Archive for March, 2016

THE IMPACT OF US MISSION AND UN DIPLOMATIC COUNTER-TERRORISM SANCTIONS ON HUMAN RIGHTS

March 28, 2016

Introduction

The role of the United States consular of different countries especially without the domestic space and especially at the UN is one that cannot be underestimated and the counter terrorism policy of the US and its consular is well known all over the world. Also, the United Nations approach to anti-terrorism policy has had human rights pitfalls that are put forward by the controversial UN sanctions list of people associated with ISIS, Taliban, Boko-Haram and Alshabaab (Mustapha, 2014). The question that arises is; what is the role-played by the United States Missions in charting the UN policy on counter-terrorism, and are there leads of a different direction in regards to the issues under the Obama administration?

Security and Human Rights in Past US Administration

The United States through its consular have played a huge role in charting the United Nations Security Councils counter terrorism approach, including its human rights wing, the United Nations Human Rights Commission (Clark, 2010). Three weeks after the September 11, 2001 attack that was committed by the AL Qaeda the United States took the responsibility of pushing through the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373 (2001) (Kaunert, 2010), which gave life to the international cooperation framework on terrorism prevention. The UNSC also created a vibrant anti-Terrorism Committee, comprising of the  15 council’s member states, to oversee the resolution implementation. When Chapter VII of the UN Charter was invoked Resolution 1373 gave agreed mandates to all member states of UN for unknown  time frame by the consular, demanding them to freeze the accounts of terrorism financiers and assets. It demanded that any individual that is involved in any support of terrorism in terms if finances, preparation, planning of terror acts were brought before a court of law. The resolution resolved that terror acts be taken as adverse criminal offences in legal environment and the punishments of such acts should be reciprocated.

Irrespective of the effects and the magnitude of the measures put forward and their adoption without the consultations of the 177 UN member countries that are not part of the UNSC, the resolution touches on human rights, but with the omission of one paragraph which provides for seekers of asylum. It remained like that for governments to be creative on how to maintain standards human rights standards whereas keeping on with the implementation of the resolution. Practically, Resolution 1373 together with other counter-terrorism resolutions of the Security Council including nations with questionable standards through their consular have re-ignited the passage of some vague anti-terrorism laws that have in turn led to lasting effects on human rights organizations. For instance some Nigerian political leaders used the US consular to Nigeria and the anti-terrorism laws to target political opponents, common criminals and other minority community members . The main aim of this witch hunt is self-interest of certain American political leaders and entrepreneurs to corruptly get oil exploration deals by sponsoring terrorists (Ochieng, 2014).

However between 2004 and 2009 the UNSC came up with certain anti-terror resolutions, which were done in reference human rights protection. During that time the United states worked in conjunction with the its consular in China and the Chinese government and also its US consular to Russia and the Russian government within the Security council in order to uphold references of human rights resolutions, in order to make anti-terrorism committees to work as weakly as possible.  A breakthrough cam up in 1496 (2003) majorly at the pressure of Mexico, a non-permanent member of the UNSC provided that ”States must ensure that any measures taken to combat terrorism comply with all their obligations under international law and should adopt such measures in accordance with international law, in particular human rights, refugee, and humanitarian law” The US then capitalized on the ambiguity of the word “should“ instead of adopting a clearer word “shall“ that gives obligations to member states to implement such counter-terrorism according international law. The lobbying of how the statement was done through the US consular in different Security Council member states. To date both the United Nations Security Council and the US have never altered the word (Isanga, 2009).

Support Erosion

An integral component of the US counter-terrorism policy in fighting terrorism with the UN was based on sanctioning associates and members of terror groups and cells like Taliban and Al-Qaeda by the use of the listing procedures created by the Security Council Resolution in 1999. The council’s move was  influenced by the 1998 bombing of US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya that was masterminded by Osama Bin Laden. The resolutions that went through two years prior to  the September 11 attack, through the US consular in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kenya and Uganda and all other US consular in UN member countries strengthened in one binding resolution and united to exclude human rights from the resolve while obliging all member nations to freeze the bank accounts and banning of individuals whose names appear on the Consolidated list from travelling maintained by Taliban and Al-Qaeda Sanctioning committee that was represented by representatives from different US consular  that are members of the Security Council.

The Sanctions Committee that composes of the 15 member states of the UNSC, has the mandate to identify and freeze the bank accounts and assets of persons, corporations and groups that are linked to terror groups. With Taliban, AL Qaeda in Afghanistan, Book-Haram in Nigeria and ISIS in Syria, the US is aided by an eight-member team that helps in monitoring the activities of terrorism suspects through the US consular and security agents in these countries (Bures, 2010).

In the preceding weeks after the September 11, twins tower and pentagon attack, close to 200 names of terror suspects were added by the United States on the Consolidated List. Since other Security Council member countries through their consulates were given 48 hours that is today five days to dispute the list, and with the fact the states were only granted the first name, those named in this list always took forever without being identified. By March 10, 2010, the names totaled to 498 on the Consolidated list, 137 people were linked to Taliban, Al-Qaeda was linked to 258 of them, many whom had been on the list for the last nine years (Michaels, 2007).

Incorporating some legal measures sanctioning administration is important both from a human rights angle but on the other hand  to make sure that the effectiveness of the system as an essential antiterrorism measure. Competence lies, in part, on whether the control measures are, and are seen to be, legal (Smith, 2013). Numerous states —especially in the in Europe—do not easily more introduce new names in to the list. although there seem is problems with the procedure of listing.

Governments are supposed to be responsible for the security of their citizens and one of the security threats is terrorism. Some people would question ho freezing of accounts of people linked to terror activities can help stem terrorism. Moreover the United Nations High Commission for Human Rights has found the targeted sanctions system as more effective than the former comprehensive sanctions system. Members states are many times caught in between their mandate under Article 103 of the UN Charter to exercise all inclusive resolutions of the Security Council, and their obligations to maintain equally inclusive human.

The absentia of the primary legal securities, largely due to Russia, China, and the United States insistence and support by many other member states of the Security Council, is even more astonishing in a government instituted by a United Nations organ, led by its Charter to function in a uniform manner based on the  principles of the rule of law. The lack of process of equality and the consequential impact of UN leadership as a center of legal global law drew the attention of former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan after presidents, some from nations whose citizens were on UN sanctions lists, in 2005 urged the Security Council ”to guarantee that clear and  fair processes are availed for placing personnel and organizations on consolidated  lists and to remove and also  grant humanitarian exemptions (Chesterman et al, 2008).

First, numerous people whse names were in the Consolidated list were not aware of such status until they wanted to travel or visited their banks but could not withdraw money. Of course, it is until 2004 that the Security Council could notify people of the sanctions. Secondly once a person is listed, there is a possibility that he could remain in that list for a long time.  To be listed is a very simple procedure since what is needed is just a nomination for a country to make a case and the minimal period provided to make an appeal when listed; while the removal of a name from the list requires a consensus fro all member states on the Sanctions Committee, hence any member state has veto powers (Reich, 2008). This is list sometimes include dead people. In June 2006 unto 27 people believed to be dead were still on the consolidated list.

Third, there is no basis given as why somebody is placed in the consolidated list. Next, until of recent, listed individuals had no right to express themselves. Until certain changes were effected in 2006 that exempted one from being heard by the UN but instead that could only happen when somebody`s case was taken by the state, there was none to reprieve an organization of an individual from such a situation.

Lastly, prior to the resolution that was implemented in 2008, the Sanctions Committee had no audacity  conduct any in-house interview of the many names that remain in the consolidated list for many years. As a result some individuals, organizations and countries that are on the consolidated list have in the past found it hard to agree with some of the Security Council member states and United States in regards to the targeted sanctions being just preventive rather than being punitive jus as held by the former High Commissions for Human Rights (Johnstone, 2008).

With ways to find reprieve all closed, those individuals that believed that they were wrongly vindicated started to come to find justice before regional and national courts with high registration of success. Cases were brought before international and domestic courts form different parts of the world to challenge the validity of the consolidated list as indicated in the Ninth UN Monitoring Team`s Report of May 2009. For instance Al Barakaat International Foundation in Sweden and a Saudi national named Alrazik , a resident of Saudi Arabia challenged the inclusion of their names  in a European sanction list by the argument that implementation of sanctions though the freezing assets is in violation of the EU law and the essential rights. The ECJ while presiding over this case omitted the legality of the sanctions of the Security Council but id dis unambiguously refuted claims the procedures of reexamination established by the Security Council was enough human rights guarantee. The verdict of the court was that the Security Council was intergovernmental and diplomatic and did not have any legal protection like the opportunity for those that have been vindicated to assert their rights, particularly since the removal of any name fro the consolidated list needed a consensus of all member states. The ECJ found out that the listing of Al Barakaat and Kadi a as well as the freezing of their bank accounts and property for six months without the knowledge of the same was done in violation of the EU regarding the petitioners right to heard before a court of law and their right to fair court trial (Baehr-Jones, 2007).

A couple months afterwards the Human Rights Committee, which is the stand alone organization that oversees the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights implementation, learned that Belgium had gone against the human rights as stipulated in the Nabil Sayadi, born and Patricia Vinck  a Lebanese and his wife, had their assets were frozen after the Belgian government forwarded their names to the list of the Security Council. With the claim that they are innocent of the claimed links to Al-Qaeda and Taliban, both had failed numerous times to convince the US security authority. In fact action had been established against them but Belgium in disregard of the criminal investigation result. In 2005 it was  found out that there existed no criminal act committed by the two parties. Belgium subsequently requested the United Nations Sanctions Committee to eradicate the two states from the list without much success.

 

However the Human Rights Committee held the republic of Belgium responsible for the continued presence of Sayadh and Vinks on the EU and the UN lists. The committee’s verdict was that they underwent great violations of human rights freedom of movement and the malicious reputation attack on and  honor that is illegal under Article 17 of The International Covenant On Civil and Political rights for bring in the sanctions list as associates of Taliban and Al-Qaeda on the grounds of information offered by the country, and were likewise directed to pay some money (Beauthier, 2008).

A federal court in Canada made criticisms on the sanctious administration  when in June 2009, the verdict was that Abousfian Abdelrazik, an individual of Sudanese citizen had gotten a Canadian citizenship and was later placed on sanctioned people`s list in 2006 for suspicion of  his link with Al-Qaeda upon request by the US. He had a right to go back to Canada. One year on the Security Council refused to delist him from the sanctions list without any reasons. The 1267 delisting and listing process do not have limited right to be heard before a court of law and it is questionable whether it has the requirements of impartiality and independence. In Abdelrazik`s case, the country that is requesting the delisting is Security Council member country that decides whether to delis or list, and the judge is the accuser (Forcese & Roach, 2010)

When the sanctions of the UN became questionable, certain concerned leaders like Kofi Annan started to take action. IN 2006, while attending a states General assembly meeting during the World Outcome Summit he presented a document titled ”Targeted Individual Sanctions: Fair and Clear Procedures for Listing and De-listing.”. He said that individuals and organizations concerned would base credibility and legitimacy of the sanctions on fairness of procedures and this would be the roadmap to an effective remedy (Bothe, 2008).

