Self-determination Theory and Employee Motivation





Self-determination Theory and Employee Motivation

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Self-determination Theory and Employee Motivation

The self-determination theory (SDT) is a motivation theory that is based on the idea that people willingly search for prospects of developing their full potentials (Gunesekare, 2016). It proposes a multidimensional view of motivation and also specified how the various types of motivation can be encouraged or discouraged (Gagnéet al., 2015).Deci and Ryan (2000) argue that as people seek such opportunities, their psychological wellbeing is enhanced, thus developing their inner striving conditions into optimal performance. The starting point of this theory is the assumption of the inherent rooting of growth, development, and integrity motivation within the humans (Deci& Ryan, 2000). As such, the SDT postulates that satisfaction of a person’s innate fundamental psychological needs is required for continued growth and development.

Ryan and Deci (2000) notes that intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation have been studied widely, and the distinction between the two types of motivation informs both educational and developmental practices. In SDT, the two types of motivation are distinguished by the different goals that give rise to an action (Ryan & Deci, 2000). The basic distinction is between intrinsic motivation that refers to doing something because of the interesting nature or enjoyableness of the task, and extrinsic motivation, which refers to doing something because of the separate outcomes associated with it (Ryan & Deci, 2000).

The concepts related to SDT have been intensively researched and discussed within the organizational literature for over six decades now. For instance, Argyris (1957) and McGregor (1960) emphasized that organizational environments offering their employees the opportunity to satisfy their higher order needs are more likely to promote effective performance. Moreover, both styles of management and organizational designs allowing greater participation in the organization’s decision-making processes, as well as greater flexibility in doing one’s job have been found to hold a positive association with the employee satisfaction (Ugboro&Obeng, 2000), organizational effectiveness (Pearce & Sims, 2002) and the quality of work-life (Srivastava, Bartol, & Locke, 2006).

A review of literature in the SDT and work motivation reveals how the theory offers a fruitful lens for explaining the motivation of proactivity. Strauss and Parker (2014) draw from the SDT to propose strategies for enhancing the likelihood of effective proactivity, both for individual, team and organization. The antecedents of proactive behavior, which include the individual differences in the tendencies to engage in proactivity, have also received extensive attention in the existing literature. The individual differences that dominate the existing empirical body include the demographics, knowledge, personalities as well as the abilities. Scholars in this area argue that the individual differences as well as the contextual variables influence proactivity directly through the proactive motivational states (Strauss & Parker, 2014).

Employees’self-determination is another important issue for organizations that predicts key job outcomes, probably because self-determined employees often feel more committed to their organizations and also report fewer turnover intentions and other physical symptoms. According to Gorbatsevich (2010), understanding the concept of work motivation requires a clear definition of human motivation as a whole, and the special literature reveals that three aspects under which the concept of motivation is discussed, namely: motivation as a process of encouraging one to perform a specific behavior, motivation as a psychological state of a person performing a certain behavior, and motivation as the underlying reasons that drive a person to be engaged in a certain behavior. SDT stipulates that the different types of motivation determine the behavior of people, and the motivation types differ in terms of the self-determination levels (Gorbatsevich, 2010).


SDT and work motivation

Therefore, focusing on the SDT, work motivation can be defined as a set of reasons that correlate with the need for competency, relatedness and autonomy of a worker determining one’s professional activity engagement. The self-determination theory proposes that workers’ intrinsic motivation contributes to the overall employee output, and thus the major psychological needs of the employees should be adequately considered. The subordinates should be treated as both experienced and capable autonomous. SDT stipulates that managers need to develop a corporate culture that incorporates workplace development of social bonds (Gorbatsevich, 2010).

Understanding the employee perspective from an SDT perspective is important since the model has been found to be consistent and also provides the correct description of a group of needs, which determine the employee behavior. The theory also offers an explanation for the mechanism of correction between the employee factors and the motivation factors, among other aspects of the approach to work motivation. Deci and Ryan (2008) argues that this theory focuses on the types, rather than just amounts of motivation, and pays particular attention to the autonomous motivation, amotivation and controlled motivation, which makes it the best model to address the research topic of the influence of empowering leadership on subordinates’ autonomous work motivation and their proactivity. SDT also can help in addressing the research questions that either enhance or diminish the various types of motivation, and examines the aspirations of people, thus revealing the differential associations between intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations (Deci & Ryan, 2008).



Gunasekare, U. L. T. P. (2016). Self Determination Theory to Explain Charismatic Leadership in Virtual Teams: Proposing an Integrated Model.International Journal of Business Administration7(3).Available at:

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary educational psychology25(1), 54-67. Available at:,+Deci+00.pdf

Ugboro, I. O., &Obeng, K. (2000). Top management leadership, employee empowerment, job satisfaction, and customer satisfaction in TQM organizations: an empirical study. Journal of Quality management5(2), 247-272. Available at:

Pearce, C. L., & Sims Jr, H. P. (2002). Vertical versus shared leadership as predictors of the effectiveness of change management teams: An examination of aversive, directive, transactional, transformational, and empowering leader behaviors. Group dynamics: Theory, research, and practice6(2), 172. Available at:

Srivastava, A., Bartol, K. M., & Locke, E. A. (2006). Empowering leadership in management teams: Effects on knowledge sharing, efficacy, and performance. Academy of management journal49(6), 1239-1251. Available at:

Strauss, K., & Parker, S. K. (2014). Effective and sustained proactivity in the workplace: A self-determination theory perspective. The Oxford handbook of work engagement, motivation, and self-determination theory, 50-71.Available at:

Argyris, C. (1957). The individual and organization: Some problems of mutual adjustment. Administrative science quarterly, 1-24. Available at:

Gorbatsevich, T. A. (2010). Defining work motivation: focusing on the self-determination theory. Belorussian State University. Available at:

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Self-determination theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health. Canadian psychology/Psychologiecanadienne49(3), 182. Available at:

McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Gagné, M., Forest, J., Vansteenkiste, M., Crevier-Braud, L., Van den Broeck, A., Aspeli, A. K., … &Halvari, H. (2015). The multidimensional work motivation scale: Validation evidence in seven languages and nine countries.European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology24(2), 178-196. Available at:

The influence of empowering leadership on subordinates’ autonomous work motivation and their proactivity within a self-determination theory perspective






The influence of empowering leadership on subordinates’ autonomous work motivation and their proactivity within a self-determination theory perspective

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Leadership, motivation, and proactive behavior have dominated organizational research for a long time. These variables are widely accepted as key factors for organizational success, and they form the topmost research agenda in the management arena (Gunasekare, 2016). This study explores the influence of two precursors of employee proactive behavior: motivation and leadership. More specifically, the study explores the relationship between empowering leadership, subordinates’ autonomous work motivation within a self-determination perspective, and their proactivity at an individual, team, and organizational level. The study also explored whether the first order factors of autonomous motivation, which include identified regulation and intrinsic motivation, would mediate the relationship between empowering leadership and subordinate proactivity.

According to the existing empirical evidence, empowering leadership and proactivity are associated with a wide range of positive outcomes, which include job performance (Thompson, 2005), career success (Tolentino et al., 2014), innovation (Nadia et al., 2014) and life satisfaction (Spitzmuller& Van Dyne, 2013). Although this gives a good reason to expect positive benefits of employee leadership empowerment and proactivity, researchers have increasingly called for an acknowledgment of the potential limitations of employee leadership and proactivity (Strauss & Parker, 2014).

It is important to note that not all proactive behaviors can predict judgments of employees’ job performance, self-satisfaction, innovation and even career success (Grant, Parker, & Collins, 2009). Moreover, research shows that there are costs associated with proactivity for both individuals and organizations (Bolino, Valcea, & Harvey, 2010). As such, it is important to understand how proactive behaviors that are effective for organizations can be promoted.

The hypotheses of this study include:

  1. Empowering leadership predicts subordinates’ autonomous work motivation comprising identified regulation and intrinsic motivation.
  2. Empowering leadership predicts subordinates’ proactivity at an individual, team, and organizational level.
  3. Subordinates’ autonomous work motivation comprising identified regulation and intrinsic motivation mediate the relationship between empowering leadership and subordinates’ proactivity at an individual, team, and organizational level.

