Circumcision involves the removal of the foreskin that normally covers the glans of the penis using a surgical procedure.[1] Male circumcision is a common practice across the world as a rite of passage or for medical and hygienic reasons. In ancient Egypt, the surgical procedure involved making a dorsal infection of the foreskin instead of removing the foreskin. It is believed that circumcision was practiced for the first in the ancient Near East before the practice was introduced to Abraham and his descendants. Genesis chapter 17 highlights the introduction of circumcision to Abraham and his descents as one of the elements of God’s covenant with Abraham.[2] The command of circumcision introduces new covenant conditions that Abraham and his generation are supposed to keep. The only way Abraham and his descendants would enjoy the benefits was by obeying all the covenant conditions including circumcision. It was the responsibility of all fathers to ensure that their sons are circumcised on the eighth day after birth.[3] There are some communities across the world that practice both male and female circumcision, but his research paper will only focus on male circumcision. The paper will discuss the origin, function and significance of circumcision in the Old Testament, including where and why circumcision was practiced in the Ancient Near East (ANE); the meaning and significance of circumcision in Genesis 17; why circumcision is extended to all of Abraham’s family and servants and at the same time provide a summary of other texts in the Old Testament where circumcision is mentioned, and its significance in such texts.


Circumcision in the Ancient Near East (ANE)

Israel’s initiation to the circumcision came after the practice was already widespread in the ancient Near East. It is believed that early Egyptian circumcision was practiced for the first time in the Sixth Dynasty (c. 2345-2200) and this discovery is supported by bas-relief from Sakkarah archeological discovery. The bas-relief from Sakkarah is one of the oldest archeological discoveries from the ancient Near East and has some evidence of early Egyptian circumcision.  The pictures in the bas-relief show two boys being circumcised by several priests. Apart from the pictures, the relief has some inscriptions with one of the priests urging the other to hold onto the boy and that he should not let the boy faint[4]. The 23rd century B.C. Stela from Naga ed-Der in Middle Egypt is another notable piece of evidence when it comes to circumcision in the ancient Middle East. In this case, a man describes how he was successfully circumcised in a text. Therefore, the Egyptians are always believed to the founders of circumcision.  In Braham’s covenant with God, he as commanded to circumcise infants on the eight-day after birth, but the Egyptians used to circumcise young boys. Herodotus suggests that the only nations that practiced circumcision in the earlier times include Ethiopians, Egyptians and Colchians. Circumcision was one of the earliest customs of the Egyptians and there is even a confession from the Syrians and the Phoenicians that they learnt it from the Egyptians[5].  The two nations were known for imitating the Egyptians on many things, but it is not clear whether the Ethiopians learnt the practice of the Egyptians or things happened the other way round. However, the Phoenicians stopped to circumcise their children the moment they started interacting with the Greeks in commerce. There is a need to identify the Egyptians with the circumcision institution according to the testimony of early witnesses to the practice.  The Amuq valley archeological discoveries in North Syria are normally used by some historians that object the fact that circumcision was founded in Egypt. This piece of archeological evidence indicates that Northern Syria was the place where bronze figurines of circumcised worriers were discovered in around 3200 B.C. However, this argument has always been disputed by the majority of historians who insist that circumcision originated in Egypt and later spread to other countries and regions.  According to Herodotus, Egypt practiced circumcision for the  hygiene of claims purposes. The Egyptians believed that being clean was better than being comely, and that is why they use to circumcise young men.  Although the Egyptians considered the act of circumcision to be very unbecoming in terms of appearance, they agreed that it was medically prudent for young men to undergo the practice. Archeological findings also indicate that circumcision was used by the Egyptians and other people in the Near East as a rite of passage from childhood to maturity or puberty. It was used as a mark of adulthood and therefore any man without the circumcision mark was considered a child.  Circumcision in the Near East is connected to the practices of El of Canaanite mythology that also entails observance of the rite[6].

According to this mythology, El circumcised himself and the offered his son as a sacrifice in order to appease the demons. Therefore, the practice of circumcision in Canaan had a significant effect on the circumcision practice in the Near East. Circumcision among Israelites was introduced as a sign of the covenant between God and Abraham and therefore the practice was not based on the reasons provided by people in the ancient Near East[7]. Before circumcision was introduced to Abraham in Genesis chapter 17, it was never perceived as a religious act. The practice was simply a rite of passage and a procedure to maintain cleanliness in the Near East. In other words, the circumcision practice in the Near East was just an external procedure that did not have any religious ramifications. Apart from the Philistines, Assyria and Babylon, most of the ancient Semitic cultures practiced circumcision, but was only viewed as an outward sign of transition from childhood to adulthood. Thompson argues that it is clear that Yahweh rejects the boast of any nation to be circumcised, for circumcision in the flesh which was not linked to[8]. In addition, obedience from the heart only was not acceptable to him God instituted circumcision as an outward sign of an inward recognition of dependence upon Him. Dependence expresses itself through an obedience of faith. Israel’s sinfulness demonstrated that their circumcision was in vain. The designation, circumcision of the characterized circumcision was also viewed as a connection to marriage and sexual life, female circumcision was part of the initiation practices in the Middle East. The Egyptian male circumcision involved the removal he liberation of the glans penis by making a dorsal incision upon the foreskin[9]. The way the practice was done was completely different from later Hebrew circumcision that involved the complete removal and disposal of the foreskin. Following Israel’s crossing the Jordan into Canaan, the inhabitants of the land were filled with fear. Instead of immediately attacking these people, God instructed Joshua to circumcise Israel.

The meaning and significance of circumcision in Genesis 17

Genesis chapter 17 portrays circumcision as the sign of the covenant between God and Abraham and the significance of the importance of this institution of rite in Israel is extensively highlighted in the chapter. The practice is identified as a sign of covenant in verse 11 while the participants of the rite are clearly outlined in verse 12 to verse 13. The consequences of failing to observe the circumcision rite disobeying the covenant are clearly stipulated in verse 14.  Genesis chapter 17 is a narrative that highlights the command of circumcision and the consequences of disobeying the command. At the beginning of this chapter, God issues the command on after appearing to Abram and revealing himself as Elshadai. Abraham was reminded to be perfect and walk in the presence of the Lord for his promises to be established in Abraham’s life. The blessing of Abraham also depended on the fulfillment of the circumcision and that is why it is included as an important part of the God’s covenant with Abraham. Circumcision is viewed as the sign born in the flesh of the male covenant member that is supposed to guard the covenant between God and Abraham. According to this covenant, those that fail to be circumcised are cut off from the covenant because circumcision is assign of accepting the covenant. Abraham represents a nation and that is why God goes ahead to establish a covenant with him. In Genesis chapter 15 God had already established an unconditional covenant with Abraham outlining the future of the nation, including the life of bondage and suffering in Egypt. However, the covenant in chapter 17 is conditional and is based on an individual basis instead of the nation as a whole. All the rights in the covenant would be forfeited by Abram and his descents failed to obey the circumcision command. However, one the one thing about the covenant that would not be altered its established longevity. The individual faith possessed by each person that God can accomplish the impossible is highlighted in the central issue of the covenant where Abraham is promised by God that all the nations of the earth would be blessed through his seed.

Reason why circumcision is extended to all of Abraham’s family and servants

The reason why circumcision is extended to all of Abraham’s family and servants. The circumcision was made as an obligation of the master to his servants. It was also supposed to generally, protect the rights of the servants. After circumcision, the servant became the member of Abraham family as well as a part of the Israel nation. The God’s permission to allow the servants in to the Abraham’s covenant community complied with the universal aspects of the Abrahamic covenant. Genesis 17: 14 states than any male that is not circumcised had breached the covenant and was to be “cut off from his people”. Furthermore, no individual Israelite would be able to receive the blessing of the covenant unless they undergone the circumcision ritual. This Abrahamic covenant held promises to Israel of optimum land, redemption and national identity.  Circumcision marked a crucial sign, which reminded Israelites of their full dependence upon God to fulfill the provision of the covenant. It also acted as a constant reminder to the Israel of their obligation to purity in this covenant relationship. It should however be noted that circumcision was not the covenant itself but was used as a cognition sign of the covenant between God and Abraham.

Taking the emphasis in chapter 17 on the promise to Abraham that his descendants would be numerous, circumcision would be a constant reminder to Abraham and his descendants that God was the source of the promised seed. According to Genesis 17: l-8, the bible goes on to also account how God reaffirms to Abraham that He would give his descendants an everlasting possession and He will be their God. Circumcision should always remind Israelites of their total dependence upon God to deriver those provisions of the covenant. According to Genesis 17:23-27 the bible accounts on how Abraham and all his family were circumcised; so receiving the token of the covenant, and distinguishing themselves from other families that had no part or lot in the matter. It was an implicit obedience; Abraham did as God said unto him, and did not ask why or wherefore. Abraham did it because God bade him. It was a speedy obedience; in the self-same day. Sincere obedience makes no delay. Not only the doctrines of revelation, but the seals of God’s covenant, remind Individuals that one is guilty polluted sinners. Circumcision shows us the need of the blood of atonement and it also points to the promised Savior, and teach on how to exercise faith in God. The other reason of Circumcision of Abraham’s family and servants is to show that without regeneration, and sanctification by the Spirit[10], and the mortification of the corrupt and carnal inclinations, an individual cannot be in covenant with God. But let an individual remember that the true circumcision is that of the heart, by the Spirit, according to Romans 2:28, 29. Both under the old and new dispensation, many have had the outward profession, and the outward seal, who were never sealed by the Holy Spirit of promise.

A summary of other texts in the Old Testament where circumcision is mentioned, and its significance in such texts.

In Genesis, 21: 4 there is the mention of the circumcision of Isaac. The birth and circumcision of Isaac is a fulfillment of Gods promise in Genesis 17 where by God promised to establish His covenant to Abraham by blessing Sarah, Abraham’s wife, with a son. This chapter signifies Gods faithfulness to his promise to Abraham. As indicated in Genesis 17: 9, at the age of eight years, Abraham circumcised Isaac. This indicates Abraham’s commitment to keep his part of promise to God as part of the covenant. In Genesis 17: 23 there is an account of how Abraham took his son Ishmael as well as those born in his household or bought with his money, ever male in his household and circumcised them, as God told him. Abraham was ninety-nine years old when he was circumcised, Gen 17:25 and his son Ishmael was thirteen; 26 Abraham and his son Ishmael were both circumcised on that very day. Gen 17;27 And every male in Abraham’s household, including those born in his household or bought from a foreigner, was circumcised with him.

In Genesis, 22: 4 The Bible relates Isaac’s circumcision and the sacrifice[11].  The death of a ram signified the fate of the covenant breaker as well as marked the ratification of the covenant. Circumcision whether partial or complete was an act of consecration.  Klein adds that this indicates that there is a structural correlation between Genesis 17 and 21, which stresses that Isaac’s circumcision reminded Abraham of his total dependence upon God to carry out His covenant promises to his descendants through Isaac. It was important to have faithfulness and obedience in order for an individual to have the blessings of the covenant. Nonetheless, Isaac’s circumcision, when interpreted in according to Genesis 22, could also be interpreted as a deed of consecration to God.

In Genesis 34 there this the narration of the story of Jacob particularly in the case of Dinah rape. The issue of circumcision had a big implication in this episode[12]. Jacob’s son could not allow their sister to be married by Shechem who was uncircumcised. The Israelites could not intermarry with tribes who did not practice circumcision because these tribes were considered unclean. In Gen. 24:3, it reads that Abraham made his servant swear that he would not get a Canaanite wife for his son Isaac. In Deut. 20:16-18 the bible states that afterwards in Israel’s history they were told to finish the Canaanites to prevent being made unclean by them. Jacob’s sons went ahead in requiring the circumcision of these Canaanite men. Eventually, Jacob’s sons used circumcision with their anger making God to punish them because His original reason for circumcision was to act as a sign to remind the Israel community of their total dependence on Him for fulfillment of the provision of the covenant. Therefore, Jacob’s sons erred in using circumcision as a means of weakening their enemies in preparation for their attack.