The General assembly in 2006 implemented the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, that condemned the union`s terrorism sentiments and established fairness and clearer procedures. It did not only recognize human rights but also better anti-terror measures (Bothe, 2008). In 2008 a group of UN Missions like Switzerland, Liechteein, Germany, Sweden, Denmark and Netherlands through their consulates submitted to the United Nations Security Council to consider altering the counter-terror measures.to embrace human rights approach to take care of listing and delisting. These move was welcomed by NGOs but criticized them for being limited in their move since 2001. The NGOs indicated that the listed individuals should be notified and concrete evidence be presented in regards to their listing. They should be given a voice  to challenge consolidated sanctions listing by the help of an attorney. NGOs indicated that delisting should not be consensus based, but the US AND other four permanent members  Security Council members nations of the Security Council opposed the idea refused.

THE OBAMA ADMINISTRATION ADRESSING THE PROBLEM

The Obama administration is without no fault steering a human rights based fight against terrorism as opposed to its predecessors. Its ban on torture, the close of  centers for CIA centers of detention and the plan to close the Guantanamo Bay prison are just some of the examples. But the Obama administration has also not completed the much-needed reforms as the Guantanamo correctional facility is not completely shut down and its failure to complete the move that terrorism suspects be tried in military courts. The US citizens on the other side criticize the governments proposal of indefinite detention without trial system and its delay to accept that the obligations is also applicable to personnel that are under the authority of the US government or effective control outside the national boundary (Freedman, 2009)

It was time  for the UN Security Council to peform and this time there were many member states faced legal implications in different courts and there was reluctance among member states to add other names to the sanctions list. The strides that the UN Security Council had mad from 2006 to the time Obama took power were just cosmetic. The UNSC in June 2006 worked towards achieving fair procedural sanctions, but that was done in a non-formal presidential statement. It later created an integral part in the granting of delisting requests in the name of the Resolution 1730 (2006) meaning that a person shall be granting delisting petitions and be transmitted to designated concerned governments through their mission. It provided that the petitioner grants more grounds of delisting and listing and the listed persons is informed within a fortnight. The Resolution 1822 (2008) provides the a review be conducted and the names of dead listed people be removed from the sanctions list (Biersterker, 2009)

Breakthrough of the Ombudsperson

The Obama administration started to encounter the challenge a time when the environment was ripe for overhaul. The Security Council member states commended this move just from the onset when the US started talks on revising the measures in 2009, they had a positive attitude toward the move. The position that Costa Rica, Austria and Mexico that are non-permanent members through their consular pressed passionately for the legal due process so that Austria as the Sanctions Committee  Chair  could chart the way for debate was of great help.

The US Mission in New York on December 17,2009 played a pivotal role in the process of drafting after many months of closed door discussions in Washington DC, Security Council Resolution 1904 was applied unanimously under Chapter VII of the UN Charter (Papastafridis, 2007). Reapeating its outright disapproval of Al-Qaeda, Taliban and Osama Bin Laden, the Security Council Secretariat directed the Secretary General of the UN to assign an ombudsperson who is properly trained and with experience in matters political science, law and international relations, counter-terrorism, human rights and sanctions  for a period of eighteen months to intermediate for persons and organizations that were supposed to be delisted from the consolidated sanctions list .

Most importantly is that the ombudsman would be privileged to direct relationship with the nations concerned as well as the petitioners. The most controversial part of the whole process was the ombudsman suggestions to delist during any of the Sanctions Committee meetings, a move that was accepted by certain Security Council member states (Spanheimer, 2012). There was also a compromise that permitted the ombudsman only to do an analysis of present information and to present to the sanctions committee essential arguments in regards to the requests to delist. They faced opposition majorly from Russia and China but the US missions to the two countries played an integral role in mediating for their change of mind.

CONCLUSION

The standpoint of the US in fighting terrorism and matters international law has been widely evident through its different missions, embassies and consular all over the world. Their role has changed tremendously especially in terms of the observation of human rights. Several terror instances have equally shaped how the UN its mission all over the world pass laws in regards to the counter-terror measures. Though the war against terror has been a tough one the delimitation is that terrorists strike ones on civilians and declare that victory. The United sates do no negotiate with terrorist and it is serious matters when in conjunction with her missions all over the world and the UN declare a counter-terrorism approach that has respect for human rights. Long live the UN. Long live America.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Baehr-Jones, V. (2011). Mission Possible: How Intelligence Evidence Rules Can Save UN Terrorist Sanctions. Harv. Nat’l Sec. J., 2, 447.

 

Beauthier, H. (2008). VIEWS OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE UNDER ARTICLE 5, PARAGRAPH 4, OF THE OPTIONAL PROTOCOL TO THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS.

 

Biersteker, T. J. (2010). Targeted sanctions and individual human rights. International Journal: Canada’s Journal of Global Policy Analysis, 65(1), 99-117.

 

 

Bothe, M. (2008). Security Council’s Targeted Sanctions against Presumed Terrorists The Need to Comply with Human Rights Standards. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 6(3), 541-555.

 

 

 

Bures, O. (2010). EU’s fight against terrorist finances: Internal shortcomings and unsuitable external models. Terrorism and Political Violence, 22(3), 418-437.

 

Chesterman, S., Franck, T. M., & Malone, D. M. (2008). Law and practice of the United Nations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 

 

Clark, A. M. (2010). Diplomacy of conscience: Amnesty International and changing human rights norms. Princeton University Press.

 

Freedman, R. (2009). The United States and the UN Human Rights Council: An Early Assessment.

 

Forcese, C., & Roach, K. (2010). Limping into the Future: The UN 1267 Terrorism Listing Process at the Crossroads. George Washington International Law Review, 42.

 

 

Isanga, J. M. (2009). Counter-Terrorism and Human Rights: The Emergence of a Rule of Customary International Law from United Nations Resolutions. Denver Journal of International Law and Policy, 37(2).

 

Johnstone, I. (2008). Legislation and adjudication in the UN Security Council: Bringing down the deliberative deficit. American Journal of International Law, 275-308.

 

 

Kaunert, C. (2010). Towards supranational governance in EU counter-terrorism?-The role of the Commission and the Council Secretariat. Central European Journal of International & Security Studies,

4(1), 8-31.

 

Michaels, C. W. (2007). No greater threat: America after September 11 and the rise of a national security state. Algora Publishing.

 

Mustapha, A. A. (2014). United States-Nigeria Relations: Impact on Nigeria’s Security. NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA.

 

Ochieng, I. (2014). Humanitarian intervention, the right to protect: a case study of Somalia (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).

Papastavridis, E. (2007). Interpretation of Security Council Resolutions under Chapter VII in the aftermath of the Iraqi Crisis. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 56(01), 83-118.

 

 

Reich, J. (2008). Due process and sanctions targeted against individuals pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999). Yale journal of international law, 33(2), 505.

 

 

Smith, K. E. (2013). European Union foreign policy in a changing world. John Wiley & Sons.

 

Spanheimer, R. (2012). Justification for Creating an Ombudsman Privilege in Today’s Society. Marq. L. Rev., 96, 659.

 

 

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Boumediene vs. Bush Case

March 25, 2016

In this case, L Boumediene were captured in Afghanistan and detained in Guatemala Bay, Cuba following the CSRT designated him as an enemy combatant under the MCA and DTA Acts.  He requested a habeas corpus as he was not a member of any terrorist outfits in Afghanistan, but the District Court dismissed this decision based on the lack of jurisdiction.  As he was deemed as an enemy combatant, the DC could not hear a case of habeas corpus from him.  He appealed before the Supreme Court praying for review of DTA as it was not an adequate substitute for habeas corpus.

Under Art 1 Sec 9 of the US Constitution, habeas corpus cannot be suspended, unless it is found of rebellion or invasion of public safety.  He prayed for deeming the MCA as unconstitutional.  The Constitution provides power for the President and the Congress to acquire, dispose and govern the territory.  The Congress and the President did not have the power to decide the situations under which the terms of the constitution would apply. When the US Administration is acting outside its borders, the powers it has is not absolute or unlimited but subject to the limits as mentioned in the Constitution.  Justice Scalia decided to strike down the term ‘enemy combatant’ which provided for protection, and such a term would only be applicable in case of an ongoing military conflict following investigation and debate.  He designated the system failed because it did not apply to check the detainees, but to exercise federal control.  The DTA system is strike down because it cannot be an adequate substitute for habeas corpus and the rights possessed by the detainees cannot be corrected by the DTA system.

The Chief Justice opposed the DTA system as did not afford any protection in comparison to habeas corpus.  According to him, the detainees had the right to test the legality of their detention, and this limited process had to be supplied by the military tribunal.  This is required as a due process right to the detainee.

References

Dycus, S. Berney, A.L., Banks, W.C. (2016). National Security Law, Fifth Edition (Aspen Casebooks). Wolter Kluwer, New York.

FIND Law (2016). Boumediene v. Bush 553 U.S. ___ (2008). Retrieved on March 21, 2016, from: http://userpages.umbc.edu/~davisj/boum.htm

 

Implications of Integrated Working

March 23, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

Implications of Integrated Working

 

 

Student Name:

 

 

 

Nursing

Professor:

Institution:

City:

January 8, 2016

Part I: Overview of the Scenario Selected

Based on the presented child cases, I will focus on George’s case because it provides one of the best opportunities of depicting the implication and benefits of the integrated working. Specifically, at 6 years of age and in year one of study, George has a confirmed diagnosis of asthma that requires him to take medications on daily basis. His medical history shows that George has had a number of hospital admissions to manage asthma.

Nevertheless, the management of George’s condition is seemingly not convincing since he has a history of an asthmatic attack at school. Worryingly, his father (Winston) is a known smoker, although he has tried smoking cessation without success. George’s father serves as an administrator in a local council while his mother (Yvonne) is a full time mum. Since George’s parents need him to participate in various school activities, it is extremely important to have an integrated working strategy of helping George to be ready for the activities and at the same time achieve the necessary growth milestones at the right time.

Part 2: Contributions of Various Professionals/ Individuals in relation to Every Child Matters Outcomes, as well as Integrated Working

            Before describing the role that each member of the interdisciplinary team plays in helping George, it is important to understand the meaning of integrated working and Every Child Matters Outcomes. Integrated working occurs when different individuals supporting young people and children work together in making every child the center of attention, meeting their daily needs and ameliorating their lives (CWDC, 2008). Therefore, whether a nurse, sports coach, teacher, youth worker, or social worker, integrated working requires teamwork and consultations. Integrated working helps in ensuring that the children and their immediate families get simple and swift access to a range of complementary skills from a team of individuals or professionals.

By contrast, the aforementioned entail being healthy, staying or living safe, being able to enjoy/achieve in life, making positive contributions and attaining economic well-being (HCESC, 2005). The outcomes are enshrined in the 2004 Children Act, and serves as a national framework for improving the life of every child while narrowing gaps between lives of the children who do very well and the ones who do poorly.

In the case of George, various individuals/professionals may add value in his care. As an exemplar, George would require a school nurse, pediatrician, health visitor, teachers, counselor, carer, nutritionist, sports coach, the parents, the clergy, social worker and the family. Approaching the individual/ professionals’ roles from the outcomes, being healthy in this case as an outcome entails physical health, mental health, emotional health, healthy lifestyle and avoidance of drug abuse (HLT, 2014). For the achievement of this outcome, the school nurse would be very important in order to monitor George while in school so that he does not lack proper health care in case he develops an asthmatic attack.