The aspect of employee empowerment has increasingly gained popularity in executive circles, and is important in today’s management policies. Moreover, the people in organizations are faced with uncertainties, complexity and huge pressures that necessitate an empowering culture. As pointed out earlier, the study examines the underlying relationships and proposes practical strategies that can help organizations to bring about cultural change that help people and enterprise to thrive.

Parker, Williams and Turner (2006) recognizes proactive behavior is a self-initiated and future-oriented action aiming at improving self or one’s situation. It has also been found to contribute positively towards various work outcomes. However, proactive behaviors are also associated with uncertainties, and it involves change that may not always be welcomed by both peers and even superiors. Parker et al. (2010) argue that in such a case, having a supportive environment that motivates employees to try alternative ways of accomplishing their duties without having to worry about potential obstacles can significantly facilitate proactivity. However, other studies have contradicted these findings of positive relationship between empowering leadership and various forms of proactive behavior (e.g., Frese, Teng&Wijnen, 1999; Parker et al., 2006), thus suggesting the need to delve deeper into the issue of empowering leadership and proactive behavior. To address the question whether empowering leadership predicts subordinates’ autonomous work motivation and proactivity, and also whether the subordinates’ autonomous work motivation mediates the relationship between empowering leadership and subordinates’ proactivity.


Bolino, M., Valcea, S., & Harvey, J. (2010). Employee, manage thyself: The potentially negative implications of expecting employees to behave proactively. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology83(2), 325-345. Available at:

Frese, M., Teng, E., &Wijnen, C. J. (1999). Helping to improve suggestion systems: Predictors of making suggestions in companies. Journal of Organizational Behavior20(7), 1139-1155. Available at:;2-I/abstract

Grant, A. M., Parker, S., & Collins, C. (2009). Getting credit for proactive behavior: Supervisor reactions depend on what you value and how you feel.Personnel Psychology62(1), 31-55. Available at:

Gunasekare, U. L. T. P. (2016). Self Determination Theory to Explain Charismatic Leadership in Virtual Teams: Proposing an Integrated Model.International Journal of Business Administration7(3). Available at:

Nadia, Y. Y., Takeuchi, R., & Chen, Z. (2014, January). Proactive Team Innovation: An Integrative View of Information Exchange and Supervisor Support. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2014, No. 1, p. 13429). Academy of Management. Available at:;2014/1/13429

Parker, S. K., Bindl, U. K., & Strauss, K. (2010). Making things happen: A model of proactive motivation. Journal of management. 36: 827-856. Available at:

Parker, S. K., Williams, H. M., & Turner, N. (2006). Modeling the antecedents of proactive behavior at work. Journal of applied psychology,91(3), 636. Available at:

Parker, S. K., Williams, H. M., & Turner, N. (2006). Modeling the antecedents of proactive behavior at work. Journal of applied psychology,91(3), 636. Available at:

Strauss, K., & Parker, S. K. (2014). Effective and sustained proactivity in the workplace: A self-determination theory perspective. The Oxford handbook of work engagement, motivation, and self-determination theory, 50-71. Available at:

Thompson, J. A. (2005). Proactive personality and job performance: a social capital perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology90(5), 1011. Available at:

Tolentino, L. R., Garcia, P. R. J. M., Lu, V. N., Restubog, S. L. D., Bordia, P., &Plewa, C. (2014). Career adaptation: The relation of adaptability to goal orientation, proactive personality, and career optimism. Journal of Vocational Behavior84(1), 39-48. Available at:

Title: “The influence of empowering leadership on subordinates’ autonomous work motivation and their proactivity within a self-determination theory perspective






Title: “The influence of empowering leadership on subordinates’ autonomous work motivation and their proactivity within a self-determination theory perspective











Empowering leadership

Literature review

This chapter reviews the literature on empowering leadership, the impact of leadership empowerment and the outcome of empowering leadership in the organization. The review of literature entails empowering leadership based on the background of self-determination theory perspective.

Empowering leadership

Leadership is defined as guiding or directing a group of people or organization (Gallos, 2008). Several kinds of literature have established various perspective and standpoints of leadership. From a broad review, study on leadership indicates that build-up factors (intrinsic or adopted) seem to increase the well-being of the employees and motivation as far as the organizational culture is concerned (Deci & Ryan, 2000).  According to Den Hartog & Belschak (2012), empowering leadership entails the various set of leader conducts or behaviors. These behaviors are directed towards developing the self-capabilities, self-control, self-management as well as the self-leadership of the people being led (Hauschildt & Konradt, 2012). Empowering leaders involve delegation of extensive responsibility to followers which in turn creates an environment that allows employees (followers) to gratify needs for autonomy through exercising self-control as well as self-direction based on the organizational objectives (Liao, 2012). In this case, empowering leadership creates an opportunity where employees can make viable decisions and carry them the way it is expected. Since the beginning of the 21st century, there has been an increase attention with organizations in promoting autonomy particularly in self-management of teams (Stewart, 2006). Similar to this attention, the organizations have also embraced empowering of leaders/leadership as a new direction of creating a successful environment (Erkutlu, 2012).

Empowering Leadership and subordinates’ proactivity 

Several researchers have examined leadership support when it comes to promoting proactivity among employees in the organization. The central argument for these arguments is that having leadership support nurtures a high sense of self-determination among individuals and teams (Nie et al., 2014). For example, a study by De Stobbeleir, Ashford, & Sully de Luque (2010)reveals that leadership support predicts different forms of proactive behaviors such as the implementation of new ideas, creative performance as well as organizational environment initiatives. Furthermore, the null reaction revealed in the study by Stewart (2006) shows that leadership support has unrealized predictive effect when it comes to idea suggestion. In most cases, groups and teams may have diverse reactions towards a new initiative in the organization.

Social determination theory perspective

Self-determination theory suggests that individuals have essential basic psychological needs for self-sufficiency/autonomy and relatedness (Burton et al., 2006). In this case, the need for self-sufficiency/autonomy entails the aspiration to do things in freedom and choice (Deci & Ryan, 2008).  According to Roche and Haar (2011), individuals working in organizations would expect the organization to satisfy their needs to enhance the desired outcome.

Empowering leadership importance    

Empowering leadership in the organization play a key role in stimulating creativity and proactivity in employees particularly with diverse characteristics (Ruckdäschel, 2014). According to Joo, Yang and McLean, (2014), to create an effective background for promoting creativity in employees, managers ought to determine whether group individuals and teams have the capacity to direct and guide the initiative towards a set goal. Also, studying of empowering leadership opens up the opportunity to realize ways of creating competitive advantage within the organization. According to Gagné & Deci (2005), employees who are more motivated are more likely to achieve high results as far as organizational objectives are concerned.

Empowering of leadership conduct or behavior has received relatively less focus when it comes to understanding the subordinates’ autonomous work motivation compared to other leadership aspects such as transformational leadership. Therefore, the important part of this study focuses on the extension of prior researches by examining the relationship between empowering leadership and subordinates’ autonomous behavior.









Burton, K., Lydon, J., D’Alessandro, D., & Koestner, R. (2006). The differential effects of intrinsic and identified motivation on well-being and performance: Prospective, experimental, and implicit approaches to self-determination theory. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology91(4), 750-762.

De Stobbeleir, K., Ashford, S., & Sully de Luque, M. (2010). Proactivity with image in mind: How employee and manager characteristics affect evaluations of proactive behaviours. J Occup Organ Psychol83(2), 347-369.×479529

Deci, E. & Ryan, R. (2000). The “What” and “Why” of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and the Self-Determination of Behavior. Psychological Inquiry11(4), 227-268.

Deci, E. & Ryan, R. (2008). Self-determination theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne49(3), 182-185.

Den Hartog, D. & Belschak, F. (2012). When does transformational leadership enhance employee proactive behavior? The role of autonomy and role breadth self-efficacy. Journal Of Applied Psychology97(1), 194-202.

Erkutlu, H. (2012). The impact of organizational culture on the relationship between shared leadership and team proactivity. Team Performance Management18(1/2), 102-119.

Gagné, M. & Deci, E. (2005). Self-determination theory and work motivation. Journal Of Organizational Behavior26(4), 331-362.

Gallos, J. (2008). Business leadership. London: John Wiley & Sons. Available at,+(2013).+Business+leadership.&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Hauschildt, K. & Konradt, U. (2012). Self‐leadership and team members’ work role performance.Journal Of Managerial Psychology27(5), 497-517.

