Archive for September, 2016

The Importance of Physical Development During Infancy

September 30, 2016

 

The Importance of Physical Development During Infancy

 

 

Name

Institution affiliation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Importance of Physical Activity During Infancy

Introduction

Physical activities are a part of the human growth, and they contribute to about seventy percent of the process.  Every human body needs exercise so that they can prevent the different kind of diseases that attack the human body. Most of these chronic diseases can be controlled by regular exercise or even engaging yourself in various kind’s physical activities. It is due to the ignorance of most of the human population that the number of deaths recorded from the preventable diseases has increased.

Different governments and organizations encourage their employees to engage in the various physical activities to enhance the productivity per person. Most of the younger population, however, is slowly avoiding any physical activities and slowly embracing the modern methods of stress management.  Most of the youth have adopted the use of different drugs such as cocaine and bhang to manage the various obstacles in life. In the ancient times, most of the people lived so many years and even had enough energy to walk long distances due to the exercise they subjected their bodies to. With the modern technological development, man has opted to make everything easier and to reduce the energy he is using in doing his activities (Pfeiffer, 2016).

Research questions

The research will try to answer some of the questions regarding the physical development that will include; what is meant by physical activities, when should these physical activities be done and how the physical activities affect the human body. Moreover, the research will consider discussing the various aspects that affect the physical activities and how they can be managed.

Literature review

Bredin (2006), on his book on the benefits of physical activities stated that childhood development involves the use of the different platforms that can help a child grow in a healthy condition.   He further classifies the need for proper growth in children as the fundamental activity that can be used to avoid any complications in the future child life. Bredin(2006), also observed that physical activity involves the movement of the body that makes the muscles require more energy than in the resting position. Some of the physical activities that an infant may be subjected to include; yoga, swimming, dancing or even walking. The research was carried out in South Korea, and it sampled an average of two hundred children below the age of five. The importance of the Bredins study was to give the highlight and the importance of the physical activities to infants below the age of seventeen

Tremblay(2012), on his study on the systematic review of physical activity and health in the early years (aged 0–4 years). Moreover, the researcher looked at the effect of the physical activities in the growth process of an infant and how the baby can be trained to adapt to the physical activities.  He further states that in the modern world, most of the infants below eighteen years are engaged in different activities that do not make them make sound of the energy produced by their bodies. The research was carried out in two years and sampled a total of five thousand children in the Central African Republic who were ten years and below. The study by Trembly describes the effect of the physical activities on the child’s growth and helps us to understand the different stages of a child’s growth

Adamo(2012), on his book on the Physical activity promotion in the preschool years: a critical period to intervene observed that the early years of a child growth should be characterized by intensive physical activities to promote proper growth. The study was taken in Sawarak province in Malaysia in 2011, and it took a sample of 2000 children across the country. The study found that most of the children involved themselves in different physical activities without knowing the benefits it had. The research gives some of the benefits physical activities have on the children and the health of the kids in general.

Loprinzi & Lee (2012), on their research on the advantages and environmental determinants of physical activity in children and adolescents wrote that in some countries, the inability of children being involved in physical activities has led to the increase in the obesity cases across the globe.  He the researchers further stated that obesity had been categorized as one of the health problems that are being encountered in most of the western countries.  The research was conducted in twenty schools in Alabama where the overweight children below the age of ten were interviewed on how often they engage in physical activities this research helps to identify the underlying effect of non-involvement of physical activities in the growth of a child below ten years

Newman & Newman (2014),  In their journal titled Development through life: A psychosocial approach noted that the physical activities are essential to the growth of the brains of an infant. Moreover, the study found that a child, who is physically actives and balances the school work and the other co-curricular activities, has a higher concentration span than the one who do not. The study was conducted in the city of Manchester, and it involved a sample of 500 kindergarten children from across the city. The study helps us to identify the impact of the physical activities on the brain development of a child.

In their study on grounding early intervention: physical therapy cannot just be about motor skills anymore found the physical activities had an impact on the social development of a child(Lobo & McCoy,2013). They further explained that a child who avoids social interaction with others is likely to suffer emotional stress shyness. The study was conducted in South Africa in 2006 at Soweto, and it involved a sample of two hundred children. The study helps muse to understand the relationship between the growth process of a child and the social development of the child.

In their book titled: Physical activity and sedentary behavior during the early years in Canada, they discuss that the physical activities help the child to gain some admiral behavior such as respect courage and self-esteem(Timmons & Tremblay,2013). The researchers carried out their study in Utah here they interviewed the parents of one hundred and fifty children who were below six years old. The research showed that the physical activeness of a child helps the child to identify the right and the wrong thing that can be done at any particular moment. The research helps us to understand that the physical development of a child and the behavioral traits can be traced back to the physical activities of the child

Jiménez & Pitsiladis(2013), on their research on the Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular disease risk factors in young children found that the physical activities act as a preventive measure on cancer and other heart diseases the study was based on the medical history on five hundred children in Washington City in 2003. The study helped us to identify some of the risks associated with a child not getting involved in the physical activities at an early age. It further explains the reason for the increase in the number of children who suffer from heart diseases and cancer from the different parts of United States

Renault & Nørgaard(2014), in their book; The Treatment of Obese Pregnant Women (TOP) study: a randomized control trial of the effect of physical activity identified that, physical activities helped the child to have a proper growth and a good immune system. The researchers further observed that apart from the essential vitamins, a child needs to exercise regularly so as to avoid the breaking of bones and the development of other bone-related diseases. The study was conducted in the eastern part of Soweto in South Africa where a sample o a thousand infant were examined the research shows the relationship of the physical activities and the medical history of children.

Sigelman & Rider (2014), On their research on the role of the parents in the physical development of the child concluded that parents have a role to play in making sure that their children get maximum time to participate in different physical activities.  The researchers further explain that child at this early age needs to be actively involved in the physical activity by his parent. All this can be achieved by having access to different toys and dolls that he can relate to in the real world hey also emphasize that a child who grows up creative will have an easy time in getting to learn new this in his environment or even the class. The research was conducted in Bangkok China where the life history of ten thousand children was studied from the different families across the city. The research helps us to link the physical activities and the creativity level of a child below the age of ten

David & Weinstein (2013), in their study, that focused on the physical activities and the development of a child. They found out that it is through his physical activities that a child first knows how to sit or crawl they also note that at this stage, a child uses some of the toys that he is familiar with to exercise over a period. The physical activities are essential in the growth of the child the researchers further noted that it is the duty of the parents of the child to ensure that the child has enough materials to play and to help the child in case he finds it difficult to play. The research used a sample of one hundred children below the age of ten from Thailand. The study links the physical activities and the role of parents in the growth of the child.

This study will benefit different sectors in the education systems which include: the teacher, parents, and the government. All these players have an impact on the lives of the children and can make sure more emphasis is given to the physical activities of their children.

 

 

The unknown

David & Weinstein(2013), In their book on the Spaces for children notes that Physical activity is to some extent the cure to the problems that the society and the families suffer from. He notes that most of the diseases diagnosed and the behaviors developed by children can be prevented by the use physical activities. The physical activities help one to be prepared to the different diversities in life. One must be able to appreciate change, to accept everybody in the society and to respect the properties of others. This study helps use to know the diversity of the physical activities and how they can be used to solve most of the problems experienced in the modern society.

Purpose statement.

I hope this study will be of benefit to schools, parents and the government in trying to understand the importance of physical activities on the growth of children

Summary and synthesis of the literature.

The physical activities help to the children to overcome different obstacles that they come across in their daily life (Hagger, 2016). The activities also assist in maintaining the proper health of a child by creating a strong immune system and healthy bones. For this reason, that most countries have introduced physical activity lessons in the school curriculum to enable the society to bring up a visionary generation. All the studies done have an indication that it is through the physical activities that the child can grow up and learn from the environment. Moreover, the different studies indicate that no child can stay without the physical activities and therefore children prefer getting the physical activities from school than from their homes. The physical activities are also good for a child’s health since they prevent some of the chronic diseases that a child can develop without exercising

Final summary and connection to study

Physical activities are an essential part of human growth, and they represent the most natural way of a person remaining healthy. They boost the courage of people at an early age, develop the creative minds, molds the behavior of a person and defines how a person will grow up. All these factors represent a solution to the problems encountered by man in the modern world and for generations to come. It is the duties of the parents and the communities a whole to ensure that the younger generation is educated on the advantages of taking part physical activities. Piko (2000), noted that, the governments have also set up the guidance and counseling departments to allow children to share their experiences with a trusted party to limit violence in the streets. Several recreational facilities are also set up such as stadiums, swimming pools, and theaters to enable the general public to get access to these establishments.

