Archive for August, 2016

Education Opportunity

August 31, 2016

Education Opportunity

An education opportunity at Collegiate Academies is many students’ desire because of the teaching and activities offered (Collegiate Academies, 2016). I would like to work at Collegiate Academies because of its wide range of activities it has to offer. The institution is recognized for excellent results and performance. It is also honored for training and developmental programs that I feel are helpful to people in managerial positions. Through such programs, it will be a great opportunity to meet and network with people in influential positions. As a teacher, my greatest strength is the constant reflection on my work and looking for chances to make improvements. This helps me to handle students and understand their individual needs. Also, improvement in my student’s performance and my experience are major strengths that I possess.

In my career, I need to grow my experience the most to ensure that I can handle my job diligently and professionally. Growing my experience will also mean that my employers have more faith in me to handle more challenging positions and tasks. It is my goal to face challenging tasks to ensure that I developed resilience and patience which are major qualities in teaching. In my current role, what gives me the most energy is to see a student improve performance and understanding. This motivates me to keep working and be an inspiration to the students. It also revives my energy on a daily basis when I look forward to attending my classes. Also, the welcoming students revive my energy because they make me realize that they look forward to my classes. However, my energy is drained when students are unresponsive during a classroom session, and this affects my work significantly. It drains my energy because I have to ensure that students understand and interact in class. An opportunity at the institution will help me achieve my goals and develop my strengths.



Collegiate Academies. (2016).


Palaeo-environmental interpretation of a classic deep-marine outcrop

August 29, 2016


The modern world is a product of innovations, transformation, and land changing processes. The developments emanate from various disciplines that work together to ensure growth. Similarly, other subjects with the same agenda operate with the same notion in ensuring the prevailing population does not lag behind with reference to their preparedness in case of natural disasters. Geography is the study of earth and its land forming processes and forces (Aberystwyth Grits Group, 2013).  The discipline is vital because it enables humanity to understand their habitat and provide the relevant information that help about survivability (Spurgeon, 2005). At least, one million natural features prevail in the present generation. They indicate various land forming and changing processes that lead to the current situation. Silurian period denotes one of the crucial moments in the geologic calendar. It reveals various forces responsible for some beautification and destruction of the face of the earth (Blatt and Tracy, 2006). The periods tell stories of how the world looked like even before civilization. As a result, the changes between the past and the present can provide a hint of what the next phase or process will look like. Therefore, the paper provides a paleo-environmental interpretation of Aberystwyth outcrop in the UK along the Cardigan Bay (Hunter and Easterbrook, 2004). It provides an inquiry to the land forming processes responsible for the current view of the land. Additionally, it uses the knowledge of effect of erosion and other faulting and folding forces to explain the age and significance of a marine outcrop. The research utilizes a blend of qualitative and quantitative survey to fulfill the objectives of the research. Moreover, it utilizes architectural sketching and sedimentation to provide a 2D picture revealing the paleo-environmental status of the Aberystwyth (Hiscock, 2006). Nonetheless, the survey, utilizes purposive random sampling to select the ideal respondents for the study. On the other hand, the research has limitations including reliance of secondary data which increases its marginal error (Dunham, 2002).


Natural resources are among the most appealing features to man due to the control that the mechanisms manifest (Spurgeon, 2005). Manmade creations or products relay the manipulation of their maker to survive. On the other hand, the natural endowments can portray survival behavior which enhances their attractiveness. Moreover, they serve as a learning point for the other organisms especially human beings. Geography is a fascinating discipline due to its focus of study. I majors on the earth formation processes and the presence of features. For instance, a river is instrumental to the people within its banks and the adjacent community (Aberystwyth Grits Group, 2013). However, rarely do people question the origin of the river or the series of processes that led to water flowing in that bed. On the other hand, the community will show concern when the river dries up. Since it was useful to the people its loss will affect a significant proportion of the population. Therefore, the study that seeks to understand the origin of a river can help in the explanation of the loss of flow. Additionally, it can isolate symptoms that reveal the impending danger of drying out suppose the appropriate actions are not in place. As a result, the discipline helps in improving the interaction between the natural endowments and the human community. Studies indicate that a majority of the destructions processes to the order of natural features originate from human activities or interference (Hunter and Easterbrook, 2004). Therefore, enforcing sustainable use will guarantee the perpetuation of both natural and human activities on the face of earth. Nonetheless, natural features are of significance to humanity due to their uniqueness regarding functionality and locality. Some landforms prevail in certain climatic and geographical conditions. Moreover, some of the land forming processes takes centuries to unveil a resultant feature. For instance, the existence of the seven continents emanate from earth tectonic forces that led to the drifting of various landmasses separating from ‘Godwanaland’ (Griffiths, 2001). Different regions around the world have unique features that make them tourist destinations or geographical case studies. The USA has the Great Canyon while the UK has he Aberystwyth Grits outcrop. It is located along the shoreline of Cardigan Bay. It stretches a length of 26 miles in a crescent line. The rocks are located along the Monograptus turriculatas zones and the M. cripus regions. These regions are continuous and visibly inseparable from each other. They create a lithological unit consisting of interbedded greywakes and mudstone parts. These rocks are well exposed running along the cliffs, they are wave- worn and cut through beds expose the internal sedimentary structures. There is a large obscurity between the stratigraphical and structural relationship between the upper Lladoverian rocks and the Aberystwyth grits. The lithological horizons cannot be well mapped and the rocks show high levels of folding (Briggs, 1994). The grits stem from a series of land interruptions engineered by tectonic forces. The folding and the overlaying upper rocks emanate from different land forming processes and periods.

The Aberystwyth grit serves as one of the vital geologic references in the UK. Its lithography is unique due to its association with the Silurian period (Dunham, 2002). It characterizes high aesthetic values including the sites of the Niagara Falls in Michigan. They developed as a result of erosion and undercutting of the soft shale. Other features as a result of the period include Pleistocene Epoch and Bruce Peninsula. The Aberystwyth consist of the Cymtydu, Aberarth, and the New Quay. The three form a distinctive region of study that offers insight to the rest of the marine outcrop feature (Hunter and Easterbrook, 2004). Despite their geologic significance they also have a socio-economic benefit to the people in that region. Therefore, humanity should perceive their geologic deposits are areas for conservation rather than demolition to create more room for settlement. The effects of human activities on the face of the globe outdo the natural compensation rate (Griffiths, 2001).

Therefore, sustainable production and co-existence remains the only sufficient way to fulfill the dreams of mankind and ensure they survive for the longest period possible.  Regardless of the attention that the relevant authorities lay on the geologic importance of natural feature to a society, it continues to ensure balance through its complex relationship in the ecosystem balance (Briggs, 1994). They offer natural habitats to some species that in turn fulfill their roles in the maintenance of the trophic levels to ensure survivability of the biosphere. As a result, ensuring the sites receive the necessary protection and prevail in the desired conditions will avert natural disasters for the longest period possible. Despite the economic and social significance, they have an impact on the geologic timetable and play a vital role in ensuring balance (Aberystwyth Grits Group, 2013). Despite a majority of people visiting the site for excursion purposes, it also has scientific values that geographers study. The values emanate from the interpretations of the geologic or ecological significance of the marine outcrop. The biosphere thrives due the balance that the different organisms and features generate. Therefore, interference to the relationship will lead to the deterioration of survivable conditions leading to the decline in population of some species or the alteration of the arrangement of the physical stature (Hunter and Easterbrook, 2004).



Geological Setting/Background

Borth and New Quay are located in the south composing mainly of the lowest beds.  Tectonic forces influence the crescentic outcrop shape and run of the coastal region. Most of the structure is however composed of many periclinical folds consisting of faulted axial planes with axis aligned in an N-S orientation in Borth- Aberystwyth zones and reallignes slowly to NE-SW as one heads to the south (Briggs, 1994). The fold axes begin to plunge towards the south in the northern regions and towards the north of those in the southern regions. There is however a few number of exceptions (Dunham, 2002). There is a possibility of co-relating the faults due to the height of the faults. Normal and tear faults are found in many parts of these zones. At first site, the total thickness may seem great but a closer assessment reveals that this is mainly due to the transverse faults throwing against the dip, this is however not so (Hunter and Easterbrook, 2004). The southern part of this region may contain as much as 4000-5000 feet of beds. The bedding and the salty cleavages show a general N-S orientation. An interesting occurrence is that one would expect newer rocks to lie in the Aberystwyth  due to the anticline that seemingly runs through it with prevalent dips of up to angles of 45 degrees, but in contradiction there is a reversal of the dips with mudstones  appearing and going down to the Llondiverian regions. According to geological survey the gritty faces die out as one extends eastwards and shows the origin of the change in dip to be a syncline. Putting these factors into consideration, it would be expected that the Aberystwyth is of the same geological age as the upper regions of the mudstones (Hiscock, 2006).

A glance at the rocks would create an impression of a significant difference between the rocks containing the grit bands and those without them (Aberystwyth Grits Group, 2013). There is however very little difference between these rocks as the latter are basically composed of bed alterations.




Main Objective


The main objective of this project is to use modern geological and sedimentary knowledge to provide a Palaeo-environmental interpretation of the Aberystwyth Grits outcrop in the UK.


Specific Objectives


  1. Identify a well exposed section of the rock
  2. Use sediment logging and architectural sketching to develop 2d and 3D picture of the outcrops
  3. Compare the data with analogous systems
  4. Develop a paleo-environmental picture of the facies in 3D geometry, dimensions and facies distribution














Literature Review



            The word Aberystwyth Grit was first used by a scholar Keeping, who first made a detailed study of these region in the year 1881 (Dunham, 2002). The next publication in the area did not occur until the year 1912 when Jones studied their ages and their comparison to grits located in the Teifi anticline. He did further research in the area in 1938 and concluded that the greywakes originated in the west. Jones concluded that the course sediments must have been deposited during the shallow winter (Hunter and Easterbrook, 2004). In 1956, William Smith gave a lecture to the Geological Society and stated that there was strong evidence to suggest that there was no great depth during the grey wakes formation. An opposing opinion was introduced by Rich in 1950 and Kuenen in 1953. According to Rich, the sediments were as a result of density currents which created a deposition on the continental slope. He identified the ridges alignment on the lower side of the grit elements which he concluded were due to the infilling of the eroded grooves by currents. He noticed convolutions of laminae inside the bands of grit and deduced that they were caused by the motion of the overlying beds downwards towards the continental slope (Briggs, 1994). Kuenen`s work supported Rich and stated the bands of grit must have been deposited in deep waters by either turbidity currents or density currents. He further stated the currents originated from the S-S-W during his discussions concerning the bed grading. It is however important to note that Rich and Kuenen only spent a couple of days at the site.

Lewis who was a professor of Geology described a couple of bedding faults and built relations between some minor structures that were present in 1946. In 1929, Williams identified a couple of scratches which were curios, similar scratches were further identified in 1929 (Houlder, 1994).  The year 1930 saw the identification of graded beddings by Bailey leading to the discovery of various minor scratches. The grit bands are composed of many curley beddings and some contorted small scale bedding (Aberystwyth Grits Group, 2013).

Delving into the paleontological bit of research in this region, Ollivant, a professor in Lampeter College discovered worm tracks which have so far been discovered in other areas. In 1847, Sedwig published a paper releasing 15 fossil specimens, 2 trilobites and brachiopods in the Devil`s bridge region and some near the Dyfyrn Castel (Price, 2011). Graptolites are however the major fossil which Cardingashire is well known for, Ramsey in his 1886 paper states that Sir Henry was the first to identify them. There are however records that show that Hopkins was the first to successfully classify them in the year 1869 (Houlder, 1994).