Joo, B., Yang, B., & McLean, G. (2014). Employee creativity: the effects of perceived learning culture, leader–member exchange quality, job autonomy, and proactivity. Human Resource Development International17(3), 297-317.

Liao, P. (2012). The Role of Self-Concept in the Mechanism Linking Proactive Personality to Employee Work Outcomes. Applied Psychology64(2), 421-443.

Nie, Y., Chua, B., Yeung, A., Ryan, R., & Chan, W. (2014). The importance of autonomy support and the mediating role of work motivation for well-being: Testing self-determination theory in a Chinese work organisation. Int J Psychol50(4), 245-255.

Roche, Maree and Haar, Jarrod (2011) Self-determination theory and job outcomes: The moderating effects of perceived autonomous support. In: Academy of Management 71st Annual Meeting: West meets East: Enlightening. Balancing. Transcending., 12-16 August, 2011, San Antonio, Texas. Available at

Ruckdäschel, S. (2014). Leadership of networks and performance. London: Springer.

Ryan, R. & Deci, E. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist55(1), 68-78.

Stewart, G. (2006). A Meta-Analytic Review of Relationships Between Team Design Features and Team Performance. Journal Of Management32(1), 29-55.


Empowering Leadership and Employee Motivation: Implications on the Subordinates’ Autonomous Work Motivation and Their Proactivity






Empowering Leadership and Employee Motivation: Implications on the Subordinates’ Autonomous Work Motivation and Their Proactivity



















Empowering Leadership and Employee Motivation: Implications on the Subordinates’ Autonomous Work Motivation and Their Proactivity

In the current workplace context, aspects of employee motivation and empowering leadership have received an in-depth analysis. Changes in the needs of task forces and stakeholder preferences account for this trend. In a study by Zhang, and Gheibi (2015), it was affirmed that the relationship between subordinates and supervisors shapes the attitudes and behaviours of the former, besides the subsequent organizational, group, and individual outcomes. Specifically, the study indicated that empowering leadership is a critical practice whose primary focus lies in highlighting the criticality of the work, removing bureaucratic constraints, conveying confidence towards high performance, and offering an opportunity to participate in decision-making. Indeed, the study was significant because it demonstrated the existence of a positive correlation between empowering leadership and improved motivation among the subordinates. However, the observations faltered in such a way that they did not explore the extent to which empowering leadership influences intrinsic motivation and identified regulation.

In a similar study, Ertürk and Vurgun (2015) asserted that empowered employees exhibit the capacity to execute and organize respective courses of action towards the achievement of individual, group, and organizational goals. The contributory nature of this observation is that highly empowered employees are associated with high commitment to their activities, investing more effort and time towards optimal performance. However, the manner in which training and development processes could be shaped to suit the subordinates’ needs remains dire. As such, the current study is well placed to address this gap.

Previous documentation suggests that empowering leadership fosters motivation through enhanced work engagement (Dobre, 2013). The implication is that a positivecorrelation exists between empowering leadership and task force motivation, with the subordinate group on focus. However, the affirmation overemphasizes the aspect of extrinsic motivation that arises from empowering leadership, failing to account for some of the forces that could shape intrinsic motivation among the subordinates. This study seeks to unearth the correlation by examining empowering leadership as a predictor of intrinsic motivation.

Other studies suggest that motivation results from inspiring leadership, interesting work, and positive characters in the workplace (Esmaeili, 2015; Liu, 2015). Indeed, the documentation is important because it sensitizes senior leaders and other managers about the role of inspiration in motivating their subordinates. Similar studies affirm that the trickle down effect of employee motivation, which results from empowering leadership practices, entails higher performance (Ghahremani&Hasanzadeh, 2015). The scholarly contributions are crucial because they give insight into the respective roles expected of senior leaders and other managers in driving effective change. However, the studies should be criticized in such a way that they do not explain the manner in which empowering leadership could be achieved in situations marred by resource limitations. As such, this study is important because it strives to document possible strategies that could be adopted to foster empowering leadership − while seeking to achieve employee motivation among the subordinate groups.

Regarding the impact of empowering leadership on the task forces’ autonomous motivation, empowerment has been associated with positive influences on the subordinates’ perception of the reputation of the organization (Tuckey, Dollard & Bakker, 2012; Ghahremani&Hasanzadeh, 2015). In turn, the perception improves the subordinates’ level of motivation towards task completion and role performance in their respective departments. However, the study failed to account for the extent to which more empowered and motivated employees (in terms of control and competence) are likely to exhibit more favourable evaluations of the workplace. This study seeks to address the dilemma by measuring the participants’ proactivity at the individual, group, and organizational level.

In summary, this study will take a stride with the intention of contributing to both practice and theory. Given the nature of the ever-stiffening marketplace, the need for senior leaders to design strategies that motivate the subordinate groups is inevitable. Thus, organizations that seek to attain a competitive advantage and strategic position are expected to foster an empowering form of leadership. Therefore, it is important to understand the relationship between empowering leadership and employee motivation because of the capacity of the perceived outcomes to align processes of vision articulation and mission implementation to the individual, group, and organizational goals.

















Dobre, O. (2013). Employee motivation and organizational performance.Review of Applied Socio-Economic Research, 5, 53-60. Retrieved on June 23, 2016 from

Ertürk, A., &Vurgun, L. (2015). Retention of IT professionals: Examining the influence of empowerment, social exchange, and trust. Journal of Business Research, 68, 34-46. Retrieved on June 23, 2016 from

Esmaeili, N. (2015). Strategic management and its application in modern organizations.International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 4, 118-126. Retrieved on June 23, 2016 from,bs.1,d.d24

Ghahremani, G. M., &Hasanzadeh, M. (2015).Describing model of empowering managers by applying structural equation modeling: A case study of universities in Ardabil.International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 4, 127-143. Retrieved on June 23, 2016 from,bs.1,d.d24

Ghahremani, G. M., &Hasanzadeh, M. (2015).The relative importance of organizational conditions in empowering managers.International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 4, 225-237. Retrieved on June 23, 2016 from,bs.1,d.d24

Liu, Y. (2015). The Review of Empowerment Leadership. Open Journal of Business and Management, 3, 476-482. Retrieved on June 23, 2016 from

Tuckey, M. R., Dollard, M. F. & Bakker, A. B. (2012). Empowering Leaders Optimize Working Conditions for Engagement: A Multilevel Study. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17, 15-27. Retrieved on June 23, 2016 from

Zhang, P. &Gheibi, S. (2015). The Impact of Empowering Leadership on Work Performance and Work Family Conflict: The Role of Gender. European Scientific Journal, 11(11), 367-379. Retrieved on June 23, 2016 from

Empowering Leadership and Employee Proactivity (Proactive Behavior)









Empowering Leadership and Employee Proactivity (Proactive Behavior)

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation




Leaders have a significant impact in the manner which employees conduct their work as well as their happiness at the workplace (Tuckey, Dollard, & Bakker, 2012). In case of challenges in an organization, it has been indicated that it is of paramount importance for the firm leaders to promote collaboration among their employees that will result to high performance levels (Hill & Bartol, 2015). Leadership empowerment at personal levels has a significant positive impact on career self-efficiency (Biemanna, Kearney, & Marggraf, 2015). However, ways through which leaders can influence their employees to cultivate a proactive behavior is an area that has not been explored with depth.

The relationship between leadership empowerment and employee proactivity manifests in two perspectives. The first perspective is one that concentrates on the actions of the leader particularly those that are aimed at boosting employees’ autonomy as well as increased responsibilities (Huq & Hill, 2004). The second perspective is that which focuses on the response of employees to their empowerment and in particular, their motivation (Srivastava, Bartol, & Locke, 2006). Once leaders are empowered to engage in actions that have positive influence on the employees, the latter then engage in self-initiated as well as future-oriented actions whose aim is to create change either for self or for the organization (Strauss & Parker, 2014).

There has been large number of research studies that have been conducted mainly on leadership empowerment as well as employee proactivity particularly those of individual task, team members, and organizational members. For leadership empowerment to succeed in proactivity, it is important to understand what factors lead to the success of proactive behaviors among employees. An example of aid tool that could help with this is the model that was invented by Parker et al. (2010). The model is aimed at establishing the manner in which proactivity among employees is shaped by leadership empowerment (Wang & Parker, 2015). Another example of a research study that has focused on leadership empowerment and enhancement of proactivity among employees is that by Spreitzer, Janasz, and Quinn (1999) who have focused on psychological empowerment of leaders as a source of intrinsic motivation for the employees (Spreitzer, DeJanasz, & Quinn, 1999).