Moreover, the nurse will work closely with George to make sure that he adheres to his medications. The nurse is also responsible for helping George’s father in stopping smoking for the benefit of George’s health. The nurse should thus emphasize to the father that smoking makes George to be a passive smoker, and may equally trigger an asthmatic attack. Furthermore, the pediatrician would help in guiding the nurse on how to manage George and will assess him regularly. Accordingly, the health visitor would pay frequent visits to George’s home in order to assess their living conditions and teach them how to avoid any allergens at home that may make George have frequent acute asthmatic attacks.

In addition, the counselor will address any stresses that George could encounter as he grows and hence help him to remain emotionally and mentally healthy (HLT, 2014). Finally, a nutritionist would suffice in prescribing a good diet for George, especially when he is sick so that he can be able to remain healthy even when he has an asthmatic attack. The sports coach should also ensure that George is active and fit to participate in the school activities that his parents want to see him engaging in during his academic journey.

The other outcome entailing staying safe encompasses safety from neglect, sexual exploitation, violence, and maltreatment (HM Government, 2013). Staying safe also means safety from death, accidental injury, discrimination, bullying, anti-social behavior and crime. Furthermore, staying safe equally means having security, being cared for and having stability.

For this outcome, the pediatrician would firstly be very important. Research indicates that wherever pediatricians work, they often encounter cases of child neglect and abuse (HM Government, 2010). The pediatrician can thus aid in recognizing any abuse to George and providing the reports for criminal investigations and civil proceedings. Accordingly, the teachers, parents, carers and the family need to work closely with George to protect him from any risks of abuse, neglect and maltreatment, among other safety issues mentioned above.

Furthermore, regarding the enjoyment, as well as achievement outcome, the members of the integrated working group should make sure that the child is ready to attend school when in session, enjoy schooling and attain the set primary education standards by the completion of primary school. The team should also work to ensure that George attains social and personal development, enjoys recreation and attains secondary school academic standards after his primary education (HCESC, 2005). In order to achieve the elements of this outcome, the parents and teachers need to collaborate in supporting George’s learning. The social worker can also be of great help in ensuring that George receives the appropriate learning support and if possible financial support where necessary.

In terms of the outcome on making positive contributions, George should be able to do certain things as he grows up. For instance, he should be able to participate in decision-making while at the same time supporting the environment and his community. Furthermore, he should be able to engage in positive and law-abiding behavior while in school and out of school (HM Government, 2013). Moreover, George should be able to develop some positive relationships, self-confidence and enterprising behavior.

In order to achieve the aforementioned outcome, George’s teachers should mentor him to doing the right things and engaging with the right clique of peers. From another perspective, his parents and the clergy should be ready to assist George to become a moral and God-fearing person so that he can remain ethical and equally get the healing that comes from God. His teachers should also be important, especially with respect to disciplining George whenever he commits a mistake.

Regarding the last outcome on attaining economic well-being, the multidisciplinary team should work to ensure that George grows to further his education, acquires more training and employment, lives in sustainable communities and decent homes, accesses material goods and transport while at the same time living in homes free from poverty or low income. The teachers, parents, extended family and carers should thus collaborate in helping George attain the elements of the aforementioned outcome or prepare to achieve them.

Part 3: How the Aforementioned Professionals/Individuals can Work with George’s Family in Providing the Integrated Service

            For purposes of effective integrated care for George, there is need for the team members to work together in setting realistic objectives and goals.  More often than not, planning determines the ease with which the team is able to achieve the outcomes. For effective planning, there is need for a leader to coordinate the process. In the case of George, it would be better if the parents played the leadership role.

Each member of the integrated working group should thus know the roles and responsibilities to pursue in caring for George. Moreover, each member should show utmost commitment to caring for George without slackening on the commitments.

Importantly, the leader should also arrange for occasional meetings where the team members would come together and discuss the way forward for George’s care. For instance, a formal meeting should take place once a month. The meetings would greatly help them to communicate whatever they would not have been able to communicate well through the online communication system if any is available.

In addition, the leader should prioritize the members who need to see George frequently and those that need to see him occasionally. For instance, a pediatrician can see George monthly or on demand. However, the school nurse should be able to talk to George on daily basis or at least thrice weekly. Furthermore, the health visitor can pay George’s parents a visit every month and the same for the nutritionist.

Part 4: Factors Enhancing/Inhibiting Integrated Working

Enhancing Factors

As the above-highlighted team integrates their care for George, there are certain factors that may enhance the care while others may hinder the care. In terms of the enhancers/enablers, commitment at every level of the partnership can act as a good facilitator. The commitment helps the team members to focus on their vision and have accountability for al resources that will help George. The other enhancer would be the clarity of the purpose of collaboration (Cameron et al. 2015). The team members thus need to have a long-term and coherent vision for George and work with common aims while ensuring collective ownership of the integrated work.

Furthermore, trust and strong relationships between the team members would be very important and hence the need for George’s parents to look for members who may have previously worked together, or they can even provide pragmatic timeframe for the team members to develop trust. In addition, strong leadership for the team is a major enhancer for purposes of directing the group, supervision, accountability and assisting in organizing who attends to George and on what day. The other enhancer would be an explicit understanding of responsibilities and roles for each team member (Robinson, Atkinson & Downing, 2008). The aforementioned professional/individuals thus need to comprehend the ways in which their respective roles fit with the integrated working structure.

Accordingly, good communication among the team of professionals/individuals can enhance good management of any problem that George encounters as he grows (Cameron et al. 2015). Finally yet importantly, regular assessment of George’s needs can be a great enabler of the collaborative working because the assessment will help in the development or restructuring of new set of services to meet George’s needs as he grows.

Inhibiting Factors

One of the inhibiting factors for the integrated working may be commitment obstacles whereby some team members may have other priorities, which may compromise the care given to George. In fact, that is the reason as to why effective leadership is imperative in order to organize and plan for the flow of the integrated work (Robinson, Atkinson & Downing, 2008).

From another perspective, cultural obstacles may inhibit effective collaboration because the team members may have varied professional beliefs and views (Brown & White, 2006). Actually, differing experience and qualification levels can cause conflicting views among the team members. Perhaps, that is the reason as to why everyone involved in the care of George should look at the work as a continuous learning process, which is prone to difficulties, tensions, and sometimes innovation and insights.

The other hindrance could involve organizational challenges whereby the team members fail to share the information they gather from George in good time. For instance, a pediatrician may assess George and fail to inform the school nurse of the new findings. In such a case, the nurse may not be aware of the new developments. Therefore, leadership is important in making sure that the professionals involved communicate effectively perhaps through a common online system (Cameron et al. 2015).

Finally yet importantly, contextual factors can hinder effective collaboration among the team members (Brown & White, 2006). As an exemplar, George’s parents may not be very welcoming or cooperative with every member in the team. Moreover, financial constraints may prevent George’s parents from implementing the integrated working for a long period since each professional would require receiving some pay.

Concisely, from the above discussion, it is clear that integrated working has various implications to the care of a young child, especially when the child has a chronic condition. Through integrated working, the child is able to get comprehensive quality care from specialists. In turn, the child grows appropriately and free of significant dangers or major challenges in life.  However, good leadership and respect are key factors towards the effective working of the integrated working. Perhaps, it is a good time that all parents devised a workable integrated working plan for their children.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference List

Brown, K & White, K 2006, ‘Exploring the evidence base for integrated children’s services’,     Scottish Executive Education Department , vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1-29, <     http://www.gov.scot/resource/doc/90282/0021746.pdf >

Cameron, A, Lart, R & Bostock, L 2015, ‘Factors that promote and hinder joint integrated        working between health and social care services’, Social Care Institute for Excellence ,         vol. 2, no. 41, pp. 1-23, <             http://www.scie.org.uk/publications/briefings/files/briefing41.pdf >

Children’s Workforce Development Council [CWDC] 2008, ‘Integrated working explained’,    Children’s Workforce Development Council Publication, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1-8, <             https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/182200/int            egrated_working_explained.pdf >

Hackney Learning Trust [HLT] 2014, ‘Children and young people’s services’, Resource Guide   for Professionals , vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1-110, <       http://www.hackney.gov.uk/Assets/Documents/CYPS_resource_guide.pdf >

HM Government 2013, ‘Every child matters: Change for children’, HM Government Publication          , vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1-32, <      http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130401151715/http://www.education.gov.u            k/publications/eOrderingDownload/DfES10812004.pdf >

HM Government 2010, ‘Working together to safeguard children’, Department for Children,      Schools and Families , vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1-393, <             http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130401151715/https://www.education.gov.u            k/publications/eorderingdownload/00305-2010dom-en-v3.pdf >

House of Commons Education and Skills Committee [HCESC] 2005, ‘Every Child Matters:     ninth report of session 2004-05’, House of commons education and skills committee         Publication, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1-79,             <http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200405/cmselect/cmeduski/40/40.pdf&gt;

Robinson, M, Atkinson, M & Downing, D 2008, ‘Integrated Children’s services: enablers          challenges and impact’, Research Briefing vol .1, no. 1, pp.  1-8, <             https://www.nfer.ac.uk/publications/CYl02/CYl02.pdf >

 

 

FACTORS THAT IMPACT ON PARENTS WITH PHYSICAL DISABILITIES

March 23, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

FACTORS THAT IMPACT ON PARENTS WITH PHYSICAL DISABILITIES

 

 

by Student’s Name

 

 

 

 

 

Code + Course Name

Professor’s Name

Institution of Learning

City, State

Date

 

 

 

Factors that Impact on Parents with Physical Disabilities

Introduction

In the contemporary society, physically disabled parents face a number of challenges ranging from lack of support from the government and inability to provide for their children in various ways. Other challenges include inability of parents to take care of their children in terms of provision of physical and psychological support. There are also a number of socioeconomic factors affecting parent with physical disabilities. An example of such an impact can be inability to engage in an economic activity that results into benefits to the children such as provision of basic needs such as food, clothing school fees and health care needs. Antle (2004) states that due to disability of parents, they rely on various forms of support from the government, the community or their immediate families for various needs which they can obtain on their own if they were not disabled. For instance, their physical disability may place them in a position where they are not able to cater for their health needs such as treatment.

According to Heiman (2002), the development of children whose parents are physically disabled suffer significantly. The essay seeks to delve into the factors that impact on parents with physical disabilities. This paper also explains the nature of physical disabilities that parents may have and the socioeconomic challenges they undergo in the care for their children or families. While the challenges affect parents with physical disabilities in the contemporary society, various solutions as well as policy issues that assist such parents so that they can live normal lives and their role as parents can be achieved. Lastly, this paper illustrates some of the socioeconomic factors faced by parents with physical disabilities as well as suggesting solutions to such challenges.

 

Forms of Physical Disabilities that Parents may Have

Various forms of physical disabilities may affect parents. In turn, this influences their abilities to care for younger children or take care of their homes and houses. An example of such a disability is mental disability. This is a state where the mental status of a parent is not effective and the parent is unable to reason in a rational manner during the care for their children. For instance, a parent who is mentally disabled will not be able to provide guidance to the children on the manner in which they need to behave themselves so that they become responsible members of the society (Johnson, 2000).