The works done by Wood and Smith in 1959 is a good show of the turbidite system composing of proximal to near distal facies changes. It also contains specific turbidite beds showing Bourna structural sequence as was published in 1962 by Walker. Cave and Hains, 1986 showed that the system conformed to simle constructional fans when run under modern fan modelling systems. The system showed the expected inner-outer fan transitions (Houlder, 1994). Work conducted by Cave and Haines in 1986 showed that the grit covered a wide periclinal syncline that was under layerd by the Boorth Mudstones together with the Devils bridge in the N-E. Anktell and Lovell showed that Grogal sandstones also covered this region in the S-W direction. This work was further confirmed by Smith and Anktell in 1992. Loydell, 1991 stated that the base of the group is majorly diachronus. These rocks are mainly located in the gemmatus subzone which is found in the S-W together with the renaudi subzone mainly in the N-E hence alluding to a local coeval deposition. The synclinal interpretations were supported by te Loydell faunas in the subzones (Hunter and Easterbrook, 2004). The core of the structure was mainly occupied by the youngest strata.

Publications by Wilson et al in the British Geological survey have caused significant changes in the sedimentology and structural set –up of the Aberystwyth Grits (Price, 2011). The paper shows that the Aberystwyth Grits do not conform to the Bouma type when analysed over a wide area. A complex belt consisting of folding and fracturing defines the eastern boundaries. It also denotes the southern extension composed of the Glandyfi lineament and the most recently discovered Bronnant Fault (Lewis, 2000). Facies development was mainly affected by the syndepositional motion on the Bronnant fault leading to the development of lateral faults instead of the expected down current facies. The paper hence argues that a simple turbidite fan model can be convincingly used to describe the Aberystwyth grit turbidite (Ellis and Levy, 2008).

Significance of marine outcrop

Marine outcrop especially linked to the Silurian period are not common in the word. They occur in distinctive parts of the world due to the alignment of the period. Also, their uniqueness emanates from the increased effect of human activities leading to increased erosion and encroachment. As a result, the presence of a marine outcrop is rare and essential for humanity. Based on their essentiality they act as sites of attractions to different people pursing various agenda (Howells, 2007). Additionally, their scenic beauty facilitates their attractive aspect. Conversely, regions that host them are fortunate to an array of benefits and challenges that the other locations around the world do not face. The marine outcrop serves as a point of interest for geologic study and attracts scholars on the field from different parts of the world. As a result, it generates both an economic and academic significance to the region. Just like literature, geography as disciplines has its fan base and a series of benefits that help in understanding the landforms and processes responsible for these actions (Lewis, 2000). Therefore, both scholars and people that visit the region to fulfill their aesthetic desire; they contribute to the economic development and sound reputation of the place. Since they require accommodation during their stay, the building of restaurants serves as an opportunity for the locals and the country. Consequently, it contributes in the shaping of their hospitality industry. It will lead in the creation of employment opportunities thus improving the living standards of the people in the region and the country.

Similarly, it will enhance the geographical knowledge of the people interested in the marine outcrops and other features present in the region.  Also, it has a sociological impact since the people that visit the region regardless of their intent end up interacting with the locals. Moreover, people from different regions might meet due to a common interest (geological or excursion) and share resources (Hunter and Easterbrook, 2004). As a result, it will generate a cultural effect because of the dilution of both the local and the foreign cultures represented in the region. Therefore, the presence of a geographical feature might serve to meet more than the academic needs of the population interested in the region. On the other hand, they comprise of other unique features in different parts of the world that tell the story of the evolution and the Silurian period. Conversely, it appends a cultural sense to the locals and other people from different parts of the world that manifest the same characteristic. Subsequently, they serve as an indicator of both identity and heritage to the people living in the region (Howells, 2007). The study of geologic features to reveal their origin and the various processes undergone to reach the current status explain the earth’s transformation pattern. The latter is vital in predicting natural disasters and provision of proof that sustainable development is the appropriate course of actions. Therefore, the appropriate utilization of the geographic feature serves to benefit not only the locals around the place but the entire fate of humanity (Ricardo and Robert, 2003).





The determinant of a research is its manner or order of operation. Survey is fundamental in the society and in the field of science (Johnson and Christensen, 2008). Its relevance hinges on the accuracy of the results and the proficiency of the methods applied. Different audiences of problem require varying tactics to unveil the cause of the problem and fulfill the objectives of the research (Lewis, 2000). For instance, a sociological issue will require a different approach from that of an experimental problem. Therefore, the section outlines and discusses the participants, method, procedure, data analysis and the data quality and verification.


It involves the people that contribute in the provision of the results of the study. Conversely, the interpretation of the Aberystwyth outcrop will not only necessitate the input from the people in the surrounding community but scientists from different disciplines to show the relevance of the feature. The research will seek contribution from 50 locals within the feature based on the extent of the outcrop (Ceredigion, 2012). Additionally, to obtain the scientific interpretation of the outcrop, five professional bodies including the geographical society of the region will attend to the study. The selection of the participants was based in purposive random sampling. However, gender and age were not issues of concern provided the respondent was sane and could comprehend the questions or points of inquiry of the study (Toghill, 2010). Nonetheless, the documentation of their ages and sexual orientations were necessary to fulfill the protocol of the study. Since the feature is a tourist attraction site, it was necessary to document the origin of the participant to separate the perspective of the locals and that of tourists. Some of the participants revealed that the area or feature is of interest to various professional bodies. According to them, they respond to, at least, 11 questionnaires per annum from different organization that seeks information about the marine outcrop.


The research utilizes both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of surveying. The resultant study design is a blend of the two authoritative methods. The qualitative aspect seeks to investigate the personal view of the outcrop to succinct an interpretation. People can only interpret a feature based on their sociological, political, and economic experience (Ricardo and Robert, 2003). Additionally, the qualitative components investigate the level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction that the feature solicits in their view. The opinion of the community is relevant in the provision of a scientific or sociological interpretation of an aspect. The qualitative method utilizes questionnaires to obtain the information of interest from the community.  They are open-ended to accommodate the vast description of the people concerning the features. Also, it helps in the derivation of the feeling (positive or negative) of the locale regarding the natural endowments. Additionally, it aids in revealing the level of knowledge that the community possess about the Aberystwyth outcrop.  The latter is essential in the determination of the quantity of outreach required to create awareness on the essence of the feature. On the other hand, the quantitative component helps in the provision of details about the feature (Morgan, 2007). They include the geologic period, land forming process, and the forces or contributing factor to its current state. The insight to the unique components does not require the input of the community because it borrows from scientific methods. It utilizes evidence to estimate the ages and the land processes that lead to its formation. For instance, the alignment of rocks can reveal the age of the upper layer thus help in the estimation of the layer of interest. Nonetheless, the quantitative components help in the application of various methods to reveal the essence and its varied interpretation.

The quantitative aspect is broad, and is prudent to highlight the exact method of study to portray the strengths and limitations of the survey (Howells, 2007). The study utilizes an experimental design to fulfill the requirements of the study. It involves obtaining samples from the sediments or layers of interest. Additionally, it utilizes photographs to reveal the pictorial representation of the outcrop. Furthermore, the variables of interest are not useful to the researcher without prior knowledge about the feature. As a result, literature review is necessary. Since the research involves the interpretation of a feature it should compare it to other feature either of the same geologic period or similar land forming processes (Morgan, 2007). Therefore, the study has components of comparison study. The information aids in the description of the origin of the feature, its age, and the future of the feature based on its timeline. Moreover, the comparison also helped in the identification of tools that made the research successful. For instance, the information from Keeping that estimate the origin of the formation process in the 18th century assist in the profiling and the geologic background of the study. Moreover, the geologic setting information is a product of literature. Suppose the research was to indulge in another study to investigate the geologic background of the location it would incur additional cost and time making the research both expensive and irrelevant. Therefore, utilization of information from the previous scholars helps the study in fulfilling its objective and adhering to the deadline (Lloyd, Orbach and Scourfield, 2006). Conversely, the research was successful due to the blending of the qualitative and quantitative aspects of survey designs.


Science is a generous discipline because it is not holistic. Therefore, a single component is not capable of fulfilling the entire expectation of the study (Creswell, 2013). Therefore, researchers provide details about their survey revealing their results, methods, and limitations to aid other researchers in the same field of study. The research has six main components including the literature review, collecting information via questionnaire, identification of exposed sections of the outcrop, utilization of architectural sketching to develop a 2D picture, comparison of the data with other systems and development of a paleo-environmental picture of the facies of the outcrop.

Phase 1

The first stage involves literature review, collecting of information and the identification of the exposed sections (Creswell, 2013). Each study begins with prior information concerning the subject to avail a better problem statements and background of the feature. The literature review utilizes secondary data to aid in time management and provides an informed decision basis regarding the research method. The information originates from geographic studies, research methods, and sociological skills. After the attainment of access to relevant information and ensuring the selection of the research design adheres to the data, primary collection of information follows. It utilizes the distribution of questionnaires to the participants based on the sampling method. The survey utilizes purposive random sampling to identify the ideal sample to obtain respondents. The method involves random selection with a unique attribute of interest. For instance, the respondents of interest are those from the region and not tourists. Provided the person is from the region they have an equal chance of responding to the questions of the research (Toghill, 2010). The final activity of the first phase involves identification of an appropriately exposed section of the rock for investigation. Research methods should not erode or affect the integrity of a landform. Therefore, the study should investigate and leave while the feature is intact. As a result, the final activity of the first phase involves the survey of the outcrop through observation and taking pictures (Ceredigion, 2012). The process should lead to the obtaining of a unique spot of side of the outcrop that provides a better view of the rocks and layers revealing their orientation.


Phase 2

The last aspect of the study involves the utilization of architectural sketching, comparison of the analogous system, and the development of a paleo-environmental picture in 2D of the Aberystwyth outcrop. Sediment logging and architectural sketching employ the same principle in the identification of the layers and the ages of different fragments within the strata. It involves obtaining a sample of the outcrop. However, it is vital to exercise caution during the process to ensure the stability of the feature prevails (Ceredigion, 2012). Architectural sketching aids in the identification of the varying sediments and layers within the sample. Additionally, exposing the sample to different pH conditions to determine its state is part of the sediment logging. After obtaining the architectural picture, a comparison ensues. The latter emanates from two processes. The first one involves comparison using samples from different parts of the outcrop of study while the other one entails using literature of previously obtained sample pictures. The final activity in the research is development of a paleo-environmental picture of the outcrop. The final picture is a product of the other five steps in the procedure. Resultantly, the picture involves the age of the outcrop, its formation process, environmental significance and relationship in the ecological balance within the geographical niche (Lloyd, Orbach and Scourfield, 2006).


It uses sedimentological logging and architectural sketching to develop a detailed 2D picture of the outcrops, and use the data collected as a comparison to analogous systems such as the Jaca Basin, Spain, and to more comprehensive studies (Lloyd, Orbach and Scourfield, 2006)to develop a picture of the palaeoenvironment in terms of facies in terms of 3D geometry, dimensions and facies distribution (Lloyd, Orbach and Scourfield, 2006).



Figure: Outcrop which shows hybrid beds, overlain by medium bedded turbidites and finally thick amalgamated high-density turbidites. The vertical succession could be considered to represent an overall prograding deep-marine system, with the lobe fringe at the base, the medial lobe above and finally a distributary channel or feeder at the top. Such sequences have been observed in other deep-marine systems and this system will be compared to those






















This study area facies( Lobe fringe ) Approximately 30 m thick, which comprises with
parallel laminated and structureless turbiditic mudstones intercalated , with turbiditic siltstone
and rarer sandstones. Laminated hemipelagites are in some areas. Mudstone beds are laterally
continuous,while siltstone and fine- to medium grained sandstone seen to vary laterally.