Also, other research include that of the models developed for relationships between leadership and empowerment in relation to employee creativity and creative process involvement of employees (Zhang, 2007). In proactivity among employees whether individual, team, or organizational, it has been identified to be a goal-oriented process (Parker, Bindl, & Strauss, 2010). Therefore, empowerment leadership actions should be motivated and conscious of the end goal that is aimed at. However, although these proactive behaviors in organizations may be perceived as beneficial they may also face challenges within organizations (Parker & Wu, Leading for proactivity: How leaders cultivate staff who make things happen , 2014).

It is important to understand the relationship between leadership empowerment and employee creativity to help in comprehending how the process can transform organizations (Strauss, Griffin, & Rafferty, 2009). Another is reason is to identify that there are various forms of proactivity among employees which are organizational and pro-social as well as those that are self-focused to improve individual goals (Belschak & Hartog, 2010). Also, understanding the relationship between the two enhances an in depth comprehension of the role of both autonomous and intrinsic motivations by leaders towards their employees (Graves & Luciano, 2013). Additionally, through analyzing the relationship, one is able to understand the innate state of motivation which concerns factors such as energy, persistence, and direction (Ryan & Deci, 2000).

The relationship between leadership empowerment and employee proactivity is an area that still requires in depth research to explicitly have an understanding of how to motivate employees in an organization. There has been a large number of studies that have been conducted revolving the topic but no clear concept has been developed on how leaders can be empowered to enhance proactivity in their employees. As a result, this research will delve deeper to bring out a more detailed explanation about leadership empowerment and employee proactivity with well-developed models to help with the process.





Belschak, F. D., & Hartog, D. N. (2010). Pro-self, prosocial, and pro-organizational foci of proactive behaviour: Differential antecedents and consequences. of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(2), 475-498.

Available at:

Biemanna, T., Kearney, E., & Marggraf, K. (2015). Empowering leadership and managers’ career perceptions: Examining effects at both the individual and the team level. The Leadership Quarterly 26(5) 775-789.

Available at:

Graves, L. M., & Luciano, M. M. (2013). Self-determination at work: Understanding the role of leader-member exchange. Motivation and Emotion, 37(3) 518–536. DOI 10.1007/s11031-012-9336-z

Available at:

Hill, N. S., & Bartol, K. M. (2015). Wmpowering leadership and effective collaboration in geographically dispersed teams. Personnel Psychology 69(1), 1-40.

Huq, R., & Hill, F. (2004). Employee Empowerment: Conceptualizations, aims and outcomes. Total Quality Management, 15(8), 1025-1041.

Available at:


Parker, S. K., & Wu, C.-h. (2014). Leading for proactivity: How leaders cultivate staff who make things happen. Oxford University Press.

Click to access 56ee627508aea35d5b99b38d.pdf

Parker, S. K., Bindl, U. K., & Strauss, K. (2010). Making things happen: a model of proactive motivation . Journal of Management, 36(4), 827-856.

Available at:

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well-Being. American Psychological Association, 55(1), 68-78.

Spreitzer, G. M., DeJanasz, S. C., & Quinn, R. E. (1999). Empowered to lead: the role of psychological empowerment in leadership. Organizational Behavior, 20, 511-526.

Available at:

Srivastava, A., Bartol, K. M., & Locke, E. A. (2006). Empowering leadership in management teams: effects of knowledge sharing, efficacy, and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 49(6), 1239-1251.

Available at:

Strauss, K., & Parker, S. K. (2014). Effective and sustained proactivity in the workplace: a self-determination theory perspective. The Oxford handbook of work engagement, motivation, and self-determination theory, 50-71.,+K.,+%26+Parker,+S.+K.+(2014).+Effective+and+sustained+proactivity+in+the+workplace:+a+self-determination+theory+perspective.&ots=IgvOozWXDJ&sig=Z-5-oEk-wrkhrg74k10v88DLKiU

Strauss, K., Griffin, M. A., & Rafferty, A. E. (2009). Proactivity directed toward the team and organization : the role of leadership, commitment and role-breadth self-efficacy. British Journal of Management, 20(3), 279-291.

Available at:

Tuckey, M. R., Dollard, M. F., & Bakker, A. B. (2012). Empowering Leaders Optimize Working Conditions for Engagement: A Multilevel Study. Occupational Health Psychology 17(1), 15-27.

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Wang, Y., & Parker, S. K. (2015). Helping people to ‘make things happen’: a vframework for proactivity at work. International Coaching Psychology Review, 10(1), 62-77.

Available at:

Zhang, X. (2007). Linking empowerment and employee creativity: the mediation roles of creative process engagement and intrinsic motivation.

Available at:




Title: The influence of empowering leadership on subordinates’ autonomous work motivation and their proactivity within a self-determination theory perspective








Title: The influence of empowering leadership on subordinates’ autonomous work motivation and their proactivity within a self-determination theory perspective










Literature Review

The chapter is a review of Literature regarding the impact of leadership empowerment and the results experienced by an organization when it employs leadership empowerment. In the chapter leadership empowerment is discussed in the context of the self-determination theory.

Empowering Leadership

Every organization that hopes to be successful needs to embrace teams and teams can only be successful under the patronage of good leadership. Leadership is defined as the guidance afforded to followers for achieving the team’s goals. Leadership empowers teams by helping individuals work in unison towards the achievement of common goals (Menon, 2001; Boudrias et al., 2009). It allows for the integration of various skills and knowledge within the team for the achievement of the goals of the organization. The conduct and behavior of the leader are important in fostering empowering leadership which in turn enables individuals to develop qualities such as self-control, self-management, and self-leadership (Tung & Chang, 2015). Empowering leadership makes it possible to delegate duties to subordinates in the organization which in turns offers the subordinate the opportunity to enjoy autonomy in the execution of these duties by exercising self-management and self-direction in the achievement of the objectives of the organization (Hill & Huq, 2004; Spreitzer, De Janasz & Quinn, 1999). Contemporary organizations have embraced empowering leadership as an integral tool in achieving organizational success.

Employee Proactivity

Employees are not cogs in the system that allow things to play out in which ever ways that they will but rather they are actively involved in the attempts to shape what happens in their lives and the outcomes of the organization. Employees can shape the outcomes of the organization through proactive behavior (Grant & Ashford, 2008). Proactive behavior refers to employees’ anticipatory acts which involve employees taking personal initiative to influence achievement of the organization’s goals (Dickinson, 1995). Empowering leadership has a role to play in motivating proactive behavior (Müller, 2006). Literature available on empowering leadership suggests that supportive leadership creates a high sense of self-determination in employees be it among teams or individual employees (Thomas, Whitman & Viswesvaran, 2010). This role of empowering leadership is explained by the self-determination theory.

Self-determination Theory

Proponents of this theory propose that individuals are endowed with the power to grow. Individuals’ inclination towards growth and development is made manifest in the regulation of individual behaviors and goals that individuals pursue (Van den Broeck, Vansteenkiste & De Witte, 2008; Chirkov, 2003; Gagné & Deci, 2005). The theory suggests that behavior among employees that is initially extrinsically motivated needs to be intrinsically motivated so that individuals can gain internalized control of their behaviors (Gagné, 2009).

Importance of Studying Empowering Leadership and Self-determination Theory

The study of empowering leadership is important because it is central to determining employee behavior in fostering the achievement of organizational goals. By understanding empowering leadership, organizations can take the relevant steps in offering employees the support that they require to aid in the achievement of organizational goals. In line with this goal, the self-determination theory offers insight on how leaders can help employees move from being extrinsically motivated towards proactive behavior to channeling such behavior form within, that is, intrinsic motivation (Deci, Koestner & Ryan, 1999). The theory reveals how employees can be more active in aiding the achievement of organizational goals which lead to the achievement of organizational success.

This study is relevant because previous research has neglected to focus on how empowering leadership helps subordinates in the work environment gain autonomy in their motivation to working towards achievement of organizational goals. The study cements previous finding regarding the relationship between empowering leadership and its role in inciting autonomous behavior in subordinate employees in an organization.













