirements. The test scores that are attained throughout the process become meaningful. This means that there is a strong connection that is there between the test performances of an individual job performance. His usefulness of the test is also a factor of validity. The fact that the interviews were all conducted for the sake of making sure that the organization employs the most competent candidates makes the process valid (Bandara, & Ouyang, 2012).

Reliability refers to how dependably as well as consistently a characteristic is measured by the process. This means that the human resource department has to make sure that it has asked itself what would happen if the test was done again. The results would be reliable if a similar score was achieved after the repeat of the test was carried again. There are some factors that make the Habanero process unreliable at all based on the conditions under which the tests were done. For example, the psychological as well as the physical state of the person may have an effect on the reliability of the process. This becomes of the fact that the test may either be done when the candidate is being faced with other issues such as fatigue or motivation. On the same note, the test may be done when a person is ill or when a person is attending such a test or process for the first time. In case this happens, then it means that the results would not be the same in case the process is repeated again. The results would improve in those who had the first test as their first one as well as those who were sick during the first process. The environmental factors that are there when the test is being administered. Such factors include the room temperature, the time of the day as well as the lighting, noise or even the person who was administering the test. This means that the test may not be reliable if the environmental factors are not consistent. For example, looking at the process that has been adopted by the Habanero, it is clear that the meetings are done and conducted by different administrators. On the same note, the first chat will be conducted by a different person as the shortlisted people are many and one person cannot be able to carry out the whole process. This creates some inconsistency where different candidates are addressed by a different person and at different times, which means that the results attained may not be the same if a change was implemented in the process. The fact that the process requires multiple raters means that there will still be inconsistency in the process. This implies that different raters will rate an individual differently at different times if the process was to be repeated again (Gooden, & Gonzales, 2012).

Advantages of the Process

The first advantage is that the hiring process is one that is thorough in order to help all the potential candidates to be fit or competent enough to work in the organization. On the same note, the process is conducted according to the law, which means that every candidate is given a chance to understand what it is like to work at Habanero. At this point, the candidate can make a choice if the conditions of work at the company are what he or she is looking for. The other advantage of the process is that it is aimed at using the experience of the employee, their interests as well as their strengths. The effect of this is that every employee has a chance to argue his case out and find out in a fair way if his application has gone through or not. The company is also able to have a chance to acquire employees who are passionate with what they are doing.  This is because of the argument that only a dedicated employee and one with some elements of passion can be able to go through the whole process, which as stated earlier is larger and longer as compared to the processes that are adopted by the other companies.

Disadvantages

The process has some disadvantages as well based on the arguments developed by Catano, Wiesner and Hackett (2015). The first disadvantage is that the process has low elements of reliability despite having high scores of validity. This means that the process may not be able to make the right choices as it may remove a candidate who is skilled as a result of another small factor. On the same note, the length of the process also hinders it from achieving its aims. This is because of the fact that the process contributes to the challenge of reliability as a result of the inconsistencies that are found in the process.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it can be seen that Habanero has implemented most of the things that have been outlined by Catano, Wiesner and Hackett (2015) in their analysis of the selection and recruitment process in Canada. It can be seen that Habanero acts according the law, which can be seen from the fairness that is provided to every candidate. All the candidates are taken through the same process during the selection process. On the same note, the fairness can be seen from the fact that the company uses the experience, the passion as well as the interests of the candidates in selecting the ones who are fit to work in the company.

 

References

Bandara, W., & Ouyang, C. (2012). Analyzing and improving a recruitment process: a teaching case for developing business process improvement capabilities. In Proceedings of The 16th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems 2012(PACIS 2012).

Berman, E. M., Bowman, J. S., West, J. P., & Van Wart, M. R. (2015). Human resource management in public service: Paradoxes, processes, and problems. New York: Sage Publications.

Catano, Wiesner and Hackett (2015). Recruitment and Selection in Canada. 6th Edition, Toronto, ON: Nelson

Gooden, M. A., & Gonzales, R. (2012). A Rigorous Recruitment and Selection Process of the University of Texas at Austin Principalship Program. Advances in Educational Administration17, 97-112.