In Exodus 4:24-26 the bible states that after about 400 years after the incidence of Dinah, there is another mention of circumcision as a prominent feature in the event of Zipporah intercession on behalf of Moses’ life[13]. Although this incident happened much later from the event described in Genesis 17, Moses must have led the scripture due to its relation to the covenant. The bible in exodus 4: 25-26a describes that Zipporah took a flint knife, cut of her son’s foreskin and touched Moses’ feet with it, she then told him that he was a bridegroom of blood to her. There the Lord spared his life. Zipporah’s actions solved the problem between God and Moses. By doing the circumcision to her son, which is a male role, Zipporah had taken the place of her father

Jethro and symbolically touched his genital with the cut off foreskin. Lords’ annoyance toward Moses and Zipporah’s intervention appear to come from a much larger problem than just the failure to circumcise Moses. The penalty for nonfulfillment of the rite as agreed in Genesis 17:14 applies to the uncircumcised male himself and not the father. However, regarding to the Moses’ role as a leader of the covenant community, God’s anger may be due to Moses’ failure to comply with the sign of the covenant and circumcise his son. It is likely that Moses was uncircumcised, and God’s anger was because of his disobedience. Joshua 5:5 may suggests to the fact that Israel still practiced circumcision while in captivity. Verse five, states that all the people that came out from bondage had been circumcised. In addition, this context gives no evidence that Moses was not circumcised when by the time God called him into service. This circumcision renewed the Israel commitment to the covenant and God replenished His commitment to be the Lord of Israel in Exodus 3 stating that His name was to be remembered for generation to come. The circumcision account of Exodus 4 was straightaway preceded by God’s declaration of the Passover night. In Exodus 12, circumcision is revisited again within the context of the Passover. Exodus 12:42 states, ” because the LORD kept vigil that night to bring them out of Egypt, on this night all the Israelites are to keep vigil to honor the LORD for the generations to come.” [14]Following this explanation of the observance, verses 43-49 list Passover regulations. Therefore, circumcision took a very significant role in the freeing of the Israelites in the Passover night. The story of circumcision is again repeated in the Exodus 4 verse 15 when Zipporah took a knife and cut the foreskin of his son so as to usher him into manhood and fulfil the requirement of the Lord. This was also aimed at making the marriage between Moses and Zipporah acceptable according to Mosaic law. Later in the book of Joshua, the servant of God was again asked to make flint knives again and circumcise Israelites again. The aim of these was allow the Israelites to cerebrate Passover at Gilgal in accordance with the law of the Lord[15]. In Leviticus circumcision is referred to towards the end of the book. In this context, circumcision is referred to three times with emphasis being circumcision of the heart[16]. Here, circumcision is made to make people holy in accordance with the holiness of the Lord. The demand for holiness in the book of Leviticus was kind of a code which emphasized on the need for an internal holiness for one to be acceptable before the Lord and out of an already existing outward sanctified relationship with God. On its part the book of Deuteronomy shares literary meaning of a treaty or a covenant specifically to the form used by Hittites. In this regard, the book represents the reciprocal loyalty or faithfulness that God and the Israelites shared during this time. The word “heart” as expressed in Deuteronomy and other parts of the old testament refers to the inward faithfulness that was expected of the Israelites by the Lord[17]. The book presents the issue of heart circumcision as an important aspect of attaining the covenant vision of inward loyalty.


In conclusion, it is evident that circumcision was very significant in the covenant between the Israelites and God. Although there is the belief that circumcising has a much greater ancient history, its most significant documentation is in the Old Testament during the covenant between God and Ibrahim where by circumcision and change of names was involved. This marked a significant beginning of long lasting between him and the lord. It acted as the binding symbol between the two parties as a constant reminder of the covenant. The paper discusses the origin, function and significance of circumcision in the Old Testament, including the places and the reason for circumcision practice in the Ancient Near East (ANE) This paper has discussed different incidences in the Old Testament where circumcision was commanded to different personalities in the Israelites for significant symbolic purposes. Circumcision was important because it was important in order to be included in the chosen covenant community of Israel. In addition, the paper has highlighted the penalties imparted on the one who failed to fulfill the requirement of the covenant as stipulated by the Lord. The failure meant a big penalty being initiated towards the offender, which includes being cut off from the society, which some scholar beliefs meant being put to death.  Finally, the paper has explored the various verses in the scriptures where the issue of circumcision has been discussed


















Barker, Kenneth L.’ “False Dichotomies Between the Testaments.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 25 (1982):3-16.

Barker, Kenneth L.’ “False Dichotomies Between the Testaments.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 25 (1982):3-16.

Calvin, John. A Commentary on Genesis. Geneva Series. Edited and translated by John King. London: The Banner of Truth Trust, 1965.

Flusser, David. and Safrai, Shmuel. “Who Sanctified the Beloved in the Womb.” Immanuel 11 (1980):46-55.

Fox, Michael V. “The Sign of the Covenant: Circumcision in the Light of the Priestly ‘OT Etiologies.” Revue Biblique 81 (1974):557-96.

Kaplan, Lawrence. “And the Lord Sought to Kill Him’ (Exod. 4:24): Yet Once Again.” Hebrew Annual Review 5 (1981):65-74.

Kline, Meredith G. By Oath Consigned: A Reinterpretation of the Covenant Signs of Circumcision and Baptism. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., I968

Meade, John (2014). Circumcision of the heart in Leviticus and Deuteronomy: Divine means for resolving curse and bringing blessing. SBJT, 18(3): 59-85

Pritchard, J., ed. Ancient Near East in Pictures Relating to the Old Testament. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1954.

Sasson, Jack M. Circumcision in the Ancient Near East.” Journal of Biblical Literature 85 (1966):473-76.

The New Illustrated Medical and Health Encyclopedia, 1970 ed. S.V. “Circumcision” 2:409.

Thompson, J. A. The Book of Jeremiah. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1980.




[1] The New Illustrated Medical and Health Encyclopedia, 1970 ed. S.V. “Circumcision” 2: p. 409

[2] Calvin, John. A Commentary on Genesis. Geneva Series. Edited and translated by John King. London: The Banner of Truth Trust, 1965, p. 38

[3] Fox, Michael V. “The Sign of the Covenant: Circumcision in the Light of the Priestly ‘ot Etiologies.” Revue Biblique 81 (1974): p. 557

[4] J Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near East in Pictures Relating to the Old Testament, pp. 206,325.

[5] Herodotus, The History of Herodotus, p. 115

[6] Flusser and Safrai, pp. 46-47.

[7] Ibid

[8] J. A. Thompson, Deuteronomy, TOTC, p. 322.

[9] The New Illustrated Medical and Health Encyclopedia, S.V. “Circumcision,” 2:409.

[10] Kenneth L. Barker, “False Dichotomies Between the Testaments,” JETS 25 (1982):5.

[11] Meredith G. Kline, By Oath Consigned: A Reinterpretation of the Covenant Signs of Circumcision and Baptism, p. 44.

[12] John Calvin, A Commentary on Genesis, pp. 222-23.

[13] Lawrence Kaplan, “‘And the Lord Sought to Kill Him’

(Exodus 4:24): Yet Once Again,” HAR 5 (1981):65.

[14] Michael V. Fox, “The Sign of the Covenant: Circumcision in the Light of the Priestly ‘ot Etiologies,” – RB 81 (1974):557-58.

[15] Jack M. Sasson, “Circumcision in the Ancient Near East,” JBL 85 (1966):474.

[16] John Meade. Circumcision of the heart in Leviticus and Deuteronomy: Divine means for resolving curse and bringing blessing. SBJT, 18(3) (2014): 65


[17] John, 2014, p. 70

#1 Water Wars





#1 Water Wars

Gregory Dunn’s article, “Water Wars” reports that water shortage resulting from natural and human factors may not necessarily result in conflicts. In fact, he holds the notion that water crisis may end up serving as the foundation for a new-found peace between communities. He particularly points to the crucial role that technology and international organizations have played and can play in addressing the water crisis. A case in point where an international organization has played a crucial role in averting a potential water conflict is represented by the Indus Waters Treaty. The separation of India and Pakistan made Indus River a potential source of conflict between the two countries. However, the intervention of the World Bank saw the establishment of a Treaty to guide the sharing of the Indus River’s resources between the two countries thus averting a possible conflict between them.

There is no doubt about the significance of this Treaty in preventing a conflict between India and Pakistan. As a natural resource on which the majority of the populations of the two countries depend, tension would surely emerge with regard to the control of the river. Therefore, the treaty helped to eliminate one potential cause of conflict between the two rival nations. It would be pathetic to see the two countries go to war not really because of water scarcity, but over the control of a source that has sufficient water to serve their needs. While water is a vital resource, it does not have any real monetary value. For this reason, it would be imprudent for nations to commit a lot of valuable resources in fightingfor this resource. Such efforts can instead be directed toward finding a win-win situation for both countries with regard to water access. World Bank’s intervention helped the two nations to do just that. Besides bringing the potential rivals on a round table, the World Bank provided the necessary financial support to facilitate the sharing of the resources of the Indus River. In so doing, the potential conflict was turned into an improved situation for the two countries particularly because of the World Bank support. Overall, the Indus Waters Treaty helped to eliminate one potential source of conflict between India and Pakistan thus pushing a permanent peace deal even closer while benefiting both countries both socially and economically.

#2 Shatter Zones

Shatter zones can be described as countries’ borderlands where most conflicts tend to occur due to little government control in those areas. Although shatter zones are often ignored, it is in these regions where the most significant interaction between states can take place. Their vulnerability to conflicts and the potential to promote state interaction account for their significance.

Two examples of shatter zones in Eurasia include the Korean Peninsula and the Fertile Crescent. The potential threat in this region mainly originates from the porous border between Saudi Arabia and Yemen rather than within Saudi Arabia itself. As an unstable country, where the rule of law is not properly enforced, Yemen poses a real threat to the Korean Peninsula than the Saudi Kingdom. Besides, the Northern Korean regime is not in a good position in terms of governance as well as its position in international relations. This can easily sparkinstability in the Korean Peninsula. The Fertile Crescent is the shatter zone in Eurasia. This is because Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq’s borders do not reflect the real state of affairs as far as natural geography is concerned. This increases the potential for conflicts in the border areas, which is a threat to the Fertile Crescent. For example, there is no natural aspect between Iraq’s border with the Fertile Crescent with regard to the natural border or the ethnicity and religion of the communities in these areas.Therefore, any instability would quickly spread across the border.

The potential conflict within the two shatter zones described above confirms Kaplan’s view that “geography is the prelude to the very track of human events” (484). The fact that the Korean Peninsula and the Fertile Crescent border unstable neighbors means that they face a threat of conflict or even intrusion, both of which are human events. In other words, the state of affairs in the two regions points to a set of negative human events that could interfere with their stability and prosperity.










Works Cited

Dunn, Gregory. Water wars: A surprisingly rare source of conflict. Harvard International           Review, Fall(2013).

Kaplan, Robert D. The revenge of geography.FPRI, 2015.


Kant and your own experience



Kant and your own experience








High school requires a lot of work. Students find the joy of high school to be quite irresistible. Most of them even forget to study for texts or just remember to study the day just before exams. I have always been an honest student and I believe in doing the right thing to get ahead. I do not like lying or cheating because I believe it is wrong and it is not morally acceptable. I therefore worked hard during my high school days to maintain my grade. It was not always easy to study and finally pass the exams. It was quite tricky and hard but I tried to keep up.

There was a scenario however on my last year in high school. My best friend forgot to study for the exam which was coming up. He was so caught up with completing that he completely did not study hard as he was supposed to for the exam. Before the day of the exam he confided in me that he was going to cheat in the exam. I thought he was joking since we both were against lying in any form not only in exams. When the exam day finally came, he actually cheated. We were obligated to report any cases of cheating back in high school.

According to Kant moral principle, it was morally right for me to report any kind of cheating. This is because anybody else in my position would be required to do so. If I reported him, I would be acting from duty because the law requires anybody to report any cheating cases. Even if I finally reported him under anonymity, I hesitated my actions. According to Kant “acting from duty” is performing an action because it is my duty whether I am inclined to do it or not while “acting in accordance with duty” is performing an action because I am inclined to.

Kant notes that the greater the disinclination one has towards performing a particular action the greater the moral worth of the action. This means that the fact that I finally reported my best friend I acted on the act of duty. I was against reporting my best friend to avoid harming our friendship but when I finally did it, I did it because it was the right thing to do. My actions can be said to be a strict sense of duty. This is because not everybody in my place would have the courage to report any wrong-doing especially if it involved their closest friends. Acting according to a strict sense of duty means that the person performing the actins is independent because one is obeying the laws that he/she has given to himself/herself. Categorical Imperative on the other hand must be universally binding and as earlier stated not everybody would report their best friend because it is the right thing to do.















Kant I. “Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals”


Does social media effect peoples feelings of self worth?

A few months ago, a good friend of mine deleted most of her social site accounts. I could not figure out why anyone would do such a thing bearing in mind that I found it fun and a superb platform for meeting new friends and exploring ideas and life. I decided to get firsthand information from her, and her response caught me unawares. She explained that she had quit the social sites because they were a source of distress. She could not bear the pressure of taking the ‘right’ photos to fit in, wearing the ‘right’ guise, with ‘right’ outfit, at the ‘right’ time and with the ‘right’ people. With the advancement of communication technologies that occurred in early 2000, the manner in which individuals interacted took a new phase.

The latest internet addition known the social media enhanced people’s interactions. The interactions increased since people can connect and participate in a wide range of online communities with other users from all parts of the world. Indeed, the world has now become a global village, thanks to social media. More and more social media sites emerge each and every day, which is a factor that has changed the target audience. What was initially meant for grownups who could afford to buy personal computers has of late become accessible to the youths, adolescents, and even kids. One only needs to have a mobile phone with internet applications, and they are good-to-go. Rather than hanging out with friends at ice cream joints, at the skating ring or in restaurants, individuals are connecting with their visual friends in social media sites such as Myspace, Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn to name but a few.

Proponents of social media hold that it has enabled people to meet and interact across space and distance, stay in touch with family and friends, do business and has also enhanced learning and spreading of information. Also, they say that it has facilitated political and social change while increasing access to educational materials. On the other hand, those that are against it argue that it has presented a platform where people are bullied, demeaned by other social media users and harassed (Cheng, 36). Social media has negative effects on people’s feeling of self-worth. As people continue to use these sites, the need to fit in and belong becomes an important facet of their lives(Valkenburg et al., 584-590. Regardless of whether they realize it or not, spending a great deal of time on social media affects individuals’ sense of self-worth. Not only do they want to enhance their digital identity to fit in, but they also compare themselves to others who they consider having ideal physiques and lifestyles.