 

 

 

 

 

References

Colley, R. C., Garriguet, D., Adamo, K. B., Carson, V., Janssen, I., Timmons, B. W., & Tremblay, M. S. (2013). Physical activity and sedentary behavior during the early years in Canada: a cross-sectional study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10(1), 1.

Connelly, J., Kirk, A., Masthoff, J., & MacRury, S. (2013). The use of technology to promote physical activity in Type 2 diabetes management: a systematic review. Diabetic Medicine, 30(12), 1420-1432.

David, T. G., & Weinstein, C. S. (Eds.). (2013). Spaces for children: The built environment and child development. Springer Science & Business Media.

Goldfield, G. S., Harvey, A., Grattan, K., & Adamo, K. B. (2012). Physical activity promotion in the preschool years: a critical period to intervene. International journal of environmental research and public health, 9(4), 1326-1342.

Hoeger, W. W., & Hoeger, S. A. (2016). Lifetime physical fitness and wellness: A personalized Jiménez-Pavón, D., Konstabel, K., Bergman, P., Ahrens, W., Pohlabeln, H., Hadjigeorgiou, C., … & Pitsiladis, Y. (2013). Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular disease risk factors in young children: a cross-sectional study (the IDEFICS study). BMC medicine, 11(1), 1.

 

 

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/physical-activity-its-important

https://www.healthykids.nsw.gov.au/teachers-childcare/physical-activity.aspx

https://www.healthyfamiliesbc.ca/home/articles/importance-physical-activity-children

Lobo, M. A., Harbourne, R. T., Dusing, S. C., & McCoy, S. W. (2013). Grounding early intervention: physical therapy cannot just be about motor skills anymore. Physical therapy, 93(1), 94-103

Loprinzi, P. D., Cardinal, B. J., Loprinzi, K. L., & Lee, H. (2012). Benefits and environmental determinants of physical activity in children and adolescents. Obesity Facts, 5(4), 597-610.

Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2014). Development through life: A psychosocial approach. Cengage Learning.

Parker, J. D., Testa, M. A., Jimenez, A. H., Tofler, G. H., Muller, J. E., Parker, J. O., & Stone, P. H. (1994). Morning increase in ambulatory ischemia in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Importance of physical activity and increased cardiac demand. Circulation, 89(2), 604-614.

Parizkova, S. (2012). Body fat and physical fitness: Body composition and lipid metabolism in different regimes of physical activity. Springer Science & Business Media.

Pitta, F., Troosters, T., Spruit, M. A., Probst, V. S., Decramer, M., & Gosselink, R. (2005). Characteristics of physical activities in daily life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 171(9), 972-977.

 

Renault, K. M., Nørgaard, K., Nilas, L., Carlsen, E. M., Cortes, D., Pryds, O., & Secher, N. J. (2014). The Treatment of Obese Pregnant Women (TOP) study: a randomized controlled trial of the effect of physical activity intervention assessed by pedometer with or without dietary intervention in obese pregnant women. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 210(2), 134-e1.

Singh, A., Uijtdewilligen, L., Twisk, J. W., Van Mechelen, W., & Chinapaw, M. J. (2012). Physical activity and performance at school: a systematic review of the literature including a methodological quality assessment. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 166(1), 49-55.

Sigelman, C. K., & Rider, E. A. (2014). Life-span human development. Cengage Learning.

Steinbeck, K. S. (2001). The importance of physical activity in the prevention of overweight and obesity in childhood: a review and an opinion. Obesity reviews, 2(2), 117-130.

Timmons, B. W., LeBlanc, A. G., Carson, V., Connor Gorber, S., Dillman, C., Janssen, I., … & Tremblay, M. S. (2012). Systematic review of physical activity and health in the early years (aged 0–4 years). Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 37(4), 773-792.

United States. Department of Health, & Human Services. (1996). Physical activity and health: A report of the Surgeon General. diane Publishing.

Wankel, L. M. (1993). The importance of enjoyment to adherence and psychological benefits from physical activity. International Journal of Sport Psychology.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

 

COMMUNITY SERVICE

September 30, 2016

 

 

COMMUNITY SERVICE

 

 

 

Name

 

Course

 

Professor

Institution

City and State

Date

 

 

 

 

 

 

COMMUNITY SERVICE

PAPER 1

Description of what happened

My recent visit to an orphanage marked one of my most historical moments. On arrival, we received a warm welcome from happy little kids. Their faces were glowing and portrayed joy and happiness for seeing us. We took a short tour, guided by the manager around the orphanage. The compound was small and the place looked squeezed and overpopulated. They had a small playground and their rooms were squeezed in one corner. They also had a small garden where they grew vegetables for their own consumption. We took photos and helped them water the crops. They enjoyed it very much and for a moment, it is as if they forgot all their problems. Before we left, I had a noble opportunity to interview a 10-year-old boy who willingly shared his experiences in the orphanage. One thing I garnered that moved me was that the orphan lived craving for a day some well-wisher would show up to adopt him.

Feelings

I could not help but think of my life compared to those children. My parents availed everything to my comfort, which I sometimes disregarded. I had the habit of acting insatiable and cursing my fate. I had everything I needed, that which these children could not even dream about. This visit served as a starting point of my change of attitude.

Evaluation

This visit had a host of many good things as well as bad ones. One of the good things is that we learned that it is always important to appreciate the little things we have before asking for more. These children led a happy life though they lacked so much. One bad thing I learned is that orphanages are mostly neglected.  This tour also geared me to desire to conduct a research about orphanages and how the government and well-to-do agencies might help them hold up.

Analysis

It is possible that other orphanages, which we did not visit, are in poorer conditions than the one we visited. It is imperative that the society seeks to help such institutions run.

Conclusion

Given an opportunity, I could have sought the cooperation of my classmates in collecting any material items we could afford to take to the orphanages.

Action Plan

We plan to visit orphanages regularly. This time not empty handed, but with the little help and support we can offer.  We recommend the government to take its social responsibility to fund the running of orphanages.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PAPER 2

Description of what happened

A few days ago, we had a noble opportunity to visit an orphanage. We were received warmly by a host of joyful, expectant children. It was from here that I started noting the miserable lives that these poor children led without an option. Many of the children wore old clothes repeatedly because they did not have much to choose from. They had a poor command of language having not had the opportunity to go to school. They engaged in small jobs like watering small plants, washing dirty clothes and other duties that many of us found odd, especially as ladies. I happened to interact with some orphans for a chat about their lives in the orphanage, who in a sweet gentle voice answered all my questions anxiously. She told me that food was a problem and they sometimes work the entire time in empty stomachs. This shocked me to the point of almost shedding a tear. Seeing this, she told me in a small voice that they were accustomed to all hardships and there was no use crying. She further told me that most of the children were fond of studying, only that they were limited off the opportunity.

Feelings

Throughout my tour, I could not help but wonder and fathom how these kids survived in an environment of hardships like that. Their access to basic needs was limited and they still maintained compassionate tones unlike us who have all but are still uncomfortable. I felt challenged by the whole situation. I wished I had all the might to enable each of these children get to the reality of their assorted dreams.

Evaluation

One good thing about my experience is that it exposed me to the reality of life. People have unequal opportunities; some are privileged, while others are just unlucky. But no matter what side one finds themselves in, life provides one a chance to thrive. One bad thing about my experience through the visit was that I went back home feeling like crying after realizing how unfair and unbalanced that life can be.

Analysis

A further look at the situation made me realize that this was not the only orphanage in the locality. I could not help imagine what other orphanages looked like, and this gave me sleepless nights.

Conclusion

I concluded that I had to try to influence my friends to create an Interact Club through which we could be visiting orphanages and offer them the help (moral or material) that we could.

Action Plan

If an opportunity like this comes again, I would be better prepared to help these less privileged children as much as I could both materially and with the right words to encourage them to move on with life no matter the circumstances are.

 

 

 

September 30, 2016

Name

Professor

Course

Date

MPME 7113 MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS

ASSIGNMENT II

Answer ALL questions

  1. The demand equation for local fried chicken is given as:

 Where Q is quantity and P is price.

  1. What is the point elasticity coefficient at the price of RM10?

Point price elasticity of demand is the coefficient of P explains the extent of change in Q by a unit change in P.

Thus,to find point estimates, we have:

, at Q units, price is RM10.

Is the demand elastic with respect to price?

No. the demand is inelastic with respect to price because of the negative point price elasticity of PEoD<-1. A slight price change will have a significant quantity response.

  1. What would happen to quantity demanded if price is raised by 20 percent.

The quantity demanded will reduce in volume by an approximate gap of 50% of the original quantity demanded.

  1. Determine the price level which total revenue tends to be unchanged if there is a change in price.

The price relation with demand in an elastic market implies that Price elasticity of demand is 1 and total revenue (TR) is at the maximum value.