Another form of disability that can affect a parent is physical damage to part of the body such as damage to the leg or hands. Consequently, such a parent cannot perform certain tasks that are required to meet the needs of children. In addition, some parents can be faced with the physical disability of inability to hear or talk. Consequently, such a parent cannot communicate effectively with the children and may find difficulties in raising his or her children in a manner that is required of him or her. Communication in families can be greatly affected and the parent can have little control in the behaviours of his or her children (Law et al., 2007). Another physical challenge that might affect a modern parent is blindness. This may result from an illness that causes permanent blindness or a case where a parent is physically affected and becomes unable to see. Consequently, activities of a parent that require vision are greatly affected.

Challenges Faced By Parents with Physical Disabilities

Health Care Costs

An example of a challenge faced by is the health care costs that are associated with various forms of physical disabilities. When a parent is physically disabled, he, she or her or his children may need to undergo regular treatment in order to overcome such a condition. This results to additional costs by the government in the provision of such services to them. According to Prilleltensky (2004), in a case where the government fails to provide the services to the physically disabled parents, they are likely to incur personal expenses in the care for their personal health. This situation can be worsened when the parents have a low income or not employed at all. In most countries, governments have not set aside funds to cater for people with physical disabilities and they have to use personal finances to cater for their treatments. Consequently, they incur high costs while they also need to cater for the needs of their children.

According to Raina et al. (2005), an example of a policy that can be implemented to overcome this challenge if provision of funds aimed at assisting parents with disabilities meet their medical needs. For instance, it can involve provision of medical services to parents with disabilities at subsidised costs so that they incur only part of the medical expenditures. Another solution can be delivery of medical services within their home settings so that they do not incur bed costs while also enabling them to undertake their daily chores within the homes. In addition, the governments of respective countries can show concern for the health needs of parents with physical disabilities by providing medications within their home settings at no cost. These include medications that reduce pain and enable them meet their health needs and restore their health status.

Lack of Security for the Parents and Children

Contemporary parenting requires that parents must provide their children with physical security and act as refuge in case their children feel insecure. This is because in the contemporary society, children face different forms of threats such as kidnapers and harassment within the neighborhood. Resch et al. (2010) avow s that when parents are physically disabled, such as inability to walk or handle an object, the parent is unable to provide physical security to the children against aggressors or people who may cause physical harm to them or their children. As a result, children develop the tendency of being insecure and they are unable to live peacefully. For instance, it has been established that children whose parents are physically disabled develop the fear of engaging in particular activities such as playing with other children because they fear being offended while their parents are unable to provide security. For instance, it has been established that some parents may lose their properties such as land or houses because they are unable to protect themselves due to physical disabilities.

Despite these challenges, it has been established that there are solutions that are applicable in case there is lack of security due to physical disability of parents. An example of such a policy solution can be improving the level of security in the community with special attention to families where parents are physically disabled (Stewart et al., 2002). This is achievable through increased surveillance and informing members of the community to accord the right level of respect to all parents irrespective of their disabilities. Parents who feel that their families are at risk due their physical disabilities should report their cases to the authorities so that they can be provided with the necessary security.

In addition, governments should ensure security is enhanced among parents with physical disabilities by initiating a plan to educate the public about the need to be concerned about the welfare of parents with disabilities. It is believed that if such an action is taken, the public can be aware of their responsibilities to take care for people with disabilities rather than harming them.

Lack of Material Support for their Families

Contemporary parenting requires that parents must be involved in activities such as occupations that create income and can be used to cater for the needs of their families and children. Antle (2004) contends that if a parent is physically disabled, such a parent is unable to meet the material needs of his or her family. The result is that children may starve and their needs such as food, clothing, educational needs and shelter can be difficult to provide. For instance, a parent who has inability to walk from one place to another will not be in a position to go to work so that he or she can earn income to meet the needs of children. There are particular activities and occupations that require physical capabilities in order to earn an income and cater for the needs of one’s families or children.

When a parent is physically disabled, such a parent cannot meet the physical needs of children or his or her family needs. Despite this challenge, it has been suggested that particular recommendations can be effective in solving the problems of physically disabled parents to meet the needs of their families (Heiman, 2002). An example of such a solution has been the first priority for people with physical disabilities in employment positions during recruitment in employment. It has also been suggested that people with disabilities should be given lighter duties that comply with their capabilities. In a case where a parent is unable to provide physical needs of his or her children, such a parent should be provided with material support such as food, clothing and education for his or her children. The government can set aside funds aimed at helping people with disabilities. This will ensure the children of parents with physical disabilities accomplish their life dreams irrespective of the disabilities of their parents.

Exclusion from Major Decisions in the Community

Contemporary parenting requires that a parent must make particular decisions regarding his or her family. According to Johnson (2000), if such a parent is physically disabled, he or she is unable to make such decisions because the society will believe that his or her decisions are less effective in management of the affairs of the community. Consequently, such a parent may be excluded from discussions on the community and his or her family may be stigmatised. As a result, activities such as the share of government resources such as revenues may result into marginalization of people with disabilities in the community. For instance, national budgets may not account for the needs of people with physical disabilities and government support may be inadequate to meet their needs.

Law et al. (2007) assert that this challenge is achievable if measures such as representation of people with disabilities are implemented in national governing bodies of countries. Consequently, it will be possible to raise awareness about the challenges faced by people with disabilities so that their voices are heard. It is also suggested that during the share of resources in the community, people should not be discriminated against based on their physical inabilities. This will ensure parents of children with physical disabilities are not stigmatised during the making of particular decisions affecting them in the community.

Lack of Role Models or Discipline to the Children

Contemporary parenting requires that parents should act as role models for their children by acting in a manner that their children can copy their actions. If a parent is physically disabled such as not having hands to perform certain tasks, children do not have the ability to learn how to perform such tasks and they may not have role models. In the case of discipline, children whose parents have physical disability to see might not be in a position to know when a child has committed a mistake so that the child can be corrected (Law et al., 2007). The child may develop particular traits that are not preventable until the child reaches adulthood. Consequently, such children can become irresponsible in the community and they can be regarded as less beneficial to the community. In order to overcome this challenge, children whose parents are physically disabled should be allowed to participate in community activities such as provision of services that are important in the sustainability of the community.

Inability to Cope with the Pace of Modern Lifestyles

Notably, contemporary parenting requires that parents must perform a number of tasks that ensure their children are cared for while their needs such as bills are paid and they perform their routine tasks in an effective manner. Prilleltensky (2004) asserts that in a case where a parent is physically disabled, such a parent is unable to cope with particular pace of modern lifestyles such as inability to multitask in the caring for children. Furthermore, modern parenting requires that parents must introduce their children to various forms of technologies such as means of communication and modes of learning so that they can cope with the challenges in the connectivity with other people such as peers and teachers. If parents are disabled in any way, they are unable to understand the functionalities of modern means of communication and children can be greatly affected because they do not learn from their parents (Raina et al., 2005).

However, it is possible to overcome this challenge through provision of education to parents who are unable to cope with modern forms of technologies that ensure life is made less difficult. This can involve exposing disabled parents to these technologies or providing education to them as a policy issue. As a result, they will be able to understand the changes that have taken place and live modern lifestyles that enable them meet their daily needs with little strain.

Conclusion

This paper explains that major challenges that are faced by physically disabled parents in the contemporary parenting. It is found that some parents have the difficulty to hear, some have physical absence of parts of their bodies such as limbs, thus affecting their abilities to perform particular roles as parents. It is suggested that some of the challenges that can be faced by such parents are inability to meet their medical expenses, inability to cater for material support for their families and lack of role models as well as decline in their children’s discipline. In order to overcome the challenges illustrated, policy solutions are suggested. It is found that the government’s role is the most important in addressing the issue through provision of support for parents with disabilities. In addition, the community can play a role in ensuring the challenges faced by parents with physical disabilities are addressed. When the solutions suggested in the paper are implemented, it is believed that physical disability will not be an impediment in the achievement of the needs of parents with physical disabilities.

 

Reference List

Antle, B.J., 2004. Factors associated with self-worth in young people with physical

disabilities. Health & Social Work29(3), p.167.

Heiman, T., 2002. Parents of children with disabilities: Resilience, coping, and future

expectations. Journal of developmental and physical disabilities,14(2), pp.159-171.

Johnson, B.S., 2000. Mothers’ perceptions of parenting children with disabilities. MCN: The

            American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing25(3), pp.127-132.

Law, M., Petrenchik, T., King, G. and Hurley, P., 2007. Perceived environmental barriers to

recreational, community, and school participation for children and youth with physical

disabilities. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation88(12), pp.1636-1642.

Prilleltensky, O., 2004. My child is not my carer: mothers with physical disabilities and the

well‐being of children. Disability & Society19(3), pp.209-223.

Raina, P., O’Donnell, M., Rosenbaum, P., Brehaut, J., Walter, S.D., Russell, D., Swinton, M.,

Zhu, B. and Wood, E., 2005. The health and well-being of caregivers of children with

cerebral palsy. Pediatrics115(6), pp.e626-e636.

Resch, J.A., Mireles, G., Benz, M.R., Grenwelge, C., Peterson, R. and Zhang, D., 2010. Giving

parents a voice: A qualitative study of the challenges experienced by parents of children

with disabilities. Rehabilitation Psychology55(2), p.139.

Stewart, D.A., Law, M.C., Rosenbaum, P. and Willms, D.G., 2002. A qualitative study of the

transition to adulthood for youth with physical disabilities. Physical & Occupational

            Therapy in Pediatrics21(4), pp.3-21.

 

 

Balancing Correspondence Studies with Work, Family, and other Responsibilities

March 21, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

Balancing Correspondence Studies with Work, Family, and other Responsibilities

Name:

Institutional affiliation:

 

 

Balancing Correspondence Studies with Work, Family, and other Responsibilities

My job as a banker is very involving since I have to work for almost ten hours. Moreover, I have to attend evening classes for my masters as well as play soccer, which is my hobby. To achieve this I need to manage my time effectively. Time management can be defined as the act or process of planning and exercising control on the time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity (Bure & Wilkerson, 2014, p.8).  My job runs for nine and a half hours a day and six days a week. The work involves a lot of interaction with customers, demands unmatched concentration, high accuracy and requires speed. Most of the times I have to make numerous visits to my customers’ premises especially when I am processing their loans. Other times, I have to make tough and rough decisions especially when I am making loan recovery from delinquent customers. Maintaining good customer relationship as well as achieving the various key performance indicators is sometimes very delicate. However, one must ensure that there is a balancing act since productivity is key for this job as it has a lot of direction on your promotion and overall career growth. Sometimes it calls for working for long hours in order to meet strict deadline and to bridge on the stretching targets. This leaves no or minimal time for other activities that I enjoy or I am obligated to do. I have to attend evening classes three days a week from Six thirty in the evening to Eight O’clock. I have to attend over seventy percent of the lectures in order to abide with the University’s regulation. More so, the course is very challenging and the lecturers’ input, I find it very vital. I have to submit the course assignment on time as well as create time for my academic project, which has so far consumed a lot of resources in terms of time and money. My hobby is playing soccer since I also have passion and it helps me to remain physically fit as well entertain myself. However, I have to create time for this since my current schedule is very tight yet I cannot forego what I enjoy most.