Boudrias, J. S., Gaudreau, P., Savoie, A., & Morin, A. J. (2009). Employee empowerment: From managerial practices to employees’ behavioral empowerment. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 30(7), 625-638. Available at doi/abs/10.1108/01437730910991646.

Chirkov, V., Ryan, R. M., Kim, Y., & Kaplan, U. (2003). Differentiating autonomy from individualism and independence: a self-determination theory perspective on internalization of cultural orientations and well-being. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(1), 97. Available at doi 10.1007/s11031-014-9450-1.

Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological bulletin, 125(6), 627. Available at

Dickinson, L. (1995). Autonomy and motivation a literature review. System, 23(2), 165-174. Available at

Gagné, M. (2009). A model of knowledge-sharing motivation. Human Resource Management, 48(4), 571. Available at

Gagné, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self‐determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational behavior, 26(4), 331-362. Available at DOI: 10.1002/job.322.

Grant, A. M., & Ashford, S. J. (2008). The dynamics of proactivity at work. Research in organizational behavior, 28, 3-34. Available at

Hill, F., & Huq, R. (2004). Employee empowerment: conceptualizations, aims and outcomes. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 15(8), 1025-1041. Available at doi:



Menon, S. (2001). Employee empowerment: An integrative psychological approach. Applied Psychology, 50(1), 153-180. Available at

Müller, G. F. (2006). Dimensions of self-leadership: A German replication and extension. Psychological reports, 99(2), 357-362. Available at doi: 10.2466/pr0.99.2.357-362.

Spreitzer, G. M., De Janasz, S. C., & Quinn, R. E. (1999). Empowered to lead: The role of psychological empowerment in leadership. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 511-526. Available at doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(199907)20:4<511::AID-JOB900>3.0.CO;2-L.

Thomas, J. P., Whitman, D. S., & Viswesvaran, C. (2010). Employee proactivity in organizations: A comparative meta‐analysis of emergent proactive constructs. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(2), 275-300. Available at DOI: 10.1348/096317910X502359.

Tung, H.L. & Chang, Y.H. (2011). Effects of empowering leadership on performance in management team: Mediating effects of knowledge sharing and team cohesion. Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management 2 (1): 43-60. Available at

Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., & De Witte, H. (2008). Self-determination theory: A theoretical and empirical overview in occupational health psychology. Available at doi: 10.1111/cdev.12355.

Motivation as a mediator of employee proactivity

According to Parker, Bindl & Strauss (2010), motivation is a mediator of employee proactivity. Employee Proactivity gets defined as the ability of an individual to have a dispositional tendency of actively persevere and overcoming challenges, monitoring opportunities, solving problems, and making efforts to bring positive changes in the organization. Proactive employee show persistence and initiative, which act as the change forces (Nancy & James, 2013). Different studies have been conducted to explain how motivation links with employees’ proactive personality. Authors argue that it act as an agent focus that helps to reinforce seeing control and autonomy in the environment (Salanova & Schaufeli, 2008). Even though this literature focuses on how motivation helps employees to focus towards their potential change-oriented behavior benefits and persevering resistance, there is a need for further research on how intrinsic motivation provides improvement opportunities through proactive personality.

Researchers have studied about motivation and proactivity, but there are few studies on how motivation mediates employee proactivity. It is important to determine the relationship between proactivity personality and motivation. Proactive personality is sometimes ‘risky’ because the outcome is unknown and it requires challenging changes and status quo. Motivation involves encouraging workers to work harder and give their best. Therefore, employees need to be motivated to become proactive and deliver improved service quality towards the organization’s goals and mission.

Parker, Bindl, and Strauss (2010) study proposed a ‘can do’ model for proactive motivation. The state of ‘can do’ maps through theories that focus on expectancy, for instance, control theory and self-efficiency theory. These theories are concerned with self-determination, goal orientation, flow, and interest. Bakker (2013) states that employees’ proactive personality needs motivation. It is because the employees need to get reminded that they can do better in the organization. Andreas et al (2013) add that motivation provides confidence, and it includes attributions, self-efficacy perceptions, control appraisals, and perceived action costs.

In addition to motivation in relevant and specific capabilities being essential, it is significant for employees to believe that their behavior will result in desired outcome (Marc & Riccardo, 2014). In this case of proactive work behavior, the employees need to have individual expectations that they feel in control and that they influence the situation’s outcome. Often, the proactive work behavior is important in “weak” situations, which employees have high discretion levels, goals are not specified, ways for achieving the goals are not certain, and attainment is not linked to any rewards (Bakker, 2013). Therefore, in these cases, there is a need to have the strong internal motivation that helps to maintain a risky proactivity behavior.

The role of motivation as a mediator to employee proactivity is well known in existing theory like utility judgments concept in expectancy theory. Utility judgments drive goal commitment of the individual as well as their determination towards reaching the goal (Parker, Williams & Turner, 2006).  Self-determination theory claims that different autonomous motivation types can lead to proactive goal processes. Additionally, identified regulation motivation encourages individual to have a proactive personality where the individual consciously holds due to behavioral regulation or goal such that their actions get accepted as important.

The prior research supports that motivation acts as a mediator to employee proactivity (Parker & Wu, 2014). It is clear that different researchers have significantly explained the concept, but there is a need for further comprehensive research on proactive behavior and investigate the negative and positive results of motivation to employee proactivity behavior. Therefore, there is a need to investigate on how activated negative motivation and inactivated positive motivation affect employee proactivity, factors which will be determined in this study.
















Hirschi, A., Lee, B., Porfeli, E. J., & Vondracek, F. W. (2013). Proactive motivation and

engagement in career behaviors: Investigating direct, mediated, and moderated effects. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83(1), 31-40. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2013.02.003

Bakker, A. (2013). Advances in Positive Organization. United Kingdom: Emerald Group


Marc, V., & Riccardo, P. (2014). Well-being and Performance at Work: The Role of Context.

Milton Park: Psychology Press.

Nancy, T., & James, L. (2013). Handbook of Employee Selection. England: Routledge.

Parker, S. K., Bindl, U. K., & Strauss, K. (2010). Making Things Happen: A Model of Proactive

Motivation. Journal of Management, 36(4), 827-856. doi:10.1177/0149206310363732

Parker, S. K., Williams, H. M., & Turner, N. (2006). Modeling the antecedents of proactive

behavior at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(3), 636-652. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.91.3.636.

Wu, C., & Parker, S. K. (2014). The Role of Leader Support in Facilitating Proactive Work

Behavior: A Perspective From Attachment Theory. Journal of Management. doi:10.1177/0149206314544745


Salanova, M., & Schaufeli, W. (2008). A cross-national study of work engagement as a mediator

between job resources and proactive behaviour. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(1), 116-131. doi:10.1080/09585190701763982


Nursing Care Plan for a DVT Patient







Nursing Care Plan for a DVT Patient

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation


Course Title

Date of Submission









Deep vein thrombosis occurs when there is a formation of blood clot in a single or many deep veins found in the body, mostly in the legs which cause leg pain and swelling and red. It developed in Mr. Harry due to his other medical conditions that affected the blood flow. This essay will discuss a 24-year-old man who complained of pain in his leg which swollen and was red in color after his fourth day in the hospital following a fatal accident; the leg was just a new problem that aroused besides other treated injuries discovered. (Beckman et al. 2010).


The patient Mr. Harry Flanagan is rushed to an emergency room after a fatal accident with his legs that could no move due to pain resulting from other possible injuries. He complained of pain in the right side of his chest accompanied by considerable bruising in the same area, so an EGG was performed (Dorman et al.2010) .The significant laceration to his left thigh was covered with a pressure bandage. Two big bore cannulas were inserted. A CT and X-rays were performed on the pelvic, limp, chest and spinal. Then he was transferred to the ward. The second day he undergoes an ORIF in the operating theatre before being discharged to the ward. Harry has no significant medical history. He is fit and healthy medically. Harry is working as a real estate agent and has a family of wife and a daughter, eighteen years old. He leaves with his family at Canberra where he relocated to play rugby.




Information/Bring together cues

Data was collected to

I collected objective and subjective data to do an assessment on Mr. Harrys’ condition and diagnosed the problem. The individual data of his signs and symptoms included feeling pain in the leg which was red in color and swollen. The objective data was positive. Other information’s were handed over to me by the Night Nurse, who noted that he had difficulty responding to treatment offered by physiotherapists directing him to breathe deeply and exercise coughing many times per hour due to the bruising in his chest and pain to avoid risk of suffocation. She as well informed me that the patient was not responding to the direction to do leg exercises every two hours for quite some time. Collecting information was important to help me plan Harrys’ care.