Social media offers a unique platform that people use for a wide range of purposes including enjoyment and pleasure, creating awareness of products, passing of information and data and meeting old friends. Other reasons include the feeling of belonging and affiliation, goal attainment, self-identity and accepted the behavior. Studies have shown that adults, youths, and children are currently making use of social media at different levels. Youths and teenagers are the most affected by the use of this technology. In the United States, for example, 74% adults and youths were making use of social media by 2014, which entailed LinkedIn, Pinterest, Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. They would share thoughts, music, links and photos, develop biographical profiles, do research and interact with both friends and strangers among other activities.

On a normal day, more than 70% of the American people log in to social media. More than 40% have been shown to log on to the various sites for multiple times a day. Although every person has his or her perception of making use of the social media, the main basic reasons are to kill boredom, pass time and check on updates, the effect of logging on to these social sites have a detrimental impact on one’s self-worth. Frequently, what social media users will find are unrealistic and glorified images and photos of physiques and lifestyles, which are factors that make them question their appearances and attitudes, especially if the users are youths and teenagers. The feeling of self-worth, which refers to the ability to have respect and confidence as well as self-appreciation, become integral features of their lives. When social media users view others have better physiques, more friends, more likes on every comment and update and better photos of magnificent lifestyles, they begin to compare themselves to others. In most cases, they will tend to feel inferior and develop negative self-concept about themselves. Not only does this have an impact on their attitude towards life, but it greatly ruins their perception of self-worthiness(Cheng, 36).

According to Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers’s theories of personality, human beings have the basic predisposition to make himself or herself better to realize their optimum capabilities and potential (Frick, 87) and (Nicholas, 102). According to their schools of thought, they referred to this as the attainment of self-actualization. They argued that the podium of self-actualization was achieved at the stance when the ideal individual and the individual’s perception of self-worthiness and image were at par. At this time and point, the individual was thought to be a completely functioning person. Every individual under heaven has a critical inward voice that presents a negative filter of the manner in which we view and reflect our lives. Various occurrences in life are known to alter this inward voice such as depression, trauma, and stress. As such, social media has the capacity to alter how we view and reflect our lives. Not only is social media extremely pervasive, but it is also an undertaking that requires individuals to actively participate.

To have a strong social media persona, one has to post photos and traits that are positive as opposed to the negative ones as no one wishes to advertise their faults. Rarely do we post unflattering images and content. The will and desire to ape contentment and happiness as well as glamorous lifestyles has caused us to put our troubles into our subconscious minds, ignoring the impact it has on our self-worth and health. Most people think that posting images and contents of who they are is like accepting defeat. It is due to this rule of control of how we are viewed that most people have been fooled into accepting and believing that the lives of their virtual friends are better than theirs, thus causing hefty metal turmoil and degradation of self-worth.

Proponents of social media assert that it offers a platform where information and sensitization spread faster and reaches enormous numbers of people as compared to other forms of media. As a matter of fact, more than 50% individuals get to hear about the breaking news through the social media. Also, conservative media personnel use a wide range of social media to do research on the various topics that are later aired in our television sets and printed in newsletters. These include WhatsApp, Facebook, and LinkedIn as well as Twitter, to name but a few. Studies have also shown that social media is the top source of news for the American population as compared to radio and newsletters (Valkenburg et al., 584-590). Therefore, proponents feel that social media should be encouraged across space, time and distance as it is good for our society.

Conversely, social media is very unreliable as it enhances the spread of false information, gossip, and rumors. For example, in the case of an accident that involved a celebrity or a prominent person, people make the news juicy by giving false information such as the person is dead, with the aim of attracting huge numbers of comments and likes in their updates. Not only can this result in chaos and mayhem, but it can significantly affect the self-worth and personality of the involved party. Imagine waking up from a comma, just to watch or listen to the news headlines that you died two days ago. How do you change the situation and convince the members of public that what they are watching or learning from the newsprints and social media is false and untrue? Not only does such a scenario lead to incredibility of the news source, but it would cause great psychological turmoil to the concerned party.

The need to belong has been showcased by various proponents of social media. It is a phenomenon that is characterized by the altruistic nature of human beings to feel socially accepted and loved. In human beings, the need to be accepted and loved is essential for people’s motivation to create and maintain a lasting, significant constructive inter and intrapersonal relationships. Social media creates a unique space where individuals can explore and exploit this need through the use of facilities and conveniences offered by social media sites that enhances interaction, data, expression podiums and potential of acquiring social approval while influencing virtual friends.

The need to be socially accepted and loved can stem from three main categories (Baumeister & Leary, 497-529). These include inclusion, which refers to the need fit in or takes in others in a circle of friends. Affection is the second reason that explains faction-seeking behavior in human beings. It refers to the need to feel loved by other people and to love. The last basic need is control, which is the need to have power and authority over others or exert power over the self to other individuals. Owing to the fact that people’s need to be loved and accepted is variable and different among individuals, their impact in joining and participating in social media are also variable. In other words, the degree and magnitude of the effect of social media on self-worth and confidence as well as self-esteem varies from individual to individual.

Despite the fact that social media presents a platform where people attain or fulfill their need to feel loved, accepted and appreciated, it also creates a podium where this need is dissatisfied. When persons post pictures or content on the social sites, they expect to get some feedback, either positive or negative. In a certain social media site, some people get more comments and likes than others. Some updates do not receive comments at all. This makes the person who has posted to feel ignored, which insinuates that they either do not fit in or are not loved. Such a scenario can be a source of depression for social media users. Social media users feel alienated and lonely, which can result in eating disorders.

While some individuals result to overeating, others, especially women, become anorexic that is refusing to eat so as to become thin or developing bulimia nervosa where they may eat and force themselves to vomit and maintain that ideal body shape that is appealing to their peer(OʼKeeffe et al., 800-804). This lack of self-acceptance that is mostly associated with feminine media users has a wide range of effects ranging from low self-esteem to lack of confidence to the lack of self-worth. Although social media per se does not contain all the components that contribute to the lack of self-worth and eating disorders, it creates a superb environment where behaviors and disordered thoughts and perceptions thrive and flourish. Social media portrays the ideal female body as thin, blonde and with a fair complexion, which is a factor that triggers ladies ‘worth their salt’ to have a tendency to work towards ‘perfection’. They, therefore, develop eating disorders to attain the recipe for contentment and happiness as well as online validation, which is thinness and fair complexion (Vogel et al., 206-222).. Not only does the body dissatisfaction lead to the lack of happiness and low life satisfaction, but it greatly reduces life quality and is a catalyst for various mental disorders.

Proponents of social media also hold that they are useful sites where people are empowered on social change and behavior not only on a community level but also at regional and international levels. This is because it has made possible for individuals of all races and walks of life, from distance and space to meet, support each other and share ideas on the same platform. Not only are business ideas shared, but social media also helps people to assist other individuals with dire needs such as poverty and illnesses. Social media also enhances buying and selling of goods and services whereby the seller connects to the buyer, thanks to the online platforms. However, study after study has also shown that social media facilitates online crimes and cyber bullying. Sexting and glamorization of drug and substance abuse, as well as alcohol use, are some of the modern cybercrimes. Possession and distribution of pornographic pictures and films have been restricted to all parts of the world. Between the year 2008 and 2009, the American law enforcement agency recorded nearly 3500 incidences of these cases, with most of them occurring in teenagers and the youth. In another study that explored the linkages amid social media and abuse of alcohol and other illegal substances, it was found that 70% of people who use social media are three times likely to abuse alcohol more than those who do not log onto the online sites (Valkenburg et al., 584-590). It was also revealed that they are two times likely to use bang and get exposed to pornographic videos and pictures while under the influence.

Research has also demonstrated that all people, irrespective of their age, experience cyber bullying at least once in their lifetime, including adults. Although kids and teenagers are the most affected population, grownups also do experience cyber bullying ranging from social to workplace aggression to familial arenas, being updated on social media. Not only do these experiences make the victims unhappy, but they also make them restless, anxious and can make them develop a wide range of anxiety disorders, which impedes their health, wellness, and self-worth(Stefanone et al., 41-49). The online pressure leads to anxiety, which in turn disrupts individuals sleep patterns, causing serious mental health problems.In fact, researchers have found that people who make use of social media and had a high emotional investment in it, especially during the night, exhibited low sleep quality, which is a condition known as insomnia, suffered from elevated rates of anxiety and had a higher possibility of developing stress and depression.

Finally, social media has been shown to be a major cause of jealousy and envy, especially for people who share a common background. Imagine watching your friends update photos of travel and leisure, abilities and success in vocational life while you are leading a miserable life. To the person leading a low life, these posts may be interpreted negatively or viewed as a way of bragging off. Although this may not be the intention of the persons who post their stylish photos, they can be a major cause of life dissatisfaction and envy to their friends and acquaintances. In most social media sites, one follows the posts of other people to see how they are doing, which is meant to produce positive results. However, when individuals engage in the passive following, they view this as a way of self-promotion, which triggers envy and jealous. Indeed, this feeling surpasses the feeling of lack of attention and negative feedback(Park&Jennifer, 184-203). As a result, the envious persons reacts with greater self-promotion content. This can lead to a vicious cycle referred to as self-promotion or impression management envy spiral with more and more self- promotion content being posted with the aim of outdoing other virtual friends. Consequently, an envy-driven trait of the social media platform creates an atmosphere that can even be more pronounced. Reacting with jealous and envy of others lowers our self-worth and makes the individual feel bad about themselves.

Social media has played an important role in our lives ever since its invention in the early 2000s. It has enabled people to meet and connect, interact and share educative materials, has enhanced businesses and promotion of the new product in the marketplace and had shaped our enabled individual to fulfill their intrinsic need to belong. Indeed, this technological advancement has made the world a global village where people from all walks of life, across space and distance, meet and interact while sharing the idea. Although social media has had various positive impacts in our contemporary world, it also has major drawbacks. Social media causes negative effects on self-worth individuals. Not only does it lower people’s self-esteem and confidence, but it is a significant cause of other health complication ranging from the general wellness to eating disorders to panic and anxiety disorders to insomnia. Indeed, social media leads to poor quality life and is an important source of unhappiness and discontentment.













Work Cited


Baumeister, R. F. and M.R.  Leary. “The Need to Belong: Desire for Interpersonal Attachments as a Fundamental Human Motivation,” Psychological Bulletin, (1995), 117, 497-529.

Cheng, Yibo H. The Effects of Social Media on Self-Esteem. , 2014. Print. Pp 36

Frick, Willard B. Personality Theories: Journeys into Self: an Experiential Workbook. New York: Teachers College Press, 1991. Print. Pp 87

Nicholas, Lionel J. Introduction to Psychology. Cape Town: UCT Press, 2008. Print. Pp 102

OʼKeeffe, Gwenn Schurgin, and Kathleen Clarke-Pearson. “The impact of social media on children, adolescents, and families.” Pediatrics 127.4 (2011): 800-804. Print.

Park, Lora E., and Jennifer Crocker. “Contingencies of self-worth and responses to negative interpersonal feedback.” Self and Identity 7.2 (2008): 184-203. Print.

Stefanone, Michael a, Derek Lackaff, and Devan Rosen. “Contingencies of self-worth and social-networking-site behavior.” Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking 14.1-2 (2011): 41-49. Print.

Valkenburg, P.M., J. Peter, and A.P. Schouten. “Friend Networking Sites and Their Relationship to Adolescents’ Well-Being and Social Self-Esteem,” CyberPsychology & Behavior, (2006), 9 (5), 584-590.

Vogel, Erin a et al. “Social Comparison, Social Media, and Self-Esteem.”Psychology of Popular Media Culture 3.4 (2014): 206-222. Print.

Toronto Ethnic Riot





Toronto Ethnic Riot

The case depicts the history of the immigrant ethnic divide among the immigrants who supported the Catholics and the others who supported the Protestants. It reveals the hatred among the settlers who defended the Catholic religion but were a minority in the area at that time. The history of Britain North America indicates that in the 19th century a large number of immigrants came to British  North America, from Scotland, Ireland and England (Gerber& David 2). About half of the immigrants were English people but by the 1830s after the feminine had struck their country Irish immigrants became more than the English immigrants (Miller& Kerby 2).  Immigrants from the Scotland and Ireland were both Protestants and Catholics. However, Catholic became a substantial minority in all the English – Speaking colonies.

The case indicates that those who were put in the custody and appearing in the bar were Catholics.  In the story, the protest happened on a Sunday. That day all Protestant in the region were celebrating the William of Orange victory that is termed as a Protestant victory over the Catholics. The battle had ended in 1691 after the defeat of James II (Ogg &David 1). James II of England had earlier repealed many closes of the anti- Catholic registration that undermined the Protestant. Moreover, he allowed Catholics into Irish Parliament (Wheeler & Michael 8). The turn of events had made Protestant feel oppressed, but they had nothing to do about it. Henceforth after the defeat of the king by William of Orange aided by the Dutch was a great event to the Protestants. The Protestants in British North American used to celebrate the events as most of them were immigrants from Ireland, which was the location of the greatest victory of Protestant. Additionally, in the Toronto ethnic protest case, one can point out that people carried oranges during that day.  William Mulholland revealed that he had oranges lily in his bosom indicating that the Protestant had carried oranges on the commemoration day of their victory by the king of Irish. The oranges symbolized William of Orange.