  1. The following information shows the price elasticity of demand for beef  cross price elasticity between beef and chicken and income elasticity  of demand for beef.

     

  1. Would you agree that beef can be categorized as an inferior good?

I disagree and conclude that beef is a normal good. Beef cannot be categorized as an inferior good as it has a positive income elasticity of demand (E1=0.82). an inferior good is one with a negative income elasticity in which increase in makes demand fall. For beef, income increase causes a reduction in demand.

 

  1. Is it profitable for sellers to increase the price of beef?

Since beef is a normal good with positive income elasticity, increasing income will imply that many consumers will resort to purchase more and preferably luxury goods over necessities.

  1. If the price of chicken decreased by 15 percent, what is the impact on the demand for beef?

From the cross price elasticity of demand between beef and chicken, the positive (Ebc=2.25) value imply that chicken and beef are substitute goods. In other words, a decrease in chicken price will significantly reduce the demand of beef.

  1. Beef and chicken are considered as substitute goods. Do you agree?

Yes. Concerning the cross elasticity of demand (positive 2.25), we can conclude that beef and chicken are substitutes.

  1. The following cubic production function is given while holding constant the firm’s capital inputs:

where Q = units of output

           L = units of labour input

  1. At what level of labour use is the marginal product of labour maximized?

, on differentiation.

At maximum, MP=0, thus, solving the quadratic equation, we have;

,

L= 40 labour input.

  1. At what level of labour use is the marginal product of labour equal to the average product of labour?

Average production of labour = -0.005L2+0.3L……(1)

Maginal production labour =………..(2), equating (1) and (2)

0= L(0.3-0.020L), L= 0.3/ 0.02= 15 labour level.

 

  1. At what level of labour use is the total output maximized?

At total output level, Q=0, We determine L when the output quantity is at its maximum.

 

  1. Consider the following, demand and marginal functions of the firm in each market.

 

  1. At what price the firm should charge for the product for each market?

Substituting Q into the price function, we find P= 13.

 

  1. In the absent of third degree price discrimination, at what the firm will sell the Product?

60

 

 

Management of silk supply in the Malaysian market

September 30, 2016

 

 

 

 

Management of silk supply in the Malaysian market

Name:

Institution:

Course:

Tutor:

Date:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Management of silk supply in the Malaysian market

Introduction

Project management is essential in the process of undertaking a project for its success as per the initial plan at the time of idea generation. Proper management thus needs to be intertwined with proper strategies so that the whole process becomes worthwhile and beneficial to either the project owner or the society in which the project id to be undertaken. This paper examines the silk project management development in the Malaysian market and some of the external and internal factors prevailing in the marketplace that contributes to the success of silk supply.

Project team development for the supply of silk to malls and hypermarkets

This is a continuous process hence cannot be carried once as it involves different stages (Alter, 2006). The developments of the team is therefore procedural and for them to be effective in the process of purchase and the exportation of silk to the Malaysian market, the following activities have to be undertaken within the market scope:

To begin with, there should be team building of the members who have been identified to participate in the supply process. This is to create proper relationships between the team members to enhance their teamwork approaches hence preventing conflicts of interest at the time of delivering the silk products to the required destinations (Alter, 2006). Team building further entails the following stages:

  • The forming process whereby the team members meet to learn from each other before they set off for the actual work of silk supply to the intended destinations.
  • The storming process which presents to the team the hierarchy to be used in the whole process of silk delivery process to the various destinations as determined by the project leader (Kloppenborg, 2015).
  • The norming process which allows the team members to table their requirements regarding the task that is ahead of them.
  • Performing process in which the members now focus on how they can perform the real work of silk supply to the supermarkets and malls as per the requirements of the leader (Kloppenborg, 2015).

Secondly, the training of the team members to improve their competencies as they continue with the supply process of silk so that the overall sales can be high in the long run. The training costs should be placed initially to avoid cost overruns in the process of carrying out the project itself (Alter, 2006).

Thirdly, the co-location process which entails the whole process of placing the silk exporters to places that is convenient to their destinations for improved performance in the course of their duty in the Malaysian market (Morris & Pinto, 2010). The team headed to a specific place is teamed up at one central place for their convenience in the delivery process.

Lastly, there should be rewards for those who excel in the supply process so that other teams can be motivated to work extra hard in the marketplaces hence improving the sales of silk in the Malaysian market in general. These rewards may either be financial or even nonfinancial in nature (Kloppenborg, 2015).

 

 

Reasons why projects costs may exceed the real budget

Lack of experience of the project leader: the inexperience of the leader of the silk project might have led to the budget failure. A new project leader in the field meets so many hurdles in the process of carrying out their duties and hence needs constant supervision by another leader with experience to ensure the success of a given project so that they are mentored in the field (Morris & Pinto, 2010).

Poor communication or personnel management: in all the project phases, timely and accurate communication needs to be done and there is need for the leader involved to show concern and express themselves clearly to the team members (Morris & Pinto, 2010). At the planning stage, misunderstanding may lead to delays and overruns of the budget while trying to rectify the mistakes that might have been made during the planning stage. It is thus proper that frequent updates be made so that timelines can be met at a minimal cost and lack of proper communication and updates might have increased the budget cost.

Human Errors: the omissions and misplacement of figures to places where they do not belong to within the accounting books can be costly in the long run escalating the cost of the project above the intended budget (Mian, 2011). This implies that there needs keenness while handling accounting issues of a project to avoid errors, failure to which might have caused the high costs of the supply of silk.

Losses by damages or malfunctioning: the replacement, reorder or even repair of equipment to be used in a project due to their failure to operate or damages on site adds on to the cost of the project hence may result in the use of unnecessary resources that were not planned for initially hence increase the cost. It is therefore the responsibility of the project planning team to put additional costs for such eventualities. The supply vehicles and other equipment failures might have contributed to the high-cost project cost than the budget value.

Vendor issues: suppliers, contractors from outside in many cases have issues that do not work to the success of the projects as had been planned for hence increase in the value of project from the intended budget. These may be as a result of lack of professionalism of some of these people as well as their inadequacy to meet deadlines (Morris & Pinto, 2010). In some cases, they might even do a shoddy job implying that replacement has to be done, thus raising the cost of the whole project.

Absenteeism of employees: in the event that some employees were frequently absenting themselves from work due to either some emergencies or sickness, replacing them might have increased the cost and thus adds onto the cost of the overall project (Basu et al., 2013). This should thus be avoided as much as possible by the project leader.

Poor workmanship: if the allocated work is not completed in time, the supply cost of silk is likely to go up due to adjustment costs of meeting the deadlines or even in terms of overtime as others are made to complete the supply task hence more money being used and this could have contributed to the cost of the supply high (Mian, 2011). This might have resulted from a lack of experience of the workers on the supply criteria.

Natural calamities or bad weather: bad weather like rains on a particular day might have led to delays in the delivery of silk to the expected supermarkets and malls. Therefore, in the event of trying to adjust to supply the same destinations, more funds have to be used (Basu et al., 2013). These are natural calamities that cannot be prevented but their allocation should be done early enough in the planning stage to avoid cost escalation in the event that such occurred.

Poor foresight: the poor planning at the start of the silk supply project might have led to the increase in the supply cost. The initial cost was lower than necessary and could not see the tender to supply silk to these malls through, thus there was an increase in the budget (Mian, 2011). These might have been a misappropriation of salaries or even overhead costs of the supply process.

Poor resource allocation: the exorbitant spending of the funds meant for the purchasing of silk and in the entire process of distribution to the required destinations might have resulted to the high cost of the whole process than was expected at the planning stage of the supply tender (Basu et al., 2013). If poor quality silk, for example, was bought and supplied to the customers but in the end were rejected, then to replace the rejected silk with high-quality silk for customer satisfaction might have led to the increase in the overall cost of the project of supplying silk to the malls and supermarkets.

Factors for the development of silk industry

Raw material: due to the ease with which silk can be transported, it has made it easier for the importation of silk from one country to the other. At the same time, its imperishability has made the industry not to incur losses associated to perishability in the course of transportation (Condra, 2008).

Labor: the abundance of labor and skills required in the production of high-quality silk in the countries is contributing to the silk industry as quantity and quality products are emanating into the world markets (Basu et al., 2013).

Technology: The industrial development that has taken place in some of these countries has enabled growth of industries which are helping in the sector to produce quality silk for export especially to Malaysia (Condra, 2008).

Good and favorable climate: the tropical climate which is temperate in nature favors the growth of all types of silk in these Asian countries like univoltine, polyvoltine and bivoltine silk varieties in these countries.