Interpretation: The sediments are positioned both at the margins of the lobe sediments and
between the huge sandstone lobe packets (Ceredigion, 2012). The hemipelagic sediments represent the background
sedimentation of the basin while the silt turbidites show the effect of dilute turbidite currenty






Description: This study area Clarach formation is exposed on the coast in the cliff (SN) comprises asequence of medium to thin-bedded sandstone and mudstone , representing a suite of classicalBouma turbiditic , mainly displaying Tbe or Tce sequences. Basal Ta intervals are rare and thin, the sandstone shows different structure, including common flutes and diverse suite of trace fossil (Palaeodictyon) seen. The sandstones are typically planar, cross or convolutelaminated (Tb-c devisions) (Cardigan Bay Coastal Group, 2014). The overlying siltstone and mudstone intervals are usually thickergrading from the underlying sandstone and representing upper divisions (Td-e) of Bouma
Sequence. Hemipelagic mudstone are rarely preserved beneath erosive sandstone bases (fig6 e).

The palaeocurrent direction is to the south-southeast (1660). Bioturbation in the
form of graphoglyptid burrows is present in some facies and the base of some of tubidite deposits. The deposits are Tcde and Tce divisions of turbidites currents. In the North- Northeast shows that lack of inter digitation between the deposits in the south direction. There is no evidence for reflected flows have totally opposing flow directions (1400) of the same age only separated by lateral distance of 1 km (Cardigan Bay Coastal Group, 2014). It is possible that the anomalous palaeo-current direction may be the result of the presence of the northern structural high and sediment source.














Location: Aberarth (South north) The main field (Sketching)



Description: This study area Aberarth is predominantly sandstone dominated is located in the
north part of New Quay, on the northern side of the anticline. The sediments in this area are
lateral coarser sediments. There is evidence of variety of ichnofossils such as, Gordia marina
Paleodictyon, helminthopsis.
Facies include :
– Deformed sediments 😦 injected sandstone)post depositional deformation by loading and
-Debris flow :(plastic flows)
– Graded and laminated sandstone with subfacies:
a) interbedded graded sandstone ( Low-density turbidity current)
b) Interbedded laminated sandstone (Sustained strong seafloor currents)
– Massive sandstone : Interbedded massive sandstone (high density turbidity current),
Amalgamated sandstone and dewatered (high density turbidity current ,modifying by dewatering).



Sandstone are sharp with graded tops. Also the reverse grading at the base of some sandstone beds while the tops are rippled. They have bouma sequence as well as a variety of partial ones for Bouma sequence of Tacde, Tace, Tbce,Tcde and Tce (Cardigan Bay Coastal Group, 2014). Some Td divisions show
evidence of having been deposited from dilute turbidity currents. From the Tcde to Tce some
sandstone beds are seen to grade laterally.
The mudstones are structure-less or parallel laminated. They may contain sandstone, siltstone or
mudstone intra-formational rip up clasts up (22cm) length scale and (2cm) height scale and it is
oriented parallel or subparallel to bedding seen fig(d). The larger clasts are located towards the
tops of the beds (fig d) while the smaller fragments are distrusted throughout.
Siltstone beds are rare and commonly laterally discontinuous over distances meters . They are
sharp based and internally may be classified as Tde series (Cardigan Bay Coastal Group, 2014).





Figure 11 i) Massive sandstone Amalgamated high density turbidity current. J)

Location : New Quay (South)



Description: This study area New Quay is dominated by coarse to granule grade, thick bedded
sandstones although there is evidence of upward finning and thinning with a decrease in the
sandstone : mudstone ratio up . The sedimentary facies are Massive sandstones (Amalgamated
sandstone). Graded and laminated sandstones interbedded graded sandstones)low density
turbidity current.
The mudstones range from structureless to parallel laminated. The intercalated siltstones are thin
to very thinly laminated and are lenticular continuous to discontinuous over distances of meters.
Internallythey are Tcde, Tce and Tde, bases are commonly sharp although there is minor loading (Pevsner, (1970).
Sandstones are fine to coarse grained with granule grade fragments located at the tops of reverse
grading sequence. Amalgamation of the sandstone beds in common. Internally, the sandstone
display Tabce, Tabe, Tacde. Bases are sharp with minor loading. Rafts of cross-laminated
sandstone are distributed throughout one sandstone.

Figure 12 a) Amalgamated sandstone high density turbidity current. b)

Location : Cymtydu ( South) Sketching










Data Analysis



Aberystwyth Grits Formation Log

Aberarth (SN) Scale: 25  m








Injected Sandstone



Aberarth is located near the coast south of New Quay and it was logged 25 m. The Aberarth formation is dominated by the coarse granule graded sandstones. A number of facies types were founded at this locality including: Interbedded graded sandstones, Interbedded laminated sandstone, Heterolithic sediments, Injected sandstones, slides/slumps and Debris flow.

The mudstones are structureless or parallel laminated, it contain fine sandstone, siltstone or mudstone intraformational intraclasts up to 20 cm and oriented parallel or subparallel to bedding (Pevsner, 1970). The larger clasts are located towards the tops of the beds while the smaller fragments are distributed throughout.

The siltstones are laterally continuous with long distances of 10 meters. Some of the beds are classified according to Bouma sequence such as, Tabce, Tabe, Tcde, and Tde, and the bases are sharp while the tops are rarely rippled.

Sandstones are fine to very coarse with granules, the beds base are commonly sharp with a variety of bottom structures such as, flutes casts, flames, concretions, ball and pillow structures, sandstone loading (Pevsner, 1970). Many of sandstone beds are Tabce, Tabe, Tace and Tae, some sandstone beds contain mudstone or siltstone intraformational clasts oriented parallel or subparallel to bedding. The clasts are located at the top, bottom or throughout the beds amalgamation in the top.


Borth (North)  scale: 8m /  Clarach (North) Scale: 10 m









Borth and clarach formation are both located in the north, it was logged 8 m thickness in the borth and 10m thickness log in the clarach. The sediments in both areas are lateral equivalents of the coarser sediments compared to the Aberarth formation. There is evidence of flute cast, concretions, paleodictyon, load casts. The facies are including: Heterolithic sediments and mudstones, Injected sandstones, slides/slumps and Debris flows.

Sandstone base are sharps with graded tops, the base of some sandstone beds while the tops of others are rippled. They have Bouma sequences such as, Tacde, Tace, Tbce,Tcde and Tce. Some Td divisions illustrate evidence of having been deposited from turbidity currents. A number of the sandstone beds are seen grade laterally from Tcde to Tce.

Siltstone beds are rare and commonly laterally discontinuous over distances of meters and they are sharp based.

Mudstones are both structureless and parallel laminated.









New Quay (South) Scale: 11m







The New Quay formation is located in the south part of Aberystwyth; it was logged 11m thickness in details. The formation is dominated by coarse to granule grained, thick-bedded sandstones and there is evidence both of upward fining and thinning with a decrease in sandstone and mudstone percentage in the division.  The sedimentary facies are Interbedded graded sandstone, Interbedded Laminated sandstones, heterolithic sediments, injected sandstones, slides/slumps and Debris flows (Pevsner, 1970).

The mudstones are structureless to parallel laminated. The intercalated siltstones are thin to very thinly laminate and are continuous to discontinuous over distances of meter; the bases are commonly sharp although there is minor loading (Toghill, 2010).

Sandstones are fine to coarse grained with granule grade fragments at the top of the divisions. Amalgamation of the sandstone bed is common and internally, the sandstones display Tabce, Tabe, Tacde and Tace divisions, where the Tc division is rarely convolute, the bases are sharp with minor loading, rafts of cross-laminated sandstone are distributed (Dorrik and Stow, 2005).

Cymtydu (South) Scale: 6m


The Cumtudi formation is located in the south part of Aberystwyth; it was logged 6 m thickness in details. The formation is dominated by coarse to granule grained, thick-bedded sandstones are in form of pillow beds and there is evidence both of upward fining and thinning with a decrease in sandstone and mudstone percentage in the division.  The sedimentary facies are Interbedded graded sandstone, Interbedded Laminated sandstones, heterolithic sediments, injected sandstones, slides/slumps and Debris flows.

The mudstones are structureless to parallel laminated (Toghill, 2010). The intercalated siltstones are thin to very thinly laminate and are continuous to discontinuous over distances of meter; the bases are commonly sharp although there is minor loading.

Sandstones are fine to coarse grained with granule grade fragments at the top of the divisions. Amalgamation of the sandstone bed is common and internally, the sandstones display Tabce, Tabe, Tacde and Tace divisions, where the Tc division is rarely convolute (Dorrik and Stow, 2005).


Often people claim that there is no need to dwell in the past but focus on the future. However, the past is essential as the present and the future. Therefore, information from the past should help in making current decisions and the preparations for the future. The human and universe system reveals that it is continuous and operates as a circle. For instance, prolonged droughts often occur after floods. Despite the lack of a unique pattern in the prediction of droughts, there is a common sequence that portrays a similar behavior throughout the process. Therefore, humanity can utilize the information to handle the future on a better capacity. Most of the land forming processes are extensive and lead to massive damage whenever they occur. Earth transformation forces including faulting and folding change the scenery of the world. As a result, when people settle in the regions when the changes manifest, they will likely lose both their property and lives (Dorrik and Stow, 2005). Earthquakes, mudflows, and avalanches contribute the changes in the orientation of the earth surface. Additionally, they lead to the loss of life and property is present. Therefore, an insight to the past is essential in establishment of a pattern in the land forming processes (Boggs, 2000). Consequently, it helps in forecasting that aid humanity in averting the property and life losses that emanate from the transformation. Conversely, paleo-environmental interpretation is a vital element of study in the current world.  Life in the marine and terrestrial ecosystems responds differently to changes in their environment. As a result, the interpretation of the marine outcrop helps in the comprehension of the aquatic system and its relationship to other variables within the ecosystem.

Paleo-environmental interpretation stems from the analysis of the prevailing structures. Landforms take considerable amount of time to change their appearance. Others take hundreds of years to manifest change (Dorrik and Stow, 2005). Therefore, it is impossible for people to attest that they were witnesses to a change in landscape. However, it does not mean that one cannot generate the original picture of a feature based on their current appearances. For instance, it is possible for one to obtain the gene sequence of their parents and ancestors based on the genealogy tree. The same back-tracking procedure can provide an ancient image of a feature. The current features were subject to lodging, erosion, and sedimentation that avail different features on a feature (Boggs, 2000). The distinct effect of the processes reveals their nature in the previous life. Additionally, the extent of the erosion and sedimentation can help in calculating the period of the resultant effect. On the other hand the comparison of the features with others in different positions helps in the identification of the change process and provision of the ancient picture. For example, nobody that lives today was witness to the development of the universe of the separation of the continents. However, the jig-saw fit between adjacent continents suggests a probability that they were once whole. Therefore, the same principle lies in the development of a paleo-environmental picture of a feature or location in the present. The fact that the process manifest in the current timeline help in explaining the origin of identical land forms. For instance, volcanic activity is a phenomenon that manifest to the current regime. The effects of the eruption on the surrounding locality portray images synonymous to other locations (Toghill, 2010). As a result, those regions also suffered from the same volcanic eruption.