In addition witness, William Mulholland says that he had some of the men that were rescuing the man in custody shout to each other that they should hold d-d oranges. As he speaks, he says presumably it meant damned oranges bugger meaning the condemned by God oranges bugger. This reveal to us that the must have been Catholics that why they resented anything related to orange as it symbolized the orange kingdom and the victory of Protestant overall by the William of Orange. Furthermore, during the reign of King William was associated with homosexuality by some of his rivals. He had a number of male colleagues that were very close to him including the two Dutch courtiers that referred him as Hans Willem Bentinck and Arnold Joost Van Keppel (Ogg &David 2). Homosexuality in Christianity was viewed as something condemned by God. Henceforth the by shouting damned orange bugger was a vulgar language that was aimed at abusing the William of Orange and the Protestant overall. It meant that the Protestants were not supposed to commemorate such a person particularly on a Sunday given that God condemned him because of his homosexuality acts.

In summary, the case, in general, depicts the environment of the British North America after the immigration. In addition, because the most of the group that migrated to the area were from the England kingdoms, protestant outnumbered the Catholics.


Works Cited

Ogg, David. “England in the Reigns of James II and William III.” (1969).

Gerber, David A. Authors of their lives: the personal correspondence of British immigrants to North America in the nineteenth century. NYU Press, 2008.

Miller, Kerby A. Emigrants and exiles: Ireland and the Irish exodus to North America. Oxford Paperbacks, 1988.

“Immigration And Settlement – Expansion – British North America: 1763-1841 – History – Canada – North America: Lord Selkirk, Canada Farm, America 1763, Fur Trade, Quebec City.” Countriesquest.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 15 Mar. 2016. http://www.countriesquest.com/north_america/canada/history/british_north_america_1763-1841/expansion/immigration_and_settlement.htm

Wheeler, Michael. The old enemies: Catholic and Protestant in nineteenth-century English culture. Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Research Compilation “Gang Violence in Canada”

The Topic Overview

In the recent years, there has been a growing concern among scholars and criminal justice experts to understand the pertinent issue of gang violence. The ongoing criminology research continues to reshape the conceptual framework in the study of the organized crime by gangs. Although this paper studies the phenomenon of gang violence in the Canadian perspective, it is evident from the empirical research information that the societal challenge is a global issue. The cultural transmission theories believe the formation of gangs is as a result of assimilation of varied cultures in the light of continued globalization. Social conflict theorists believe the formation is due to ethnic inequality in the society Boyd (2014).

The violence sparked by the organized criminal gangs include robberies, car thefts, committing homicides, assassinations, drive-by shooting and soliciting cash from enterprise owners. Boyd (2014) conceptualizes crime not only in the law breakage perspective but also as the violation of societal norms. Criminal gang activities also bring about gender-based violence that is detrimental to women in society. It is critical to note that violent gangs do not only operate in urban areas but also in the remote parts of Canada. Boyd (2014) makes it clear the members of the young generation at at-risk of joining gangs majorly with the motives of money, power, respect and a sense of belonging. Many of the gang members comprise of youths that are aged below 18. In fact, a substantial number falls between the ages of 16 to 18 years of age.

The paper provides a deep evaluation of the formation and operation of the gangs. It also highlights the impacts that society faces as a result of the activities of the gang members. The paper also advances several community-based approaches that could help society address the violence instigated by gangs.

Listening in to Gang Culture

It is essential to start off by understanding what makes up a gang. Scholars have for a long time differed on the definition of a gang. According to Beare and Hogg (2013), a gang is an ‘interstitial group with the radical formation and integrated through events of conflict’. It implies that the members meet face to face, carry out coordinated attacks and have leadership ranks. Gangs also have rules that ensure continued brotherhood through loyalty as well as values and norms strictly upheld by members.  They have manpower as well as weapons to accomplish their aspirations. Activities such as street shooting amplified by media coverage beget outstanding motivation and respect from the community.

The study by Beare and Hogg (2013) is relevant to the Canadian gang contest since it recognizes gang violence as the tip of the iceberg of the societal challenges geared towards the realization of economic power. It is idealistic to link the gang violence problem to the community approach. In essence, the perspective aims at minimizing uptake of the youths into the gang culture. Gangs are a complicated societal issue that the Canadian authorities cannot easily eradicate through a series of arrests. Notably, arrests would not be sufficient to subdue violence. The aspect of gang violence is interwoven with other critical factors such unemployment, alienation and drug trafficking amongst others. Consequentially, more research is necessary to evaluate the social anthropological factors surrounding the formation, organization, and operations of the gangs in the contemporary society.



Ideal Philosophy to Address Gang Violence

According to Ezeonu (2014) the formation of the Canadian gang differs from that of the United States that follows the theory of social conflict. It implies that the Canadian gang formation is not racial based on marginalized youths. From the empirical research studies, it is clear that gang violence is a public security challenge in the Canadian cities, for instance, Toronto. As gang violence continues to attract authority ad scholarly interest in Canada, the techniques, nature, and organization of the gang undergo a change with time. Conventional gangs are run differently in comparison to the classical gangs of the mid and late 20th century. Although money, belonging and respect are the key motives, complexities within the gangs outlay is evident. For instance, the chains of command have undergone transformation and capturing of a gang leader does not end its operations.

Ezeonu (2014) faults the ‘failed’ attempts to address the gang problem by the justice and law enforcement departments. The police philosophy of enforcing the criminal organization laws is misplaced. By focusing on groups as opposed to individuals, many gang members are rounded up, convicted, and some are let go while others face jail terms. The gangs get reinforcement within the prison system and consequently turn more brutal and unsympathetic. It is of profound importance to understanding how and why the gangs operate so as to mitigate the gang-induced violence in society. Ezeonu (2014) acclaims the use of participant observation that has been useful in the US perceptive such as on the ‘Brotherhood of Outlaw Bikers’.

The study has profound relevance by outlining a suitable approach to understand and counter gang-related violence. It is correct to assert that Canadian gangs differ in some ways to the US counterparts that are the most researched in the world. Going by the resource allocation by the Canadian criminal justice system to address the gang problem, one affirms that it is a great challenge in the modern society. Policymakers should thus not undermine the gang violence problem but reshape policies to better combat the problem.

The Public Safety Canada’s Perspective

According to Erikson, LaBoucane-Benson, and Grekul (2007), it is possible to take a societal approach to minimize the violent action of gangs in Canada. The report cites that years after the launch of the Community Solution to Gang Violence (CSGV) project, it is optimistic that the project is ideal to address the issue. The project anchors on three objectives of enhancing community responsibility, formulation of community network support and fostering positive youth development.

The CSGV project seeks to create the community initiatives to encounter the differential association theory. Project handlers believe that they would win back the ‘brainwashed’ youths who have joined gangs. Contrary to the strain theory, using violence to gain societal respect and power is totally unacceptable. The project thus de-radicalizes the youths and integrates them into the society.   Erikson, LaBoucane-Benson and Grekul (2007), argue that gang violence completely terrifies and fascinates the community. Young people get attracted to such motives through violent behavior and carrying weapons to schools. Communities crave for safety in the neighborhoods. Governments struggle to develop policies to restore order and families get dismayed by the ruthless nature of the terror gangs.

The CSGV is thus an ideal way to mobilize all individual at all levels through initiatives to form long-term solutions to the gang violence problem. The holistic approach focuses on putting the young people on the recovery path within the scope of the resources of the community. It is a multifaceted project that when effectively implemented it builds the community values and fosters leadership for long-term success. It creates a clear vision of where the community intends by focus attention on individuals, not on the gang generalization (Erikson, LaBoucane-Benson & Grekul 2007).

The Case Study

According to Smith-Moncrieffe, NCPC, and PSC (2012), the sustained effort to free youths from gang-related violence has yielded many fruits. The report cites few cases that involved detachment from the gangs due to the rehabilitative programs in place in transforming youths. In one of the cases the Regina Anti-Drug Services (RAGS) project transformed Anthony, a 26-year-old street gang member. With a father who lived a gang life, it was hard for Anthony to forego the life of drugs, violence, and the imminent jail life.

Anthony confesses that drugs made him quit school only three months in the grade 12. With the mother dead and father in prison, joining the gang was the only solace. Anthony had greatly admired gangster life and quitting school provided the opportunity to do so. From weed, Anthony progressed to cocaine and other hard drugs. After ‘conversion’, Anthony realized the true self and saw the better part of the life without constant worry of the police and criminal justice system.

The success story of Anthony is a qualitative case study that potential members of gangs should emulate to make a turnaround in their lives. After serving the gang for a dozen years, Anthony made a substantial effort together with the RAGS reformists to alienate the life of a gang member. Smith-Moncrieffe, NCPC & PSC (2012) report that such cases like that of Anthony, mobilize positive behavior, social skills and the ability to shun violence and be a productive member of the society. Later after the Reformation, Anthony could sustain employment to provide to provide income for the wife and three children. Truly as Beare & Hogg (2013) sum up, the gangs culture needs a listening ear from the society.


Modern criminology studies attempt to uncover much information concerning the challenge of gang violence in Canadian cities. Many research studies view that gangs are organized entities with street codes, values and norms and leadership ranks. The members execute violent tasks with precise coordination and skill. As the law enforcement tightens, so does the techniques and operations of the gangs evolve. Contrary to the conventional notions that eliminating gang leaders could ease violence and destabilize their structures, modern gangs survive through such ordeals. It is essential for the concerned parties in addressing gang operations to take an individual perspective in addressing the gang violence.

Another key factor in addressing the phenomenon is the recruitment process. Many times, youths lacking adequate family support or in desperate need for cash opt to join such gangs to ‘get a life’. Additionally, it is not easy for a member to easily defect from the gang due to strict rules that bind the ‘brotherhood’. In many cases, the gang views defective members as traitors. Since organized crime has links to the aspect of drug trafficking, it might be difficult for one to give easily up drugs and quit the gang.

In the same vein, many scholars view the community-based approaches as ideal in addressing the gang violence. In Canada, programs such as the Community Solution to Gang Violence (CSGV) launched in 2003 have been helpful in saving many youths from gang-related violence. Furthermore, Regina Anti-Drug Services project is also a community approach that has helped reform youths hooked on drugs and affiliated to gangs. All in all, gang violence poses significant security risks, and a therapeutic approach best complements the apprehension approach. The approach to addressing the violent activities of street gangs should focus on individuals and not in generalized on groups.













Beare, M., & Hogg, C. (2013). Listening in…to Gang Culture. Canadian Journal Of Criminology And Criminal Justice55(3), 421-452. http://dx.doi.org/10.3138/cjccj.2011-e-29

Boyd, N. (2014). Understanding crime in Canada: An introduction to criminology. Toronto: Emond Montgomery Publications.

Erickson, K., LaBoucane-Benson, P., & Grekul, J. (2007). The Community Solution to Gang Violence: A Collaborative Community Process and Evaluation Framework (pp. 1-82). Ottawa: Public Safety Canada. Retrieved from http://www.ps-sp.gc.ca

Ezeonu, I. (2014). Doing gang research in Canada: navigating a different kaleidoscope. Contemporary Justice Review17(1), 4-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10282580.2014.883840

Fleury, É., & Fernet, M. (2012). An exploratory study of gang-affi liated young men’s perceptions and experiences of sexuality and gender relations. The Canadian Journal Of Human Sexuality21(1), 1-16.

Smith-Moncrieffe, D., NCPC, & PSC,. (2012). Youth Gang Prevention Fund Projects. What did we learn about what works in preventing gang involvement? (pp. 1-25). Ottawa: NCPC.

Chinese Retail Market Entry Strategies

China is an economy that presents one of the most attractive and profitable destinations in terms of investment for foreign retailers (Feng et al., 2015). This is because there is a presence of rising incomes as well as expanding market size. For a foreign department store chain, there are various strategies that can be employed in order to succeed in the complex Chinese retail market that is characterized by cultural differences as well as its situation as an emerging economy.

Firstly, a foreign department store chain should ensure that it has partnered with local business set ups that are related with the field of operation, which is dealing with high-end products (Feng et al., 2015). The reason behind this is that local companies that are in a similar level with such a franchise are capable of ensuring that there are valuable resources available for the foreign setup. Such resources include the provision of business networks, government relations as well as a vast wealth of knowledge on the local market conditions (Feng et al., 2015). The franchise will be able to benefit from the government relations through incentive policies. In the long run, the department store chain might be offered a government partnership thus ensuring that they have curbed the overheated competition that would result from the large entry number of foreign businesses into the Chinese Retail market.

Another strategy that can be employed in this case is ensuring that the foreign store has offered third-party services to their Chinese counterparts. The reason for this is that just like in any other developing economy like China, the retailers are in need of strong support from efficient and competitive business partners. The support includes offering third party logistics, wholesale services, distribution as well as the supply of supply chain management solutions (Feng et al., 2015). Another reason that makes offering third party services a popular strategy is that many service sectors in China are still struggling in their developmental stages, and this makes them appreciate any help that comes from multinational outfits that want to set up shop in China. This also leads the government to get attracted into partnerships with such outfits, and this leads to the foreign departmental stores keeping off competition that might exist in the market.