Recruitment and Selection process

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Recruitment and Selection process at

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Human resource department is one of the very critical departments inside the organization. This is mainly because the overall management and retention of the employees is is the core duty of the human resource department. Recruitment and selection are considered as very crucial decisions for the human resource department. This is mainly because hiring the right employees at the right designation at the right time can lead to high efficiency for the organization. According to Mello (2006), employees are an asset to an organization and the sustainability of an organization is directly correlated with the efficacy of the employees. This implies that if the employees of an organization are committed towards their jobs and the organization then the productivity of the organization will be high and vice versa. Therefore, every organization aspires to create a workforce that is not only talented but also committed towards the organizational objectives. This is more evident in the case of a midsized company because such organizations may not have high budgets for recruiting and selecting the candidates on a recurrent basis. If the employees leave the job very quickly or are not happy inside the organization then more time and costs will be invested to hire more employees or in conducting activities that are motivating for the present employees. In case of the high turnover rates, the human resource department would like to select the most appropriate employees and then retain them for a longer period thereby enhancing the efficiency of the organization.

According to Armstrong & Baron (2002), recruitment is the process of searching for the potential candidates for a particular job position inside the organization. The role of the human resource department here is to make sure that a huge number of applicants apply for a job so that the organization can fulfill its vacancies comprehensively. Recruitment process acts as a bridge between the employers and the candidates as it provides an opportunity to the people to apply for a job position. On the other hand, selection can be defined as the process of screening the candidates and then making sure that the best candidates are selected out of the many who have applied for a job position. Both these processes are highly important from the organization’s point of view as they are directly associated with the competitiveness of the business operations (Mello, 2006). This research work will focus on highlighting the recruitment and selection strategy of

Danier Leather is considered as one of the highly renowned organizations operating in the Canadian market. Although it is considered as midsized organization but with the help of efficient strategies, the organization has been able to create a positive brand image for itself in the market place. It has almost 60 stores across the country through which it sells apparel items to its target audience. The working environment in the retailing sector is considered as very stringent and hence it is very difficult to attract and retain the employees for a long run. Across the globe, the retailing sector is considered as one of the toughest sectors to work in. This has influenced Danier Leather to frame a strategic recruitment and selection process in the organization.

In reference to the recruitment process, the organization has undertaken a strategy of internal plus external recruitment for its organization. This ensures that the organization gets a huge pool of candidates who apply for the job positions. Internal recruitment is a strategy under which the organization encourages the already working employees to apply for a job position. This can be done with the help of transfers and promotion (Armstrong & Baron, 2002). This method ensures that only the efficient employees of the organization work at the higher designations that may lead to high productivity. On the other hand, the external recruitment is an approach under which the employees from outside are encouraged to apply for a job position (Sharma, 2012)). This is done with the help of job portals, newspaper advertisements, consultancy firms etc. The main emphasis of the external recruitment is to make sure that the organization gets new talent who might contribute innovative ideas towards the success of the organization (Cheˆnevert and Tremblay, 2009). By using the internal as well as the external sources of recruitment, the organization has been able to attract a large number of candidates. Also, since the organization operates in the retailing sector, it is very much crucial for them to keep both the sources of recruitment. This is mainly because of the high attrition rate in the retailing sector across the globe. It is a very transparent fact that the working conditions in the retailing sector are very tough and hence the employees leave their jobs very quickly (Azad, 2009). Therefore, the organization has been using internal as well as external sources of recruitment as a part of their business strategy.

Selection is the process of the screening the candidates and selecting the best out of them. This activity is very much important as the right employees will lead to high efficiency for the organization and vice versa. Danier Leathers follows the following selection process for screening its employees –

Application blank – The organization provides a blank form to all its candidates with open ended and closed ended questions. These questions are related to the educational backgrounds, experiences, achievements etc. The candidates are then required to write their responses about the questions asked in the form.