The Aberarth

It occurs on the New Quay on the north side of the anticline. The majority of the components are sandstone. They are fine structure which suggests they were subject to continuous erosion processes. It can occur through abrasion of particle when the waves of the sea hit the shore. Alternatively, they might be subject to erosion due to biological effect (Riley and Blackwood, 2007). Animals including human beings can cause erosion through exertion of pressure of the rock particles lying on the earth surface. The feature also exhibits inter-bedded graded sandstone. The occurrence reveals that the feature is subject to different pressures in varying geologic period. The intervals reveal the formation process is the same but the time is different (Prothero, 2004). The arrangement infers that the layer on-top is the youngest and the one on the bottom surface the oldest. The presence of mudstone is another indicator of the formation processes or the forces in action in the development of the resultant feature. The mudstones occur on the riverbed and their smooth surface reveals extensive erosion. Within the course of the river, there is varying degree of smoothness indicating that others are new to the system whilst some are older. Also, the presence of siltstones is rare but present on the outcrop (Boggs, 2000). It reveals that the Aberarth faces wilting in some seasons and re-emerge with the passing of that season. For instance, during winter organisms living in the shore areas cannot travel longer distances due to the extreme cold. As a result, they scour the stable rocks closer to the closer to finds shelter during the harsh season. Consequently, when they move from the surfaces after winter, they promote the formation of siltstones.



New Quay

On the opposite side of the Aberarth is the New Quay. The forces in action on the other side are different due to its alignment and inclination to the shoreline. Unlike the Aberath, it has coarse and granule-thick sandstones (London and Rawson, 2011). Despite the similarity regarding the presence of the sandstone, the difference lies in their texture. While they are fine on the north, the south side consists of coarser ones. It indicates that the region or locale receives lesser erosion activity relative to the North side (Prothero, 2004). While the northern side provides a suitable habitat for a majority of the living species, the south remains uninhabited. Consequently, the higher population on the sea-side promotes a higher level of erosion by the living organisms. Also, it consists of mudstones whose lamination varies from stuctureless to parallel. The other side consists of structureless mudstones only. Similarly, the phenomenon is as a result of the provision of preferable habitat location on the Aberarth. On the other hand, amalgamation also occurs on the New Quay south (Boggs, 2000). Both the mudstones ad sandstones can portray the age of the feature (Howells, 2007). However, the amalgamation indicates the series of information to identify the older and younger sediments on the outcrop. Nonetheless, the occurrence on the base can also help in the identification of the effect of biological effect in the region (London and Rawson, 2011).

A comparison between the North and the South end of the New Quay reveal the consequences and the effects of varying forces on a natural feature. It faces varying levels of pressure from its two ends resulting in a different feature from the original one. Observation of the two extreme sides serves as an appropriate point of comparison for the research. Moreover, it aids in observation and the isolation of the characters or traits of interest (Prothero, 2004). Since the North and the South side refer to a one feature, their differences portray the effect of organisms in an environment. Despite the biological effect other factors contribute in the final state of the Quay in response to the marine outcrop. To determine the paleo-environment of the feature, adjacent natural features serve as points of interest. They re-assure the researcher that information from close natural endowments help in understanding the subject of interest. Therefore, the Aberarth and New Quay are pointers of the forces that are present in the environment (Carozzi, 2003). As a result, the elimination of the outcome of the forces with the appropriate age approximation aid in the development of the desired picture and ensuring the fulfillment of the research objectives. Despite the lack of evidence such as structureless mudstone on the outcrop and sandstones, it does not mean that it did not experience erosion forces. Moreover, overtime the place has become a tourist destination attracting people from different parts of the world (Prothero, 2004). Consequently, the population increases around the region leading to a facilitated biologic effect on the marine outcrop. Therefore, the forces that affect the adjacent geographical features also have the same impact on the marine outcrop due to its location or vicinity.

Borth and Clarach

The Aberarth and the Aberystwyth do not have the same physical appearance but are subject to the same forces both sedimentation and erosion. While one forces leads to the washing away of roc particles, another contributes in the building. Borth and Clarach are the synonymous features for the coarser sediments on the north of the New Quay. On the Aberystwyth, they occupy at least 8m around the base of the outcrop (Carozzi, 2003). Additionally, they consist of Heterolithic sediments and mudstones, Injected sandstones coupled with mudflow. However, their sandstones are sharp compared to the ones on the Aberarth that were smooth. The difference emanates from the increased and direction erosion forces. When these forces do not have a specific direction, their effects are well distributed on a feature leading to the resultant smoothness (Riley and Blackwood, 2007). On the other hand, if they are subject to a direction, they will cause their effect in some parts more than the others leading to the sharp sandstone bases.

Conversely, while they might be subject to the same amount of force in a common period, their age might be slightly older. Therefore, in the estimation of their origin or paleo-environment, deeper analysis is necessary from that of the Aberarth. Nonetheless, the comparison helps in the determination of the environment that both features were exposed to in the period of formation. Furthermore, the sedimentation effects emerge from the presence of Tacde, Tace, Tbce,Tcde and Tce Bouma sequences. They illustrate the order of the sedimentation processes that led to the resultant outcrop. Also, the absence of the sequence on the Aberarth indicates the age of the outcrop in respect to the latter (Carozzi, 2003).

New Quay south

The composition of each of the features in the marine outcrop is vital before the establishment of its age and significance. The New Quay forms part of the Aberystwyth. It occurs on the south frontier of the outcrop and consists of a majority of the traits in the Aberarth. Despite its higher depth of at least 3m more than the northern side, it has deposits of coarse and granule sized sandstones and mudstone. Also, their mudstones are structureless like in the Aberarth. They reveal the extent of erosion and the intensity of biologic effect in the region (Markes and Johnson, 2012). On the other hand, it also consist of features that are absent on the other side of the Aberystwyth. The presence of thin siltstones and their continuous to discontinuous laminae orientation indicates the variance in the forces on the south side of the outcrop.

Moreover, the order of the sandstones starts with fine granules at the top and increase in size as the vertical height decreases. The therefore, it indicates that the forces of erosion and other destructive agents increase with the age of the feature. Older outcrops have finer sandstone granules at the top (London and Rawson, 2011). They also display a unique sandstone sequence in comparison to the Borth and Clarach. In their order, Tc division is absent indication a change in the force or the composition of the subject matter (Aberystwyth). However, the existence of a similarity conveys a common force in the erosion process. The difference might lay in the intensity and the population of organisms in the two locations or sites (Markes and Johnson, 2012).


The Aberystwyth is vast and a single evaluation of its sides is not sufficient to identify the forces and composition of the marine outcrop. To provide a detailed interpretation of the feature, a researcher should extend their insight to at least two features on each end for valid comparison. The Cymtydu occurs in the south alongside the New Quay (Riley and Blackwood, 2007). Therefore, similarities and differences between the two explain a lot regarding the resultant marine outcrop. It also occurs on the south of the marine outcrop. However, the alignment and the intensity of destructive and constructive forces differ.

Nonetheless, since it forms part of the Aberystwyth it becomes a vital destination for inquiry or study. The Cymtydu is logged 6m to provide a profile of the sand, mud, and gravel. The arrangement of the particles is vital in determining the features present and the forces responsible for each layer or sediment on the southern feature (Carozzi, 2003). Just like the other feature on the south it mainly consists of the coarse to granule sized sandstones. It reveals a similar effect revealing the same forces and composition of the Aberystwyth. On the other hand, the orientation is different from the others (Markes and Johnson, 2012). Unlike the interbedded arrangement it forms pillow beds. The trait indicates upward fining and thinning. However, the mudstones are structureless to parallel like on the north side of the Aberystwyth. The arrangement of the stones indicates the same intensity of erosion despite the south alignment of the Cymtydu. Sandstones at the top are fine but consist of fragments. The isolation of the particles indicates that the top part of the feature consist of different elements. Therefore, their separation is proof of varying properties on the forming matter.


The Aberystwyth is among the most interesting marine features in the Cardigan Bay in the UK. Due to its vastness an exquisite interpretation is difficult. The outcrop consists of different features on its different sides (Riley and Blackwood, 2007). As a result, of its extent, it is subject to different destructive and constructive forces leading to the development of an indifferent outcrop. Often, features of scrutiny are subject to the same forces thus a holistic interpretation can suffice. Nonetheless, the vastness of the Aberystwyth does not mean that it is impossible to provide a valid interpretation especially on the paleo-environmental frontier. Therefore, the project fulfills its mandate through the identification of distinctive features that make up the Aberystwyth. As a result, the interpretation of the Aberarth, New Quay, and Cymtydu provide detailed analysis of the different sides of the marine outcrop (Hiscock, 2006). They outline the different forces and their intensity to estimate the age of formation and the landforming processes.

The inclusion of locals input in the survey provides the perception of the community and reveals the relevance of the feature in the community. Compilation of the primary and secondary data provides a better analysis of the feature and fulfills the objectives of the project.  However, it is subject to further destruction and constructive forces. As a result, the analysis of the project does not provide an everlasting interpretation of the Aberystwyth (Markes and Johnson, 2012). Earth forming processes are continuous, the reason behind the study is to ensure that the consequences likely to emanate from their activity do not cause harm to humanity. Additionally, the effects and the essence of understanding their role in the ecosystem are the pillars behind the study of the geologic features.


Research is a human inquiry to some aspects of life. Therefore, there is an extent to which they can carry out their activities. As a result, each survey is prompt to face its constraints of limitations. However, the persistence of constraints does not mean that research is ineffective. Instead, it provides grounds for improvement for other people in the same field. Therefore, the identification of limitations is mandatory to promote research to an extensive level (Spurgeon, 2005). Additionally, it also provides logic to the work of the people or the nature of humanity. Perfection is unattainable thus a research without constraints is false.

The research experiences several limitations including reliance on secondary data and ignorance regarding geographic processes from the locals. Despite the extensive effort in the collection of the primary data, the survey depends on the theories and information that other scholars have published about the marine outcrop (Carozzi, 2003). For instance, the identification of its age stems from the analysis of the first author to discuss the outcrop. Therefore, regardless of the analysis that an individual can provide their limit ends with the work of the 1881 scholar. Instead, the presence of instruments that can estimate the age of a feature would have reduced the error in the research.

On the other hand, the local people who serve as valid participants on the geographic feature only focus on the social aspects of the feature. Geologic experience is absence due to the ignorance of the people about the land forming processes and the effects of biologic activity and other agents of erosion in the vicinity (Blatt and Tracy, 2006). Therefore, one has to obtain the information from the nearest geographical society branch to attain the geologic data.

Data Quality-Validity and Reliability

The results of a research are only as good as its quality. They should follow a unique code of ethics and standardization to ensure they are relevant for utilization. The data quality emanates from the intensity of the research and the level of professionalism that it portrays. However, validity depends on the standardization that it fulfills based on the respondents and the information that it prevents. On the other hand, reliability is a subject of qualification (Spurgeon, 2005). The research has declarations from both the supervisor and the dean of the faculty to append its relevance.

Additionally, the respondents sign their letters of consent before responding to the points of inquiry. It affirms that the respondents provide the information voluntarily aware of the purpose and objectives of the study. Often, some researchers fail to inform the participants of their role in the research process which discredits the primary data collected from the research. Nonetheless, the study also follows the geographical society layout and guidelines in making publications and papers (Spurgeon, 2005). Therefore, it affirms its reliability and allegiance to a professional body in in the same discipline.

Also, the involvement of the geographical society layout and framework makes the work valid because it adheres to the code of ethics that the professional body in that subject outlines (Blatt and Tracy, 2006).  Nonetheless, the research highlights the limitations of the study to provide further insight. The section helps in boosting research on the subject and confirming human involvement in the study. A research without limitation is flawless indicating that it answers all questions about the issue (Hiscock, 2006). However, it is impossible to obtain such a document due to the dynamic nature of land forming processes and sociological interactions.




Each of the formations may be grouped, depending on both the types of sediment facies and their observed arrangement, into one of four depositinal environments. These environments including the distal shelf, sandstone lobes, lobe fringe and slope serve as the appropriate profiles interpretations. The analysis of the different parts of the Aberystwyth provides detailed information about the marine outcrop (Blatt and Tracy, 2006). Moreover, the discussion of the parts and the forces of either erosion or deposition that led to the development of the resultant features provide an insight to the pre-civilization period about how the status of the earth. The analysis and interpretation prove that the past and the present conditions are different. Also, the impact of human activities is significant and if the relevant authorities do not work appropriately, the rate of degradation will increase. Nonetheless, the paleo-environmental picture of the Aberystwyth reveals that a majority of the changes emanate from the effect of mankind (Ellis and Levy, 2008).