I plan my day and week both manually and electronically. Manually, I use a physical diary where I record all my week’s work. Further, I use my phone to record activities electronically. My evening classes occur on Monday, Tuesday, and Thursday. This leaves Wednesday, Friday and Saturday as the only days, which I am able to attend to soccer. My day begins at Five O’clock in the morning where I prepare and refresh myself for the day. I leave for work at Six O’clock so that I am in office at Seven thirty. Referring to my diary, I then know the customer to attend to first in matters pertaining to either loan processing, loan follow up or recovery. At work, I first handle those cases that I perceive that they need immediate attention as well as those cases that my supervisor needs to be addressed. I then leave the branch to attend to the clients in the field at exactly eleven o’clock up to one o’clock. After returning to the branch, I then arrange the various tasks with their need for urgency. I then wind my day at five thirty in the evening when I then attend to my other tasks. Referring to my diary, I then check whether it is the day for attending classes or for keeping physically fit. If it is a class day, I then check the specific unit that I shall be attending. I am at class before six thirty when the lecture begins. Using my phone, I then update any emerging issue during the lecture such as deadline for submission of the assignment or any change regarding the examinations dates. The day when there are no classes, I then attend to the playground and I ensure that I am there at exactly half past five so that I can have adequate time to do vital exercises before the ball work begins. Sometimes these tasks tend to overlap thus requiring continuous adjustment to the diary.

 

References

Bure, C. & Wilkerson, D. (2014). Balancing it all : my story of juggling priorities and purpose. Nashville, Tennessee: B & H Publishing Group.

 

Dove: Questions

March 21, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dove: Questions

 

 

 

Name:

Course:

College:

City:

Date:

 

 

 

 

  1. Dove’s use of Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning to Achieve a Competitive Advantage

Dove is one of Unilever’ master brands whose success has been drawn by careful segmentation, targeting a particular segment and positioning the product to fulfill the people’s needs. Segmentation theory acknowledges the heterogeneity of all markets (Jaman 2012). Consequently, companies like Unilever are able to generate their marketing mix after analyzing the behaviors, characteristics and needs of each market and create a communication strategy that appeals to them. The theory also asserts that there are several homogenous groups within any market (Jaman 2012). The success of any firm in a market depends on whether it can be able to target the groups that feel ignored by competitors (Ramaswamy 2013).

(Khan, 2013)

The Dove product segments the market according to self esteem levels (Deighton 2008). Unilever submits that there are people that believe that the current definition of beauty is attainable, while others believe that it is not. This is an example of psychographic segmentation because it is directed at the emotional state of consumers. The fact that it segments the target into male and female means it also uses demographic segmentation (Khan, 2013). It also focuses on the benefits that the brand can offer consumers, which qualifies it as benefit segmentation; it is not based on observable characters but aims at making consumers perceive positive change in their minds and attribute the change to the products (Jaman 2012). The brand targets the latter group and goes ahead to promote their product in a way that appeals to them; that makes them feel the need to use the products. Since the brand’s management based their segmentation on market research, they did post hoc market segmentation (Hunt & Arnett 2004). This is in recognition of the fact that in the dynamic contemporary society, miss-segmenting a market is worse than assuming that the needs and attributes of a mass market are the same (Ramaswamy, 2013).

In practice, the created segments must be in actual existence and not a creation of a marketer’s imagination (Hunt & Arnett 2004). It must also be quantifiable in terms of purchasing power and market size. The aforementioned conditions are often difficult to fulfil because of the non-existence of readymade data. However, the managers of the brand were able to comply with the standards. There are millions of people in the US, and around the world, who believe they are not beautiful because of the current definitions of beauty (Deighton 2008). The segments created from self esteem issues are also measurable. Slender women feel more comfortable in their bodies and feel confident in their bodies than bigger women. The inclusion of a psychologist in the segmentation process is testament to the segments created by self esteem issues. Data is not in any way needed to prove that the self esteem issue exists in human beings and that causes that can be addressed through the use of beauty products are more prevalent in women than men.

One of the key requirements for segmentation is that the business prospects of the segments must be substantial and stable for a relatively long period of time (Jaman 2012). The issue of perceptions of beauty has been around for a long time. It is also poised to stay for a long time to come. Therefore, the segments created and the one targeted is financially viable and stable. Therefore, the segmentation process of the Dove brand creates a competitive advantage for the company. In addition, Unilever’s research revealed that it is only a meagre 2% of women that find themselves beautiful, means that 98% of women fall under the target market, making it quite a sizeable segment (Deighton 2008).

The brand’s mission is not to “make women feel more beautiful”, but rather to make “more women feel beautiful (Deighton 2008).” This means that the product is not positioned to enhance the appearance of women, but to make them feel better about their real selves. It changes the idea of beauty from an elitist one to one that is all-encompassing, egalitarian and celebratory. This augurs well with the brand’s target segment; women that feel like they do not fit into the perception of beauty. As Unilever’s competitors compete in changing the appearance of women, Dove, through its products, incorporates all women in its broad definition. This emotional appeal hands it a competitive advantage, by challenging existing norms. It is assisted by the fact that its new model of beauty would be appreciated by more people, including those that have issues with themselves.

The segmentation, targeting and positioning strategy adopted by Dove does not rely solely on descriptive factors but rather factors that have a causal relationship with buying behaviour in the future. Basing their strategy on factors that can predict consumer’s buying behaviour in the future enables them to pursue a segment that its competitors never knew existed (Jaman 2012). The technique used by Dove underscores the belief that real market segments exist because of the fundamental reason that people consume particular products simply because they seek certain benefits. Therefore, any brand seeking competitive advantage must show consumers that its products shall provide the benefits (Hunt & Arnett 2004). In this case, there is a true segment that seeks to feel beautiful and would consume Dove products just to attain that benefit. This hands the brand a competitive advantage over its competitors.

The segment that the management of Dove targeted is a premium segment; the customers are not price sensitive because of the product is perceptually different. Therefore, the segment is accessible to the brand because it does not have to compete on price because their product is differentiated, thus reducing competition. The target enables Unilever to attain a differentiation advantage, which leads to a competitive advantage. Due to differentiation, barriers to entry exist meaning that new companies need to do a lot so as to compete with Unilever in the same segment.

The market segmentation, targeting and positioning of Unilever enable Unilever to conduct research and make changes without losing market share. The brand has continuously evolved, but its sales have been stable and sometimes gone up. The brand changed its positioning from one of functionality to a point of view, while still maintaining its market share (Deighton 2008). Had it chosen a different segmentation technique, the targets and positioning would also be different. However, any huge changes to the brand like the change of a brand from a moisturizer to an idea on beauty, like Dove did, would have unsettled it and exposed it to competition. This shows that the current techniques have enabled it gain competitive advantage; there is no threat of competition even when the company is making whole scale changes.

In marketing, positioning does not entail changes to a product but rather what a brand to prospective consumer’s mind (Ramaswamy 2013). Its positioning enables the brand to be perceived as different even though the products within the master brand serve the same physical purposes as those of their competitors. According to the positioning strategy, Dove products enable women to take better care of their bodies. However, it all starts in the mind; they start by believing that they are beautiful since the product broadens the definition and strive to remain attractive by taking care of their bodies.

Despite its documented success and upsides, Dove’s segmentation, targeting and positioning is inconsistent with some of the products under the Masterbrand, for example, the firming cream. This is because the use of firming cream is consistent with stereotypes of beauty that the brand seeks to diminish. It is widely believed that women with firm bodies are beautiful, a belief that the firming cream enhances. Therefore, its products and positioning are in conflict, which can negatively affect the competitive edge that the brand ought to have.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

Deighton, J. 2008. Dove: Evolution of a Brand. Harvard Business School , 1-13.

Hunt, S. D., & Arnett, D. B. 2004. Market Segmentation Strategy, Competitive Advantage, and Public Policy: Grounding Segmentation Strategy in Resource-Advantage Theory. Australasian Marketing Journal , 7-25.

Jaman, M. 2012. Critical Analysis of Segmentation Strategy For Potential Product Launch – Mapping The Customers. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research , 62-65.

Khan, T. 2013. STP strategy for New Product Launch-a Work in Progress. International Journal of Business and Management Invention , 56-65.

Ramaswamy. 2013. Marketing Management. New Delhi, India: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Evaluation of Dove’s Chances of Continued Success as a Global Brand

For Dove to achieve continued success as a global brand, it must be able to appropriately adapt to the external environment and hence survive and flourish in the long run despite the level of competition. It must also take its opportunities and address threats to its business and market share in global markets. Therefore, before addressing its chances of continued success, an analysis of the brand’s opportunities and threats is imperative.

Opportunities

In the next 5-10 years, Dove has several opportunities on which it can capitalize to increase its sales and market share. The first opportunity arises from the other segments that the brand does not target. It targets women only (Deighton 2008). Men’s demand for body care products has been on the rise. Therefore, the brand can expand to men’s shaving creams and baby body lotions. The new market will surely be able to improve its sales and image as a huge brand around the world. The brand can also expand its product line to include post-natal and natural products.

Secondly, the level of consumer consumption in developing nations also creates a larger market for Dove products. Traditionally, they were buying less as compared to developing nations but that trend is slowly changing. In addition, the urban population in those nations has also been on the rise. Cognizant of the fact that Dove products are popular among urban dwellers, the rise of consumption rates of these groups presents the brand with an opportunity to augment its market share. The shift in levels of consumption is illustrated by the pie-charts below. BRIC refers to Brazil, Russia, India and China, while G7 is the traditional group of 7. RoW is the rest of the world; consumption increases from 17% to 22% in the course of the current decade.

 

(Sachs 2013)

The other opportunity is with regards to quality. The management of the brand can expand its appeal and acceptance around the globe by improving the quality of its products. The company can also unify its advertisements all over the world since the idea of self esteem is universal. That would enable it to reduce advertisement costs and drive prices down.

There is also room for innovation that can propel the brand’s sales. Innovation can involve making alterations to the product or marketing strategy to enhance the appeal, accessibility and affordability of the products selling under the brand. It is innovation that can help it expand its market to the male and baby products segments because their needs, behaviours and attributes are totally different from those of women. The growth of the body wash segment and the sale of non-deodorant soap in the global market also present an opportunity that the brand can capitalize on. The company can put in the right measures to expand its share within the segment and that would directly translate to increased revenue, profit and contribution to the economy.

Since the fashion industry is slowly embracing women other than slender models, the brand can collaborate with the industry to promote its idea of real beauty and show how far the idea has grown. They can also start collaborating with some moderate feminist groups to promote their notion of beauty. However, they should avoid groups that would likely have a polarizing effect on the population. The brand also has the opportunity to integrate the marketing idea into all aspects of the brand and mother company. In that way, products will be created with a clear marketing idea in mind, which can only be beneficial to the brand’s sales.