Preliminary interviews – After the application form is filled, the candidates will have to face a preliminary interview. This round is mostly conducted by the human resource department of the organization. They usually ask some basic questions about the background of the employees and their future vision towards the profile.

Panel interviews –  After the screening done in the preliminary interview, a panel of interviewers of the organization tests the candidates on the basis of their knowledge and skills. As per the human resource manager of the organization, this interview is usually a pressure interview. This is done to check whether the candidates are confident in the pressure situations or not.

Background check –This is the stage in which the human resource department of the organization conducts a background check on the candidates who are shortlisted. The background check is done by taking a feedback of the shortlisted candidates from the previous employers or from the colleges where the candidates have studied. This is done to check their past performance, behavior on the job, punctuality and commitment level.

Medical checkups – If the candidates get a positive feedback in the previous stage, they are shortlisted for the next stage which is a medical checkup. Under this stage, the candidates go through a medical examination to check their mental and physical capabilities. If the employees are found fit mentally and physically then they are shortlisted for the organization

Job offer – The final stage of the selection process at Danier is to offer the job to the candidate and negotiate the salary with them. It is usually said that Danier Leather aspires to create a win-win situation to ensure a long run relationship. This implies that the organization offers a decent salary to the employees that are highly competitive as per the industry standards. If the candidates are happy with the offered job profile and the salary then the candidate is considered as selected.

Having conducted a detailed research on the methods of recruitment and selection, the human resource manager was asked about the reasons for using such processes. As per the human resource manager, this is a detailed procedure that provides them with enough numbers of quality employees that can support the operational efficiency of the organization. The organization is also facing a high turnover rate and hence quantity is served with the help of internal and external recruitments and the quality is served with the help of the different stages of selection process.  The recruitment and selection process of the organization is very much reliable and valid. This is because it tests the employees in each and every area and then finally selects them. The selection process of the organization has a written test in the form of the application blank, two interview rounds and the background check as well. This ensures that only the efficient candidates become the employees of the organization.

There are several advantages and disadvantages of this method. Following are some of the advantages of this process –

It allows the organization to screen its potential employees from a huge pool of candidates that have applied for a job position. This enables the organization to select the best candidate out of the many who have applied for a job position

Secondly, it becomes convenient for the organization create a decent mix of employees inside the organization. This implies that the older employees of the organization are supported by the new employees who may have an innovative blend of mind. This will give more strategic insight to the organization thereby leading to a sustained growth in the future

Thirdly, having such a comprehensive process of selection enables the organization to get the best employees in the team. This is because all the employees who have gone through such a detailed process are assumed to be effective in terms of their knowledge and skills

However, these are some of the advantages of the process but there is always a flip side to every concept. Hence, following are some of the disadvantages of the process –

Firstly, it may prove to be very costly for the organization. This is mainly because using such recruitment and selection process for screening a huge number of employees may occupy a huge cost for the organization.

Secondly, this process of recruitment and selection is also time consuming as it may take a huge time to select the right employees with the help of such a gigantic process. Each and every stage of the selection process is time consuming and hence the entire process might prove to be very lengthy for the organization

Lastly, since the attrition rate of the organization is very high, it is not easy for Danier Leather to adopt the same process every time as it is time consuming as well as costly for the organization. Hence, it may look forward to reduce the process or eliminate some stages from the selection process in the near future.