Government policies: in some of the countries there are proper policy guidelines by the government to help the farmers sell their silk product through cooperatives. This eliminates cases of exploitation of these farmers in the local and international markets by the middlemen. It has also taken the government an initiative to provide training to the farmers as well as extension services so that their knowledge can be boosted in the current growth of silk in these countries (Basu et al., 2013). In India, for example, the existence of Indian Silk Export Promotion Council has to a larger extent brought development in the industry. It has been responsible for organizing roadshows not to mention fairs all over the world with a view to creating and promoting trade with different parts of the countries. At the same time, the council tries to link the producers of silk together with willing and potential customers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Alter, S. (2006). The work system method: Connecting people, processes, and IT for business results. Larkspur, CA: Work System Press.

Condra, J. (2008). The Greenwood encyclopedia of clothing through world history. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Basu, D. S., Menon, J., Severino, R., Shrestha, O. L., Asian Development Bank, & Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. (2013). The ASEAN economic community: A work in progress.

Kloppenborg, T. J. (2015). Contemporary project management: Organize, plan, perform.

Mian. (2011). Project Economics and Decision Analysis. Tulsa: PennWell Corporation.

Morris, P., & Pinto, J. K. (2010). The Wiley Guide to Project Organization and Project Management Competencies. Somerset: Wiley.

 

Strategic Management

September 30, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

Strategic Management

Name:

Institutional Affiliation

 

 

Strategic Management

PART A

Introduction

  • Background to the assignment – purpose and format of the report

Today’s global business environment has become more dynamic and challenging. Companies are experiencing more challenges than ever before, although opportunities still exist. This is due to numerous changes in trends and conditions in the external environment (Rothaermel, 2015). For instance, as technology continues to evolve, consumer patterns and needs are also changing. Furthermore, sustainability issues are gaining more attention across the globe. This means companies must be able to analyze, formulate, and implement appropriate strategies that can generate superior performance by addressing the existing and current threats, while taking advantage of the potential opportunities. The purpose of this paper is to prepare a strategic analysis report on Coca Cola Company, suggest two growth opportunities, and offer a set of recommendations for establishing a competitive advantage for the growth opportunities.

Firm background

Coca Cola is an American multinational corporation headquartered at Atlanta, Georgia. Coca Cola leads as the biggest beverage company in the world. The company owns and licenses over 500 nonalcoholic drinks including ready to drink coffees, and teas, and water. Coca Cola markets these products in more than 200 countries/states across the globe (Coca Cola, 2015a).

The general soft drink industry has been very challenging to various factors mostly changing consumer patterns and increasing competition from other incumbent firms. Coca Cola faces steep competition from local, regional and multinational players including PepsiCo, Nestle, and Dr Pepper Snapple, among others (Fry, Spector, & Williamson, 2012).

Nonetheless, the company has established a unique position in the market for offering high quality products at affordable costs. Currently, Coca Cola owns four out of five leading brands around the world. These four brands encompass Sprite, Coca Cola, Fanta, and Diet Coke (Coca Cola, 2015a). The following are two major growth opportunities that Coca Cola can pursue.

Growth opportunity

  1. Adopt a green marketing strategy to strategically position the company’s products in the consumers’ minds (Arseculeratne & Yazdanifard, 2014).
  2. Analyze, formulate and implement a CSR (corporate social responsibility) strategy to boost the company’s credibility and its ability to sustain the current competitive advantage over the next three years.

Analysis

Macro-environmental factors

Political

Political factors continue to have substantial impacts on the industry and incumbent firms competing in the industry. Although political environment has been stable in various countries across the globe, the environment has been uncertain and/or discouraging in other parts. For instance, the political environment has been stable in Western markets including United States and European markets. On the other hand, the environment has been unstable in various parts including Middle East and some parts of African continent. Political instability is a critical threat to the industry and individual incumbent firms.


 

Economic

The economic condition around the world is generally uncertain. Although firms can develop strategies to overcome impacts of unfavorable economic conditions, they are absolutely to control economic factors. Changes in economic factors may have negative impacts on the company’s performance. For instance, decline in general economic activity may affect consumer’s expenditure. However, this is not the case in most countries around the world. Analysis indicates that economic growth in developed economies will continue to grow as slow rate, but emerging economies including India and China, to name a few, is expected to growth by an average of  6% annually, which is above the average global economic growth of between 3 and 4% (Garcia, 2011). This means that consumer income is also improving leading to increasing market demand for soft drinks.

Socio-cultural

Given that Coca Cola is operating in numerous countries around the world, it is exposed to various socio-cultural factors. This is because these factors tend to vary from one country/market to another. Socio-cultural factors affect the industry and the company in different ways. For instance, these factors affect consumer’s perceptions and attitudes towards different products and marketing and promotional campaigns. However, socio-cultural factors especially population growth and changing consumer patterns and lifestyles are opportunities to pursue product-market diversification.

Technological

Over the last several years, technology has been a vital component that affects how companies operate. In today’s global business world, technology is influencing almost every business-associated aspect/activity. Most companies are taking advantage of newest superior technologies to earn, boost, and/or sustain their competitive advantages. Rather than being a threat, technology is an opportunity that Coca Cola can take advantage of.

Ecological/environmental

Like any other industry in the world, the soft drink industry cannot evade the impacts associated with ecological/environmental issues. Today’s world is experiencing climate change and increasing environmental degradation. These impacts are associated with human activity, mainly business. For instance, manufacturing and transportation activities lead to emission of greenhouse gasses and other harmful substances into the environment. Yet, today’s consumers are becoming more aware about the harmful impacts of business on the natural environment. Thus, firms are pressurized to adopt more environmentally-friendly decisions and practices. This serves as an opportunity for firms to gain a competitive advantage over other rivals in the market (Coca Cola, 2015b).

Legal

Legal factors also have substantial impact soft drink industry. Policy makers and other relevant authorities continue to enforce various policies that influence how incumbent firms continue to operate in the industry. These policies tend to vary from one country/market to another. For instance, Fry, Spector, & Williamson, (2012, pp. 6) inform that “the soft drink industry is also in the middle of growing policy debate in the United States regarding the taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages.” Furthermore, governments are enforcing strict regulations to govern not only production, but also marketing of soft drinks (PR Newswire, 2016).

Major financial data and analysis

The company has been experiencing fluctuating financial performance over the last three years as shown in exhibit 1 in the appendix below. It is shown that decreased by 4% between 2014 and 2015 compared to 2% decrease between 2013 and 21014. Exhibit 1 also shows that the company’s gross profit, gross profit margin, and operating margin have been decreasing over the same period. This trend is associated with different factors including unfavorable geographic mix, bottling investments, acquisitions, and shifts in geographic mix, among others. Nonetheless, the company’s net income has been increasing between 2013 and 2015 as shown in exhibit 1 below. This is generally due to effective tax rates, although there are other factors (Coca Cola, 2015a).

Existing and potential competitors

The soft drink industry is highly competitive. The industry consists of many small/emerging, medium, and multinational companies. The major competitors encompass PepsiCo, Kraft Foods Group, Nestle, Mondelez International Inc., Dr Pepper Snapple, Uniliver, Red Bull, and Danone, among others (PR Newswire, 2016). These major competitors are directly competing against Coca Cola in various international markets as well as in its domestic market – United States. Apart from the existing competitors, potential competitors may intensify competition in the market. Potential competitors encompass independent suppliers and retailers who are able to develop their own branded products and potential companies that may enter in the industry in future (Coca Cola, 2015a). These existing and potential competitors are competing in different industries. For instance, Dr Pepper Snapple and PepsiCo are main players in soft drink industry while Kraft Food Group and Mondelez International Inc are competing in both food and soft drink industries. On the other hand, Uniliver is a well recognized retailer across the globe.

Despite of increasing competition, the industry offers too appealing opportunities to ignore. Soft drink industry has been growing over the last several years and this trend is expected to continue until 2019. For instance, analysts expect the industry to experience a steady growth rate of 7 percent between 2015 and 2019 (Pr Newswire, 2016).

PART B

Executive summary

The above macro-environment analysis offers more insights into main external trends and factors that may affect the company’s competitiveness and performance. The above analysis reveals that Coca Cola has a competitive advantage over other rivals in the soft drink industry. The company can sustain and boost its competitive advantage by pursuing the above recommended growth opportunities. The general macro-environment is favorable, although there are some threats associated with political, legal, and environmental issues. Thus, the company should focus on analyzing, formulating, and implementing a strategy that help to address these issues while sustaining and boosting the current competitive advantage.

Introduction

Today’s global business environment has become more dynamic and challenging. Companies are experiencing more challenges than ever before, although opportunities still exist. This is due to numerous changes in trends and conditions in the external environment. For instance, as technology continues to evolve, consumer patterns and needs are also changing. Furthermore, sustainability issues are gaining more attention across the globe. This means companies must be able to analyze, formulate, and implement appropriate strategies that can generate superior performance by addressing the existing and current threats, while taking advantage of the potential opportunities. The purpose of this paper is to prepare a strategic analysis report on Coca Cola Company, suggest two growth opportunities, and offer a set of recommendations for establishing a competitive advantage for the growth opportunities.