The brand also has the opportunity to engage in more environment friendly activities and incorporate environment friendly measures to its operations and supply chain. Although it produces organic products, the process of making them as well as packaging can be transformed to become more eco-friendly (Ramaswamy, 2013). This would include ensuring it reduces the levels of emissions it releases into the air, reducing the amount of water used in its companies and not releasing waste products into water bodies. Contemporary customers are more sensitive to environmental conservation than the generations before. Therefore, environmental friendliness would increase its appeal to consumers.

Threats

The first threat that the brand faces is a consumer backlash if they perceive the real beauty campaign as unauthentic. That would deal a blow to the brand image. People consume products because they believe and trust the company and brand making them. However, if that trust is lost, the image loses its appeal, losing customers as a result. The bid to question socially accepted norms, values and definitions is against the whole idea of marketing. In marketing practice, companies conduct cultural comparisons before promoting a product in a different culture. This is because people are more comfortable buying products that appreciate their cultural orientation. The company might have triggered a fad, one that is set to die away as people stick by their definitions of beauty. If that happens in the next 5-10 years, it would kill off the brand and everything that it stands for. The brand also runs the risk of losing its attraction as an archetypal beauty product because of its attempts to change the definition of beauty.

The brand faces intense competition from other brands likes Nivea and Olay. Although Dove possesses superior marketing techniques as compared to other brands, brands like Nivea are expanding and could eat into Dove’s market share in the near future. This is particularly because Dove’s campaign is easily replicable by other companies to dilute its appearance as the only company vouching for a wider definition of beauty. The similarity of Dove’s products to those sold by other companies is also a threat. The similarity goes a long way in showing that Dove’s products are not any different after all. It can also destroy the brand image as it would appear like the company deliberately misled the public. In addition, if a competitor comes up with a product that enhances beauty, consumers would be tempted to change into the new product.

The brand also appears to undermine customers’ aspirations. Since women always want to look better, they would quickly ignore any product that does not promise to enhance their appearance. This is especially when a product comes at a high cost. Eventually customers might start questioning the wisdom of paying so much for a product that will make them look ordinary. If and when that happens, Dove’s sales would drastically go down. The brand also runs the risk of being known as the brand for fat girls. That would threaten the company’s appeal because of societal association of fatness and lack of beauty.

Evaluation

Dove has been quite innovative from a marketing perspective, continuously evolving the positioning strategy. With room for innovation as one of the opportunities, it has the chance to capitalize on one of its biggest strengths. However, it must also be able to prevent replication because that will dilute the novelty of the idea the brand has promoted for a decade. The male market can help it tweak its positioning to incorporate beauty without a gender perspective. The increase of organizations with which it can partner increases its chances of survival. The fashion industry and feminists can immensely reinvigorate the “Real Beauty” campaign and act as an endorsement. The acceptance of the new definition of beauty by the fashion industry can also cause a seismic shift in defining the concept for the benefit of the brand. The brand has personalized the concept of appealing to the ‘real self’ instead of the ‘ideal self’. This concept addresses the issue of women’s aspirations, proving that the real self is also a viable target in marketing. In view of the aforementioned opportunities and strengths, the position of Dove as a global brand is not under any imminent threat. The threats can be easily addressed as the company capitalizes on opportunities available.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

Deighton, J. 2008. Dove: Evolution of a Brand. Harvard Business School , 1-13.

Malär, L., Krohmer, H., Hoyer, W. D., & Nyffenegger, B. 2011. Emotional Brand Attachment and Brand Personality: The Relative Importance of the Actual and the Ideal Self. Journal of Marketing , 35-52.

Ramaswamy. 2013. Marketing Management. New Delhi, India: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.

Sachs, G. 2013. The theme machine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Auditory Sense: Hearing

March 18, 2016

The Auditory Sense: Hearing

The human auditory system is critical to speech perception and translation. What are the components making up the human hearing system? What role does each part of the hearing system play? How does sound reach the ear? How is sound translated to be meaningful? Each of these questions and concepts relating to the human hearing system will be answered and discussed below.

The system of human auditory allows the body to interpret and collect sound waves into meaningful messages. The ear is the primary sensory organ responsible for hearing. The ear is made up of three parts, inner, middle and outer ears. The inner part of the ear I responsible for hearing and equilibrium through the receptor cells found in it. The human ear can estimate the source of a given sound which is referred to as localization (Schnupp, Nelken & King, 2011).

In an experiment aimed at understanding how sound travels especially through solids, children are asked to sit in a circle. They are then asked if they can hear the sound and whether they can identify its source as well. For the sound to reach the eardrum, vibrations from the voice box generate tiny particles in the air that make the eardrum vibrates. In an experiment to determine if sound can move through solids, a pupil is to stand outside a wall and away from a window. The teacher is to speak some words of the class, and if the pupil hears the teacher talk, they are to move back to class.

Among the five senses in humans, hearing is considered as most significant. This is because, through hearing, humans can communicate with others by receiving and interpreting signals. Hearing originates from pressure waves hitting auditory canal which ends when the brain perceives it. Reception of sound occurs in the ears; pinna collects attenuates, reflects or amplifies the sound waves. After the reception, sound waves travel through the auditory canal into the ear drum. In the ear drum, the sound waves cause pressure variations which make the eardrum vibrate. These vibrations set the cochlea fluid into motion, and the fluid in return splits the sound to its respective place (Van Deun et al., 2009).

The hair cells as well play a critical part in making the ear fulfill its purpose. It is the hair cells in the ear that are responsible for performing transduction of the sound waves into diverse electrical insults. The auditory nerve fibers that connect to the hair cells of the spiral ganglion then transmit the electrical signals to the brain stem. It is through the hearing system that humans can detect various qualities of signals and choose the best that does not cause harm to the ear. This implies that the hearing system can identify the specific location, loudness and pitch of a sound (Tzounopoulos & Kraus, 2009).

Unlike the visual system that combines wavelengths to generate a color, the hearing system does not mix frequencies to generate a sound. Rather, the hearing system separates complex sound into their frequencies making humans able to follow different instruments when listening to music or conversation. Irrespective of the nature or intensity of sound, the vibrations are all directed to the eardrum through the auditory canal and in return makes the eardrum vibrates. It is the role of the hammer (malleus) to transmit vibrations to the anvil from where the vibration is carried to stapes or stirrup. The hammer is attached to the tympanic membrane. From the stapes, the oval window is pushed causing separation of the air-filled middle ear and inner ear. In the process, the snail-shaped cochlea of the inner ear produces waves (Ahuja & Ahuja, 2007).

The hearing system through the cochlea can separate frequencies. On one side, higher note makes one part of the cochlea basilar membrane vibrate while a lower note causes a similar effect on the diverse region of the basilar membrane. Along the basilar membrane are hair cells that generate electrical signals. These signals have the ability to excite about 30,000 auditory nerve fibers (Ahuja & Ahuja, 2007).

 

As noted above, the auditory nerve takes signals to the brainstem. Because the hair cells ride on various basilar membranes, they can respond to varying frequencies. Analysis of the auditory information is then done through the brain center as it flows to the superior auditory cortex. The adjacent neurons in the auditory cortex tend to respond to tones of similar frequency and normally specialize to a diverse combination of tones. Some of them respond to pure tones such as those of flute, some too complex sounds like those made by violin (Manley & Fay, 2007).

Finally, tones vary in length of response because some respond to short, some too long and others rise or fall in frequency. As a way of recognizing a word or an instrument, some neurons might use the specialized neurons to blend information that is available. Within the two sides of the brain, sounds are differently processed in the auditory cortex. This is the reason some humans have the left side is dedicated to production and perception of speech. Due to different ways the auditory cortex process sound, it is possible to see a person whose left auditory cortex has suffered stroke able to hear but cannot understand what is being said (Manley & Fay, 2007).

In conclusion, in its role to as a hearing organ, the ear has some parts that make it. Each part of the ear has a role to play and in the absence of any of the part, the complete hearing process cannot be achieved. The brain too has a contribution to make to complete the hearing cycle by translating electrical signals. The ear is therefore a very critical organ in humans.

 

References

Schnupp, J., Nelken, I., & King, A. (2011). Auditory Neuroscience: Making sense of sound. MIT Press

Van Deun, L., Van Wieringen, A., Van den Bogaert, T., Scherf, F., Officers, F. E., Van de Heyning, P. H. … & Wouters, J. (2009). Sound localization, sound lateralization, and binaural masking level differences in young children with normal hearing. Ear and Hearing30(2), 178-190.

Tzounopoulos, T., & Kraus, N. (2009). Learning to encode timing: mechanisms of plasticity in the auditory brainstem. Neuron62(4), 463-469

Manley, G. A., & Fay, R. R. (Eds.). (2007). Active processes and otoacoustic emissions in hearing (Vol. 30). Springer Science & Business Media

Ahuja, P., & Ahuja, G. C. (2007). How to Listen Better. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Victimology in Regards to Gun Violence in America

March 18, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Victimology in Regards to Gun Violence in America

Student’s Name:

Institutional Affiliation:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Victimology in Regards to Gun Violence in America

Gun violence has become a hot topic and a thorny issue in the United States of America, with the recent spree of mass shootings and attacks on innocent civilians in public places.  This situation has largely been attributed to the large number of guns in the hands of the American public, given that the Second Amendment to the US Constitution guarantees every American the right to own and possess guns legally for the purposes of self-defense. However, more often than not, most of these guns have infiltrated into the hands of criminals, religious extremists and terrorists.  As a matter of fact, statistics from theUnited NationsOffice for Drug Control (UNODC) shows that the US leads in the number of guns globally and has the highest rates of reported gun violence than other countries in the world such as Britain with similar gun possession laws. The increased incidences of gun violence has also been blamed on weak legal and legislative framework , coupled with the fact that efforts to have strong gun control laws have always been met with resistance given that the issue has taken a largely political dimension. Whereas the Obama administration has promised to tighten the noose on gun violence criminals through more effective gun control laws, such efforts are likely to be thwarted by lack of a bipartisan approach to the issue of gun control.  For example, as Zurcher (2015) observes, the US Republican dominated Congress has blocked all gun control efforts in the past. This paper looks at the aspect of victimization of gun violence and other issues surrounding gun violence in the US.

Data, Studies and Statistics of Gun Violence in US

According to the BBC (2016), “the number of gun murders per capita in the US in 2012 was approximately 30 times that in the UK, 30% more than in Canada and 32 % more than that in the Australia” (p. 3).  According to this source, there are close to 300 million guns in the hands of US citizens alone which mean one gun for very US citizen, making the country the leading in terms of guns available in the public hands. And yes, recent research studies also show that the US has more gun elated violence than any other democracies like Canada, UK, Australia and France. As Venkataraman (2011) observes,  the rates of gun violence in the US are significantly higher than that in other Western democracies, partly due to the fact that most parts of the country  were dominated by anarchy  and violence up to the late twentieth century coupled by the fact that people relied no more on the government to protect them. Moreover, the author argues this is the case in the US and not in any other democracy because Americans are less willing to give up their Constitutional Second Amendment rights to self-protection so easily.                Moreover, given that the first government of the US was a democratic one, the concept of gun ownership and freedom of free use of guns got entrenched in the US so that taking away or limiting such rights has become difficult even for the current Obama administration due to fierce opposition from politicians and lobby groups. Moreover, this is not the case in other European democracies because there, the democratized governments carried out disarmament exercise and took control of all guns unlike the US where such efforts have born no fruits. Furthermore, statistical information from the Gun Violence Archive shows that gun violence, particularly in the past one decade has been on the rise and higher than that in other democracies.