Aberystwyth Grits Group. (2013). The BGS Lexicon of Named Rock Units, British Geological Survey.

Blatt, H. and Tracy, R. (2006). Petrology, New York, New York, W. H. Freeman.

Boggs, J. (2000). Principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy, 3rd ed. Toronto: Merril Publishing Company.

Briggs, C. (1994). “The Bronze Age”, in J. L. Davies and D. P. Kirkby, Cardiganshire County.

Cardigan Bay Coastal Group. (2014). Shoreline Management Plan-Ceredigion Section, Cardigan Bay Coastal Group, retrieved from

Carozzi, A. (2003). Sedimentary petrography. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall

Ceredigion. (2012). Coastal Geology, Ceredigion Coast path Org. retrieved from

Creswell, J. (2013). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches, London: Sage Publication.

Dorrik, A. and Stow, V. (2005). Sedimentary Rocks in the Field: A Colour Guide. Manson Publishing.

Dunham, R. (2002). Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture. In Ham, W. E.. Classification of carbonate rocks. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir.

Ellis, T. and Levy, Y. (2008). Framework of problem-based research: a guide for novice researchers on the development of research-worthy problem. International journal of an emerging transdiscipline, vol. 11, 17-33.

Griffiths, R. (2001). Aberystwyth’ in Griffiths, R. A., Boroughs of Mediaeval Wales, Vol. 19(4).

Hiscock, C. (2006). Holiday Haunts;Ccoastal Geology at Aberstwyth,  Journal of the Bath Geological Society, 25.

Houlder, C. (1994). “The Stone Age!, in J. L. Davies and D. P. Kirkby, Cardiganshire County History, I.

Howells, M. (2007). British regional geology: Wales, Nottingham: British Geological Survey.

Hunter, A. and Easterbrook, G. (2004). The Geological History of the British Isles, The Open University, Milton Keynes.

Johnson, B. and Christensen, L. (2008).  Educational research: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications

Lewis, W. (2000). Born on a Perilous Rock: Aberystwyth Past and Present, Cambrian News (Aberystwyth) Ltd.

Lloyd, T., Orbach, J. and Scourfield, R. (2006). Carmarthenshire and Ceredigion, Yale University Press.

London, P. and Rawson. F. (2011). The geology of England and Wales, London: Geological Society Publishing.

Markes, E. and Johnson, A. (2012). Silurian period, retrieved from

Morgan, O. (2007). Cardiganshire Politics: The Liberal Ascendancy 1885–1923, Ceredigion, Vol. 8 (4).

Pevsner, N. (1970) Cornwall; 2nd ed. Penguin Books.

Price M. (2011). The Lampeter, Aberayron and New Quay Light Railway, Oakwood Press.

Prothero, D. (2004). Sedimentary Geology. New York, NN: W.H. Freeman and Company/

Riley, A. and Blackwood, L. (2007). Focus on… Aberystwyth, London: The Times. November 23.

Ricardo, A. and Robert, S. (2003). CORRELATOR, an interactive computer program for high-resolution, lithostratigraphic.

Spurgeon, C. (2005). The Castle and Borough of Aberystwyth.

Toghill, P. (2010). The Geology of Britain: an introduction Airlife Publishing.





Literature review

August 26, 2016




Film and Dance









Date of Submission:










Women and Dance in Kuwait Cinema






1.0 Introduction

Films have been for long period been used as a form of entertainment and therefore a form of art. Many are a times when dances, and especially from women accompany films. Masceli, (1965) stipulates that the aim of the dances in the films is to make them more interesting and at times to emphasize more about a scene. Further he states, that through dance, the cultural setting of the communities involved can be easily told. Dance in films has therefore been used to complement films in various movies.

1.1 Understanding the terms dance and film

Various are terms that are associated with dance and film. To understand dance and film in depth, it is equally important to understand the basic terms that are applied in this sector. For this reason, there is the need to understand these two terms; dance and film. While dance involves a selected and purposeful human movement in a sequence, a film also known as a movie is the series of still images (Adobe After Effects CS6 classroom in a book, 2012). When cast on a screen there is the illusion created that the images are moving owing to the technique behind the entire art.

1.2Relationship between Dance and Films

1.3 Prevailing situation of dance in films in the world.

Most movies or rather films produced lately have the aspect of dances in them. They are therefore allowed to be incorporated in movies for the purposes of making the movies more attractive and enlighten to the audience (Root & Davies, 1990). Dances catch the attention of viewers and this can be used to market such movies.

1.4 Controversies surrounding women and dance in Kuwait

Women in Kuwait have been for some time been looked down upon by their men counterparts. There are the roles that women cannot be allowed to carry on due to cultural ideologies. According to the Society of Dance History Scholars (1998), dances in Kuwaiti films have also not stabilized like most of the developed economies. Some dances are therefore prohibited by their culture. They deem it to conflict their morals due to some of scenes that would require them to expose part of their bodies.

1.5 Criticism of Dance in Films

Exposure of some body parts and especially women that are age restricted are a point of criticism. This is because of the cultural orientation of some of the communities, Kuwait being one such community. The Society of Dance History Scholars (1998), argues that some adult content in  movies including some dances are subject to indecent exposure but has been criticized for not being rated as such and therefore available for viewing by the public.

1.6 Gaps in Literature Review

Due to lack of enough materials, there has been challenge in getting all the required information on this topic. There is therefore need for more research to have more and better explanation of the topic.



















Adobe After Effects CS6 classroom in a book. (2012). Berkeley, CA: Adobe Press/Peachpit.

Mascelli, J. (1965). The five C’s of cinematography. Hollywood [Calif.]: Cine/Grafic Publications.

Root, B. and Davies, P. (1990). Filming. Collins Educational.

Society of Dance History Scholars. (1998). [Place of publication not identified]: The Society.




Coownership and Separate Legal Holdings: A Comparative Analysis of “Intentions”

August 23, 2016




Coownership and Separate Legal Holdings: A Comparative Analysis of “Intentions”


            Firstly, this paper would analyze intention as a legal concept because a criminal should have clear objective of killing a person before committing a murder. However, if evidence does not support directed lethal effort of the suspect then he or she would be tried for manslaughter. Intensity of the sentence would be consequently reduced. Same rule would be applied in order to analyze the case of coownership[1]. The formalization of sexual relations into a marriage means that there is a measurable mutual intentions present between the couple. However, for unmarried unions the condition is very confusing to say the least[2].

Additionally, one should take oral contractual obligations as real representation of couple’s willing to develop coownership[3]. With the passage of time legal centers of the world are facing possibility of conflict amongst couples those do not want to legalize their relations and therefore this legal analysis upholds that coownership is a function of cohabitation. However, cohabitation is dependent on the willingness to craft official martial ties and if it is not present then transfer of property must occur before houses could be bought and sold between informal sexual partners[4]. The legal culture should not consider a couple as a single identity but the partners would carry separate identity in the eyes of law. Secondly, the law should assign hybrid characteristics to the relation because produced children would inherit properties and bank balance from both their parents. Again, we must apply the rule of consent over here[5]. Reproduction occurred due to consensual sex and therefore law would assign regular parenting responsibilities to the couple.

In this particular regard the couple would cooperatively raise their children. Lack of marriage means informal couples do not want to share their belongings. Until they form joint ownership with the help of forming partnership. The law could not consider them joint owners of the property. Sole owner of the property must pay utility and maintenance bills. However, the latent partner in this regard could participate to maintain the property as a courtesy to the owner who allowed him to live in her house[6]. One could consider partaking of a silent partner in the given scenario as representation of “behavioral rent” instead of monetary one.

Alternatively, the owner could invite tenant to sponsor operations of the house in financial terms and therefore lawmakers should identify this prospect as financial rent. In this way, we should respect mutual willingness of the couple to establish coownership. Lawyers could not possibly push couples into creating contracts because without contractual background. Coownership may not develop as a legally recognizable concept without underlying agreement and if informal couples wanted to create coownership then they shall have entered into marriage rather than living informally as pairs[7].

If government passes a law that forces people to cohabitate then it is coercing them into marriages and therefore the established agreement would not be lawfully binding to say the least. Choices of two individuals in selecting or deselecting official marriages must be respected under all circumstances.

Government has made the institution of marriage difficult to adopt for the masses that do not have sufficient wealth to accommodate huge settlements in the case of breakup and therefore general public wants it to play safe in this regard. Informal sexual relations are representation that couples need to test their compatibility prior to entering into a legal relationship. Freedom of sex is also permitted by the constitution of England[8]. The English Law states that “Everyone shall have the liberty to form association with others without being subjected to sarcasm in this regard”. We could translate the abovementioned quote to lend support to free sexual relations as well because law does not have any jurisdiction to regulate personal lives of the people especially in the country that was formed in order to protect freewill of the public.

National and political leadership of the developed world do not intervene into personal and private choices of the masses but governmental machinery would move in order to counteract criminal activity that may compromise freewill of others. The sources of terrorism could be internal and external[9]. Legal system would partner with military and police to respond to challenges relating to national security[10]. Law enforcement in general operates as a source of freedom to the public. However, in no way England could become so centric that the government will enforce the concepts of right and wrong unto the people. These are philosophical differences those drive people to choose “informal sexual relations” over formal ones. These personal decisions are backed by financial and fiscal considerations those males could face if the tie does not work out. Uncertainty capsuling the future of formal marriages would induce people to opt for having informal relations.  They want to keep influence of law out of their romantic lives.

Romantically engaged parties would not share materialistic properties because they do not trust each other fully but when bilateral trustworthiness is established then they would tie the knot of marriage. However, by that time the couple would have given birth to children and therefore the subsequent marriage would be stabilized. The government does not have to take any decisions in this regard because couples would decide accordingly when they feel that the time is appropriate to cement their cardinal choices.


            Conclusively, one could infer that interfering into personal problems and decisions of people may be viewed as an illegal action because national constitution of England values freedom of the individual. In the light of English Constitution people are free to socially associate with others and by definition they could also define the nature of their marital ties. Formalization of marriage could be governmentally facilitated but cannot be enforced on to the public. With development of mutual trust couples would move in the direction of developing coownership of their properties as well.



  1. R Clements and A. Abass, Equity & Trusts 4th edition: Text, Cases, and Materials. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013)
  2. A Collins, Contemporary Security Studies, 3rd edition, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012),
  3. S Davies, G Virgo and E.H. Burn. Maudsley and Burns Equity and Trusts: Texts Cases and Materials. (Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2013)
  4. R Edwards and N Stockwell, Equity and Trusts. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015).
  5. C E Kubrin and T Stucky. Introduction to Criminal Justice: A Sociological Perspective. (Stanford: Stanford Social Sciences, 2013)
  6. R K Schutt,. Investigating the Social World: The Process and Practice of Research. (New York: SAGE Publications, 2012),
  7. L J Siegel and J L Worrall. Essentials of Criminal Justice. (London: Wadsworth Publishing;, 2014),
  8. L Tummers and E Knies. ‘Measuring Public Leadership:Developing Scales for Key Public Leadership Roles’ Public Administration Early View 2016, 221-281
  9. Z Yunos, R Ahmad., S. M Ali and S Shamsuddin ‘Illicit Activities and Terrorism in Cyberspace: An Exploratory Study in the Southeast Asian Region’ Intelligence and Security Informatics vol 7299 no.1 2012 27-35
  10. M D Schlosser, S Cha-Jua., M Valgoi., and H A Neville, ‘Improving Policing in a Multiracial Society in the United States: A New Approach’ International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences vol 10 no.1 2015, 115-121


[1]  R Clements and A. Abass, Equity & Trusts 4th edition: Text, Cases, and Materials. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), 123


[2] A Collins, Contemporary Security Studies, 3rd edition, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 54


[3] P.S Davies, G Virgo and E.H. Burn. Maudsley and Burns Equity and Trusts: Texts Cases and Materials. ( Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2013), 143


[4] R Edwards and N Stockwell, Equity and Trusts. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), 201 .