Firm background

Coca Cola is an American multinational corporation headquartered at Atlanta, Georgia. Coca Cola leads as the biggest beverage company in the world. The company owns and licenses over 500 nonalcoholic drinks including ready to drink coffees, and teas, and water. Coca Cola markets these products in more than 200 countries/states across the globe (Coca Cola, 2015a).

The general soft drink industry has been very challenging to various factors mostly changing consumer patterns and increasing competition from other incumbent firms. Coca Cola faces steep competition from local, regional and multinational players including PepsiCo, Nestle, and Dr Pepper Snapple, among others (Fry, Spector, & Williamson, 2012).

Nonetheless, the company has established a unique position in the market for offering high quality products at affordable costs. Currently, Coca Cola owns four out of five leading brands around the world. These four brands encompass Sprite, Coca Cola, Fanta, and Diet Coke (Coca Cola, 2015a). The following are two major growth opportunities that Coca Cola can pursue.

Growth opportunity

  1. Adopt a green marketing strategy
  2. Adopt a CSR strategy

Analysis (that supports the growth opportunity)

Analysis

Macro-environmental factors

Political

Political factors continue to have substantial impacts on the industry and incumbent firms competing in the industry. Although political environment has been stable in various countries across the globe, the environment has been uncertain and/or discouraging in other parts. For instance, the political environment has been stable in Western markets including United States and European markets. On the other hand, the environment has been unstable in various parts including Middle East and some parts of African continent. Political instability is a critical threat to the industry and individual incumbent firms.

Economic

The economic condition around the world is generally uncertain. Although firms can develop strategies to overcome impacts of unfavorable economic conditions, they are absolutely to control economic factors. Changes in economic factors may have negative impacts on the company’s performance. For instance, decline in general economic activity may affect consumer’s expenditure. However, this is not the case in most countries around the world. Analysis indicates that economic growth in developed economies will continue to grow as slow rate, but emerging economies including India and China, to name a few, is expected to growth by an average of  6% annually, which is above the average global economic growth of between 3 and 4% (Garcia, 2011). This means that consumer income is also improving leading to increasing market demand for soft drinks.

Socio-cultural

Given that Coca Cola is operating in numerous countries around the world, it is exposed to various socio-cultural factors. This is because these factors tend to vary from one country/market to another. Socio-cultural factors affect the industry and the company in different ways. For instance, these factors affect consumer’s perceptions and attitudes towards different products and marketing and promotional campaigns. However, socio-cultural factors especially population growth and changing consumer patterns and lifestyles are opportunities to pursue product-market diversification.

Technological

Over the last several years, technology has been a vital component that affects how companies operate. In today’s global business world, technology is influencing almost every business-associated aspect/activity. Most companies are taking advantage of newest superior technologies to earn, boost, and/or sustain their competitive advantages. Rather than being a threat, technology is an opportunity that Coca Cola can take advantage of.

Ecological/environmental

Like any other industry in the world, the soft drink industry cannot evade the impacts associated with ecological/environmental issues. Today’s world is experiencing climate change and increasing environmental degradation. These impacts are associated with human activity, mainly business. For instance, manufacturing and transportation activities lead to emission of greenhouse gasses and other harmful substances into the environment. Yet, today’s consumers are becoming more aware about the harmful impacts of business on the natural environment. Thus, firms are pressurized to adopt more environmentally-friendly decisions and practices. This serves as an opportunity for firms to gain a competitive advantage over other rivals in the market (Coca Cola, 2015b).

Legal

Legal factors also have substantial impact soft drink industry. Policy makers and other relevant authorities continue to enforce various policies that influence how incumbent firms continue to operate in the industry. These policies tend to vary from one country/market to another. For instance, Fry, Spector, & Williamson, (2012, pp. 6) inform that “the soft drink industry is also in the middle of growing policy debate in the United States regarding the taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages.” Furthermore, governments are enforcing strict regulations to govern not only production, but also marketing of soft drinks (PR Newswire, 2016).

Major financial data and analysis

The company has been experiencing fluctuating financial performance over the last three years as shown in exhibit 1 in the appendix below. It is shown that decreased by 4% between 2014 and 2015 compared to 2% decrease between 2013 and 21014. Exhibit 1 also shows that the company’s gross profit, gross profit margin, and operating margin have been decreasing over the same period. This trend is associated with different factors including unfavorable geographic mix, bottling investments, acquisitions, and shifts in geographic mix, among others. Nonetheless, the company’s net income has been increasing between 2013 and 2015 as shown in exhibit 1 below. This is generally due to effective tax rates, although there are other factors (Coca Cola, 2015a).

Existing and potential competitors

The soft drink industry is highly competitive. The industry consists of many small/emerging, medium, and multinational companies. The major competitors encompass PepsiCo, Kraft Foods Group, Nestle, Mondelez International Inc., Dr Pepper Snapple, Uniliver, Red Bull, and Danone, among others (PR Newswire, 2016). These major competitors are directly competing against Coca Cola in various international markets as well as in its domestic market – United States. Apart from the existing competitors, potential competitors may intensify competition in the market. Potential competitors encompass independent suppliers and retailers who are able to develop their own branded products and potential companies that may enter in the industry in future (Coca Cola, 2015a). These existing and potential competitors are competing in different industries. For instance, Dr Pepper Snapple and PepsiCo are main players in soft drink industry while Kraft Food Group and Mondelez International Inc are competing in both food and soft drink industries. On the other hand, Uniliver is a well recognized retailer across the globe.

Despite of increasing competition, the industry offers too appealing opportunities to ignore. Soft drink industry has been growing over the last several years and this trend is expected to continue until 2019. For instance, analysts expect the industry to experience a steady growth rate of 7 percent between 2015 and 2019 (Pr Newswire, 2016).

The firm’s current marketing

Target markets

Coca Cola lacks a specific target market. In other words, the country targets the general market since its products can be consumed by every person all over the world regardless of the gender and age disparities. Since in 1919, the company adopted its global marketing strategy. However, the company has been conducting intensive market research to gain more understanding about the trends and factors in certain foreign countries including China and Central America. Furthermore, due to changing consumer needs, the company develops products for particular markets (Coca Cola, 2015a).

Value is delivered and how

The company’s current marketing function is designed to deliver exceptional value to customers. That is, the company delivers economic value for its customers. Coca Cola achieve this through designing, developing and offering high quality products at lower costs. Coca Cola’s products have higher value preposition in the eyes of customers in terms of quality and cost.

Positioning

The company has been positioning its products to achieve more competitive advantage over other rivals in the market. Coca Cola has been achieving this through communicating the value of its products to customers. Apart from communicating the value, the company links the products to people’s lifestyle (Coca Cola, 2015a).

Product range

Coca Cola offers a wide range of products including Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta, Coca-Cola Zero, water, ready to drink coffees and tea, energy drinks, and sports drinks, among others. Coca Cola understands that product element of the marketing mix is very vital as far as the company’s success is concerned. Thus, the products are designed and developed not only to meet consumers’ needs, but also address various issues including health and sustainability issues (Coca Cola, 2015b).

Green marketing

Green marketing is not a new concept at Coca Cola. The company acknowledges that sustainability should be considered as an integral part in strategic decisions. In attempt to encourage green marketing, the company considers various factors including sustainable management of energy, water, as well as packaging use (Coca Cola, 2015b). Recently, the company adopted greener packaging strategy that encourages use of environmentally friendly bottles in packaging (Morris, 2016).

CSR program(s)

Furthermore, the company’s current marketing involves various CSR programs that are aligned with its green marketing. The company encourages various CSR programs including supporting nutrition and physical activity, health living programs, streetGames, and other programs designed to promote sustainability (Coca Cola, 2015b).

Recommendations

Goals and objectives

For the three years, the company should focus on accomplishing the following goals and objectives.

Objectives

  1. Increase the operating margin from 19.7% (see exhibit 1 below) to 25% over the next three years.
  2. Increase market share by an average of 10% annually for the next three years.
  • Increase market awareness by 20% annually over the next three years.

Goals

  1. Effectively implement green marketing strategy to accomplish the above objectives within the defined period.
  2. Effectively implement CSR strategy to boost the company’s credibility by 30% in the next three years.

Growth opportunity marketing program

In order to accomplish the above objectives and goals, the company should adopt a growth opportunity marketing program that covers various aspects including target market(s), value preposition, positioning, marketing mix, green marketing, and appropriate CSR programs. The company can continue targeting the general market, but consider creating and delivering not only economic value to customers, but also encouraging environmental sustainability.