In a nutshell, it can be very well concluded that the human resource department is one of the most crucial area inside the business organizations today. This is mainly because the human resource department is directly responsible for managing the employees. In the retailing sector, it is very difficult to retain the employees because of the tough working environment. Danier Leather is also facing a similar situation in the Canadian market that is highly competitive in its nature. The human resource department of the organization has undertaken a strategic recruitment and selection strategy to ensure that it gets the right number of employees at the right time at the right designation. The organization has used an internal as well as external source of information in the past to ensure that it obtains relevant numbers of candidates to apply for a job position. The selection process of the organization is also very detailed and makes sure that it tests the employees in each and every aspect of the traits. This enables the organization to obtain the best employees in the organization. Although the process has a lot many positives but some negative attributes are also associated with the same.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Armstrong, M. Baron, A. (2002). Strategic HRM: the key to improved business performance, Chartered institute and Personnel and Development, London

Azad, P, (2009). Retail management, APH Publishing Corp

Cheˆnevert, D. and Tremblay, M. (2009). “Fits in strategic human resource management and methodological challenge: empirical evidence of influence of empowerment and compensation practices on human resource performance in Canadian firms”, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 20 No. 4, pp. 738-70.

Mello, J.A. (2006). Strategic human resource management, Thomson South western, USA

Sharma, S, (2012). Recruitment and Selection process for employees, The Journal of Human Sciences

 

portfolio

Situation Analysis of Early Learning Environment

Insert Name:

Insert Institution:

Insert Course:

Insert Date:

Introduction
During early stages of life the principal sources of children’s supportive relationship and learning experiences are the parent, the family, the immediate environment and the community. At this stage of vigorous brain development scientists have shown that the process is not only genetic, but significantly influenced the early encounters with people and their immediate surroundings. Positive parent-child relationships and close interaction provides better basis for children to learn. A proper understanding of child’s development is essential for stake holders to come up with appropriate pedagogy for early learning. This paper looks in to the situation and provides analysis of information available as well as the way forward on the early learning of a children setting.
Weekly Reflections
During the three weeks spent in the children’s setting there were key issues which were observed from them in terms of how they learn, how they communicate and how they respond to environment.
Weekly reflection – EYLF number one: Children were found to have a sense of wellbeing, Weekly reflection – EYLF number two: children have a strong sense of identity; and weekly reflection – EYLF number three: children are good contributors to the world around them.
In general children were observed to be actively involved in the learning process which could be evident with their desire to learn by doing, imitating and observing objects.  There was observation made on the different age of between 2-3 years where observation was different when it came to their interaction environment which showed that they were more curious and explored their surrounding more.
The Situation Analysis
Family, environment and community information
Information
Family interact with their children at different stages of development and some of the crucial roles of the family is the provision of emotional; psychological attachment to the children which enhances their cognitive and psychomotor development as they grow into adults. The role is realized due to the fact that it is the parents and the family at large who identify the unique strengths; weaknesses in their children; and their needs at that early stage of human life which they can use in molding the children to responsible members of the community (Charlesworth, 2008).
Children also react with the community and from the reflection in the children settings showed that children have a strong sense of identity and well-being; and that the community interacts with children to provide socio-cultural guidance supported by socio-cultural theory which proposes that children are observed within a dynamic and evolving cultural context (Charlesworth, 2008).
Apart from community and the family social settings, the environment in which the child grows also have great impact on the affect the learning and development process as the young people always interact more with the physical surrounding in which they grow and this interaction provides a key role in the cognitive development.
What it means
Early child learning and development depend centrally on the family and the community at large where in the settings of family or community, learning is influenced by the capacity, support and opportunities of the family and community at large;  the ability of the caregivers to properly nurture the children well and give adequate care (Charlesworth, 2008).
In a given setting of children or a program family and other family members are very much crucial in providing array of information regarding their respective children (Barnard, 2004). These could be information regarding the child’s temperament, health history, and behavior at home; the family expectations, fears and hopes about the success or failure of the child; culturally rooted beliefs about child care during their growth and development; parents also bring a sense of authority and control (Barnard, 2004).
It is important to note that community setting defines a child’s identity as they develop to become responsible citizens and for this to be achieved, socio-cultural contemporary theorists have suggested that children experiences of society can be used extensively as a basis for curriculum development and design of the appropriate learning methodology which would recognize the social and cultural values of the society (Barnard, 2004).
The family, community and the environment is therefore critical in coming up with a pedagogy and curriculum for child’s early learning stages. The curriculum should therefore incorporate the society values, encourage children interaction with their immediate environment and by a great extent foster the socio-cultural values (Anning et al, 2004).
.
The way forward
The parent and the family interaction necessitates a strong working relationship in the development of child’s curriculum and documentation with other stake holders in the child’s education due to the following reasons: parents spend more time with children; it makes family value to be taken into account in designing curriculum; it provides emotionally secure environment for the children. There should be enhanced knowledge, attitude and practices for appropriate child care as well as the development of social and economic opportunities to provide appropriate care for children in early childhood (Charlesworth, 2008).
Teachers and curriculum developers must observe carefully so as to plan well engaging educational experiences that will inculcate good values and provide children with new skills and make them learn more about the world. This makes the programming and planning of children curriculum and pedagogy to be grounded on a blend of the family and the community which is known about the best environment for better development and traditional child rearing practices (Goodfellow, 2009).
Focus child documentation and evaluation
From the observations made during the time spent in the children setting for the three weeks and the subsequent situation analysis, there are key attributes which need to be considered in making effective planning and documentation and evaluation. It should first be noted that documentation involves all those methods which a teacher can apply to obtain information about a child, identify and analyze learning process, and also plan and perform evaluation of the process to enhance curriculum implementation.
From the reflection it can be shown that effective documentation can be achieved if observations made during the time spent with the children are used in identifying the documentation tools aligned to the assessment (Goodfellow, 2009). This is because using children’s data improves decision making to achieve certain tasks such as completing an assessment exercise, determination of effective instruction, develop intentional lesson plans to focus child observations, and coordinate well with the family and the community for the child’s benefit as well as helping to plan a stimulating and engaging learning environment (Barnard, 2004).
Appropriate child documentation should have a reflection on the family and the community of the child, and should be shared with children and family to inform future plans. Documentations of child’s learning and development should therefore be carefully interpreted and properly analyzed to ensure it provides clear information on the progress of children towards EYLF learning
out comes and other developmental areas.

