AP US History Long Response Essay

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AP US History Long Response Essay

John Dalton

Among the greatest scientists to have lived was John Dalton who was born in 1766 and whose death occurred in 1844. His greatest contributions to science were his pioneer work in the discovery of the atomic theory as applied in the modern Chemistry and Physics. However, he also had great contributions in the study of color blindness.

Dalton’s atomic theory

Through various research studies, Dalton proved that elements and compounds are composed of the tiniest building blocks known as atoms. The theory was based on various points as are illustrated (“Dalton’s Atomic Theory – John Dalton.” 1)

Elements are formed or composed of tiny units of building blocks called atoms.

  1. First, the atoms of any given element differ from the atoms of another element. Accordingly, the primary difference between these atoms is the different atomic weights shown by either.
  2. Secondly, through his research, Dalton argued that all atoms of a single element had an identical weight.
  3. Chemical compounds are formed by the atoms of different elements combined in a certain ratio. However, the compound formed has a similar relative number of atoms of the constituent elements.
  4. Atoms would neither be created nor destroyed physically or in the chemical process.
  5. Worth appreciating is that Dalton made great discoveries regarding the composition of elements and compounds and that have been the basis of most of the scientific knowledge that has been advanced through chemistry and physics especially about atoms as illustrated through the Dalton Atomic Theory.


  1. 10

Before the defeat of the Confederacy troops at Gettysburg and later in Vicksburg in the month of July 186, President Lincoln had earlier noted that the success of the Union in the war depended on the ability to assume victory at the battle grounds (Simpson 1). In fact, as the argument states, the victory realized at Gettysburg and Vicksburg meant nothing more, but the defeat of the Confederacy as Gettysburg served as the main route by which the supplies of the Confederacy would pass (Simpson 1).


The success of the Union armies was highly attributed to the great determination and strategy that Grant embraced in his term as the overall command (“Civil War Facts.” 1). The primary difference that was noted in strategy in the war after he took over command was that mass casualties on the opposing army would be realized as his command was final and would not spare even the surrendering armies (“Civil War Facts.” 1).

  1. 12

The civil war recorded an extra high number of deaths as recorded (“Civil War Facts.” 1). The primary causes of the deaths were from the killings in the line of duty, the deaths from wounds while others were captured and went missing never to be recovered again. However, diseases were also noted to have contributed highly to the overall death toll as realized on both sides of the warring groups (“Civil War Facts.” 1).

Q 13.

Abraham Lincoln’s second inaugural speech in 1865 carried the great message to the American people who were at the time heavily wearied by the civil war. Among other aspects that the speech addressed were the causes of the war and the effects. He attributed the cause of the war to some forces that were passively insinuated. The forces were the ill intentions of people of color from the south as freeing slaves were the primary issue of contention between the North and the South. However, he also alluded to the working of God to ensure that freedom for the slaves was attained and that vengeance for the losses suffered by the slaves over the years was left on the Americans.

Q 14.

Freedom for the slaves would have different meanings and according to Frederick Douglass, while the slaves in the urban setup and those in the plantations remained slaves, they were not equal (Smith, 1). Accordingly, he argued that the slaves in the urban areas enjoyed higher freedom, were better fed and clothed and could therefore not be equated with the slaves on the plantations. As such according to him, freedom was not necessarily the setting free the slaves, but rather being changed from the labor location in the plantations in the urban areas (Smith, 1).

Works Cited

“Civil War Facts.” Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations, 2014. Web. 5 Jan. 2016. <http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/faq/&gt;.

“Dalton’s Atomic Theory – John Dalton.” John Dalton. 24 Nov. 2015. Web. 5 Jan. 2016. <http://www.johndalton.org/daltons-atomic-theory/&gt;.

Simpson, Brooks D. “Gettysburg or Vicksburg: Which Was More Important?” Crossroads. 4 July 2013. Web. 5 Jan. 2016. <https://cwcrossroads.wordpress.com/2013/07/04/gettysburg-or-vicksburg-which-was-more-important/&gt;.

Smith, Nicole. “Freedom, Liberty, and Meaning in the Slave Narrative: Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington and Olaudah Equiano.” Article Myriad. 2011. Web. 5 Jan. 2016. <http://www.articlemyriad.com/freedom-liberty-meaning-slave-narrative/&gt;.


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