Contingency plan

Due to ever changing trends and conditions, the company may encounter critical challenges in its attempt to accomplish the above objectives and goals. Increasing competition as well as changing consumer demands in the market may hinder the company’s capability to accomplish such objectives and goals. For instance, the two recommended growth opportunities cannot help the company to meet changing needs and demands in the market as more consumers are seeking more convenience and healthier products. However, Coca Cola can overcome by considering product-market diversification as its plan B. That is, the company can pursue the alternative strategy by developing more new products while expanding into new markets.

References

Fry, C., Spector, C., & Williamson, K. A. (2012). Breaking down the chain: a guide to the soft drink industry. Change Lab Solutions. Retrieved from http://www.changelabsolutions.org/sites/default/files/ChangeLab-Beverage_Industry_Report-FINAL_(CLS-20120530)_201109.pdf

Rothaermel, F. T. (2015). Strategic Management. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw Hill.

Garcia, T. (2011). The Global Construction Industry: What Can Engineers Expect in the Coming Years? Plumbing Systems & Design, 22-25. Retrieved from https://www.aspe.org/sites/default/files/webfm/ArchivedIssues/2011/201112/TheGlobalConstructionIndustry.pdf

Coca Cola. (2015b). 2014/2015 Sustainability Report. Retrieved from http://www.coca-colacompany.com/content/dam/journey/us/en/private/fileassets/pdf/2015/09/2014-2015-sustainability-report.pdf

Morris, A. (2016). Coca-Cola Goes Green with Environmentally Friendly Bottles. All Business. Retrieved from https://www.allbusiness.com/coca-cola-takes-a-green-lead-6178-1.html

Arseculeratne, D., & Yazdanifard, R. (2014).How Green Marketing Can Create a Sustainable Competitive Advantage for a Business. International Business Research, 7(1), 130-137.

Coca Cola. (2015a). 2015 Annual Report. Retrieved from http://www.coca-colacompany.com/investors

PR Newswire. (05 Jan., 2016). Global Soft Drinks Market. PR Newswire. Retrieved from http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/global-soft-drinks-market-2015-2019-300199684.html

 

Appendix

Exhibit 1: Key financial performances

  2015 2014 2013 2015 vs. 2014 2014 vs. 2013
Net operating revenue $44,294 $45,998 $ 46,854 (4)% (2)%
Gross profit 26,812 28,109 28,433 (5) (1)
Gross profit margin 60.5% 61.1% 60.7%    
Operating margin 19.7% 21.1% 21.8%    
Net income $ 7,351 $ 7,098 $ 8,584 4% (17)%

 

Source: (Coca Cola, 2015, pp. 49).

September 30, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orphanages

Name

Institution

Course

Date

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orphanages

There are many ways that can be used to help orphans in the society so that they too can feel part of the community and also feel loved. Provision of clothes, food, education and education are some of the roles that our group focused on. These avenues make the orphans to have hope in life and hence reinstate back to their normal lives. In a wider picture, other ways could include advocating for the orphans through creating awareness, using birthdays for donation, acting as a sponsor and saving the extra money and other resources for the children.

  1. Advocating for the orphans

In this way, some of the group members can hold parties or shows either in the neighborhood or any other places with the main aim of creating awareness to the public on the importance of caring for the orphans. Coming up with projects is one important way in which the group can help the orphans. If the public is aware of the problems faced by orphans then many of them will turn up in large numbers and contribute for the welfare of this group. Creation of an online page is also another way that can be used to make donations. Face book for instance has many users and it always publicizes any upcoming events like birthdays or any other important occasions like caring for the less fortunate children in the society.

These sites in return may attract stakeholders of different local and foreign aids that will come in handy to help the vulnerable children in many ways. These stakeholders also help those groups that assist the children and this is through availing the necessary needs like medical care, school uniforms and foods for the needy children. In this case our work is made much easier unlike a situation where there is no help at all which in most cases require many support groups to utilize their own funds.

  1. Using birthdays for donations.

This is the role in which I will personally take part in. I will use my birthday and have people make some donations. The money and the resources collected will then be used to fund the needs required by the orphans. It has come to my realization that children love parties and throwing one will be of great advantages this will make people attend the party. The gifts and presents donated during the birthday will then be given to the orphans. I will urge all those invited t bring along some of the clothes that they don’t wear anymore so that they can be given to their brothers and sisters who do not have parents. This has been seen to work in several occasions. I am pretty sure my parents will also be part of this thought and their contributions will really help. If they contribute money, I and my group members will use the funds in the purchase of food, clothes and reading materials for the orphans.

Apart from donating birthdays, we can also organize events like running marathons, culture harvest as well as fundraising ceremonies which bring the community together and collect funds for the orphan child care projects. A number of countries also use these avenues to fund for the disabled as well as the pregnant mothers who lack adequate funds to meet hospital bills. Such events restore hope to orphans because they get to meet with people from diverse cultural and ethnic groups with even worse problems. They also meet other orphans where they console each other.

  1. Acting as a sponsor

Our group can act as a sponsor to the orphans and one of the major roles is making a monthly contribution to these children through the use of Aid grants and at the same time, providing medical healthcare to those children with serious medical complications. We are expecting to get assistance from a number of financial institutions and other non- governmental organizations. In other words, we will be acting as middlemen to the orphans because there are those children at grassroot levels whose voices are hardly heard and our group is mainly focusing on them. By so doing, we will be impacting the lives of these children and hence restoring their lost hope. Another way of becoming a sponsor is simply becoming volunteers. We are supposed to show love to these children without expecting anything in return and this is an important way of investing to the community because as a group we are planning to register ourselves so that the court can approve us as a mentor and savior for the less fortunate children in the society. Our other role as a sponsor group is directly giving them resources along with other donors. This can be done daily, weekly or monthly although the most preferred on is on a monthly basis. We have heard of many support groups who end up being life time sponsors to these children and this is one of the main goals of our group whereby we are planning to have at least ten children who will be sponsored till they can stand on their own.

  1. Saving funds for the orphans.

This does not necessarily mean that we will go straight to the bank and open an account. Instead, each one of us will take the responsibility of filling extra cash into a jar specifically for the children. This is to support those children with lack of parental care through purchase and provision of basic needs. This act is not only limited to the group members. We will urge each one of us to encourage others to set aside a jar at their homes and fill them with the extra money. The jars will gradually fill up and we will then set aside a day where everyone brings his/her collection and open a bank account for the orphans. In this way, the orphans are assured of constant supply of basic needs as the filling of jars with extra money will become a routine to everyone.

The funds received from donors can also be accumulated and once it is a good amount, it is saved in the bank account for future use whenever a need arises. Adoption aid grants are also used by a number of orphanages to open bank accounts. It has been noted that the money accumulated in the accounts are important in cases of emergencies when there is no ready cash at hand. The proceeds from fundraisings and different projects have been seen to increase the amount in the banks and these can be used to open up bigger centers to accumulate more orphans.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Developing a Health Advocacy Campaign

September 22, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Developing a Health Advocacy Campaign

 

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Developing a Health Advocacy Campaign

Describe your selected population health issue and the population affected by this issue

Obesity is one among the many population health issues that have raised a lot of attention in the US and the rest of the globe. Though misinterpreted by many who use the term synonymously to overweight condition, obesity precisely refers to the medical condition characterized by excess body fat having accumulated in the body of a person to the extent of causing typically negative effects on the health of the concerned person. Body mass index is mostly used as the determinant of the obesity condition. A person may be considered obese if his/her body Mass Index (BMI), (the quotient derived by dividing a person’s weight by his/her square height) exceeds over 30 kg/m2.  Overweight refers to a condition where the BMI ranges between 25 and 30 kg/m2 (Canoy & Bundred, 2011).

The most common cause of obesity is identified to be the combination of excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility. In addition to the above causes, a few cases report obesity diagnosis to be a product of genetic and endocrinal disorders, while others link it to some specific medicinal intakes and mental illness. The critical point to note is that obesity is fatal, as it is a major contributor to atrocious conditions and diseases like heart disease, obstructive sleep apnea, type 2 diabetes, some types of cancer, as well as osteoarthritis.

Obesity is considered indiscriminate, as it is capable of attacking any person. Nevertheless, the evidence indicates children as the most vulnerable group to the obesity issue. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 17% of the children population (aged 2-19) suffers obesity every year. Meanwhile, 17.5% of children aged 6 to 11 suffer the condition. As such, this paper settled on discussing obesity in children since the predominant evidence shows that this issue is reaching epidemic levels, thereby leveling significant impacts on both their physical and psychological health. As Canoy and Bundred (2011) stipulates, obesity in children, if not controlled, is likely to stay on into adulthood and more likely to lead them into contracting non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at their young ages (Canoy & Bundred, 2011).