There is yet another strategy that can be used in order to prevail in the Chinese retail market, which is, working with local business partners. It is a very wise entry strategy that is advantageous to a company that is new to the Chinese market. Local companies are capable for providing valuable resources to the entrant that will be informational and useful in business operations (Feng et al., 2015). For instance, the local companies can offer a valuable network for the business as well as enhance better government relations with the new entrant. There will also be information that will be provided regarding the knowledge of local market conditions. With such information and knowledge, the foreign investor will be in a position to succeed in the complex Chinese retail market.

Finally, a combination of the above-mentioned strategies can also be used to ensure that there has been a success in prevailing in the Chinese retail market (Feng et al., 2015). This is because the Chinese market is driven by cultural differences and also the fact that China is a developing economy. A foreign department store can thus take advantage of these conditions in order to ensure that they have succeeded.






Feng, H., Pan, X., Tang, Y., & Xu, L. (2015). The Efficiency of China’s Retail Companies and

the Implications in the Stock Market. International Business Research, 8(4), p83.

Subsea Challenges in North Sea Projects




Subsea Challenges in North Sea Projects






Submission Date






Subsea oil production is becoming a popular method for exploring undeveloped oilfields located under the sea. Though there are several subsea oil projects in the world, the huge amount of resources required has left many subsea oil fields unexplored. Some of the technical challenges experienced in large subsea oil development projects such as Rosebank include long tiebacks, Sustained Casing Pressure (SCP), erosion-corrosion of the flow facilities and flow assurance problems such formation of hydrates and deposition of scales and wax along the flow lines and pipelines. This dissertation seeks to explore different technical challenges experienced or likely to be experienced during design, implementation and operation of the Rosebank oil production project in the UK. Rosebank project is located about 130 kilometres in the North-West of Shetland-Islands at a depth of about 1.1 kilometres. The gas line is expected to join the Sirge Pipeline located about 236 kilometres from Rosebank.

The obtained results indicate that large project size and undersea location increases the overall project complexity, hence the magnitude of the technical challenges faced. It was found that formation of hydrates and scale can be reduced through insulation and use of thermodynamic inhibitors such as alcohol and glycol. It was also noted that SCP is a serious challenge in subsea oil projects since it may easily lead to complete shutdown of the plant if not addressed in time. Some of the technologies used to remedy SCP once detected include the rig method and the rigless method.  It was further established that the presence of sand particles in fluids combined with corrosion action induces a substantive amount of wear with time. To remedy the situation, it is necessary to employ the available technologies such as disanding cyclones and hydro-cyclones


Enter acknowledgements……………….









1.1         Research Background. 1

1.2         Research Problem.. 3

1.3         Aims and Objectives. 4

1.4         Review of Literature. 4

1.4.1        Flow assurance. 5

1.4.2        Sustained casing pressure (SCP) 9

1.4.3        Maintenance challenges. 11


2.1         Research Methods. 12

2.1.1        Research questions. 12

2.1.2        Hypothesis statement 13

2.1.3        Research design. 13

2.1.4        Data collection. 15

2.1.5        Data analysis. 16

2.1.6        Accuracy and effectiveness of the research method. 16

2.2         Results. 17

2.2.1        Quantitative results. 17

2.2.2        Qualitative results. 21


3.1         Discussion. 23

3.1.1        Project location and size as a challenge. 23

3.1.2        Complexity of the Rosebank project 24

3.1.3        Technical challenges-operation stage. 26

3.2         Discussion of Qualitative findings. 28

3.2.1        Solutions to the challenges. 29

3.3         Conclusions and recommendations. 30

3.3.1        Conclusions. 30

3.3.2        Recommendations. 31



Figure 1‑1 Map showing the location of the Rosebank project and the Sirge Pipeline (Chevron, 2014) 2

Figure 1‑2: Schematic diagram of a typical GRA scanner in operation (Davies, 2009) 6

Figure 1‑3: Normal temperature profile – no leakage (Inaudi & Glisic, 2010) 7

Figure 1‑4: Measure temperature profile – with leakage (Inaudi & Glisic, 2010) 7

Figure 1‑5: CAD drawing of smart-pipe that uses optic fibre tape to detect blockage or leakage (Inaudi, & Glisic, 2010) 8

Figure 1‑6: SCP build-up – normal pattern (Zhu, et al., 2012) 9

Figure 1‑7: SCP build-up – S-shaped pattern (Zhu, et al., 2012) 10

Figure 3‑1 Complexity percentage score for different project stages. 25

Figure 3‑2 Technical challenges facing the Rosebank project 26




Table 2‑1 Project location and size as a challenge. 17

Table 2‑2 Complexity of the Rosebank oil development project at design, installation and operation stages  18

Table 2‑3 Potential challenges likely to be faced during operation. 19

Table 2‑3 Chi-square test results between design complexity and project size and location. 19

Table 2‑4 Chi-square test – Installation complexity and variables, project size and location. 20

Table 2‑5 Chi-square test results between operation complexity and project size and location. 20




Number Abbreviation Meaning
1 SCP Sustained Casing Pressure
2 GRA Gamma Ray Absorption
3 FAP Flow Assurance Program
4 FPSOs Floating Production, Storage and Offloading
5 ROVs Remote-Operated inspection Vehicles
6 AUV Autonomous Underwater inspection Vehicles
7 ROTs Remote-Operated inspection Tools
8 NAP National Agency of Petroleum



                                                                                                                          1.         EXTENDED INTRODUCTION

1.1         Research Background

The quest for increased oil and gas supply has triggered the need to explore different types of oil fields both on land and under the sea. Though both subsea and land oil development projects require huge financial and technical input, subsea projects have been found to be more challenging depending on size and location (Crook, 2010). In most cases, subsea oil production challenges are experienced due to complexity of various processes including design, installation and operation. Some of the technical challenges experienced in large subsea oil development projects include long tiebacks, Sustained Casing Pressure (SCP), erosion-corrosion of the flow facilities and flow assurance problems such formation of hydrates and deposition of scales and wax along the flow lines and pipelines.

According to Markeset et al. (2013), the complexity of subsea oil production projects is depicted in processes such as multiple drilling, design and installation of multiphase pumping systems and positioning of the Floating Production, Storage and Offloading units (FPSOs). One of the biggest subsea oil production projects in the world is the Rosebank oil development located in the UK. This project seeks to explore different technical challenges experienced or likely to be experienced during design, implementation and operation of the Rosebank oil production project. In addition, the project further establishes possible solutions to the identified challenges. To accomplish this, a literature review has been carried out followed by collection and analysis of relevant primary data.

Chevron (2014) indicates that the Rosebank project is located about 130 kilometres in the North-West of Shetland-Islands at a depth of about 1.1 kilometres. The gas line is expected to join the Sirge Pipeline located about 236 kilometres from Rosebank. The Sirge Pipeline starts at Sullom Voe and stretches all the way to St. Fergus terminal. The map shown in figure 1-1 below shows the actual location of the Rosebank project and the Sirge pipeline.

Figure 1‑1 Map showing the location of the Rosebank project and the Sirge Pipeline (Chevron, 2014)

Due to the huge amount of resources required, the project is being undertaken jointly by three major oil production firms namely Chevron UK, Dong Energy Denmark and OMV UK. However, the FPSO unit to be employed in the project will be designed and built by the Hyundai Industries Korea.

1.2         Research Problem

Being a huge subsea development, the Rosebank project is likely to face serious technical challenges throughout the entire project lifecycle. As at the moment, the project has been experiencing a number of challenges in the design phase. At some point, the main stakeholder, Chevron questioned the economic viability of the project due to the high initial capital (Chevron, 2014). Since strict design requirements have to be met by the design team, technical challenges are not only experienced during installation but also at the design stage. The huge size of important facilities may make it difficult to achieve efficient primary cementing, leading to the accumulation of SCP in the system. If this happens, flow of fluid in the pipelines may be affected, leading to inefficient production. In addition, the increased sea depth means that long tiebacks have to be used. This may reduce flow efficiency and increase power consumption due to energy loss along the flow lines. It is also worth noting that long tiebacks increases the chances of hydrate formation and scale deposition, meaning that flow assurance may be affected.

The presence of many pipe fittings within the system encourages solid particulate accumulation leading to blockages. According to Pearce et al. (2013), sand particles are the main solid particulates that encourage blockages in subsea oil development projects. Sand particles may also cause accelerated erosion-corrosion pipe wear due to combined effects of abrasion and corrosion.  The temperatures at the seabed may be as low as 40C, meaning that wax can be cooled to form a thick gel on the surfaces of the pipelines. Continued accumulation of the gel may result in restricted flow, an effect that may lead to system failure due to increased pressure.

Though the above challenges have generally been found to affect subsea projects, no study has been carried out on the Rosebank project to establish the impacts of the challenges on the final project outcome. Since every project has distinct technical challenges depending on environmental conditions, capacity and location, it is difficult to clearly understand the challenges facing the Rosebank project without conducting primary research. Finally, in order to suggest viable technical solutions to different types of challenges, it is necessary to understand the possible causes of the challenges and their relationship with different project characteristics.

1.3         Aims and Objectives

This research project aims to explore different technical challenges experienced or likely to be experienced during design, implementation and operation of the Rosebank oil production project. Also, the project further aims to find possible solutions to the identified challenges. Ultimately, the study shall work towards achieving the following three objectives:

  1. To establish the influence of subsea project size and location on the complexity design, installation and operation processes.
  2. To identify and evaluate the level of severity of different technical challenges on the operation of the Rosebank project
  3. To find viable solutions to the identified technical challenges facing the Rosebank project

1.4         Review of Literature

Subsea oil development projects are faced by a number of technical challenges including flow assurance and SCP. Flow assurance is affected by problems such as wax and scale deposition, hydrate formation and erosion-corrosion of flow facilities such as flow lines and pipelines.

1.4.1        Flow assurance

Unrestricted flow of gas and oil streams in a subsea oil production facility is highly important. Kondapi (2015) conducted a study on the factors that affect flow assurance in a subsea project and noted that formation of hydrates, wax deposition, erosion-corrosion and scale deposition were the main causes of blockages. The author pointed out that to address the above challenges, a method of identifying and quantifying each of the causes along the entire system is required. However, Chew (2014) noted that it can be difficult to identify floe problems along the system especially when they are at the early stages. According to the author, the process of identification is affected by the changing production profiles, system pressure and temperature.

Schwing et al. (2015) established that subsea temperatures may fall as low as 40C at about 61 meters (2000 feet). Since the Rosebank project depth is about 1100 meters, which is far much higher than above depth, the temperatures at the subsea may even fall below 40C depending on the weather. Ginsburg and Thomas (2015) were able to show that when temperatures of the fluids fall to 40C and below, transportation of crude oil may become a challenge due to gell formation. In a different study Love et al. (2011) established that pressure changes within the flow system can destabilize asphaltenes contained in oil, thus causing plugging. Formation of hydrates is another common cause of restricted fluid flow in oil and gas pipelines. The icy clusters are formed due to interaction between methane gas and water. Accumulated amount of hydrates may choke or completely prevent fluid flow thus impairing the performance of the flow system. As established by Chew (2014), the presence of sand particulates in the flow system results in surface erosion due to abrasion. When combined with the effects of corrosion, the resultant erosion-corrosion wear may be highly pronounced.

To ensure that unrestricted flow is experienced throughout the system, different solutions need to be adopted. Ginsburg and Thomas (2015) argue that the best solution is to develop a blockage detection method so that any flow restrictions can be detected at early stages. However, detection of blockages alone may not yield promising results if an action to control the cause of the blockage is not attempted. Love et al. (2011) noted that blockage detection can be realized through the use of pipe scanners based on Gamma Ray Absorption (GRA). A typical GRA scanner utilizes a source of weak gamma rays to provide information about the interior of the system. Davies (2009) explains that due to the high accuracy of gamma rays, the exact location of such deposits can be determined. A schematic diagram of a typical GRA scanner in operation is shown in figure 1-2 below.

 Figure 1‑2: Schematic diagram of a typical GRA scanner in operation (Davies, 2009)

Blockage can also be detected using fibre optic. This method employs a sensor that provides information about temperature distribution along the pipeline to detect flow restrictions along the system. To detect a leakage or blockage, the normal temperature profile is compared with the measured profile as shown in figure 1-3 and 1-4 respectively. .

Figure 1‑3: Normal temperature profile – no leakage (Inaudi & Glisic, 2010)

A change in temperature profile such as that shown in figure 1-4 is used to detect the presence of a leakage or blockage in the pipe.

Figure 1‑4: Measure temperature profile – with leakage (Inaudi & Glisic, 2010)

Such a technique was demonstrated by Inaudi and Glisic (2010), who developed a HDPE (High-density poly-ethylene) smart-pipe consisting of embedded optic fibre tapes, used to monitor fluid flow through the pipe. A CAD drawing of the smart-pipe is shown in figure 1-5 below.

Figure 1‑5: CAD drawing of smart-pipe that uses optic fibre tape to detect blockage or leakage (Inaudi, & Glisic, 2010)

Though this technology has been proved to be highly reliable, its large scale application is rather difficult. This is because the fibres need to be embedded inside the pipes. The technology depends on Joule effect, since the presence of a flow restriction lowers pressure and increases flow velocity and temperature.

While trying to address the root-cause of pipe and flow line blockage, Franchek (2015) argues that formation of hydrates can be reduced using insulation. Insulation preserves heat thus keeping the temperatures far from the temperature range within which hydrates form. Though this is a reliable method, it is only possible for short flow lines. Since Rosebank project will have long flow lines, advanced insulation systems may be required. It has also been shown that scaling and hydrates formation processes can be lowered through the use of thermodynamic inhibitors. Some of the most common inhibitors employed in the subsea include alcohol and glycol.