The effective documentation should promote the desire of children to get connected and contribute to their world.
In which case it should involve current documentation and assessment methods; involve educators, children and families; and develop effective assessment methods. The documentation should enable learners to have sense of wellbeing as this contributes to their physical and mental development.

International methodology for early child teaching
From the practicum, it was observed that children have a strong sense of wellbeing; children are connected with and contribute to their world;  and children have strong sense of identity.

There are more outcomes attributes which can be observed in the children when they are observed in a friendly environment which include children being effective communicators, and that children are confident and involve learners.

An appropriate curriculum and methodology of teaching should all children to explore these concepts about children (Goodfellow, 2009). The methodology should ensure that there is active participation of the children in the learning process as being passive makes them dull and this affects healthy development (Anning et al, 2004).  A methodology that have been found to be very effective in achieving these outcomes is known to be the Belonging, Being and Becoming which is a framework used for EYLF in Australia. For the methodology to be effective the education leader must be very competent in the procedures and processes in the content to be able to offer proper guidance to the learners in the planning and implementation with excellent skills in EYLF. The methodology takes a holistic approach and pays attention to the physical, social, emotional and spiritual wellbeing as well as cognitive developmental aspects (Goodfellow, 2009). The following are some of the aspects found in an international methodology and they include, learning through demonstration; role playing and modeling, explaining, scaffolding, listening and affirming which enhances comprehension of a concept (Goodfellow, 2009).