Process information

In this paragraph, I will explain the abnormal/normal signs and justify the unusual signs. DVT signs and symptoms that are normal are Pain in the affected leg which in my case is the left thigh of Harry and not common, but there may be swelling in the both legs, but Harry had no such (Spyropouloset al.2007). Another sign is a pain in the leg which he complained about. The pain mostly starts in the calf like in Harrys’ case and may feel like soreness and cramping.  Mr. Harry had symptoms but in some cases, the patients suffer from this disease with no obvious symptoms.

The abnormal symptoms that raise suspicion and needs immediate medical attention are as follows; chest pain that gets dangerous when patient breaths in deeply or coughs. Same in the case of the patient handed over to me who was being helped to practice breathing and was being taken through coughing exercises. This shows that his condition was not so far good and needed immediate care. Another warning sign is feeling dizzy, lightheaded or fainting which my patient was lucky he did not go through, discomfort or chest pain that increases when your one inhales air deeply or when coughing. Deep vein thrombosis is meant to avoid the clot from being larger, same as avoiding the clot from continues flowing and leading to a pulmonary embolism. Following that, the objective becomes reducing the probability of deep vein thrombosis occurring repeatedly.  The medication ways include Compression stocking. These helps avoid swelling together with deep vein thrombosis. The stocking is covering the legs from the feet to about the height of the knees.

Different treatment can be administered if the patient is not responding in the other method. This option may be clot busters. Among the collection is called thrombolytic. These medicines, known as tissue plasminogen activators, be administered through an IV line to break up blood clots or could be administered through a catheter located straight keen on the coagulate. Side effects of the drugs may be, vital bleeding and are used correctly in life intimidating occurrences.  That why the medication is administered only in an intensive care department of a health facility.

Nursing diagnosis

DVT occurs when a thrombus forms in a deep vein. This situation is mostly known as thrombophlebitis due to the linked inflammation in the concerned vessel wall. The predisposing factors for venous thrombus making are venous stasis, injure to the endothelium of the vein wall plus state linked with a significant risk for venous thrombosis consist of heart failure, surgery, fractures, immobility and advanced age or other many injuries of the pelvis. This disease typically develops in a lower extremity; however, the occurrence of subclavian venous thrombosis is rising due to the added use of central venous catheters. Medical history of deep vein thrombosis are always not characteristic and in most occurrence, the patient is has asthma. Symbols and symptoms that should be there consist of swelling, ache and softness plus uncommon heat involved in the edge. The biggest danger accompanied with DVT is that the clot will detach and lead to embolic occlusion of a pulmonary vessel (Bullanoet al.2007).

People suffering from the disease are usually medicated instead of surgically if not; there is many occlusion of a vessel plus anticoagulation plus thrombolytic treatment are contraindicated. Using increasing utilization of embolectomies, thrombolytic therapy and thrombectomies are not commonly performed. Clinical action varies depending on the site of the thrombus, the patients’ risk for bleeding and recording of preceding thrombus, and if a coagulation abnormality is present. Anticoagulant treatment is universal, applied in the treatment of calf vein thrombosis since the event of pulmonary embolism has gone down if there is no proximal vein in use.

However, the risk of development of calf vein thrombi is available, into a proximal venous segment if not treated. Due to the risk, most people suffering from calf vein thrombosis are given medical attention with an anticoagulant. There is as well a number 0f variation in the anticoagulant regimen in connection with anticoagulants. There is as well some change in the anticoagulant regimen in linked to the time that oral anticoagulants are initiated and the way and type of heparin requested. So I gave Mr. Harry the treatment that was considerate of his condition but after the medication, there are several things to look out for that I will mention in the next paragraph.



Mr. Harry had to be keen on the type of foods he digest or eat to ensure readiness for enhanced nutrition and must look out for symptoms of too much bleeding and take steps to prevent occurrence of another deep vein thrombosis. The things he can do include: put on a compression stocking to back up avoiding blood clots in the leg so that the swelling and pain get dealt with. He must be on the lookout of how much vitamin k he digests since the too much consumption of the vitamin affects the way that warfarin operates.  This is only for patients who use warfarin, should check with the doctor or the nurse in charge of nutrition about the foods necessary for warfarin. Harry had been on the bed rest due to the surgery operated on him or other factors associated with the bed rest; now it was his time to start moving to help prevent developing of blood clotting. A blood test has to be regularly conducted to determine whether the there is an improvement on the clotting of blood or not so that medication can be given to treatments be modified. Harry had no history of DVT but patients who had suffered the same disease, blood thinners are administered for at least four to seven months or less (MacDougall et al.2006).

Acute pain

First, one has to accept the patients pain where he feels it and whether it is regular or not. It helps in diagnosing what the patient is suffering from and it also helps relieve the patient since his given the opportunity to explain how he feels and that gives him hopes and confidence of a relief after treatment and also helps avoid risk of chronic low self-esteem. One must be aware of the time the patient started experiencing symptoms, practically in Harry’s case, when he started feeling the pain and swelling in the leg and if also noticed the red color. I had to know Harry felt the pain and swelling severally that it was coming and going, or it had not taken long, but the pain flowed. That helps me to determined how far or deep the disease had developed. If there is anything that worsens the symptoms, it should be taken seriously into consideration that is why the question is applicable, and also know how severe the symptoms pain. Since Mr. Harry had no medical history, it was still appropriate to inquire from him if any relative of a family member had suffered the same problem. Questions generally help form a bond with the patient, make the patient feel welcomed and believe of getting the assist in the society and until the patient talks, many discoveries are found; it helps in being keen in a diagnosing disease. After treatment, make sure that the patient is lying in the best position to help in blood flow. Administration of correct medication is very sensible; it alters both emotional response and perception. Education of management of pain is necessary since it helps the patient manage and understand pain. Speak to the patient in the best tone and helpful manner to help decrease the patients’ pain. General give right approach and conducive environment for the patient, it is an important part of therapy.

Anxiety r/t DVT diagnosis

Write a report of how the patient behaved, the medication you administer and his response to the treatment. Take some time with him to know his discomfort and fear distress. Be aware of the pain the patients go through, for appropriate provision of a pain reliever. Provide emotional support and creating bond of trust. Ask him if he has any additional discussion before leaving to give opportunity of sharing psychosocial issues. Ensure you get Mr. Harry support for his care; reach the family if possible by phone call. Lastly I had to give him plus the family assurance of relief and recovery to avoid stress the patient and his family.




Ensure you re-check and perform blood test to determine the decreasing or increasing of the blood clotting. Check on Hi HP, BP and other laboratory tests necessary to ensure no effects of the disease in his system and determine his condition. Patient’s pain scale must be accessed so that if it is high, it is necessary to be reduced; it also determines recovery of the patient or new development.


The goal of treatment for DVT is to avoid the clot from expanding, because if it continues to grow, the patient goes that more additional pain and the swelling enlarges (Beckman et al.2010). The treatment also ensures that the blood clot does not get out of control and flows through the veins to the lungs, as well as helping the reduction of possibilities of formation of other blood clot forming.









Beckman, M. G., Hooper, W. C., Critchley, S. E., &Ortel, T. L. (2010). Venous

thromboembolism: a public health concern. American journal of preventive medicine38(4), S495-S501., P., Berenholtz, S., Dorman, T., Lipsett, P. A., Simmonds, T., &Haraden, C. (2003). Improving communication in the ICU using daily goals.Journal of critical care18(2), 71-75.

Spyropoulos, A. C., & Lin, J. (2007). Direct medical costs of venous thromboembolism and

subsequent hospital readmission rates: an administrative claims analysis from 30 managed care organizations. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy13(6), 475-486.

Bullano, M. F., Willey, V., Hauch, O., Wygant, G., Spyropoulos, A. C., & Hoffman, L. (2005).

Longitudinal evaluation of health plan cost per venous thromboembolism or bleed event in patients with a prior venous thromboembolism event during hospitalization. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy11(8), 663-673.

MacDougall, D. A., Feliu, A. L., Boccuzzi, S. J., & Lin, J. (2006). Economic burden of deep-

vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and post-thrombotic syndrome. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy63(20).