1.4.2        Sustained casing pressure (SCP)

Ellerton and Roberts (2014) explain that SCP occurs when casing pressure rebuilds blending off. The build-up process may assume two main patterns: the normal pattern and the s-shaped pattern (Zhu, et al., 2012). The normal pattern is noted when SCP starts building rapidly after bleeding off and later stabilises after reaching a maximum value as shown in figure 1-6 below. A build-up process that assumes this pattern is considered highly dangerous, since the growth rate remains relatively high at the early stages. In most cases, detection occurs when the process is in the transition or later stages.

Figure 1‑6: SCP build-up – normal pattern (Zhu, et al., 2012)

When SCP build-up follows the S-shaped pattern, casing pressure drops rapidly during the early stages, but later increases rapidly towards the transition zone. As time goes by, casing pressure reaches a maximum value and stabilises as shown in figure 1-7.

Figure 1‑7: SCP build-up – S-shaped pattern (Zhu, et al., 2012)

The above build-up process can be detected and controlled easily as compared to the normal pattern.

Ellerton and Roberts (2014) enumerates a number of problems that may be experienced due to the presence of SCP at the wellhead. These include pollution of the environment, blowout in the worst case, damaged safety valves and cement integrity. In a research by Duan,et al. (2013), it was found that SCP is among the most common causes of subsea systems failure.

The problems associated with SCP can hardly be eliminated; however, some technologies have been developed to detect and remediate the problem. As pointed out by Crook (2008), it is relatively difficult to access the affected annuli due to their hidden locations. According to the author, the cost of repairing a system affected by SCP may be too high, making work over the best option. Remediation of SCP in a typical subsea project is carried out using two methods, namely the rig method and the rigless method. When rig method is employed, a special rig is physically moved to the affected zone to relieve the pressure. On the other hand, injection of high density liquid is carried out onto the affected zone to relieve the pressure.

1.4.3        Maintenance challenges

Failure of subsea systems is one of the greatest challenges encountered during underwater oil production (Moreno-Trejo, & Markeset, 2012). To lower the probability of failure, oil companies have tried several strategies aimed at improving their performance in terms of system maintenance. Basically, subsea systems fail due to poor installation, overload, excess stresses, corrosion, fatigue and cracking. These causes are triggered by environmental factors, operating conditions and design flaws. Some of the remediation methods include the use of Remote-Operated inspection Vehicles (ROVs), Remote-Operated inspection Tools (ROTs) and Autonomous Underwater inspection Vehicles (AUVs). The inspection vehicles are unmanned and therefore can be operated over a long period of time to ensure that all the system components have been inspected properly. As pointed out by Almasi (2012), unmanned inspection vehicles are used to run integrity maintenance programs in the subsea.

                                                                                                                                2.         METHODS AND RESULTS

This chapter presents the research methodology adopted by the researcher and the results obtained after the implementation of the methods. The chapter has been divided into two main sections, namely the methods section and the results section. The methods section describes the research approach adopted by the researcher to design the instruments of data collection, the process of data collection and methods of data analysis employed. On the other hand, the results section summarizes the data obtained by the researcher and the results of analysis. Apart from presenting the results, this section further interprets the results while taking into consideration the stated research objectives.

2.1         Research Methods

According to Venkatesh et al. (2013), research methods are tools used by the researchers to derive correct answers to the research questions. As argued by Zachariadis et al. (2013), the obtained solutions should be justifiable. As such, the reliability of the final results of a given research is highly dependent on the employed research methodology. It is therefore important to ensure that the best methods are selected prior to the initiation of the process of data collection.

2.1.1        Research questions

This project has adopted the most suitable research methods based on the two major research questions stated below.

  1. What are the technical challenges facing the Rosebank oil project?
  2. What are the solutions to the identified challenges based on expert knowledge?

As pointed out by Silva et al. (2014), research questions should seek to assess all details of the research problem. As such, questions that appear to be general should be supported using more specific minor questions. Therefore, to further enhance the investigation of the research problem, three minor research questions were developed to support research question 1.

  1. How challenging is the Rosebank project owing to its large size and location?
  2. What is the level of complexity of the Rosebank project in relation to the following: design, installation and operation?
  3. How severe are different technical challenges likely to face the Rosebank project during operation?

2.1.2        Hypothesis statement

It has been argued that further interpretation of research findings can be enhanced through hypothesis testing (Zachariadis, et al., 2013). In this project, it was considered necessary to investigate the relationship between the complexity of the project and the variables, size and location. The following hypothesis will therefore be tested:

“There exists a significant association between project size and location and the complexity of the Rosebank project.”

2.1.3        Research design

A research study can be designed in accordance with three main approaches: quantitative, qualitative and mixed approach. While quantitative approach is based on quantifiable numerical data, qualitative approach is based on textural data (Venkatesh, et al., 2013). An overview of the research questions stated herein reveals that the major question requires qualitative answers while the minor questions can only be answered quantitatively. In this regard, a mixed approach was adopted in the project.

The project depends on primary data collected using two instruments: the questionnaire and the interview. The questionnaire was designed to collect quantitative data from the selected participants, while the interview was used to collect qualitative data from the selected respondents. In terms of design; the questionnaire was divided into two major sections (sections A and B) and one minor section (cover letter). Section A aimed at collecting personal information of the participants including the name of company, nature of work, job role, experience and academic qualification. Section B (Questions 7-9) was developed to collect the main research data in relation to challenges facing the Rosebank project.

Q-7      Kindly indicate how challenging is the Rosebank project due to increased project size, offshore distance and depth. Please use the following scale:

Q-8      Based on your own assessment, what is the complexity of the Rosebank project at different stages? Please use the scale below:

Q-9      Please assess the listed challenges in terms of severity on the performance of the Rosebank project. Use the scale below:

On the other hand, the interview consisted of two questions, both designed to provide answers to the major research questions. The two questions are shown below.

Q-1   In your opinion based on your knowledge and experience in subsea oil field development, what are the main technical challenges facing the Rosebank project?

Q-2    What do you think can be done to address the challenges prior to project initiation?

2.1.4        Data collection

Since there were two data collection instruments already designed, two distinct methods were employed to collect the required data. To begin with, quantitative data was gathered through an electronic survey. Participants were identified and contacted through social and professional networks namely Facebook and LinkedIn. Specifically, 48 potential participants were contacted, most of whom were employees at Chevron UK, Dong Energy Netherlands and OMV UK. However, only 28 participants agreed to participate in the study. Finally, out of the 28 participants, only 18 returned their feedback within the recommended duration.

On the other hand, interviews were conducted with only three respondents. The respondents were engineers at Chevron. Efforts were made to conduct more interviews but due to time limitations, only a few respondents were contacted, from which three agreed to participate in the study.

2.1.5        Data analysis

The raw data collected using questionnaires was manually entered in an excel sheet and later exported to SPSS for analysis. SPSS is a statistical software tool with multiple in built analysis features hence preferred in this project. Basically, the analysis was carried out through computation of mean, standard deviation and data range. Testing of hypothesis was carried out using descriptive statistics in which Chi-square test was performed. As stated by Garrison et al. (2013), two variables are associated only if the two sided Pearson significance value is less than 0.05. On the other hand, Qualitative data obtained from interviews was analyzed using a deductive approach (Girvan, & Savage, 2012).

2.1.6        Accuracy and effectiveness of the research method

With regard to quantitative data, a relatively small sample (18 participants) was analyzed. According to Venkatesh et al. (2013), the accuracy of quantitative data is higher for larger samples and lower for smaller samples. However, the accuracy is also dependent on the knowledge and experience of the participants on the subject under investigation. Owing to the fact that only experienced engineers, technicians and technical managers from the involved companies were involved in the study, it can be argued that the obtained data is fairly reliable and accurate. Also, 18 feedbacks can be concluded to be sufficient for analysis, since specific data trends can be observed. Finally, since the required data was collected and analyzed successfully, it can be inferred that the employed research methods were effective.

2.2         Results

This section presents the analyzed data followed by a brief interpretation of important aspects based on the research questions. For clarity purposes, quantitative and qualitative results have been presented separately.

2.2.1        Quantitative results       Increased offshore distance and sea depth

The participants were asked to indicate how challenging the Rosebank project was, owing to the long offshore distance and increased depth. The answers provided by the participants were organized, analyzed and the results included in table 2-1. The table shows that on average, increased offshore distance and depth generally makes the Rosebank project very challenging. The project scored an average of 4.33 out of 5, which translates to about 87 percent. The small data range and standard deviation imply that the participants had fairly similar opinions regarding the matter.

Table 2‑1 Project location and size as a challenge

Mean Std. Deviation Range
4.33 0.686 2

Based on the findings, it can be asserted that increased offshore distance and sea depth constitute one of the most important factors that make the Rosebank project very challenging both economically and technically. However, this project is only concerned with technical challenges facing the Rosebank project.       Complexity of the project

In order to evaluate the complexity of the Rosebank project at different stages, the participants were asked to assess three main project stages, namely the design stage, the installation stage and the operation stage. The data collected from the participants was organized, analyzed and the results included in table 2-2. Based on the results shown in the table, the three stages including design, installation and operation scored between 3.67 and 4.44 on average. This translates to a percentage mean score of between 73 percent and 89 percent.

Table 2‑2 Complexity of the Rosebank oil development project at design, installation and operation stages

Project stages Mean Std. Deviation Range
Design stage 3.89 0.583 2
Installation stage 4.44 0.511 1
Operation stage 3.67 0.686 2

It can be argued that all the three stages of the Rosebank project are very complex. The small data range and standard deviation suggest that the participants did not have varying views..       Evaluation of identified challenges

Through literature review, six potential challenges that may have a negative impact on the Rosebank project were identified and evaluated by the participants (see table 2-3). From the table, it can be seen that all the challenges are severe. The data shows that blockage of flow lines was identified as an extremely severe challenge, while leakages and failure of safety valves, a very severe challenge. From the lower end of the scale, SCP was identified as the least severe challenge among the six challenges. Though the above challenges can only be experienced during project operation, it is worth noting that the challenges are as a result of difficulties experienced during design and implementation stages.

Table 2‑3 Potential challenges likely to be faced during operation

Mean Std. Deviation Range
Formation of hydrates 4 0.686 2
Deposition of scales and wax 3.67 0.686 2
Corrosion of pipelines 3.89 0.758 2
Blockage of flow lines 4.67 0.485 1
Leakages and failure of safety valves 4.11 0.758 2
Sustained casing pressure (SCP) 2.56 0.705 2       Testing of hypothesis

Three tests were performed to validate or reject the stated hypothesis. Project complexity was divided into three minor variables, namely design complexity, installation/implementation complexity and operational complexity. Each of the variables was tested against the main variable (increased sea depth and offshore distance), through Chi-square analysis.

To begin with, the test between design complexity and increased sea depth and offshore distance produced a Pearson 2-sided significance P, value of 0.0017, a likelihood ratio (LR) of 0.045 and a linear-by-linear association (LLA) of 0.027 (see table 2-3 below).

Table 2‑3 Chi-square test results between design complexity and project size and location

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 12.000a 4 0.017
Likelihood Ratio 9.731 4 0.045
Linear-by-Linear Association 4.923 1 0.027

100.0% cells have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .11.

Focusing on the value of P, which fulfils the requirement P<0.05, it can be argued that there is a strong relationship between design complexity and increased sea depth and offshore distance.

In the second test, Chi-square analysis was carried out between installation complexity and increased sea depth and offshore distance and the results summarized in table 2-4. From the table, ,  and .

Table 2‑4 Chi-square test – Installation complexity and variables, project size and location

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 9.600a 4 0.048
Likelihood Ratio 6.82 4 0.146
Linear-by-Linear Association 3.063 1 0.08

100.0% cells have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .11.

Based on the results, the obtained value of  is less than the critical value of 0.05. Therefore, it is evident that there exists a significant association between installation complexity and variables, project size and location. In the third test, Chi-square analysis was performed between operation complexity and increased project size, sea depth and offshore distance and the results included in table 2-5.

Table 2‑5 Chi-square test results between operation complexity and project size and location

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 14.400a 4 0.006
Likelihood Ratio 12.365 4 0.015
Linear-by-Linear Association 6.368 1 0.012

From the table,  and. This implies that there exists a strong relationship between operational complexity and variables, location and increased project size. It can therefore be concluded that hypothesis was valid in all cases, hence accepted. This leads to the conclusion that increased project size, sea depth and offshore distance highly contribute to Rosebank project complexity.

2.2.2        Qualitative results       Challenges facing the Rosebank oil and gas project

According to the respondents, the large size of the project is the most pressing challenge. One of the respondents stated “The size of this project is relatively large compared to other subsea projects in the area. The Rosebank FPSO is one of the largest in the world.”