Summarize the two advocacy campaigns you researched in this area

The two types of advocacy campaigns I researched in this area included the awareness campaign (grass-root campaign) and the policy advocacy campaign. The awareness campaign served the objective of ensuring that communities understand the basics that surround child obesity. Precisely, this grass-root advocacy campaign aimed at establishing a knowledgeable community as far as childhood community is concerned (Knickman & Kovner, 2015). Through my research, I identified that parents had minimal knowledge of the issue, as pertains signs that shows that a child is suffering from obesity, the risks associated with the issue and the basic remedial measures to undertake to curb this issue. The policy advocacy campaign aimed at effecting some policies that if implemented, could serve to broadly improve children’s safety and health autonomy (Canoy & Bundred, 2011).

Explain the attributes that made those campaigns effective.

The first attribute that made the above campaigns effective was extensive coverage (grass roots) since the campaigners performed a widespread campaign in a wide area. The second factor is credibility in communication. Communication channels and the messages were properly structured and managed. This ensured that the message was clearly understood by the target population. For consistency, follow-up campaigns were conducted via media.  The message delivered was properly prepared to ensure it was fascinating and of great interest to the people (Knickman & Kovner, 2015).

Proposed policy solution

Following the facts that childhood obesity has been found to be mainly caused by factors classified as environmental and lifestyle choices, the proposed policy proposes that change in lifestyle may play pivotal or prerequisite roles in remedying obesity prevalence worldwide. Research links obesity to overweight with the results of increased ratio, sugar, calories and fat intake. Meanwhile, steady decline in physical activity plays complementary roles in the rise of obesity. As such, the proposed policy urges parents to control the dietary content of children’s foods and physical activities. As a solution to this problem, this policy urges parents to prepare standardized diets for children and help them engage in physical activities (Knickman & Kovner, 2015).

Specific Objectives

Childhood obesity affects children negatively. For instance, it impacts the physical, social, and emotional health in children adversely. Meanwhile, the well-being and self-esteem of obese children are at stake. This has been associated with poor academic performance and generally a low quality of life to these children, which this policy aims to remedy. The first objective is to decrease the rates of obesity around the world. Secondly, the policy aims at creating a profoundly healthy child population, both in physical, social, and emotional, and esteem. Thirdly, the policy aims at building a high academically performing child population, as obesity impacts negatively on the academic performance of many children (Knickman & Kovner, 2015).

Substantiation of the proposed campaign

Canoy and Bundred (2011) say that saving children from obesity helps reduce their likelihood to leading lower quality of lives that may otherwise be experienced by the children. Meanwhile, Edmunds, Waters, and Elliott (2001) assert that the operationalization of a policy or a strategy to help manage obesity will save children from co-morbid conditions classified as cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, orthopedic, hepatic, neurological, and renal disorders associated with childhood obesity. It is, thus, possible that if healthy lifestyles are maintained among children, the world will register more than 50% reduction in obesity cases and health related issues in hospitals (Canoy & Bundred, 2011).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Canoy, D., & Bundred, P. (2011). “Obesity in children.” BMJ clinical evidence, 2011. 2011; 2011: 0325.

Edmunds, L., Waters, E., & Elliott, E. J. (2001). “Evidence-based management of childhood obesity.” British Medical Journal, 323(7318), pp.916.

Knickman, J. R., & Kovner, A. R. (2015). Healthcare delivery in the United States (11th ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing.

 

 

Developing a Health Advocacy Campaign

September 22, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Developing a Health Advocacy Campaign

 

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Developing a Health Advocacy Campaign

Describe your selected population health issue and the population affected by this issue

Obesity is one among the many population health issues that have raised a lot of attention in the US and the rest of the globe. Though misinterpreted by many who use the term synonymously to overweight condition, obesity precisely refers to the medical condition characterized by excess body fat having accumulated in the body of a person to the extent of causing typically negative effects on the health of the concerned person. Body mass index is mostly used as the determinant of the obesity condition. A person may be considered obese if his/her body Mass Index (BMI), (the quotient derived by dividing a person’s weight by his/her square height) exceeds over 30 kg/m2.  Overweight refers to a condition where the BMI ranges between 25 and 30 kg/m2 (Canoy & Bundred, 2011).

The most common cause of obesity is identified to be the combination of excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility. In addition to the above causes, a few cases report obesity diagnosis to be a product of genetic and endocrinal disorders, while others link it to some specific medicinal intakes and mental illness. The critical point to note is that obesity is fatal, as it is a major contributor to atrocious conditions and diseases like heart disease, obstructive sleep apnea, type 2 diabetes, some types of cancer, as well as osteoarthritis.

Obesity is considered indiscriminate, as it is capable of attacking any person (Knickman & Kovner, 2015 pg 25). Nevertheless, the evidence indicates children as the most vulnerable group to the obesity issue. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 17% of the children population (aged 2-19) suffers obesity every year. Meanwhile, 17.5% of children aged 6 to 11 suffer the condition. As such, this paper settled on discussing obesity in children since the predominant evidence shows that this issue is reaching epidemic levels, thereby leveling significant impacts on both their physical and psychological health. As Canoy and Bundred (2011) stipulates, obesity in children, if not controlled, is likely to stay on into adulthood and more likely to lead them into contracting non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at their young ages (Canoy & Bundred, 2011).

Summarize the two advocacy campaigns you researched in this area

The two types of advocacy campaigns I researched in this area included the awareness campaign (grass-root campaign) and the policy advocacy campaign. The awareness campaign served the objective of ensuring that communities understand the basics that surround child obesity. Precisely, this grass-root advocacy campaign aimed at establishing a knowledgeable community as far as childhood community is concerned (Knickman & Kovner, 2015 pg 26). Through my research, I identified that parents had minimal knowledge of the issue, as pertains signs that shows that a child is suffering from obesity, the risks associated with the issue and the basic remedial measures to undertake to curb this issue. The policy advocacy campaign aimed at effecting some policies that if implemented, could serve to broadly improve children’s safety and health autonomy (Canoy & Bundred, 2011).

Explain the attributes that made those campaigns effective.

The first attribute that made the above campaigns effective was extensive coverage (grass roots) since the campaigners performed a widespread campaign in a wide area. The second factor is credibility in communication. Communication channels and the messages were properly structured and managed. This ensured that the message was clearly understood by the target population. For consistency, follow-up campaigns were conducted via media.  The message delivered was properly prepared to ensure it was fascinating and of great interest to the people (Knickman & Kovner, 2015).

Proposed policy solution

Following the facts that childhood obesity has been found to be mainly caused by factors classified as environmental and lifestyle choices, the proposed policy proposes that change in lifestyle may play pivotal or prerequisite roles in remedying obesity prevalence worldwide. Research links obesity to overweight with the results of increased ratio, sugar, calories and fat intake. Meanwhile, steady decline in physical activity plays complementary roles in the rise of obesity. As such, the proposed policy urges parents to control the dietary content of children’s foods and physical activities. As a solution to this problem, this policy urges parents to prepare standardized diets for children and help them engage in physical activities (Edmunds, Waters & Elliott, 2001).

Specific Objectives

Childhood obesity affects children negatively. For instance, it impacts the physical, social, and emotional health in children adversely. Meanwhile, the well-being and self-esteem of obese children are at stake. This has been associated with poor academic performance and generally a low quality of life to these children, which this policy aims to remedy. The first objective is to decrease the rates of obesity around the world. Secondly, the policy aims at creating a profoundly healthy child population, both in physical, social, and emotional, and esteem. Thirdly, the policy aims at building a high academically performing child population, as obesity impacts negatively on the academic performance of many children (Knickman & Kovner, 2015).

Substantiation of the proposed campaign

Canoy and Bundred (2011) say that saving children from obesity helps reduce their likelihood to leading lower quality of lives that may otherwise be experienced by the children. Meanwhile, Edmunds, Waters, and Elliott (2001) assert that the operationalization of a policy or a strategy to help manage obesity will save children from co-morbid conditions classified as cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, orthopedic, hepatic, neurological, and renal disorders associated with childhood obesity. It is, thus, possible that if healthy lifestyles are maintained among children, the world will register more than 50% reduction in obesity cases and health related issues in hospitals (Canoy & Bundred, 2011).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Canoy, D., & Bundred, P. (2011). “Obesity in children.” BMJ clinical evidence, 2011. 2011; 2011: 0325.

Edmunds, L., Waters, E., & Elliott, E. J. (2001). “Evidence-based management of childhood obesity.” British Medical Journal, 323(7318), pp.916.