References
Barnard, W. M. (2004). Parent involvement in elementary school and education attainment. Children & Youth Services Review, 26(1), 39–62.
Charlesworth, R. (2008). Understanding child development (7th edition.). Clifton Park, NY: Thomson/Delmar Learning
Anning, A., Cullen, J. and Fleer, M. (eds.) (2004). Early childhood education: society and culture. Delhi, New York and London: Sage Publications.
Goodfellow, J. (2009). Early Years Learning Framework: Getting Started. Early Childhood Australia.

portfolio

Situation Analysis of Early Learning Environment

Insert Name:

Insert Institution:

Insert Course:

Insert Date:

Introduction
During early stages of life the principal sources of children’s supportive relationship and learning experiences are the parent, the family, the immediate environment and the community. At this stage of vigorous brain development scientists have shown that the process is not only genetic, but significantly influenced the early encounters with people and their immediate surroundings. Positive parent-child relationships and close interaction provides better basis for children to learn. A proper understanding of child’s development is essential for stake holders to come up with appropriate pedagogy for early learning. This paper looks in to the situation and provides analysis of information available as well as the way forward on the early learning of a children setting.
Weekly Reflections
During the three weeks spent in the children’s setting there were key issues which were observed from them in terms of how they learn, how they communicate and how they respond to environment. Reflection number one was that children were found to have a sense of wellbeing, sense of identity and good contributors to the world around them. Children were observed to be actively involved in the learning process which could be evident with their desire to learn by doing, imitating and observing objects.

There was observation made on the different age of between 2-3 years where observation was different when it came to their interaction environment which showed that they were more curious and explored their surrounding more.
The Situation Analysis
Family, environment and community information
Information
Family interact with their children at different stages of development and some of the crucial roles of the family is the provision of emotional; psychological attachment to the children which enhances their cognitive and psychomotor development as they grow into adults. The role is realized due to the fact that it is the parents and the family at large who identify the unique strengths; weaknesses in their children; and their needs at that early stage of human life which they can use in molding the children to responsible members of the community (Charlesworth, 2008).
Children also react with the community and from the reflection in the children settings showed that children have a strong sense of identity and well-being; and that the community interacts with children to provide socio-cultural guidance supported by socio-cultural theory which proposes that children are observed within a dynamic and evolving cultural context (Charlesworth, 2008).
Apart from community and the family social settings, the environment in which the child grows also have great impact on the affect the learning and development process as the young people always interact more with the physical surrounding in which they grow and this interaction provides a key role in the cognitive development.
What it means
Early child learning and development depend centrally on the family and the community at large where in the settings of family or community, learning is influenced by the capacity, support and opportunities of the family and community at large;  the ability of the caregivers to properly nurture the children well and give adequate care (Charlesworth, 2008).
In a given setting of children or a program family and other family members are very much crucial in providing array of information regarding their respective children (Barnard, 2004). These could be information regarding the child’s temperament, health history, and behavior at home; the family expectations, fears and hopes about the success or failure of the child; culturally rooted beliefs about child care during their growth and development; parents also bring a sense of authority and control (Barnard, 2004).
It is important to note that community setting defines a child’s identity as they develop to become responsible citizens and for this to be achieved, socio-cultural contemporary theorists have suggested that children experiences of society can be used extensively as a basis for curriculum development and design of the appropriate learning methodology which would recognize the social and cultural values of the society (Barnard, 2004).
The family, community and the environment is therefore critical in coming up with a pedagogy and curriculum for child’s early learning stages. The curriculum should therefore incorporate the society values, encourage children interaction with their immediate environment and by a great extent foster the socio-cultural values (Anning et al, 2004).
.
The way forward
The parent and the family interaction necessitates a strong working relationship in the development of child’s curriculum and documentation with other stake holders in the child’s education due to the following reasons: parents spend more time with children; it makes family value to be taken into account in designing curriculum; it provides emotionally secure environment for the children. There should be enhanced knowledge, attitude and practices for appropriate child care as well as the development of social and economic opportunities to provide appropriate care for children in early childhood (Charlesworth, 2008).
Teachers and curriculum developers must observe carefully so as to plan well engaging educational experiences that will inculcate good values and provide children with new skills and make them learn more about the world. This makes the programming and planning of children curriculum and pedagogy to be grounded on a blend of the family and the community which is known about the best environment for better development and traditional child rearing practices (Goodfellow, 2009).
Focus child documentation and evaluation
From the observations made during the time spent in the children setting for the three weeks and the subsequent situation analysis, there are key attributes which need to be considered in making effective planning and documentation and evaluation. It should first be noted that documentation involves all those methods which a teacher can apply to obtain information about a child, identify and analyze learning process, and also plan and perform evaluation of the process to enhance curriculum implementation.
From the reflection it can be shown that effective documentation can be achieved if observations made during the time spent with the children are used in identifying the documentation tools aligned to the assessment (Goodfellow,2009). This is because using children’s data improves decision making to achieve certain tasks such as completing an assessment exercise, determination of effective instruction, develop intentional lesson plans to focus child observations, and coordinate well with the family and the community for the child’s benefit as well as helping to plan a stimulating and engaging learning environment (Barnard, 2004).
Appropriate child documentation should have a reflection on the family and the community of the child, and should be shared with children and family to inform future plans. Documentations of child’s learning and development should therefore be carefully interpreted and properly analyzed to ensure it provides clear information on the progress of children towards EYLF learning out comes and other developmental areas. In which case it should involve current documentation and assessment methods; involve educators, children and families; and develop effective assessment methods.

