Murder and homicide
Murder and homicide
The term murder is used to refer to unlawfully killing of someone although with premeditation. On the other hand, the term homicide is a general term that is used to describe the situation when one person kills the other whether intentionally, unintentionally, premeditated or not premeditated. A statistics report that was conducted by the United Nation office on drugs and crime in 2011 creates a worldwide picture of murder and homicide. This report shows that by the year 2010, globally the total number of homicide was 468000.it also pointed that more homicide cases occurred in Africa. This report indicates that more third the homicide cases was found and The report also indicates that since the year 1995, the homicide rate has dropped in Asia, North America, and Europe but has rapidly risen in Caribbean and Central America. According to this statistics, 82% of the victims of homicide were male while female victims were 18% (Larsen 2011).
Another research was conducted, the results indicates that the total number of homicide dropped the leading cases of homicide worldwide was Oceanic. The report also pointed that in Central America and South African regions homicide cases were as a result of sociopolitical terrorism, war, and religious conflicts. This makes the homicide rate in the regions to be four times higher than the world average. The homicide rate that occurred intentionally worldwide in 2012 was 43%. Generally homicide is more likely to occur in countries with higher income inequality and weak rule law, and countries lower human development societies more equitable and stable and socially.
The term degree of murder can be used to refer to the intent of a particular murder charge. Different states use different ways to classify varying degrees of murder. Some states uses numerical way while others use certain labels on their murder offenses, for example, justified homicide, capital murder among others with the aim of increasing the punishment with the degree. The most common degrees of murder are the first and the second degree of murder. The first-degree murder is also known as capital murder. This type of murder involves elements such as malice, deliberately planning or premeditation. Here the term premeditation refers to the fact that the defendant had thought of the killing just before it took place while the term deliberate means that the defendant makes a decision to kill the victim. The time that is required for a murderer to be classified as premeditated may be brief. This implies that first-degree murder involves making an advanced decision to kill and also making a plan. Different states have adopted different factors in which the classification of murder as first-degree murder is done. First there is the motive factor. This involves the motive or the reason the offender wants to kill the victim. Another factor is the context of the murder. This implies the reason the murder occurred. For example in some states if more than one person is killed during the same episode, then this is taken as a first-degree murder. In addition to the factor is how the murder was committed. Some states take the murders committed in different fashions as first-degree murder for example killing by poison or by torture. Second-degree murder occurs when one kills the other without legal excuse and also without deliberation or premeditation. This involves killing of someone without planning to do so in advance. This implies that there is no earlier plan or decision to kill someone in second-degree murder. An example is when one takes the gun meant for protection and shots the other person because of being angry. On the other hand felony, murder is the one that happens without planning or any intention. It happens as a result of a commission of a felony. It’s simply as a result of another offense. An example is when people are involved in a robbery, and one shoots the guard without preplanning of the killing. The degree of murder can affect the level of punishment and, therefore, the defendants accused of murder should know the degree of their murder charges (Advice Company, 2015).
The current nature and extent of murder worldwide indicates that the death rate from homicide increases in a rapid way since 1990 for example Russia is known to be the highest in terms of homicide deaths. The rapid increase of the homicide deaths worldwide is as a result of social, economic and political factors that led to issues like terrorism among others. The current nature of murder also implies that there is high number of men killed through homicide as compared to women. It also indicates that the killing of women by men often involves sexual assaults. In addition to this, it’s noted that about 80% of the homicide cases reported are said to be under the influence of drugs and alcohol among other substances. The number of homicides worldwide is changing with many more now involving the issues such as murder to conceal other crimes in association with rape and robbery among others. In addition to this the number of murders by hired killers is on the increase. The characteristics of those who are killed have also changed with the higher number being recorded to the younger people. Also, the report indicates that the rural-urban homicide has narrowed with the higher level being in the rural areas.
As stated earlier, murder involves the killers killing other. Killers are therefore of many types. Among them are serial killers, these are people who murder more than three people mainly due to abnormal psychological gratification. It’s done with the murderer totaling duration of more than one month and includes a break. This implies that they kill more than two people in a different event over a particular period. It’s pointed out that psychological gratification is the motive for this type of killing and that most of these killings involve sexual contacts with the victim. Other motives for serial killing may include financial gain, anger, thrill among others. Among the characteristics of serial killers are that they are of low average IQ, some were involved in petty crimes and others. An example of a serial killer is Aillen Wuornos a female serial killer who killed seven men in Florida since 1989 to 1990. It’s pointed out that she killed strangers and outdoors by the use of a gun for personal gratification. Another serial killer is Daniel Camargo from Colombia. He is believed to be child killers who raped and murdered more than 150 victims. He confessed to having killed 72 victims, and it was believed that he was motivated by his stepmother who abused him as a child. He was later arrested although he escaped from prison and started killing. Later he was rearrested and was killed in jail. In the united state, there was a serial killer by the name Gary Ridgway, who was a truck painter. He confessed to having killed 71 women (Crime Classification, 2015).
Another type of killers is the mass killers. This type of murder that involves murdering of many people at one time and in one place. For example, a mass murder may go to a restaurant and shoot to death everyone in the restaurants store. These killers are sometimes referred to as human time bombs as they are associated with more damage when they go without warning. Mostly the mass killers are characterized by suffering from humiliating blows. Once they are through with killing, they don’t give themselves to be killed in a shootout or suicide; they usually surrender without a fight to allow the state to dispense the inevitable punishment. Historically mass murder has been longer in more societies than serial killers. As opposed to serial killing, the community after the mass killing tends to be worried but later returns to normal. An example of a mass killer is Richard Speck. In July 1966, he killed eight nurses within a single night in South Chicago (Crime Classification, 2015).
In addition to the types of killers is the spree killer. This refers to someone who somebody who murders two or more people in a short time in multiple areas. He is a person who kills two or more people without a cooling off period. An example is Mark Orrin Barton, who killed 12 people and injured 13 more people.
As it has been stated, it’s clear that despite having different types of murder such as the mass murder, spree killers, and serial killers, different states adopts different strategies to deal with these killers. It has also been noted that statistically in comparison with the 19th century the 20th century has experienced homicide cases in a rapid way. This is as a result of political, social and economic factors in different states.
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Advice company. (2015). Degrees of Murder. Retrieved from http://criminal-law.freeadvice.com/criminal-law/violent_crimes/degrees.murder.htm
Crime Classifications – Mass Murder, Spree, and Serial Killing. (2015). Retrieved from http://crime.about.com/od/serial/a/killer_types.htm
Larsen, R. (2011, October 21). United Nations 2011 Global study on homicide – Journalist’s Resource Journalist’s Resource. Retrieved from http://journalistsresource.org/studies/government/criminal-justice/un-2011-global-study-homicide
Meria. (2007). Attention Required! | CloudFlare. Retrieved from http://twistedminds.creativescapism.com/serial-killers-introduction/mass-killers/