[5] C E Kubrin and T Stucky. Introduction to Criminal Justice: A Sociological Perspective. (Stanford: Stanford Social Sciences, 2013), 183


[6] R K Schutt,. Investigating the Social World: The Process and Practice of Research. (New York: SAGE Publications, 2012), 135.


[7]  L J Siegel and J L Worrall. Essentials of Criminal Justice. (London: Wadsworth Publishing;, 2014), 228

[8] L Tummers and E Knies. ‘Measuring Public Leadership:Developing Scales for Key Public Leadership Roles’ Public Administration Early View 2016, p.281


[9] Z Yunos, et al. ‘Illicit Activities and Terrorism in Cyberspace: An Exploratory Study in the Southeast Asian Region’ Intelligence and Security Informatics vol 7299 no.1 2012, p.31


[10] Schlosser, M D, et al. ‘Improving Policing in a Multiracial Society in the United States: A New Approach’ International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences vol 10 no.1 2015, 117

Rafael, Galatea, 1512

August 19, 2016









Rafael, Galatea, 1512

Student Name

Institutional Affiliation








Rafael, Galatea, 1512


The painting ‘The Triumph of Galatea’ was one of the most famous paintings during the renaissance era. This painting was done by Rafael, and can be found in Villa Farnesina, Rome. The painting portrays feelings of love, easiness, religion, and artistic mastery. Rafael used his imagination to bring out the theme of identity and self-fashioning in the painting. All the characteristics of the painting, that is, the use of oil on canvas, the use of lines and the main theme conform to the trend during the renaissance era.

The key figure in the painting, Galatea, seems to be moving in a frenzy in the sea shell while her attention is drawn by something exciting behind her. The painting also has other sea gods in front of Galatea who seem to be submerged. Another figure on the foreground seems to lie effortlessly on the surface of the water as if it was a solid surface. The presence of gods and other figures floating on the water indicates the pagan religion, which was prevalent in Italy during the renaissance period. The painting ‘The Triumph of Galatea’ places itself among the famous antiques in Rome today as it represents the ancient Roman culture and beliefs (Pater, 2005).

The work of art was made to elaborate the fables and the pagan stories that were common during the renaissance period. In that period, the Roman and Greek mythologies were highly prevalent as people had not fully embraced Christianity (Holmes, 2013). The belief in the gods motivated the creation of this painting. The key subject of the painting, Galatea is believed to be a sea nymph as opposed to being a real human being. In the painting, Galatea is seen to escape, while other figures seem to gaze at her with lustful eyes. The scene portrayed in the painting thus acts as a pictorial summary of the Greek and Roman fables, and myths.

The intended message to the viewer is about love. The presence of the cupids on the top of the picture indicates that the subjects of the painting are struck with the magic of love. Moreover, the fables and the myths in which the painting is based on is about love. Galatea escapes from the one eyed giant, Polyphemus, who through a stone on Galatea’s lover, Acis. The other figures in the painting seem to be making advances towards Galatea, especially the Icthyocentaur (the figure with mixed bodies) (Vasari, 1998). On the other hand, the fact that there are love cupids aiming the arrows on Galatea and the strange figure aim to pass the message that there can be liberation after suffering.

Galatea had been patient enough to get out of the jaws of Polyphemus, which paid off when she finally got a chance to escape. The painting, therefore, communicates to the viewer that patience may lead to better results. Moreover, there is another figure on the left of Galatea playing a trumpet. This figure may be symbolic to indicate the good times ahead for Galatea after escaping from her lover Polyphemus. The painting tends to glorify platonic love or ideal love, which refers to the love of the spirit.

The renaissance period, which happened between the 14th and the 17th centuries was characterized by belief in the gods, heroes, and war scenes (Holmes, 2013). These characteristics are thus a solid identification of the pagan believers (Holmes, 2013). Rafael used the painting to place himself in the Roman culture during the period. This self-fashioning thus creates an identity that the viewer associates the painter, subjects of the painting, the period in which it was painted, and the cultural and religious beliefs during the period (Holmes, 2013). Rafael communicates the triumph of the ideal love by showing the good times that are experienced by Galatea, contrary to the hardships she underwent when married to the jealous Polyphemus.

According to Vasari (1998), the artists in the renaissance era were highly identified with the beauty and perfection of their subjects. Vasari (1998) based the central argument to the fact that artists in the period, such as Rafael, made the beauty of the subjects, be it real human beings, the gods or imaginary figures, an important issues. Most of the artistic work created during the period was associated with nudity and femininity, thus leading to the creation of an identity.

With regard to ‘The triumph of Galatea’, Rafael create a self-fashioning by adhering to the characteristics identified by Vasari (1998). The painting exhibits features of femininity and nudity which identifies with other artistic work from the renaissance period. Galatea is exhibited as a very beautiful figure with smooth skin and long hair. The other male subjects in the painting are masculine. The evidence provided in the article is that of the portrayal of Venus, by the artists. Venus was renowned to be a very beautiful figure. Artists who included the subject in their paintings used soft edges, smooth texture, and long hair to effectively bring out the beauty of the character (Vasari, 1998).

Pater (2005) postulates that artists during the renaissance period focused on beauty to bring about the concept of love. According to the evidence in the text, artists such as Leonardo and Rafael used feminine beauty as an object of philosophical speculation and inspiration (Pater, 2005). However, the love that artists intended to bring out was not physical love or love on the body of the subjects, but rather a natural admiration. Pater (2005) bases the arguments of identity and self-fashioning on immaculate love. The author further states that the use of feminine images is not meant to spur a sexist approach. The evidence provided is rather solid since the author argues that the symbols of Greek gods have beauty, whether female or male gods, with very little traces of gender (Pater, 2005).

The arguments by both authors are rather compelling. The evidence provided in the texts to support the arguments are solid and can be traced to the paintings or trends during the renaissance period. Pater (2005) and Vasari (1998) agree on the fact that the artists during the period self-fashioned themselves with a specific style that concentrated on the beauty of the subjects. Moreover, artists during the era intended to bring out the concept of love in a number of ways through real and imaginary subjects. The arguments on identity and self-fashioning are evident in Rafael’s painting such that the characters exhibit the natural beauty while communicating on the concept of love. Moreover, the use of gods in the painting, such as the key subject who is not a real human being conforms to the identity created by the artists during the renaissance period.


The painting ‘The Triumph of Galatea’ conforms to the identity and self-fashion created by artists during the period of renaissance. According to Pater (2005) and Vasari (1998), artists during the period, including Rafael, developed a style that focused on, paganism, natural beauty and femininity while portraying a concept of love. This style has since been used to identify paintings and artists during that era. The identity created during the period reflects on ‘The Triumph of Galatea’ by Rafael.





Holmes, M. (2013). The Miraculous Image in Renaissance Florence. Yale University Press

Pater, W. (2005). The Renaissance: Studies in Art and Poetry (Dover Fine Art, History of Art). Dover Publications.

Vasari, G. (1998). The lives of the Artists. Oxford. Oxford University Press.


Buying vs leasing a Car

August 17, 2016





Buying vs leasing a Car


When deciding on whether to buy or lease a car, one needs to first determine whether, when he either buys or leases, he will be able to afford the amenities that might prove to be too expensive to purchase out rightly. Also, when leasing a car, one is also spending money on an asset that they will not own at the end of the lease period. Upon purchasing, one might settle for a bit less amount. However, since one is going to own the car, there is more freedom to make a decision on whether to replace the vehicle or even apply for its resale value towards the next purchase. Both can be good options, however, when making a choice on the way to go depends highly on what one needs from the car. From research based on this information leasing however seems to be the overall better option, more so, with the luxurious cars. This is proven in the case study of both buying and leasing financials (pricing) for the two car brands; Kia Optima, with its manufacturing company situated in South Attleboro, Massachusetts and Hyundai Sonata’s manufacturer situated in Pawtucket, Rhode Island (Stepp 69).


Below is a table showing price comparisons for Kia Optima and Hyundai Sonata car models.

  2015 Hyundai Sonata 2015 Kia Optima
Invoice Price $20, 295 $20, 893
Manufacturer Suggested Retail Price $21, 150 $21, 840
Monthly Payment Estimate $353/Month $364/month


From the above table, for Hyundai Sonata, leasing has proved to create brand loyalty as survey shows that people that have leased their previously owned car have a double likelihood compared to those who bought their last car of getting a similar brand (Hyundai Sonata) again. The greatest attraction to leasing is the low payments per month. One can drive a more expensive car than he can be able to purchase. Hyundai Sonata can cost as little as 199 dollars per month with a down payment of 1,900 dollars per month. Monthly payments of the same on a loan spread over five years would go at around 350 dollars, depending on financial terms and conditions. However, a monthly payment that is low should not be the only consideration as pertains to cost (Osborne 5).Upon leasing, one is essentially renting the car on a long term basis and owns nothing at the contact’s termination. With leasing this car brand, one can face extra costs upon termination of the lease earlier than the agreed time or exceeding the agreed upon mileage, typically ranging between12, 000-15,000 thousand miles per annum. The Sonata currently has a base price of around 22,000 dollars with shipping. When buying both models, there can be smaller or no down-payment at all compared to full purchase, one also boasts of owning a new brand every few years as per agreed duration, one can also drive a better car like these two brands for lesser money and there is not long term financial commitments as well (Arthur & Steven 530).Below is the true cost to own a Hyundai Sonata spread over five years.

In (Stepp84), for Kia Optima, leasing a new car is relatively cheap compared to buying as its freight; dealer prep, fees and air conditioning all sum up to 1,830 dollars, estimated dealer discount of 1,475 dollars, factory discount of 3,000 dollars; manufacture incentive, taxable subtotal of 28, 054 dollars, adding up to a total price with 13 percent HST of 31, 701.02 dollars. A 1,000 dollar factory incentive is made available with zero per cent financing for 48 or 60 months, 1.99 percent for 84 months. However, the factory money is not available with 0.9 per cent lease rate for 48 months, 1.9 percent for 60 months. Kia, unlike Hyundai, gives customers $1,000 factory incentive on the 2015 model of Optima, who’s stacking can be done with 0 % financing for up to 60 months. This might seem a bit attractive for potential buyers; however it has a 0.9 % lease rate for 48 months, excluding the factory money. This in a way gives more sense to purchasing rather than leasing Optima. However, not all car manufacturers give low-interest rates like it is the case with Optima as many have high interest rates makes leasing still the most viable option financially (Arthur & Steven 536).

Pertaining to drive off costs of buying versus purchasing both brands, when one buys, he owns the vehicle and gets to keep it as long as he wants but on leasing, one has to return it at the lease’s end unless one decides to buy it. Pertaining to up-front related costs, buying includes the cash price or even a down-payment, registration, taxes and other fees whereas leasing typically includes the initial month’s payment, a security deposit that is refundable, taxes, a down-payments as well, registration number and other fees. In buying, monthly payments include loan payments which are considerably higher than leasing payments as one pays off the total purchasing price of either of the two cars, inclusive of interest and other finance related charges. According to (Arthur & Steven 526) the leases monthly payments are relatively lower than the loan payments for a newly purchased car as one pays only for the deprecation cost of the vehicle during the term of lease, and interest charges, making it more financially cost effective. In buying, one has to deal with either selling or trading in the car when one wants a different or new one, but for leasing, one can take back the vehicle usually at end of lease, pay costs  incurred at the an end-of-lease and then walk away scot free. The car depreciates; however its cash value is for the owner upon buying, however for leasing, the car’s future does not affect the holder of the lease financially, though one has no equity in the vehicle. During the end of loan term for buying the car, typically four to five years, one has no further payments to make and has a built equity to assist in helping to pay for the next vehicle, whereas on leasing, at the end of the lease one has to finance for the car purchase or purchase a new one per month (Stepp 84).