Frequency of Mass Shootings in the US

A mass shooting refers to a single shooting incident that kills and injures four or more people inclusive of the shooter. The rates and frequencies of mass shootings have almost tripled in the last five years in the US. All these have enhanced calls for tighter gun regulation but with little success (Gunter, 2015).  According to Palazzolo and Flynn (2015), research and statistics from the State and Federal Departments of Criminal Justice increasingly show that the US leads in the number of mass shootings using handheld guns and other firearms authorized by the current gun laws. This situation has been blamed by the Obama administration on lack of effective and properly crafted gun control laws. According to the Mas Shooting Tracker, “the total number of mass shootings in the US in 2015 alone was 372 that killed 475 people and wounded 1870 more” (Palazzolo & Flynn, 2015, p. 2). Examples of these shootings that have painted a grim picture on gun control laws in America include the Sandy Hook Elementary school in New Town in 2012, the Aurora College shootings in 2012, Charles Town shooting in 2014 at a historic black church, San Bernardino in California in 2015.

These mass shootings have suddenlyalmost tripled in the last half a decade in the US, with most pundits blaming this on weak gun control laws and the paradoxical support that gun ownership receives from a majority of Americans.  The main reason for the increase in mass shootings over the last decade may be because of the concomitant increase in the number of guns in the hands of the American public and also the emergence of extremist groups like ISIS and Al-Qaeda that are hell-bent on bringing America down and revenging on its people. Furthermore, this increase in shootings could be due to the infiltration of foreign immigrants to the US disguised as asylum seekers and refugees from war torn countries like Syria while their real intent is to get a soft landing spot to carry out their ill intentions.  This situation has been mainly attributed to the relaxed immigration laws or policies that have led to porous US borders.

 

 

The Impact and Effectiveness of the Gun Control Bill

Sealing Loopholes in Current Gun Control Laws

Concerned about the increased number of mass shootings in the US, President Obama introduced into the US Congress a piece of legislation aimed at tightening gun ownership regulation amid divisions between Republicans and Democrats as to the effectiveness of such laws. The Bill has provisions that seek, inter alia, to limit the ammunition magazines to ten rounds and require that criminal background checks be conducted for al gun sale, including the currently exempted private sellers.   One of the reasons why these provisions will help reduce gun violence at least to some extent is that these provisions of the law will help seal some of the loop holes that currently exist in the American gun control laws  such as the exemption of private gun sellers from frequent background checks. It is through this lack of a proper background check that criminals find it easier to purchase and use illegal arms to perpetrate mass shootings and murders of the American people.

Keeping Guns out of Wrong Hands

Expansion of background checks on guns according to Webster and Vernick (2013) will help reduce gunviolence by keeping illegal guns out of wrong hands. By empowering the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) to require all gun sellers whether private or public to get licenses and allow background checks on their gun stores, it will be possible to manage and track the flow of firearms.  Moreover, these gun control laws will be effective in controlling gun violence by increasing the mental health treatment, lack of which has been blamed for some of the gun violence by mentally retarded individuals who possess guns illegally. Information from the Bureau of Justice Statistics show that through the background check system,  the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) has  managed to prevent more than two million  guns  that would have otherwise gotten into wrong hands.

More Effective Enforcement and Funding Required for Success

Making the background check system more effective and efficient is important in ensuring that only genuine people possess guns and that criminals don’t get the opportunity to illegally use guns to kill innocent Americans. However, without effective and smart gun control law enforcement, not much may be achieved by the new gun control legislation proposed by the Obama administration. Furthermore, without enough funding and political goodwill to enforce the gun control laws, such a proposal as background checks may not achieve the desired results. Additionally, besides these tough gun control laws, there is an urgent need for gun safety technology to be embraced by the federal executive and states to help prevent theoccurrence of gun violence in the future. The reduction or limitation of the number of ammunitions in the guns possessed by citizens to ten rounds is also a good idea since it will help minimize the impact that gun shots have on the victims of mass shootings or gun violence in America.  For instance, according to a study by DeGrazia (2014), the type of gun used by James Holmes, “the assailant in the Aurora Colorado mass shooting was 100-round ammunition that he used to kill 12 people and wounded 58 others” (p. 4) . Thus, limiting the number of ammunitions to 10 would help reduce the number of casualties in case of attacks. This is what the author calls a ‘moderate gun control’ that does not totally interfere with or remove the right to bear arms.

 

 

My Stance on President Obama’s Gun Control Measures

I fully support President Obama’s gun control measures for a number of reasons. To begin with, the gun control measures will help protect Americans from future gun violence and attacks since through the executive orders; the previous loopholes that were apparent in the federal laws allowing convicted felons to purchase dangerous weapons from private sellers without any background checks will be sealed.  Secondly, the gun control measures put in place or proposed by the President will keep in check those who intend to use illegal firearms to kill American citizens. With the new laws, it will be easier to track gun ownership and hence ensure that only those who are legally legible to own guns possess guns. Moreover, the Obama’s gun control measures will help keep illegal weapons out of the hands of wrong people such as extremists and criminals thus ensuring the safety and security of the country. This assertion or view is supported by a study by Hahn et al. (2015).

Reasons America has not had a New Gun Control Law the Past Decade

Constitutional Right to Bear Harms and US Politics

Since the right to possess arms entrenched in the US Constitution through the Second Amendment to the document, no new substantive and comprehensive gun control measures have been enacted into law in the past decade. The main reason cited for this state of affairs is the polarization and politicization of the issue of gun control. Due to diverse political views and stances taken in the US Congress by both Republican and Democratic members, it has been difficult to have any new gun control proposal or Bill passed. Depending on the number of members in each side of the political divide, gun control measures and proposals have often been shot down on the floor of the Congress based on political lobbying.  As a result of this fact, President Obama’s decision to introduce anew gun control law in the US Congress at a time when political temperatures are high has been hailed by many such as Hillary Clinton as a brave step towards safeguarding the lives of the American people.

Strong Anti-Gun Control Campaigners and Lobby Groups

Furthermore, the existence of very strong gun ownership lobby groups and associations such as the National Rifle Association has had significant influence on the passage of any gun control measure into law.  Such gun rights lobbyists have managed over the years to prevent any legislation gun control and also gained massive support from US citizens and politicians who are against gun control laws. In fact, some of the Republican Presidential aspirants like Ted Cruz have been quoted accusing the current Obama administration of attempts and intentions of “taking away your (American citizens’) rights to own guns without amending the Constitution”.

All these have worked against any efforts to have a meaningful gun control law in the US. The NRA has for instance blasted Obama’s executive measures as being too emotional, ripe for abuse, baseless being based on no statistics and a usurpation of his Presidential powers under the Constitution.  It has instead painted a picture of a situation whereby the new law will give the federal government the right to confiscate Americans’ guns, make it harder for law-abiding citizens to legally obtain guns and represents a serious affront or violation of the Second Amendment rights. There have also emerged arguments by the gun possession advocates against gun control laws to the effect that ‘criminals don’t follow gun laws’ and ‘gun control only hurts law-abiding US citizens’. All these have created a bad impression on the gun control campaign in the US and hence thwarted any efforts or measures to have a new gun control law.  These arguments against gun control measures and laws are not only misleading but also devoid of a serious consideration of the social impacts that relaxed gun control laws have on the safety and protection of American citizens.

Liberal Interpretation of Gun Control Statutes by US Courts

The US courts have also consistently interpreted the Constitutional right of American citizens to hold firearms in a rather liberal manner thus thwarting any federal or state legislation that is deemed to be unduly restricting this right to use guns for self-protection, defense, sporting and hunting purposes. Examples of such decisions are Bliss v. Commonwealth (1822), US v Miller, McDonald v Chicago, and District of Columbia v Heller.

Scientific Data and Studies Associated with Victimization with Regards to Gun violence in US

Gun Violence Victimization and Race

According to a survey conducted in 2011 by the US Department of Justice of the Bureau of Justice statistics in the period between 2001 and 2010, 9 percent of all violent victimization was committed using firearms (Truman, 2011). Property victimization related to gun violence also increased with almost similar proportions duringthese periods, raising alarm as to the effectiveness of the current gun control laws in combating gun violence and victimization(Planty & Truman, 2013). Other studies also attribute gun violence and victimization as resulting from mental illness and that most of the mass shootings sprees witnessed in the last decade have been committed by those with mental problems hence the need for gun control laws to address the issue of mental illness too (Metzl & MacLeish, 2015).  However, as Fisher and Lab (2010) observe, gun related victim ology or victimization may also be looked at from the perspectives of race and geographical location of victims of crime and gun violence. According to these authors, race has a significant role to play in the risk of gun violence victimization. Thus, the writers note, “Black Americans are more likely to be victimized than their Hispanic and Whitecounterparts” (p.11).  These authors claim that studies in the recent past have shown that“in spite of African Americans making up only 13% of the US total population; more than half of victims in gun related violence in the US are African Americans” (p. 11). As to the geographical aspect of gun violence victimization, the writers argue that those who reside in metropolitan urban centers and suburbs are more vulnerable to firearm attack victimization than those who live far away from major cities and institutions. Moreover, a study by Dahlberg, Ikeda and Kresnow (2004) shows that more deaths in Americanhomes are resulting from gun violence in the US besides the high rates of suicide involving personal guns.  According to this study, there is increasing evidence of a link between high prevalence of guns in homes and high rates of suicide and homicide in addition to thousands of victims of gun violence. Interestingly, the results of this study shows that those category of people in the American  society who are more likely to be effected by gun violence as victims are mainly young people of below 35 years and those from ethnic or racial minorities.  This study’s results have therefore been confirmed by that of other later writers and re s e archers like Fisher and Lab (2010).

Legal Issues Related to Gun violence Victimization

Gun violence, fun control and victimization raise a number of important legal issues. To begin with, gun control laws raise the issue of conformity of such legislative measures to the US Constitution Second Amendment rights. It has been argued by strict interpreters of the Constitution like Ted Cruz that the drafters of the US Constitution did not intend or envisage a situation whereby the right to possess guns will have to be regulated in a manner that renders the realization of such legal rights illusory.  Accordingly, those who are against  gun control laws and measures adopted by President Obama  argue that the original meaning of the Constitution must be preserved  and hence no measure likely to unnecessarily limit the rights of Americans to own guns  should be struck down by courts for being unconstitutional. Further, the disparities in gun violence victimization in America also raise serious issues of equal treatment of every American citizen before the law as is the letter and spirit of the US Constitutional culture.  Additionally, according to Kates and Beard (2013), gun violence and victimization raise issues of the extent of the powers of the US President under the Constitution to issue executive orders that seem to conflict with the direct Constitutional requirements.  Interpretative issues to do with the Second Amendment also arise according to Kates and Beard (2013). According to the authors, such interpretation challenges and issues have in fact arisen in National Rifle Association of America v. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives701 F.3d 974 (4th Cir. 2012).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

BBC (2016, January 5). Guns in the US: The statistics behind the violence. BBC News. Retrieved March 1, 2016, from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-34996604

Dahlberg, L.L., Ikeda, R.M., & Kresnow, M-J. (2004). Guns in the home and risk of a violent death in the            home: Findings from a national study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 160 (10), 929-936

DeGrazial, D. (2014). The case for moderate gun control. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 24(1), 1-25.