Beckman, M. G., Hooper, W. C., Critchley, S. E., &Ortel, T. L. (2010). Venous

thromboembolism: a public health concern. American journal of preventive medicine38(4), S495-S501.






Genocide relating to the theme of human rights: A case of 1994 Rwandan Genocide




Genocide relating to the theme of human rights: A case of 1994 Rwandan Genocide

  • Introduction
    • Background information

After the World War I, Germany suffered massive economic challenges characterized by huge debts and inflation. In the chaos that erupted as a result of socio-economic problems, Adolf Hitler preached hatred against Jews portraying them as the major reason behind Germany’s downturn. Consequently, the Nazi Holocaust (a well-calculated massacre) saw approximately 6 million Jews killed by 1945 (Heller 110). Prosecution began after World War II. International law did not have an explicit provision detailing how the international judicial system would prosecute the perpetrators of crimes against the minority European Jews whose human rights had been violated. To a greater extent, it was a well-executed scheme to start an illegitimate war – the factor that made the extermination scheme an international issue. Nevertheless, it proved difficult to prosecute the Nazis because genocide had a very narrow definition. Was this acceptable? This was definitely unacceptable because international law ought to be strong enough and clear to hold sovereign nations liable for violation of human rights related to people from all racial, religious, national, political, and ethnic groups.  Eventually, crimes against humanity (and not genocide) were the basis for applying international law to prosecute the crimes committed by the “Nazi government against European Jews” (Schabas 45). Under international law, genocide had a skewed definition. Were political groups covered in the definition? Differences in political beliefs may lead to mass massacre. Moreover, massive killings without explicit intent to exterminate a specific group were not treated as acts of genocide. Apart from its limited definition, genocide and crimes against humanity were two criminal acts without an explicit distinction (Schabas 46).

Therefore, it was necessary to come up with a clear difference and relationship between genocide, war, and crimes against humanity. This distinction would make it possible to avoid associating war with genocide. Keeping genocide separate was critical to avoiding confusion. Third world countries (notably China, India, Egypt, Lebanon, Venezuela and Brazil) played an integral role in giving the world the current convention regarding genocide. For example, during the 6th Committee of the General Assembly in late 1948, France prepared a draft convention that defined genocide as one of the crimes against humanity. To counter this convention, Brazil proposed that genocide should be treated as a separate criminal activity from crimes against humanity to avoid potential confusion. Finally, the UN General Assembly adopted the fundamental Genocide Convention in December 1948. Today, “genocide” is a crime or concept of war which is widely recognised by international law without reference to “crimes against humanity”. As a result, this is crucial to comprehensive and fair prosecution of perpetrators based on international human rights law because genocide focuses on mass extermination of a specific group of people. On the other hand, crimes against humanity focus on systematic mass execution of a large number of people (Schabas 52).

The 1994 Rwandan Genocide (hereafter interchangeably referred to as the Rwandan Genocide or the Genocide) remains one of the worst atrocities that faced the human race in the 20th century (“United Human Rights Council” 1). A number of major groups were involved in one way or the other in the Rwandan Genocide. First and foremost, Hutus (approximately 85%) and Tutsis (approximately 14%) were and still remain the major ethnic groups in Rwanda in terms of population. The two ethnic communities were directly involved in the Genocide. Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi (government-backed Hutu extremists) perpetrated genocide crimes against Tutsis and people who were considered moderate Hutus (Cohen 35). The Rwandan army and police officers also worked with Hutu militias and the Hutu people. Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) was a Tutsi-backed guerrilla militia which was fighting back the Hutu extremist government. RPF was fighting towards ending social discrimination and returning to Rwanda. Belgium (Rwandan colonist), the U.S. and the UN controversial took a lukewarm approach to preventing or limiting the Genocide. Finally, Paul Kagame (the current president) was the leader of RPF army. The army’s offensive invasion of the country is widely recognized as the fundamental factor which stopped the Genocide (Cohen 37).

  • Research problem

There are universal, equal, inalienable or basic human rights that are meant to inherently apply to every human being regardless of status or orientation, for example, national, ethnic origin, sex, language, religion, cultural, socio-economic, political affiliation, or color. Human rights related to persons and groups are guaranteed by international law (Crowe 56). However, the principle of guaranteed human rights appears to be a mere “dream” owing to considerable number of violations that exist across the world (Crowe 57). For example, in Rwanda, the Hutus and Tutsis ethnic groups coexisted peaceful without a significant delineation between them. When Belgium and Germany invaded Rwanda, the two groups became notably delineated primarily based on economic status. This culminated into Tutsis being perceived as wealthier than Hutus, and the earlier being the elite class in the country. In some cases, the Tutsis were allegedly enforcing their rule on Hutus. Amid severe tensions, a violent revolt emerged in April 1994 pitting Hutus and Tutsis. In the Genocide, thousands of people (approximately 800, 000 – mostly Tutsis) were killed, mutilated, tortured, and raped (“United Human Rights Council” 1). To make matters worse, the global community did not tangibly challenge the inhuman criminal activity in Rwanda. Apart from this, the world has continuously seen human rights violation cases associated with armed conflicts, internal displacement, torture, and restricted freedom of expression among others. For example, a 2011 report by Amnesty International showed that approximately 450, 000 people have been killed in Sudan since 2003.  Afghanistan also saw approximately 7, 000 people massacred in 2007. The 1992-1995 Bosnian Genocide is another notable genocidal act which killed approximately 200,000 people (Hoare 196). The fight against genocide is on the right trend. For example, moreover, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) has also brought to justice a number of key persons who were behind the Rwandan Genocide as well as other international law violations. Generally, acts of genocide have led to violation of two of the most fundamental human rights stipulated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)  – the “right to life, liberty and security of person” and the right to be free from being subjected to “torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment” (Cohen 75).

  • Research Question

It is evident that acts of genocide violate fundamental human rights across the world, attracting the attention of the international community especially after the Second World War.  Nevertheless, genocide has erupted in only a few number of countries in the 20th century, for example, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Rwanda, Germany, Sudan and Turkey among others (Crowe 64). This begs the question: why is genocide prevalent in those areas/parts of the world?

  • Thesis statement

Genocide has been prevalent in only a couple of parts of the world because of the following major factors: government structure; poverty; countries’ inabilities to deal with militia groups; and power vacuum. Ultimately, human rights are significantly violated during acts of genocide.

  • Why genocide is prevalent in some areas/parts of the world
    • Government structure

Owing to increasingly growing pressure from RPF, Juvenal Habyarimana, the then President of Rwanda used political maneuvering and propaganda to widen the division between Hutus and Tutsis (Twagilimana 36). Therefore, there was a conscious move masterminded by the elite class to preach hatred so as to remain in power. The move was aimed at setting the majority (Hutus) against the minority (Tutsis) as a countermeasure against increasing political opposition in the country. RPF was also achieving success at the two fronts – battlefields and negotiations (Cohen 78). The ethnic divisions that were promoted by the government and a few high profile figures bred potential genocide eruption. Extermination strategy was perceived to be a viable strategy to weaken the opposition (mainly the RPF), and possible defeat it. Moreover, extermination would potentially force RPF to sign a peace and power sharing agreement favorable to the government (Twagilimana 41). Therefore, the government misused state power and resources to create the foundation for the Genocide.

The government was genocidal, and the world was aware of potential human rights violations that would hit the citizens of Rwanda. Key perpetrators were mainly top government officials, the army and national policy, government-backed Hutu militias, and civilian population from the Hutu community. The armed forces and Hutu militias urged Hutu civilians to mutilate, rape, and kill Tutsis and steal of damage their property. Radio stations openly called for mass extermination targeting Tutsis. The international community could have declared the Habyarimana’s government illegitimate for it was planning to violate one of the fundamental human rights championed by UDHR – the “right to life, liberty and security of person” (Crowe 101). May be a strong voice from the entire international community could have helped prevent the Genocide (“United Human Rights Council” 1).