For the next three years, leasing for Kia will be relatively cheap, at an average of $ 500 compared to the $1,000 monthly payments plus loan charges to purchase a new car for the next 36 months. As for Hyundai, the average price will be $24, 775 with fees for drive-off of $1,154, resulting in$294 monthly payments or the next three years. However for buying, it will be much costly as the average down-payment for a five year is $4,104, with an average interest rate of 1.64 percent, amounting to a monthly payment of $400 for the next three years. For the Kia Optima, leasing advantages are evident as the newer models can be bought at relatively lower costs with no upfront down payment. The lease only lasts for a few years and one can easily switch vehicles once the lease period terminates. There is also the option for terminating the lease earlier on for a minimal fee unlike buying which is irreversible and one is able to purchase the vehicle at a discount once the lease is up (Osborne 7).


Financially, the best option for both cars is to lease as evident from the above prices and financial considerations with leasing having reduced payments, many incentives for the manufacturer, up-front costs as well as taxes which are low, disposition which is hassle-free and no minor repair costs as well.





Works Cited

Arthur, Sullivan, & Steven, Sheffrin. Economics: Principles in action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice Hall.2003:Pp. 523 -537. Print.

Stepp, Erin. “Annual Cost to Own and Operate a Vehicle Falls to $8,698, Finds AAA”. Newsroom.American Automobile Association. 2016: Pp. 67-88. Print.

Osborne, Hilary, “Cost of running a car ‘exceeds £5,000’. The Guardian (London: Guardian Media Group).2006: Pp. 2-9. Print.



Decision Making and Change

August 17, 2016








Decision Making and Change

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation





The company in the case study had resorted to sourcing components from cost-competitive countries.  Outsourcing has numerous advantages that include cost-effectiveness, increases efficiency, access to skilled resources and time zone advantages. The industry was based in the US while the external source project was located in India. The project faced major huddles that did not seem to get the desirable response from the leadership of the company (Hayes, 2014).

Communication between the founding company based in the US and the project team based in India was inefficient. The Mumbai-based team complained about slow responses and inadequacy of necessary information from the US team. However, the case suggests that communication was better during the initial project phases when all the teams were based in the US. Efficient communication is imperative for the success of any project. Proper communication channels should be established to facilitate smooth flow of needed information within an organization. In the Triumph case this was conspicuously lacking.

The company suffered division and lack of a common goal. The parent company back in the US was divided on the prospects of the off-shore production in India. Each department acted autonomously and only seemed to side with the decision that would work for it. Therefore, the industry was split into separate departments that worked to achieve individual departmental objectives and not the company’s. The division was enhanced with the uncommitted leadership that did not do much in influencing the desired change that was to be brought by the project. The lack of unity and influence by the top leadership hampered the development of the project (Carter et al., 2013). The top leadership change further affected the project as attention was shifted to other highly prioritized objectives. A flexible leadership with a clear transition committee and creativity is important for the success of the project. Leadership is responsible for team building and innovation by enabling so the unification of divergent departments (Carter et al., 2013).

The decision to effect change lacked the basic feasibility assessment, commitment, and effort. The project in the case was initiated with much enthusiasm that later waned. At the initial stages, vital questions regarding the quality of the components manufactured by the offshore company, procurement logistics, and overall cost-effectiveness should have been raised and addressed and not be considered later after the initiation of the project (Hayes, 2014). Due to the earlier mentioned hitches and challenges facing the project, it is slowly progressing even though much of the anticipated benefits is yet to be achieved.

Hard and Soft Factors in implementing change projects

Many studies show that organizational specific factors affect organizations differently. Employees get themselves into behaviours that turn out to be detrimental to the organization in order to survive the internal competition (Luft, 2016). The leaders at times display behaviours that change the performance and the development of new projects (Lam & Higgins, 2012). In the Triumph organization, there are numerous factors that hinder the growth of the company and the success of change implementation.

Several soft factors, such as the organizational culture, leadership and motivation are primary elements necessary for the success of change. However, focusing solely on these issues is still insufficient in implementing transformative projects. The soft factors do not influence the results of many change programs directly. For example, visionary leadership is highly significant for transformation projects (Taylor et al., 2014). However, this is not the case all the time. The same can be said about the communication within the organization. Furthermore, it is a difficult task to change attitudes or relationships as they are factors that are deeply ingrained in organizations and the individuals (Fullan, 2014). Despite being able to gauge the changes in culture or motivation, it is not easy to obtain reliable statistics on soft factors.

In addition to the soft factors, there are hard factors that directly determine the success of transformation projects (Dunning, 2014). In the case, there is an evident lack of focus on the less fashionable but very crucial aspect of change management (the hard factors). These issues are marked by three characteristics. First the ability to obtain direct and indirect measurements (Tan, 2006). Second, they can be easily communication within the organization and lastly, the organizations have the ability to influence those factors rapidly. Some of the hard factors that affect implementation of change include the scheduling (duration needed for completion), the required manpower needed for the project and the projected financial results that the project is aimed to achieve. When organization neglect these hard elements, the projects limp along like in the Triumph case. Despite the importance of the hard factors, the top management cannot ignore the soft elements (Calvo-Mora et al., 2013). The hard elements should be given deeper consideration at the initial stages of project planning while the soft issues should be gradually introduce into play to sustain the transformation programs.

In the case study, the long-drawn project executed by the skilled consultants is bound to fail because the top leadership lacks the vision, enthusiasm and unity in realizing the goals of the project. With the lack of support from the top-level management especially with the change in the CEO position and the general dislike of the change, the project management team has to do more work to avert the looming failure (Van Knippenberg and Stam, 2014). The project in the case lie on the middle grounds that poses the challenge of determining the likelihood of success or failure. The leadership of the company must give attention to the duration, integrity, commitment and the efforts necessary for completion of the project. Considering the four factors with keenness will give the likely outcome of the change program.

Organizational ethical decision making

Ethical decision making is an important component of any organization. The issues of ethics comes up when the leadership of the organization need to make a decision that is bound to infringe on the benefits of other stakeholders or organizational departments (Robertson et al.,  2013). According to Agalgatti and Krishna (2007), it is the process of determining between the right and the wrong in relation to the moral standards guiding the industry. Decision making that affects other departments is the main issue in the case study. In any large organization, different departments tend to work in independence of the other departments in the other organization. This specialization and role description ensure that each department has its objectives and goals that it needs to meet. In certain circumstances, the leadership is faced by the dilemma of making decisions that despite working well for the entire organization threatens the ability of certain departments to meet their goals (Heal and Millner, 2014). In the case study, the sourcing project seemed to assist the purchasing department in meeting its objectives while other departments did not fully support the programme as they perceived that there was little to gain on their side.

Three ethical decision making models exist. These are the justice model, utilitarian, and the moral rights model (Levit, 2013). The justice model deals with the equal allocation of gains and losses, the utilitarian deals with the greatest good for the majority while the moral rights model deals with the rights and freedoms of the consumers. The following paragraphs will highlight the three different types of ethical decision making models and how they are relevant to the case study.

The utilitarian model is explained as that which has the greatest approval from the greatest number of people (Conway & Gawronski, 2013). The utilitarian effect is measured by the use of cost and benefit analysis (Ferrel and Fraedrich, 2016). The approach of the utilitarian model can be judged by determining the ramifications (Conway & Gawronski, 2013) (Agalgatti and Krishna, 2007). If the consequence is positive, then the theory supports it. That is the gains by the company is greater than the cost incurred, the utilitarianism model is justified. In the case, the biggest group of stakeholders are the other organizational departments. These departments carry the cost of the project while the leaders of the new project stand to gain in achieving the proposed development. The purchasing department also stands to gain from the decision. Comparing the cost and the benefits, it is evident that most of the departments felt threatened by the decision to source form the cost-competitive markets. Applying the utilitarian approach could ensure that the project gained support from the majority, and that the majority saw the opportunity to benefit from the sourcing. Failure to consider the feeling of the majority in the organization can be linked to the eventual withdrawal of support from the project and the general lack of support from the organization’s leadership. By cost benefit comparison, it is true to conclude that the decision was unethical.

The justice model is concerned with spreading the losses and the gains among the different groups of interested parties in a just and transparent manner (Carroll and Buchholtz, 2012). According to Ferrell and Fraedrich (2016), it refers to the fairness in the final distribution. In the Triumph case, there is no equal distribution of the benefits and harms. From the case, the purchasing department stands to gain since sourcing from low-cost countries would help the department meet its objective to lower the procurement costs. The manufacturing unit managers had little to gain and could lose out in the event the project is not 100% useful. In addition they felt that their department could be forced to halt operations if the delivery do not happen in time. In addition, the quality assurance managers were worried on whether the produced components would meet the near-perfect standards that they were used to. The justice model was not considered in the making of the decision as some departments seemed to gain more and lose less as compared to the other departments that would experience the reverse.

The moral rights model stipulates that the best ethical decision is that which protects the ethical rights of those who are affected by the decision (Craft, 2013). In making ethical decisions, the managers need to avoid interfering with the fundamental rights of others. Therefore, the decision made can be discerned as ethical or unethical depending on whether the decision upholds the basic rights of the people involved.

The field of business ethics is in a constant and rapid change. This concept is redefined as many companies recognize the benefits of improving ethical conduct in their businesses. For globally competitive industries, they aim to keep abreast with the new and re-emerging theories and practices that stand to benefit the organizations (Craft, 2013). Contrary, there is a clique of leaders at the helm of the industries leadership who are complacent in adapting to new business demands and decide to maintain the status quo. The consequences of not adapting to positive developments are numerous. They include, disintegration of communication process, loss of efficiency, flawed and bureaucratic decision making processes, ethical dilemmas and stagnating organizational culture. The ethical culture is key in employee motivation, cost-effectiveness and leadership. Consequently, these factors affect the profitability and the processes of the organization that can eventually edge them off the market.



Leadership and vision needed for the successful change in the future

Organizations have to weather important and disturbing changes to thrive in the dynamic and competitive business environment. Leadership play an important role in the implementation of changes in the organization (Carter et al., 2013).

Leadership is defined differently by various people in diverse contexts. According to Dafts (2008), Leadership is the relationship of influence among the leaders and the followers, who mean real changes that affect their shared purposes. Still, Khatri (2005) referred to leadership as the process of influencing others to understand and agree about the way forward regarding who is to do what. Also, leadership is the process of facilitating personal and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives (Levitt, 2013). Both the definitions of leadership lay emphasis in the ability of the leaders to influence followers to meet a shared objective.

Change has been a difficult area and has impacted on many organizations. Organizations face changes every day and have to handle them well to survive in the volatile and highly competitive business environment. The change must be aligned according to the organizational culture, values and the people and characters to ensure that the desirable outcomes are attained (Crossan, et al., 2013). Hence, leadership plays a paramount role in successfully implementing a change.

The transformation induced by change is often difficult and occasionally result in departmental divisions and resentment by the employees (Khatri, 2005). The social and psychological fear of change and the inadequate technical expertise are factors that affect the change process. The fear of delays and compromised quality prevented the manufacturing managers and the quality assurance managers to support the change in the case study. Leadership has the potential to not only overcome change but support its foundation and implementation (Thiel et al., 2012).