It was also pointed out that the large sea depth is a great challenge to the designers. Combined with the large size of the project, increased sea depth complicates the design requirements thus making it difficult to achieve high efficiency. According to one of the respondents “the large sea depth not only increases design complexity but also increases the probability of hydrate formation, scale deposition and corrosion of the installed pipelines”. Other challenges identified by the respondents include:

  • Restricted flow/flow assurance
  • Low sea bed temperatures
  • SCP
  • Sand accumulation
  • Waste disposal problems
  • Complexity of the safety features       Solutions to the challenges

The respondent suggested different methods that can be used to address the identified challenges. They argued that though careful design can eliminate future challenges when the project is in operation, some problems can only be eliminated or minimized through proper maintenance. The following solutions were suggested

  • Adoption of intelligent completions
  • Implementation of a flow assurance system
  • Adoption of down-hole technology
  • Early SCP detection and bleeding off
  • Use of well designed desanding cyclones and hydro cyclones
  • Sand cleaning before disposal
  • Adoption of a vigorous design testing program

A detailed discussion of the results presented in this chapter will be carried out in the next chapter.

                                                                                                                 3.         DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

The first section of this chapter reviews and expounds the findings presented in the previous chapter in relation to the reviewed literature. The second section summarizes the main findings of the research and states the main conclusive remarks for every research question. Finally, the section gives a summary of recommendations for further and future technical action.

3.1         Discussion

3.1.1        Project location and size as a challenge

The size and location of a subsea oil development project in terms of sea depth and offshore distance highly affects the oil and gas production process (Pearce, et al., 2013). According to Chew (2014), increased sea depth and offshore distance increases the amount of infrastructure resources required and further complicates the oil production process. Since very long pipelines have to be employed, technical challenges such as hydrate formation, wax deposition and corrosion due to sand abrasion become inevitable. Logically, larger subsea oil projects are more challenging to carry out compared to small scale projects. As argued by Crook (2010), large subsea oil projects are not only complex in terms of design, but also challenging in terms of implementation and operation.

In the results presented in the previous chapter, it was found that project location and size highly contribute to the level of complexity of subsea projects. According to Chevron (2014), Rosebank oil and gas production project is located at about 130km North-west of Shetland Island. During processing, products will have to be pumped using a multi-pump system over a depth of more than 1.1km from the sea bed. Again, based on the map shown in figure 1-1 in the introduction chapter, the gas will have to be transported for a distance of about 236km in order to be tied to the existing Sirge pipeline. The above description makes it clear that Rosebank project location may not be favourable for oil production. This means that the stakeholders need to put more efforts to ensure that the existing challenges are addressed as the project progresses from design to implementation and finally to operation.

3.1.2        Complexity of the Rosebank project

As asserted by Crook (2010), the complexity of a subsea oil development project is usually depicted in each stage of the overall life cycle. Rosebank project will involve the use of one of the largest FPSOs in the world, designed and constructed by the Hyundai industries. This implies that all other infrastructural facilities and machinery will be of a similar scale in terms of size. In addition, the project is expected to run for a relatively long period of time meaning that the designed systems should have a relatively high reliability. Past research has shown that most subsea systems do not operate for more than five years without having to undergo heavy maintenance and component replacement (Markeset, et al., 2013). It can therefore be argued that the Rosebank project design team has a big challenge, since the designed systems are expected to meet high-end specifications.

According to the results presented in the previous chapter, the installation/implementation stage was identified as the most complex stage of the Rosebank project with a score of about 89 percent. To enhance clear illustration of the findings the bar chart shown in figure 3-1 below was produced using the results shown in table 2-2 in the previous chapter.

Figure 3‑1 Complexity percentage score for different project stages

The percentage scores were obtained by converting the mean score into percentage form using the formula: where,  is the mean score shown in table 2-2 in the previous chapter. The chart shows that though implementation was identified as the most complex stage, other stages were also ranked complex. The findings are in agreement with past research studies by (Marotta, 2015; Suardin, et al., 2009; Schwing, et al., 2015).

The results obtained during hypothesis testing showed that complexity of the Rosebank project in terms of design, installation and operation can be attributed to the large project size and unfavourable location. It has been shown that oil development projects carried out on the sea bed have a high probability of failure (Love, et al., 2011). In addition, Ginsburg and Thomas (2015), pointed out that when a project becomes extremely complex in terms of implementation, the capital cost required to complete the project may be prohibiting. This is because such projects may end up being uneconomical based on a cost benefit analysis. According to Franchek (2015), any project that fails to recover the initial capital within a period of five years should be thoroughly evaluated to avoid unrecoverable losses. Though there has been no specific data based on a cost benefit analysis, major stakeholders such as Chevron have expressed their fears on the economic performance of the Rosebank project (Chevron, 2014). However, from the data provided by UK authority, the project will be successful, since the site has been proven to have the potential to produce a huge amount of oil and gas (Ellerton, & Roberts, 2014).

3.1.3        Technical challenges-operation stage

Based on the results presented in the previous chapter, Rosebank project will be faced by a number of technical challenges during operation. Due to the large size of processing systems employed in the project, challenges such as formation of hydrates, corrosion of pipelines, leakages and SCP are likely to be encountered. Based on the obtained results (see figure 3-2), it is clear that blockage of flow lines is the most severe challenge followed by leakages and formation of hydrates. As noted by Franchek (2015), the presence of solid particulates such as sand results in progressive pipe wear, thus reducing the lifespan of the pipework.

Figure 3‑2 Technical challenges facing the Rosebank project

In addition, such particulates may accumulate at particular parts of the pipework, thus interfering with oil or gas flow. Lin et al. (2013) stated that accumulation of solid particles usually occurs at the points where pipe fittings are used. Continued accumulation may lead to complete blockage of the pipework. The rate of accumulation of such particulates is dependent on the volume of oil being pumped and the effectiveness of the filtering process deployed at the seabed. Owing to the fact that Rosebank oil development is a large scale project, blockage of flowlines may be an issue of concern.

It is worth noting that blocked flowlines may encourage leakage due to increased fluid pressure between the point of blockage and the pump. Referring to figure 3-1, leakages and failure of safety valves is an extremely severe challenge with a score of about 82 percent. With regard to failure of safety valves, serious cases have been reported in different countries that have subsea oil plants. For instance, an explosion was experienced in a subsea oil development project in Brazil early this year (2015), where six workers were killed (The Chemical Engineer, 2015).

An investigation conducted by the National Agency of Petroleum (NAP) revealed that the explosion occurred in the pump house as a result of pipe burst due to increased pressure (Ellerton, & Roberts, 2014). According to NAP, the failure may have occurred due to blockage of pipework or failure of one of the safety valves installed within the pump house. It can therefore be argued that blockage of flowlines, SCP, leakages and failure of safety valves are severe challenges that may be faced during the operation of the Rosebank project. Other problems such as formation of hydrates, corrosion of pipelines and deposition of scales and wax may not be severe within a short period of time. However, in the long-term, such problems may lead to serious consequences including blockages of flow lines and leakages. It is therefore necessary to make sure that both design and implementation stages are carried out effectively to reduce the rate of corrosion, scale and wax deposition and formation of hydrates.

3.2         Discussion of Qualitative findings

The interview results presented in the previous chapter showed that the technical challenges facing the Rosebank subsea oil development project could be attributed to the large size of the project. In addition, the respondents indicated that restricted flow, low seabed temperature, sand accumulation, annular gas accumulation, waste disposal problems and complexity of safety features are the main challenges facing the Rosebank project.

Franchek (2015) noted that flow restriction due to blockages or annular gas accumulation is one of the most common challenges faced by large subsea oil projects. As discussed in the previous section, blockages occur due to accumulation of particulates around pipe fittings, corrosion, deposition of scales and wax and formation of hydrates.

Low seabed temperature results in gel formation when paraffin is cooled to a temperature of about 40C. This becomes a major problem since the risers and flow lines might be blocked. Pearce et al. (2013) asserted that the rate of gas accumulation may be increased due to poor installation of subsea facilities. Due to the large depth, the above causes may not be completely addressed, meaning that formation of annular gases may be an issue of concern. Lin et al. (2013) noted that waste disposal is a major challenge in subsea oil projects. In most cases, there are strict environmental regulations that govern waste disposal depending on the level of impact on the environment. Based on the views of the respondents, complexity of safety features such as safety valves is a major challenge to the Rosebank project. Lin et al. (2013) argued that safety features such as pressure relief valves should be highly reliable to avoid the occurrence of preventable accidents. Flapper and spring mechanisms are the most complex features of the safety valves, whose failure can result in severe consequences. The above discussed challenges can be addressed using appropriate procedures.

3.2.1        Solutions to the challenges

The respondents pointed out that the technical challenges likely to face the Rosebank project during operation can be addressed through the use of a reliable Flow Assurance Program (FAP). On similar grounds, Pearce et al. (2013) stated that the use of FAP can lower the probability of failure of different systems significantly. Basically, FAP should be at a position to identify potential risks such as blockages in time. The program should also quantify the identified risks and monitor blockage development to allow for the implementation of effective measures. Hydrate formation problem can be addressed through temperature control within the flow lines and risers. According to Franchek (2015), insulation of pipes can be employed as a method of enhancing heat retention within the system. Other methods that can be employed include down-hole water removal, controlled blow down and thermodynamic boundary alteration using alcohol.

Accumulated sand can be removed through the use of disbanding cyclones and disbanding hydrocyclones. The processes are geared towards the removal of sand particulates and hydrocyclones from the pipework (Ellerton, & Roberts, 2014). Finally, accumulated annular gases can be avoided by ensuring that sufficient cement coverage is used. In addition, proper primary cementing processes should be adopted throughout the process.

3.3         Conclusions and recommendations

3.3.1        Conclusions

Based on the results discussed in this project, it can be concluded that operation of the Rosebank subsea project will be highly challenging due to multiple technical challenges identified and discussed herein. However, by meeting the required project specifications, Chevron and other stakeholders can work through the project successfully. Since different technical challenges facing the Rosebank subsea project were identified and viable solutions suggested, it can be argued that the main aim of this study has been met. Similarly, all the stated study objectives were achieved satisfactorily.

From the results, it was found that the long offshore distance and large depth highly contribute to the overall project complexity, and hence the magnitude of the technical challenges faced. The above argument was confirmed by the results obtained after testing the main hypothesis. The level of complexity was found to vary slightly depending on the stage of the project. The results indicated that the installation stage was the most complex followed by the design stage and finally the operation stage. Since the challenges faced in the operation stage can be influenced by the quality of design and installation, it is necessary to ensure that the two processes are flawless.

Several technical challenges were identified and analyzed in the project including formation of hydrates, deposition of scales and wax, erosion-corrosion of pipelines, failure of safety valves and SCP. Since formation of hydrates and deposition of and wax is accelerated by the existence of low temperatures, they can be minimized through insulation. Insulation preserves system heat, thus keeping the temperature of the fluid outside the hydrates formation range. Also, it was found that formation of hydrates can be reduced through the use of thermodynamic inhibitors such as alcohol and glycol. It was noted that SCP is a serious challenge in subsea oil projects since it may lead to complete shutdown of the plant. Therefore, it is important to employ technologies that can detect SCP build-up so that remediation measures can be performed in time. Some of the technologies used to remedy SCP once detected include the rig method and the rigless method. It was further established that the presence of sand particles in the fluids combined with corrosion action induces a substantive amount of wear with time. If proper measures are not taken in time, the flow system may fail. To remedy the situation, it is necessary to employ the available technologies such as disanding cyclones and hydro-cyclones.

3.3.2        Recommendations

This project faced several limitations related to data availability and reliability. Though the study had targeted over 100 survey participants, the feedback turnout was less than 30 percent. In addition only three respondents were interviewed. To increase the number of participants, it is recommended that future work be designed such that the process of data collection is given sufficient time. Also, the project only studied technical challenges, and therefore the researcher had no chance to show how technical challenges translates to financial challenges. It is therefore suggested that future work on the Rosebank project be based on all types of challenges including financial, climatic, human resource and technical challenges.

Since Rosebank project is still ongoing, this dissertation recommends that strict measures be put into place to govern the design and installation of all project systems to avoid future problems when the project is in the operation stage. Most recent technology such as GRA, optic fibre among others should be embraced to detect blockages and other system problems in order to enhance quick action before the problem reaches the worst stage. Also, remediation processes such as insulation and use of inhibitors to reduce the formation of hydrates and wax should be used regularly to boost flow assurance.




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Recruitment and Selection Process: A Case Study of Habanero Consulting Group









Recruitment and Selection Process: A Case Study of Habanero Consulting Group


Institutional Affiliation
Selection and Recruitment Process: A Case Study of Habanero Consulting Group


Habanero Consulting Group is a privately owned information and technology consulting company. The company has been rated as one of the best companies that one can work with in Canada. As it can be seen from its website, http://www.habaneroconsulting.com,the company’s success when it comes to the management of employees starts from the time the employees are hired. The company makes sure that all the employees who are hired are aware of their work. This means that the employees are aware that their contribution can make to the overall success of the company. According to Catano, Wiesner and Hackett (2015), a company usually has an opportunity to lay the foundation of its success by making sure that the hiring process is taken seriously. One of the values of the company is working values where the company believes that when one is passionate about what he or she is doing, then every part of one’s life becomes motivated.

Habanero’sSelection and Recruitment Process

It is important to note that the company marketsitself on the website by giving potential employees various reasons as to why they should join Habanero. The website states that the company is passionate on the fostering of a culture where most of the employees thrive. At this point, the company states that its hiring process is thorough in order to help all the potential candidates are a good fit. According to Berman, Bowman, West, Van Wart, (2015), ensuring that the candidates fit or satisfy the demands of the company is the main step that an organization takes towards becoming successful. The use of this method also means that the employees or the candidates are provided with a chance to appreciate as well as understand what it is like to work for Habanero.