RPF and the Coalition for the Defense of the Republic (CDR) political party wanted an inclusive government which would see Tutsis secure some positions in the government. Following the successful 1992 ceasefire negotiations and a series of attempts to include Tutsis in the government, Hutu extremists and hardliners felt insecure. The president was also for inclusiveness in the government, and he removed some hardliners from the army leadership to reduce internal opposition. The extremists and hardliners started localized massacres targeting Tutsis, and also trained Hutu militias. Therefore, the president’s move to deal with extremists and hardliners remained greatly unsuccessful (Cohen 56). The crisis committee which was formed after the death of Habyarimana failed to recognize the authority of the prime minister who was supposed to assume presidential powers. The issue was further complicated by the power sharing agreement mandated by the Arusha Accords, which extremists and hardliners were opposed to. The power wrangles that arose challenged governance efforts. Moreover, prominent people who were perceived to be moderate politicians were killed along with Tutsi civilians. RPF resumed civil war because it had become apparent that the government-backed perpetrators were continuously killing Tutsis. RPF (pro-peace) and the government could not reestablish peace because the latter was led by extremists and hardliners (Crowe 64).

  • Poverty

In 1957, the majority Hutus started a social movement to end the oppressive Tutsi monarchy. The monarchy was eventually abolished in 1961, when parliamentary elections and a referendum were conducted and Hutu-led MDR-Parmehutu won most of the seats and the referendum. Over 20, 0000 Tutsis were killed while over 200,000 others fled from Rwanda to Uganda. Those who remained were socially discriminated against. The onset of Rwandan Genocide took a similar twist just like the Holocaust, especially due to the fact that Adolf Hitler preached hatred against Jews portraying them as the major reason behind the country’s downturn (Heller 68). In 1985, RPF was formed to champion for Tutsis’ return to Rwanda. In addition, RPF was aimed at ending social injustices targeted at Tutsis. The early 1990s RPF invasion from the North to agitate for Tutsis return to Rwanda and enjoy social benefits just like other citizens reignited longstanding hatred against the minority. At the same time RPF had intensified its pressures, Hutu rebels within the political leadership and “Hutu Power” government blamed the minority Tutsis for the nation’s increasingly growing socio-economic and political problems. The political elite also claimed that the entire Tutsi community was supporting the Tutsi-dominated RPF (“United Human Rights Council” 1). Therefore, both Hutus and Tutsis accused each other of historical social discrimination. While Hutus felt that they had been enslaved during the Tutsis Monarchy, the latter accused Hutus of forced displacement and social injustices after independence. This groomed ethnic tensions between the two communities.

  • Countries’ inabilities to deal with militia groups

The efforts of the international community and individual states to bring genocide criminals to due justice have faced significant challenges due to increasingly growing militia groups. These groups have been able to take advantage of civil wars, and execute acts of genocide.  The evils instigated by criminal gangs and government-sponsored groups have greatly hit the human race. The Rwandan Genocide is a good example of a country where Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi (Hutu militias) and Hutu community members perpetrated genocide crimes against Tutsis and people who were considered moderate Hutus. Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) was another militia which was Tutsi-backed guerrilla group, and was fighting back the Hutu extremist government. While these evils are human-perpetrated and often branded as “moral evils”, they inhibit efforts to uphold universal human rights. These evils cause devastation, disease, or even death. Perpetrators of the Genocide took cover under the then prevailing Rwandan Civil War – a conflict between the government (led by a Hutu) and the opposing RPF (a militia comprised of Tutsi refugees living in Uganda after earlier violence pitting them and Hutus) (Twagilimana 78).

The post-1945 era saw efforts aimed at defining and outlawing genocide and associated human rights violations perpetrated by militia groups. In addition, international criminal court systems were established to bring criminals associated with genocide and war crimes to justice. Nevertheless, the proposition that delayed establishment of international law and judicial systems to prosecute cases of genocide greatly contributed to prevalence of militia groups can be faulted. First, the Rwandan Genocide is a good proof that the creation of international law and judicial systems regarding genocide has not prevented the vice. In addition, African and Asian countries such as Sudan, Congo, Rwanda, and Afghanistan have suffered serious acts of genocide in the post-1946 era. Most strikingly, the acts of genocide have occurred in a world where there is the International Court of Justice (ICJ) that was established in 1946 to settle legal disputes forwarded by states. ICJ also works under international law to provide advisory services on legal matters (Heller 74).

  • Power vacuum

Violence broke out almost instantly after President Habyarimana (from Hutu ethnicity) was assassinated on April 6, 1994. Army and police officers, Hutu extremists and community members found the violence as the perfect opportunity to exterminate the entire Tutsis. The extremist group immediately killed key political and high profile persons who were perceived to have the ability to successfully take charge of the country and end the violence (Cohen 54). This meant that the Genocide was successfully executed because of the power vacuum that was created when Habyarimana was assassinated. The vacuum was further complicated by the fact that potential leaders who could have salvaged the situation were also killed immediately. Basically, there was no formal government to prevent perpetrators from killing Tutsis. As a result, the perpetrators killed the Tutsis and other people suspected to be from the rival ethnic group in their homes. In addition, perpetrators exploited the power vacuum to set up roadblocks across the nation and execute raping, killing, and mutilation and property destruction.

When RPF led by the current President of Rwanda Paul Kagame defeated the army and police officers as well as Hutu extremists, the Genocide as well as the prevailing civil war came to an end (Cohen 74). This validates the claim that power vacuum was a recipe for the Rwandan Genocide.

Nevertheless, where were people, governments and global organizations such as the UN doing during the Rwandan Genocide? Could their intervention have filled the power vacuum, and potentially prevent or stop the Genocide? Apparently, the world, especially policymakers drawn from the UN, U.S., Belgium and France knew about the Genocide preparations (Cohen 62). As responsible policymakers guided by the Genocide Convention and international law, they could have taken necessary steps to avert the Rwandan Genocide.

  • Conclusion

When prosecution of the Nazi government was initiated after began after World War II, international law did not have an explicit provision detailing how the international judicial system would prosecute perpetrators of crimes against the minority European Jews whose human rights had been violated during the Holocaust Genocide. This inhibited prosecution despite the fact that Holocaust was a well-executed scheme to start an illegitimate war – the factor that made the extermination program an international issue. Keeping genocide separate from crimes against humanity was critical to avoiding confusion in international law, and third world countries played an integral role in giving the world the Genocide Convention.

Genocide may be specifically defined as the extermination or massacre of a specific ethnic, religious, national, political, or racial group. Therefore, acts of genocide violates a number of universal or basic human rights that are meant to inherently apply to every human being regardless of an individual’s status or orientation, for example, national, ethnic origin, sex, language, religion, cultural, socio-economic, political affiliation, or color. Genocide is a criminal activity which has been there since the ancient times, but the 20th century has seen a proliferation of this time of crime. However, why did the international community take too long to strike a clear distinction between genocide and war crimes?

It is evident that government structure, poverty, countries’ inabilities to deal with militia groups, and power vacuum are the major factors that have made genocide prevalent in some parts of the world. The Rwandan Genocide is a case study of one of the worst human rights violations that faced the human race in the 20th century. During the Genocide, the government structure was genocide as it planned mass extermination of the minority Tutsis. Moreover, there was a poor power transition structure, which culminated to the Genocide due to power vacuum after Habyarimana’s assassination. The “Hutu Power” government blamed the minority Tutsis for the nation’s increasingly growing socio-economic and political problems – a sign of poverty which groomed ethnic tensions between the two communities. Rwanda also failed to deal with militia groups such as Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi (Hutu militias) and RFP, which were directly involved in the Genocide.














  • References

Heller, Agnes. “Radical Evil in Modernity: On Genocide, Totalitarian Terror and the Holocaust.” Thesis Eleven 101.1 (2010): 106-117. Web. 3 April 2016.

Twagilimana, Aimable. The Debris of Ham: Ethnicity, Regionalism, and the 1994 Rwandan Genocide. University Press of America, 2003. Print. Web. 3 April 2016.

Crowe, David M. Crimes of state past and present: government-sponsored atrocities and international legal responses. Routledge, 2013. Print.

Cohen, Jared. One-hundred Days of Silence: America and the Rwanda Genocide. Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Print.

Hoare, Marko A. “Bosnia-Herzegovina and International Justice Past Failures and Future Solutions.” East European Politics & Societies 24.2 (2010): 191-205. Web. 3 April 2016.

Schabas, William A. “Origins of the Genocide Convention: from Nuremberg to Paris.” Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 40.1(2008): 35-55. Web. 3 April 2016.

United Human Rights Council. Genocide in Rwanda.  United Human Rights Council, 2016. Web. 3 April 2016.