For successful change in the future, the leadership must have a global view of changes in technology, management theories and the global statistics that could affect the business. The emphasis on the DICE framework in addressing the hard factors that affect change implementation should be keenly considered. Visionary leaders are those who think critically and develop projects that shield the business from the current threats and sustains its operations. All organizations need innovative and creative visionaries who are good in decision making during changes (Tappin & Cave, 2008). To achieve that, an effective leader, should be armed with a sense of purpose and vision, ability to influence people through hard situations, the potential to take accountability and responsibility and inspire people to achieve a common goal. Good leadership is a guarantee for successful change in the future.












Agalgatti B., & Krishna S. (2007). Business Ethics, Concepts and practices (4th ed.). Buthwar Peth, Pune: Nirali Prakashan.

Calvo-Mora, A., Picón, A., Ruiz, C. and Cauzo, L., 2013. The relationships between soft-hard TQM factors and key business results. International Journal of Operations & Production Management34(1), pp.115-143.

Carter, M.Z., Armenakis, A.A., Feild, H.S. and Mossholder, K.W., 2013. Transformational leadership, relationship quality, and employee performance during continuous incremental organizational change. Journal of Organizational Behavior34(7), pp.942-958.

Carroll, A.B. and Buchholtz, A.K., 2012. Business and society: Ethics.Sustainability and Stakeholder Management, 8th ed., South-Western Cengage Learning, Stamford, CT.

Conway, P. and Gawronski, B., 2013. Deontological and utilitarian inclinations in moral decision making: a process dissociation approach. Journal of personality and social psychology104(2), p.216.

Craft, J.L., 2013. A review of the empirical ethical decision-making literature: 2004–2011. Journal of Business Ethics117(2), pp.221-259.

Crossan, M., Mazutis, D. and Seijts, G., 2013. In search of virtue: The role of virtues, values and character strengths in ethical decision making. Journal of Business Ethics113(4), pp.567-581.

Ferrell, O.C. and Fraedrich, J., 2016. Business ethics: Ethical decision making & cases. Nelson Education

Hayes, J., 2014. The theory and practice of change management. Palgrave Macmillan.

Heal, G. and Millner, A., 2014. Reflections uncertainty and decision making in climate change economics. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy,8(1), pp.120-137

Khatri, N., 2005. An alternative model of transformational leadership. Vision: The Journal of Business Perspective9(2), pp.19-26

Levitt, D.H., 2013. Ethical Decision-Making Models. Values and Ethics in Counseling: Real-Life Ethical Decision Making, p.213.

  1. Taylor, C., J. Cornelius, C. and Colvin, K., 2014. Visionary leadership and its relationship to organizational effectiveness. Leadership & Organization Development Journal35(6), pp.566-583

Robertson, C.J., Blevins, D.P. and Duffy, T., 2013. A five-year review, update, and assessment of ethics and governance in Strategic Management Journal.Journal of Business Ethics117(1), pp.85-91.

Tan, C.C., 2006. The theory and practice of change management.

Tappin, S. and Cave, A., 2008. The Secrets of CEOs: 150 Global Executives Lift the Lid on Business, Life and Leadership. Nicholas Brealey

Thiel, C.E., Bagdasarov, Z., Harkrider, L., Johnson, J.F. and Mumford, M.D., 2012. Leader ethical decision-making in organizations: Strategies for sensemaking. Journal of Business Ethics107(1), pp.49-64.

Van Knippenberg, D. and Stam, D., 2014. Visionary leadership. chapter12, pp.241-259.



Personal Statement

August 16, 2016







Personal Statement




University Details

Submission Date











My ambition in legal and ethical issues was evoked by my strong interest in world events, especially on matters that affect the society. Since an early age, I was interested in helping people resolve their disputes. As I was growing up, I recall settling disputes and fights among my age mates, especially during play time. I was appointed as a senior prefect in my school, a position that I held for three years and enjoying serving other students in enhancing discipline. Many human aspects are tied to ethical and legal practices that are applied for ensuring a peaceful living environment whether in the workplace or home. Our everyday activities are affected by the law, even when we are unaware of it. In the current society, ethical issues such as gay rights and abortion have emerged as forefront subjects that require being resolved in the law institutions. Having studied a degree in criminology, I have a background understanding of such legal matters that are affecting the modern society. Such astounding issues have motivated me to pursue a master degree in international relations.

During my academic studies, I embraced a self-motivated approach, which I perceive crucial in learning administration of justice. Since childhood, I was bothered by injustices, and this pushed me to study criminology to have a deep understanding of legal frameworks and the justice system. The law enables the society members to coexist harmoniously (Maxfield, 2015). Conversely, criminology has enabled me to understand the patterns of criminal behavior and the way respective legal action that needs to be applied. Fighting for justice and fairness for all people has endeared me to further my studies in international relations. I believe a master in international relations that is relevant in public policy fields will equip me with analytical skills that are essential in the formulation of legal policies.

In my degree course, I have been a consistent scholar in psychology, mathematics, and English having obtained an average grade of A in all the subjects. I also participated in debates concerning human civil rights which have helped me build confidence in myself and have a good command of English language. My strong interest in world events that I read from the newspapers, internet source and books have helped me develop intellectual curiosity. The experience I have obtained from public galleries during my internship in magistrate and high court have given me a broad understanding of justice system. The interaction with lawyers, judges and other members of a legal team have given me an adequate understanding of my role as a criminologist.

I like spending my leisure time reading, swimming, and social networking. The Law Machine is one of the important books about the legal system of British I have read. The authors, Marcel and Clare, have detailed weaknesses of the system and highlighted principles on which judgments are based. This opportunity of studying international relations at an advanced level will suit my career and place me in a privileged level of working in the government sector. Moreover, I am a law enthusiast and a strong believer in hard work as the primary factor in attaining one’s goals. Being granted a chance to pursue a master in international relations will enlighten me on addressing issues such as combating crime and human rights (Jackson, 1997).










Jackson, J. H. (1997). The world trading system: law and policy of international economic relations. MIT press.

Maxfield, M. G. (2015). Basics of research methods for criminal justice and criminology. Cengage Learning.

August 16, 2016
PACE STATS 001 Name:
Examination #2 Tue Wed Thurs ID#:


1. (20 points)


  Speedy Root Canal w/o anesthesia Two semesters of statistics Total
Day Students 45 60 105
Pace 30 38 68
Total 75 98 173






2. (15 points)



z-score:  -0.625⇒0.2357and 8.13 ⇒0.5000




3. (15 points)






4. (25 points)


N=225 S=4 Marging of error = 0.7840 Point est. of μ =15
Part 1:

Point est. of μ =15


Part 2:

0.7840 (Margin of error)


Part 3:

The 95% CI: 14.216  to 15.784

B. A more precise estimate can be obtained by

(1) collecting more data so as to increase the sample size or

(2) by lowering the confidence level to something like 90% – the confidence interveal will be narrower



5. (25 points)


N=15 S=3 Marging of error = 2.3060 Point est. of μ =20
Part 1:

Point est. of μ =20



Part 2:

2.3060(Margin of error)


Part 3:

The 99% CI= 17.694 to 22.306



Extra Credit (25 points)


Ex. #1 (Parts A & B must be complete to receive credit)


N=64 S=5 Marging of error = 1.6099 Point est. of μ =20
Part 1:

Point est. of μ =20


Part 2:

1.6099(Margin of error)




Part 3:

The 99% CI= 18.3901 to 21.6099



B.  (5 points)
African Gray Parrots are quite intelligent, (M = 20, SD = 5, 99% CI [18.39, 21.61])


Ex. #2 (Parts A & B must be complete to receive credit)


A. (5 points)
Research Question: Do adolescents spend more time interacting with online friends than with real friends?


B. (5 points)
The independent variable is Friends, which has two levels, online and real friends

The depedent variable is the amount of time adolescents interact with online and real friends.



Population Policies

August 16, 2016








Population Policies



Course Name:



Population Policies


Population policy refers to the objectives and the principles that are adopted by the state regarding issues concerning the population to be in a position to influence the status of that specific population. This includes the population growth variables and the main elements which include deaths, births, geographical distribution of the people, their immigration and the composition of that population such as rising rate of the old people and the population youthfulness. It also refers to general issues affecting a population such as health and education. Population policy creates a cover for all programs and the activities in a direct or indirect way. It also focuses on constants and premises which are based on the society’s value and its culture.

Background and Sides of the Issue

Currently, there are two types of population policy. One is the Pro-Natalist, and the other is the Anti-Natalist. Most countries are faced with the uncertainty of imbalance in the future demographic structure of their population. As a result, the governments are facing a growing concern regarding the age structure, the growing birth rates, and the decline. Natalism, also known as pro-birth is in countries that promote human production. An example of such countries is Germany whereby the government offers an incentive of paying the first year of a Childs’ life to the parents. The government is also trying to reduce the number of abortions and is creating a friendlier environment which will support the aspects of working and having a child at the same time. It is also trying to contrast the societal belief that women cannot work and have children at the same time. The country uses this policy because the aging ratio is off balance.

On the other hand, the Anti-natal policy is the opposite of natalism. This policy is meant to limit the country’s population; it is currently being used in China whereby each family is allowed to have only one child (McElroy, 2008). If this policy is broken, major consequences are faced. This anti-natalism is quite forceful compared to some other policies. The couple is forced to have an abortion carried out and after that; they are sterilized to prevent them from having a child ever again.

The population policy helps in monitoring of global government views and policies and key issues about the population such as its size and growth, maternal health, HIV/AIDS, fertility, family planning and population aging. The Policies also help in looking at issues such as population distribution, international migration, and urbanization. It is important to monitor the government’s views and policies to keep track of their implementation. This will help achieve the millennium development goals and some other internationally agreed development goals set by the International Conference on Population and Development (Harte, 2007).

According to Harte (2007), it is important for countries to set policies which will help in regulating their populations. Since the world’s population has increased in the last few decades, the earth’s natural resources are becoming depleted, and the life-supporting ecosystems are being impaired. This has been due to the increasing demands for food, clean water, fuel and timber. The world’s population has increased from 2.6 million to 6.8 billion by the year 2009 (Harte, 2007). This has majorly contributed to the environmental damage. Family planning services need to be strengthened as it is very crucial in slowing down the rate at which the population is growing. Notably, there are over eight hundred thousand pregnancies in the world annually, and 38% of them are unintended.


A great number of women in developing countries fail to use any form contraceptives due to lack of resources or lack of access. This results in them using the traditional methods that could fail, or they just decide to delay pregnancies. Family planning has been a successful way to slowing down the rate of population growth. In the developing countries, $15 billion is required for the family planning programs, and it is expected that donors contribute $5 billion dollars. However, donor assistance is currently less than the set target. Most foreign aid donors are concerned mainly with the reproduction health and family planning and want to ensure that these programs meet the men and women’s needs on an individual level. However, even as family planning methods are introduced, people need to be educated on how they should be used to prevent abuse of birth control pills.


An increase in population leads to overpopulation in some areas. This is where environmental pollution comes in. In town and cities with very high populations, there are all sorts of pollutions; air pollution, noise pollution and water pollution in the nearby natural water bodies (Harte, 2007). In the developing countries, the quality of education is poor since there are a lot of children being enrolled in primary schools, and there are no enough teachers to handle them. The medical services are also very poor, and the rates of infant and maternal mortality are high. Due to the strained economic status in developing countries, the poor are not able to afford education or medicine. It is right to say that governments in the developing countries need to provide quality education and medical services for its citizens. This will not only help in controlling the population growth rate, but it will also help to achieve the millennium development goals.




Harte J., (2007). Human Population as a Dynamic Factor in Environmental Degradation. Popul. Environ. 28, 223–236.

McElroy, W. (2008). China’s One-Child Disaster. Retrieved from,