Selection Process

In order for the company to choose employees to work for it, it has adopted an intuitive process. This is largely because of the fact that much of the process does not have as scientific aspect. All the elements of the process are founded on what the company believes is the best way to select employees to work in various departments. The process is longer as compared to a normal selection and recruitment process, which shows that Habanero wants to have employees who are competent enough and who are fit enough to work in the company. The following is the process:

  1. Submission of the resume. This is the first step that was addressed by Catano, Wiesner and Hackett (2015) where they argued that most of the companies require the candidates to submit their resumes to the company. According to the authors, it is after the HR department has advertised the job with the minimum qualifications that are acceptable by the company. This is then followed by a panel of experts who are supposed to go through the resumes in order to shortlist the candidates who meet the minimum requirements for the specific job.
  2. Once the candidates have been shortlisted, the next step is the initial chat. The aim of the initial chat ensures that the company is able to learn more about the candidate and what they may be looking for in looking or applying for the job.
  3. The next step of the process is the capability assessment where the company is able to evaluate the skills of the candidates based on the role that they will be carrying out in the company. This is crucial in that most of the candidates are left out at this point.
  4. The next step is the step where the company gets to briefly meet the candidate for some time around 30 minutes. This meeting is meant to make the candidate know the members of the company. On the same note, the company gets a chance to get to understand the potential candidate.
  5. After the brief meeting, the candidate is then subjected to a comprehensive interview for a period of two and half hours. In this the company wants to understand the motivational factors for the employees as well as the areas that he or she has excelled in.
  6. The reference checks is the other part that follows the comprehensive interview where the company will call the references in order to ascertain that whatever you have written on your resume is true.
  7. The final step is where the selected employees meet the top management officials before they can officially join the company as an employee.

Reason for the Selection

The reason as to why the company uses this method is due to the fact that the organization is only able ensure that it has hired the best employees by using the selection and recruitment process. It is the wish of every organization to attract and employ the best employees, which means that it will do everything it takes in order to achieve this fate. Habanero is not an exemption. The company mainly relies on the competence as well as the professionalism of the employees. For this reason the company has to ensure that it understand every employee characteristics, their work rate as well as theirmotivating factors. This justifies the reason as to why the process is long.

Validity and Reliability of the Selection Process

A critical look at the selection process used by the organization reveals that some of the elements of the process are job related. This means that most of the things found in the process are meant to ensure that the organization clearly understands the candidate in relation to the job in question in terms of the experience of the candidate. I can be argued that he validity tells you is the characteristic that is being measured in this case by the selection process is related to the job qualifications as well as requirements. The selection process used by Habanero can be said to be testing the character of the candidate in relation to the job qualification, as well as requirements. The test scores that are attained throughout the process become meaningful. This means that there is a strong connection that is there between the test performances of an individual job performance. His usefulness of the test is also a factor of validity. The fact that the interviews were all conducted for the sake of making sure that the organization employs the most competent candidates makes the process valid (Bandara, & Ouyang, 2012).

Reliability refers to how dependably as well as consistently a characteristic is measured by the process. This means that the human resource department has to make sure that it has asked itself what would happen if the test was done again. The results would be reliable if a similar score was achieved after the repeat of the test was carried again. There are some factors that make the Habanero process unreliable at all based on the conditions under which the tests were done. For example, the psychological as well as the physical state of the person may have an effect on the reliability of the process. This becomes of the fact that the test may either be done when the candidate is being faced with other issues such as fatigue or motivation. On the same note, the test may be done when a person is ill or when a person is attending such a test or process for the first time. In case this happens, then it means that the results would not be the same in case the process is repeated again. The results would improve in those who had the first test as their first one as well as those who were sick during the first process. The environmental factors that are there when the test is being administered. Such factors include the room temperature, the time of the day as well as the lighting, noise or even the person who was administering the test. This means that the test may not be reliable if the environmental factors are not consistent. For example, looking at the process that has been adopted by the Habanero, it is clear that the meetings are done and conducted by different administrators. On the same note, the first chat will be conducted by a different person as the shortlisted people are many and one person cannot be able to carry out the whole process. This creates some inconsistency where different candidates are addressed by a different person and at different times, which means that the results attained may not be the same if a change was implemented in the process. The fact that the process requires multiple raters means that there will still be inconsistency in the process. This implies that different raters will rate an individual differently at different times if the process was to be repeated again (Gooden, & Gonzales, 2012).

Advantages of the Process

The first advantage is that the hiring process is one that is thorough in order to help all the potential candidates to be fit or competent enough to work in the organization. On the same note, the process is conducted according to the law, which means that every candidate is given a chance to understand what it is like to work at Habanero. At this point, the candidate can make a choice if the conditions of work at the company are what he or she is looking for. The other advantage of the process is that it is aimed at using the experience of the employee, their interests as well as their strengths. The effect of this is that every employee has a chance to argue his case out and find out in a fair way if his application has gone through or not. The company is also able to have a chance to acquire employees who are passionate with what they are doing.  This is because of the argument that only a dedicated employee and one with some elements of passion can be able to go through the whole process, which as stated earlier is larger and longer as compared to the processes that are adopted by the other companies.


The process has some disadvantages as well based on the arguments developed by Catano, Wiesner and Hackett (2015). The first disadvantage is that the process has low elements of reliability despite having high scores of validity. This means that the process may not be able to make the right choices as it may remove a candidate who is skilled as a result of another small factor. On the same note, the length of the process also hinders it from achieving its aims. This is because of the fact that the process contributes to the challenge of reliability as a result of the inconsistencies that are found in the process.


In conclusion, it can be seen that Habanero has implemented most of the things that have been outlined by Catano, Wiesner and Hackett (2015) in their analysis of the selection and recruitment process in Canada. It can be seen that Habanero acts according the law, which can be seen from the fairness that is provided to every candidate. All the candidates are taken through the same process during the selection process. On the same note, the fairness can be seen from the fact that the company uses the experience, the passion as well as the interests of the candidates in selecting the ones who are fit to work in the company.



Bandara, W., & Ouyang, C. (2012). Analyzing and improving a recruitment process: a teaching case for developing business process improvement capabilities. In Proceedings of The 16th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems 2012(PACIS 2012).

Berman, E. M., Bowman, J. S., West, J. P., & Van Wart, M. R. (2015). Human resource management in public service: Paradoxes, processes, and problems. New York: Sage Publications.

Catano, Wiesner and Hackett (2015). Recruitment and Selection in Canada. 6th Edition, Toronto, ON: Nelson

Gooden, M. A., & Gonzales, R. (2012). A Rigorous Recruitment and Selection Process of the University of Texas at Austin Principalship Program. Advances in Educational Administration17, 97-112.


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to emphysema and chronic bronchitis. The conditions are the fifth killer in UK. COPD mechanism is recognized as an imbalance between the protective antiproteases and destructive proteases. It is primarily caused by smoking. The smoke from cigarette inactivates α1-antitrypsin and damages anti-proteases such as elafin, leukoprotease. The causation of COPD is explained on the antioxidant and oxidative activities collectively referred to as oxidative stress. Tar and cigarette smoke have a high concentration of oxidants such as nitrogen dioxide, ozone and diesel particulates which needs to be eliminated by the lung antioxidants. Consequently, the antioxidant defense system in the lung is overwhelmed. The diagnosis of COPD is done on patients with sputum production and dyspnoea in the cough, or historical factors of being exposed to the disease risk factors. The diagnosis involves the application of a spirometry, used in confirming the presence of irreversible airflow limitation. The condition has been implicated in having various systemic effects such as skeletal muscle dysfunction, weight loss, depression, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. The treatment of emphysema may involve liver implantation when the patient is young, and the condition diagnosed at an early stage. Lung transplantation is considered when lungs are examined to be affected. Alpha-1 emphysema is also treated by administration of the missing α1 antitrypsin. The most cost effective treatment of COPD is ensuring that the patient stops smoking. Bronchodilators are also provided to assist in opening the airways and lower breath shortness. In addition, steroids assist in decreasing inflammations of airways while bacterial infections are treated with antibiotics.



Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to two lung diseases: emphysema and chronic bronchitis. The two conditions cause airflow obstruction, thus, interfere with normal breathing. The conditions coexist in patients making the term COPD frequently used by physicians. COPD is the fifth the killer in the United Kingdom, and the second most common cause of hospital admission. There are over 3.7 million persons currently suffering from the disease in UK. The condition leads to more than twenty-five thousand deaths yearly. However, only close to nine thousand patients have been diagnosed with the condition, which is an indication that 2.8 million people are unaware of having the disease. In Scotland, 3.8 percent of adults are already diagnosed with COPD. The disease is prevalently high in women than in men with a percentage of 4.2 percent compared to 3.3 percent.

The COPD hotspots in Scotland include Lanarkshire and Greater Glasglow (4.4 percent). In England, areas most affected include inner city areas and ex-industrial areas in Yorkshire, North West, and North East and Humberside. There are some incidences reported in Dagenham and Barking and in areas with high populations such as East Anglia and South Coast of England. In Wales, the most affected areas are Welsh valleys and Blaenau Gwent while in Ireland the most affected areas are Londonderry and Belfast. Most of the areas affected in Scotland and other parts of the United Kingdom are associated with unemployment and high levels of deprivation.

According to World Health Organization (WHO), the main primary cause of COPD is tobacco smoking. Smoking is argued to be responsible for up to 90 percent of all the COPD cases in Scotland and other areas in the United Kingdom. Tobacco smoke inflames and permanently damages the lining of the airways. More than 25 percent of smokers are at risk of developing COPD. In addition, passive smoking as well increases the risk of COPD in their victims. COPD is also explained to be caused by exposure to certain types of chemicals and dust at workplaces. Such chemicals and dust include coal, isocyanate, grains, and cadmium. The risk is heightened by breathing in these dust and chemicals by tobacco smokers. COPD is also thought to be caused by air pollution, especially by indoor air pollutants. However, the present statistics are not conclusive.

An existence of an imbalance between the protective antiproteases and destructive proteases has for a long time recognized for the potential COPD mechanism. The smoke from cigarette inactivates α1-antitrypsin and damages other anti-proteases such as elafin, leukoprotease. The smoke as well impairs secretory metalloproteinase. The increased amount of protease destroys collagen and alveoli, whereas neutrophil elastase increases the secretion of mucus by goblet cells. This may increase the victims’ susceptibility to gram-negative bacterial infection and induce expression of interleukin-8. This is a better explanation to the airway obstruction caused by airway collapse and mucus, and the loss of elasticity of the lungs. Consequently, COPD becomes characterized by poorly reversible obstruction to airflow. The condition is also characterized by an abnormal inflammatory reaction in the lungs. All smokers have inflamed lungs; however, those who develop COPD have an abnormal response to inhaling toxic substances. The amplified response result to mucous hypersecretion leading to chronic bronchitis, tissue destruction as in emphysema, the disruption of defense and repair mechanism that causes airway inflammation and bronchitis.

COPD causation is explained on the antioxidant and oxidative activities termed oxidative stress. Tar and cigarette smoke have a high concentration of oxidants such as nitrogen dioxide, ozone and diesel particulates. The antioxidant defense system in the lung becomes overwhelmed by the added oxidants since it already works on the bodily produced oxidants such as hydroxyl radicals, superoxide dismutases catalases, mucin, glutathione and ascorbic acid. The resultant oxidative stress damages lung’s elastin and cells while the increased activity of the nuclear factor-kβ causes the damage through the production of cytokines and epithelial cells apoptosis.

The diagnosis of the condition is considered in patients with sputum production and dyspnoea in the cough, or historical factors of being exposed to the disease risk factors. The diagnosis involves the application of a spirometry, which confirms the presence of irreversible airflow limitation. It should be done on persons exposed to cigarettes or occupational pollutants. A single measurement of forced expiratory volume per second (FEV1) is not enough to represent the sophistication of COPD clinical consequences. Therefore, it is desirable to have a multi-stage examination system that would provide a portrayal of the severity of the condition.

Smoking is the leading risk factor in the causation of COPD. Other factors include second-hand smoke and exposure to air pollution, heredity and a history of childhood infection. Particulates of air pollution and smoke are related to lung damage as discussed above. Particulates with diameters between 2.5 to 10.0 microns are of particular concern. Large particles are easily trapped in the throat or nose as smaller particulates readily drawn into small air passages. Particulates of diameter less than 2.5 microns provide the most serious threat since they may pass to the bloodstream.

COPD has been implicated in having various systemic effects such as skeletal muscle dysfunction, weight loss, depression, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. 50 percent of the patients with severe COPD experience unexplained weight loss. Weight loss is also experienced in about 15percent of patients with moderate or mild condition. Weight loss highlight poor prognosis.

The treatment to a young person diagnosed with emphysema at an early stage requires liver implantation. In case of an evidenced lung disease, lung transplantation is considered. Alpha-1 emphysema can also be treated by administration of the missing α1 antitrypsin protein on a weekly basis for life. Although COPD lung damage is irreversible, particular treatment are given to enhance the quality of life of the patient. One such treatment is stopping smoking, which is the most cost effective treatment in slowing the progression of COPD. Bronchodilators are given to assist in opening the airways and decrease breath shortness. Steroids can assist in lowering inflammations in certain patient’s airways while infections are treated with antibiotics.
















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