Fisher, B., & Lab, S. (2010). Encyclopedia of victim ology and crime prevention. New York: Sage              Publishers

Gunter, J. (2015, October 2). Oregon shooting: Statistics behind ‘routine’ US gun violence. BBC News.                Retrieved March 1, 2016, from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-34424385

Hahn, R. A., MPH, O. B., Crosby, A., Fullilove, M. T., Liberman, A., Moscicki, E., . . . Briss, P. A. (2005). Firearms laws and the reduction of violence: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28(21), 40-71. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2004.10.005

Metzl, J. M., & MacLeish, K. T. (2015). Mental illness, mass shootings and the politics of American firearms. American Journal of Public Health, 105(2), 240-249.

Palazzolo, J., & Flynn, A. (2015, October 3). US leads world in mass shootings. Wal Street Journal. Retrieved March 1, 2016, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/u-s-leads-world-in-mass-shootings-1443905359

Planty, M., & Truman, J. L. (2013). Firearm violence, 1993-2011. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved March 1, 2016, from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/fv9311.pdf

Truman, J. l. (2011). National crime victimization survey: Criminal victimization, 2010. Office of Justice Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved March 1, 2016, from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cv10.pdf

Venkataraman, A. (2011, December 23). Why America is more violent that other democracies.  US News.        Retrieved March 1, 2016, from http://www.usnews.com/opinion/articles/2011/12/23/why-        america-is-more-violent-than-other-democracies

Webster, D. W., & Vernick, J. S. (2013). Reducing gun violence in America: Informing Policy with evidence and analysis. Baltimore, Maryland: The John Hopkins University Press.

Zurcher, A. (2015, October 4). Why Obama is powerless to reform gun laws. BBC News. Retrieved March         1, 2016, from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-34429918

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Women in management position within cooperate organisation

March 11, 2016

 

Keywords

  1. Top management
  2. Women and management
  • Women and leadership
  1. Diversity in management
  2. Gender discrimination in management
  3. Equal Pay Act
  • Civil Rights Act
  • Glass ceiling

Working title

Women in the management position within corporate organizations.

Summary

The presence of few women in the top management position is not a recent phenomenon and women have been discriminated in the workplace (Hoobler, Lemmon, & Wayne, 2011). Women are discriminated during recruitment processes and even with regards to the compensation that they receive. This discrimination has been extended to the leadership positions within the organization, and as a result, there are only a few women leaders in the middle and top level managements in many organizations. This has come a long with low motivation and low productivity among the female members of staff, and as a result, limited performance within these corporate organizations.

Despite the presence of Equal Pay Act of 1963 and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, gender discrimination in the workplace have remained widespread in the place of work (Hoobler, Lemmon, & Wayne, 2011). Women are incessantly underrepresented in the top management positions in corporate organizations, and this has come along with negative impacts on these organizations. This has made women in these organizations believe that rising to such top leadership positions in these corporations is unachievable, leading to the low motivation among women in the workplace. There are also several social and cultural factors that prevent women from rising to top management positions, for example, female discrimination. As a result, organizations have failed to benefit from the opportunities that are presented by women through their leadership roles. In this regard, it is necessary to explore the socio-cultural factors leading to the presence of few women in top management within corporate organizations, as well as its negative impacts in organizations.

A lot of research have been done in the absence of women in the senior management and top leadership positions and the senior management positions in corporate organizations. There a lot of progress in the number of women in the workplace, there has also been an increase in the number of women in the leadership position. However, the number of women who act as presidents and chief executive officers remain limited in the US (Hoobler, Lemmon, & Wayne, 2011). There has been a lot of desegregation of occupations, however, the glass ceiling remains and continues to bar women from rising into top leadership within corporate organizations in both the public and private sectors.

There are several benefits that are associated with the presence of women in the top management positions, for example, organizations that observe gender equality even in the top management positions are associated with increased productivity and high performance (Hoobler, Lemmon, & Wayne, 2011). This is because the success of an organization does not only depend on its product line, but also on the signal that it sends to the internal and external constituencies. Besides, diversity in leadership contributes to increased productivity among the members of staff. This topic aim at providing insight into the causes and barriers to the presence of women in the top management positions in corporate organizations, and therefore, it aims at promoting the presence of more women in top management, for the sake of increased productivity of these corporations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

Hoobler, J. M., Lemmon, G., & Wayne, S. J. (2011). Women’s underrepresentation in upper         management: New insights on a persistent problem. Organizational Dynamics, 40,        151—156.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FOR OFFICE USE ONLY

Name of supervisor:                                        Academic department:

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Project submission date:

 

Grant proposal

March 8, 2016

 

Grant Proposal

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Course

Instructor

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Proposal Cover Letter

Baker County High School

One Wildcat Drive

Glen St. Mary, FL 32040

(904)259-6286

05/03/16

Mrs. Arne Duncan                                                                                                               Secretary
U.S. Mission to Georgia
Media Educational Program

RE: READ TO SUCCEED! PROJECT

Dear Sir

Baker County High School is pleased to present this project proposal for your review. The institute as a vision of setting up a school library media center within its premises. In this regard, we are looking forward towards creating a partnership with your grant agency in order to realize our dream of establishment of the project called Read to Succeed! This is in order to advance the schools education system, enabling students have access to the variety library resources, more so, the digitized system of education, consequently leading to improved learning since students will be motivated to learn, and means of delivery of information will be friendly to the learners (Nickerson, 2014).

The technological advancement in our society, calls for a society which invests its resources to ensure that it is relevant to the needs of the society. Therefore, the project will be essential in ensuring that the students’ educational needs are catered. The tutors will also have sufficient resources leading to efficient and effective delivery of information to their students (Nickerson, 2014).

Measurable success is expected to be achieved out of this project Read to Succeed! Our proposal requests $30,000 in funding for the establishment of the library media center; the design, construction and putting in place furniture’s, computer purchases to enable setting up of a computerized system necessary for its operation (Nickerson, 2014).

We appreciate U.S Mission to Georgia grant agency for having an interest in providing assistance to our students in the provision of educational resources on this new project. Please give me a call on (904)259-6286 for further information regarding this proposal.

Thank you,

Allen Murphy                                                                                                                                      Principal

One Wildcat Drive

Glen St. Mary, FL 32040

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proposal Cover Page

 

Read to Succeed! Improving Reading Resources to our Students

 

Submitted to: U.S Mission to Gorgia

 

Date             : 05/03/2016

 

 

Allen Murphy

Principal

One Wildcat Drive

Glen St. Mary, FL 32040

 

 

 

 

Grant Proposal

Read to Succeed! Improving Reading Resources to our Students

Project Abstract

Baker County High School is seeking a grant to realize its establishment of a library media center project referred to as Read to Succeed. The objective of the project is to ensure that all students are able to acquire the relevant and up to date library resources. Moreover, the improvement in quality and affordable personal computers will provide accessibility to electronically stored information, therefore, high-tech learning environment will provide good learning experiences to the learners of which the employment sector requires its employees to possess (Nickerson, 2014).

The students will also be in a position to acquire information from electronic access, both local and remote online networks, CD-ROM databases and interactive thus improving their learning experience. Funding which totals to $30,000 is requested in financing the project, involving putting in place and ensuring that the library media center is operational and effectively achieves its purpose in service provision for students (Nickerson, 2014).

Statement of Need

Baker County High School as approximately 2000 students, the majority of them cannot receive the necessary learning resources from the old library within the institutions which can hardly serve all its students needs, the tutors also do not have access to teaching resources leading to lack of relevant information to deliver in the classroom. This will therefore lead to shallow coverage of the contents leading to inadequate curriculum coverage. This has led to a decline in academic standards as a consequence of the limitations faced at the institution in regard to learning resources and materials. Therefore, the realization of the project will be of significance in ensuring that the institution has a library which can meet the demands of its students (Nickerson, 2014).

Project Description

Baker County High School project will focus on the provision of resources aimed at satisfying the learners’ and tutors needs in the institutions. The library media center will provide the learners with resources such as organized collection of printed work, audio-visual and computer resources will be made available at designated places within the library for accessibility of learners, tutors and administrators (Nickerson, 2014). Therefore, with the establishment of school library media center, the school community will be able to benefit with the following services;

Collections

The computerized data storage and online catalog within the library will make it easy for the students to easily identify the books they want and easily locate them. The easy accessibility of the relevant books will make the students to effectively use the books leading to improved classroom performance as they are able to utilize the referenced classroom materials located in the library (Nickerson, 2014). This computerization shall effect database services establishment by school librarians, and in this case, a school will be able to have reference databases, this will consequently improve research work by learners as they can easily identify what resource material is required, this will therefore avoid time wasting and more time will be spend on the research work, leading to improved output by the learners. In order to further achieves the goal of the project, more resource materials should be acquired, additional variety of books should be stocked within them the library shelves.

 

Equipment and Technology

Media library resources which improve and motivate learners’ capability understanding are such as; internet access capability, the learners will be able to effectively carry out their research work effectively. Audio equipment such as video cassette, record player and cable TV will also be useful for easy user understanding of various concepts, therefore, leading to improved understanding of students. Other equipment will be video camera, closed circuit TV and satellite TV hookup (Nickerson, 2014). Projectors will also be used, this will provide clear information especially in regard to diagrammatic illustration of content, where learners will thus easily grasp the content and be in position to deliver during their exam time.

Video conferencing equipments will also boost the students understanding as it critically engages them in the process. In addition the library shall have telephone and automated book circulation system, the library staff will be in position to use the telephone to communicate directly with the administration and also amongst other staff within the library for effective coordination of activities. Moreover, with the establishment of media library, students will also be able to benefit from services such as printing, scanning and photocopying (Nickerson, 2014).

Staffing

The establishment of a school media library center will consequently lead to the need for staffing. Persons with the necessary qualification will be employed in order to ensure smooth running of the library media center. Moreover, they will be expected to show learning how to effectively use the resources for their benefit. In addition, the librarians will assist the tutors in case he/she will require a class within the library media center and therefore requires use of the library resources such as video conferencing or the use of cable TV. They thus make available for their effective use. The librarians will therefore need to motivate learners to maximize these resources in order for them to realize its benefits. The maintenance of media centre resources will also rely on the librarians, and thus there staffing cost should be taken into account while setting up the library media centre (Nickerson, 2014).

The modification to suit the design of library media centre will also require employment of qualified personnel’s to carry out the adjustment. This cost will also be included within the project, thus this will ensure the space set up to accommodate for the changes which are a requirement for the establishment of a library media center.

Generally, school libraries are an important infrastructure within any given learning institutions. It educates learners on how to use the available resources for their benefit and for the improvement of their academic performance as an addition to what they already learnt in their classrooms. In this regard, any learning institution should focus on having an equipped library, and the project; Read to Succeed will serve an important role in improving the library state of Baker County High School, the realization of the project will therefore serve as an important development of the education sector within the institution (Nickerson, 2014).

 

 

Reference

Nickerson, R. S. (2014). Technology in Education. New York: Hillsdale Publishers.