International methodology for early child teaching
From the practicum, it was observed that children have a strong sense of wellbeing; children are connected with and contribute to their world; and children have strong sense of identity. There are more outcomes attributes which can be observed in the children when they are observed in a friendly environment which include children being effective communicators, and that children are confident and involve learners. An appropriate curriculum and methodology of teaching should all children to explore these concepts about children (Goodfellow, 2009).
The methodology should ensure that there is active participation of the children in the learning process as being passive makes them dull and this affects healthy development (Anning et al, 2004). A methodology that have been found to be very effective in achieving these outcomes is known to be the Belonging, Being and Becoming which is a framework used for EYLF in Australia. For the methodology to be effective the education leader must be very competent in the procedures and processes in the content to be able to offer proper guidance to the learners in the planning and implementation with excellent skills in EYLF. The methodology takes a holistic approach and pays attention to the physical, social, emotional and spiritual wellbeing as well as cognitive developmental aspects (Goodfellow, 2009). The following are some of the aspects found in an international methodology and they include, learning through demonstration; role playing and modeling, explaining, scaffolding, listening and affirming which enhances comprehension of a concept (Goodfellow, 2009).

References
Barnard, W. M. (2004). Parent involvement in elementary school and education attainment. Children & Youth Services Review, 26(1), 39–62.
Charlesworth, R. (2008). Understanding child development (7th edition.). Clifton Park, NY: Thomson/Delmar Learning
Anning, A., Cullen, J. and Fleer, M. (eds.) (2004). Early childhood education: society and culture. Delhi, New York and London: Sage Publications.
Goodfellow, J. (2009). Early Years Learning Framework: Getting Started. Early Childhood Australia.

portfolio

Situation Analysis of Early Learning Environment

Name:

Institution:

Course:

Date:

Introduction
In initial phases of life principal sources of children’s supportive relationship and experiences are parents, family, surroundings and the community. At this stage of vigorous brain development scientists have shown that the process is not only genetic, but significantly influenced the early encounters with people and their immediate surroundings. Positive parent-child relationships and close interaction provides better basis for children to learn. A proper understanding of child’s development is essential for stake holders to come up with appropriate pedagogy for early learning. This paper looks in to the situation and provides analysis of information available as well as the way forward on the early learning of a children setting.
The Situation Analysis
Family, environment and community information
For over the past three decades, many studies have come up with associations between family’s socio-economic status and the high probability of delayed cognitive development, behavioral problems and undesirable life course outcomes for the children, for example educational performance. Family is therefore very important in the early learning forum as the first anchor for children in early development and this is the unit which interacts with the infants and young children from birth through different stages of life (Barnard, 2004). Parents and family identify distinctive strengths and prerequisites of kids at their early stages of life. Family interacts with child to strengthen cultural values being the natural and primary educator of the child (Charlesworth, 2008).
The parent and the family interaction necessitates a strong working relationship in the development of child’s curriculum with other stake holders in the child’s education due to the following reasons: parents spend more time with children; it makes family value to be taken into account in designing curriculum; it provides emotionally secure environment for the children. In a given setting of children or a program family and other family members are very much crucial in providing array of information regarding their respective children. These could be information regarding the child’s temperament, health history, and behavior at home; the family expectations, fears and hopes about the success or failure of the child; culturally rooted beliefs about child care during their growth and development; parents also bring a sense of authority and control (Barnard, 2004).
The community interacts with children to provide socio-cultural guidance supported by socio-cultural theory which proposes that children are observed within a dynamic and evolving cultural context. The public setting defines a child’s identity as they mature to become accountable residents. Socio-cultural contemporary theorists therefore suggest that children experiences of society can be used extensively as a basis for curriculum development (Barnard, 2004). The aspect, therefore, depend centrally on the kinfolk and the public at large. This makes the programming and planning of children curriculum and pedagogy to be grounded on a blend of the family and the community which is known about the best environment for better development and traditional child rearing practices.
Apart from community and the household, environment in which the juvenile grows affect his/her learning and growth. The setting could be defined as the circumstance where learning and growth takes place. At initial stages especially below two years, infants are in the phase in lifespan where they develop preferences, discover objects, mimic other people’s actions and experiment with things. Above this age (2-3 years) children gain curious feeling as compared to infants (0-2 years) (Charlesworth, 2008).
The environment interaction therefore becomes important and each age set requires special unique attention. Children thrive in different environmental context that invite them to solve problems and make meanings out of their life encounters (Charlesworth, 2008). The environment therefore should be favorable and protective to help foster the value and importance of early child learning through legislation and advocacy.
The family, community and the environment is therefore critical in coming up with a pedagogy and curriculum for child’s early learning stages. The curriculum should therefore incorporate the society values, encourage children interaction with their immediate environment and by a great extent foster the socio-cultural values. It must be noted that the child’s learning is shaped by the environment, family values and beliefs (Anning et al, 2004).
In a learning environment there is a great need for information sharing between the parents, care-givers, family, community and the teacher leading the learning program. The objective of knowledge sharing between teacher and parents is to support the program staff to assist kids in understanding the different facets of life. This will enable the teachers to adjust the way of teaching and family support accordingly, also this increases the trust parents have on the teacher.
International methodologies for early child teaching
From the practicum, it was observed that children have a strong sense of wellbeing; children are connected with and contribute to their world; and children have strong sense of identity. An appropriate curriculum and methodology of teaching should all children to explore these three concepts about children. As children interact so much with nearby object, the curriculum which promotes such activities would be appropriate.
The methodology should ensure that there is active participation of the children in the learning process as being passive makes them dull and this affects healthy development. Kids in most cases learn through imitating the actions of their colleagues an aspect that requires that the learning environment should always keep them busy (Anning et al, 2004).
Recommendations on the way forward
In the planning and design of curriculum for early child development and learning, there is need for the stakeholders to come up with a creative curriculum which will foster the community value, parental and family value, and enable environmental interaction for appropriate healthy development and learning. There should be enhanced knowledge, attitude and practices for appropriate child care as well as the development of social and economic opportunities to provide appropriate care for children in early childhood.
At the community level there is need to strengthen core values, knowledge base and the collective commitment to early learning. Teachers and curriculum developers must observe carefully so as to plan well engaging educational experiences that will inculcate good values and provide children with new skills and make them learn more about the world. At the national level there should be appropriate policy formulation which helps to promote healthy growth of children and good legislation to enhance a good learning environment.

References
Barnard, W. M. (2004). Parent involvement in elementary school and education attainment. Children & Youth Services Review, 26(1), 39–62.
Charlesworth, R. (2008). Understanding child development (7th edition.). Clifton Park, NY: Thomson/Delmar Learning
Anning, A., Cullen, J. and Fleer, M. (eds.) (2004). Early childhood education: society and culture. Delhi, New York and London: Sage Publications.