Knickman, J. R., & Kovner, A. R. (2015). Healthcare delivery in the United States (11th ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing. Retrieved from http://lghttp.48653.nexcesscdn.net/80223CF/springer-static/media/samplechapters/9780826125279/9780826125279_chapter.pdf

 

 

 

September 19, 2016

Export from Philippines to Malaysia in US dollars

Year Export (in US dollars)
1960 0  
1970 300,000  
1980 94,390,000  
1990 126,803,000  
2000 1,377,360,746  
2010 1,396,495,830  
2015 1,198,694,382  
2016 (Jan-Mar) 250,198,207  

Sources:                                                                                                                

  1. Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (2016). Economic and Financial Statistics.
  2. International Monetary Fund (2016). Direction of Trade from Philippines to Malaysia.

 

Export from Philippines to Malaysia in US dollars

 

The information above shows that the value of the products exported by the Philippines to Malaysia increased over time except for a decline in 2015. It can therefore be concluded that there is a positive and increasing relationship between the two countries.


 

Export from Philippines to Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR) in US dollars

Year Export (in US dollars)
1960 0  
1970 0  
1980 0  
1990 0  
2000 46,688  
2010 301,273  
2015 15,573,640  
2016 (Jan-Mar) 114,652  

Sources:                                                                                                                

  1. Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (2016). Economic and Financial Statistics.
  2. International Monetary Fund (2016). Direction of Trade from Philippines to Lao PDR.

 

Export from Philippines to Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR) in US dollars

The table and graph above present the export value of products from Philippines to Lao People’s Democratic Republic in US dollars.  They reveal that there is a dramatic increase in the export of Philippines to Lao in the recent year. This is especially true since based on the graph the export value before the year 2000 are all zeroes.


 

Top 5 Commodities Philippines exported to Malaysia

Year Commodities
1960  
1970  
1980  
1990  
2000  
2010 1.      Other commodities

2.      Electronic and electronic equipment

3.      Machinery and nuclear reactors

4.      Mineral fuels and oils

5.      Copper and copper products

 
2015 1.      Electronic and electronic equipment

2.      Mineral fuels and oils

3.      Machinery and nuclear reactors

4.      Essential oils, perfumes and cosmetics

5.      Dairy products, eggs and honey

 

Source: International Trade Centre (2016). Bilateral Trade between the Philippines and Malaysia.

 

Top 5 Commodities Philippines exported to Lao

Year Commodities
1960  
1970  
1980  
1990  
2000  
2010 1.      Paper and paperboard

2.      Soaps, lubricants and waxes

3.      Pharmaceutical products

4.      Machinery and nuclear reactors

6.      Electronic and electronic equipment

 
2015 1.      Vehicles

2.      Electronic and electronic equipment

3.      Explosives and pyrotechnics

4.      Stone, plaster, cement and asbestos

5.      Pharmaceutical products

 

Source: International Trade Centre (2016). Bilateral Trade between the Philippines and Lao.

 


 

Nominal and Real GDP of the Philippines in US dollars

Year Nominal GDP in US Dollars Real GDP in US Dollars
1960 6,684,685,517   3,935,574,540  
1970 6,687,223,656   2,176,251,075  
1980 32,450,398,740   3,041,367,099  
1990 44,311,595,230   1,110,661,298  
2000 81,026,297,144   810,262,976  
2010 199,590,774,785   1,263,927,490  
2015 291,965,336,391   1,665,818,453  

Source: The World Bank Group (2016). Development Indicators of the Philippines.

 


 

Nominal and Real GDP of the Philippines compared with Export to Malaysia

Year Nominal GDP

in US dollars

Export

in US dollars

1960 6,684,685,517   0    
1970 6,687,223,656   300,000    
1980 32,450,398,740   94,390,000    
1990 44,311,595,230   126,803,000    
2000 81,026,297,144   1,377,360,746    
2010 199,590,774,785   1,396,495,830    
2015 291,965,336,391   1,198,694,382    

 

In general, based on the figure above, it can be said that as the export to Malaysia from the Philippines increased in value, the nominal GDP also increased.  This is except for one case when although there is a reported decrease in export, the nominal GDP increased. This increase is attributed to other factors that contribute to the nominal GDP.


 

Nominal and Real GDP of the Philippines compared with Export to Lao PDR

Year Nominal GDP

in US dollars

Export

in US dollars

1960 6,684,685,517   0
1970 6,687,223,656   0
1980 32,450,398,740   0
1990 44,311,595,230   0
2000 81,026,297,144   46,688
2010 199,590,774,785   301,273
2015 291,965,336,391   15,573,640

 

There is an obvious positive relationship between the value of exported products from Philippines to Lao PDR and the Philippine’s nominal GDP. The figure above clearly shows that as export value increased, an increased in nominal GDP also occurred.

Year Export
1960 0
1970 300 000
1980 94 390 000
1990 126 803 000
2000 1 377 360 746
2010 1 396 495 830
2015 1 198 694 382

Developing an Associative Learning Model for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder through Role Playing

September 18, 2016

Introduction

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) require specialized learning methodologies and design to aid in language reading and learning process. One model is the Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). The application of interventions to the behavior process modeling, based on the principles of learning theory, thus proving that the responses are responsible for the development of the learnable outcomes desired. The use of ABA model is excellent and can be used in many cases, but not in areas where the student behavior models form part of the academic research work. The students’ ability to modify behavior when adult individuals participate in the learning process gives the significant shortfall of the ABA model. This calls for a researcher’s on the participatory model that can help students with ASD learn alongside other students in a role taking in an associative learning model.

The Choice for the Research Sample Participants

The students to participate in the research will be diagnosed with autism from the hospital. However, other students will typically be learning in school.  All the student ill have to be between three and five years to create a sense of peer learning environment. The parents and the teacher to students, both diagnosed with autism condition and the normal students will be informed about the need to have the test carried out by the students in an ethical way. However, the student will not be informed about the possible behavior observation to avoid cases of modified behavior. The students will be allowed to freely interact for one week before the commencement of the learning observations to create rapport between those with autism and the normal students if they have not been learning together before (Chiapella, 2016).

 

 

The Design of the Learning Therapy

ASD learners can also use the Associative Learning Model with group role play to help in creating a moiré reliable research. In this case, the students of 3-5 years who have received behavior analytic services and confirmed to have autism can be allowed to learn generally in a conducive learning environment with other students without the secluded learning. The essence is that the students diagnosed with ASD condition can have the opportunity to learn from the peers who are normal, thus developing a mutual behavioral learning environment. In the classroom environment, the students are paired, with the teachers and the researchers making sure that every student diagnosed with ASD condition is paired with a normal student. The students are thus given roles to play, with each having a unique role that contributes to the successful completion of the group tasks.

The students are also given learning realia. These are models that can be used to reinforce learning including the use of pictures, toys and other objects that can help the students associate the learnable contents with the required outcome (Maharani, 2012 p. 26). This helps the students who have no ability to associate learning models even if they have the verbal impairment. They can easily associate the realia with the words that match the realia like pictures and toys to the meanings written down on paper. Though the realia may be given to all the groups in the classroom setup, the instructions given to all the groups remain the same, and the realia used must also be similar.

The students are then allowed to discuss and participate on how they want the activities to be carried out. The teachers and the researchers thus give them roles to conduct within a limited time for the weighted average. This helps the students to make out the solutions faster thus applying the successful constructive solutions. In each group, the two students will then participate in the activity that will be provided for thirty minutes, three times a week for four weeks.

All the roles must be carried out twice, with the students’ changing their roles in the second phase of the activity completion. This ensures that the students with ASD can learn from their fellows who may not intimidate them.  The learning model will, therefore, involve the students learning from one another in a learning model.

Precautions That the Teachers Must Take In Model

According to Dufour and Dufour research of 2010, the roles must be easy to accomplish and still meet the objectives of the learning needs (p. 81). The roles must be designed to allow equal and full participation of the both the group embers, without the normal student overshadowing the ASD diagnosis student in the learning process. A discussion before the completion of the activity helps the students to chart out the solution, and the student with the ASD condition will equally be part of the solution.

The behavioral must be repeated for the full cycle learning where both students are given a chance to play all the activities and the roles. The students are first given the instructions on what to carry out, then allowed to carry them out through imitation the teacher, and later imitating themselves. The teachers thus read out the name of the realia, then show the students the realia. Then the students are allowed to say to one another the realia as the teacher said them out. When the students can correctly say the name of the realia as the teacher said to one another, they are rewarded for the correct answers verbally. Prizes are given for every correct imitation. Negative reinforcement is given to every wrong response (Dufour & Dufour, 2010, p. 84-6).

 

 

Precautions in the Research Design

The Students subjected to ABA model can modify their behavior even if they have ASD condition to reflect the conditions of the learning the environment.  If the researcher is a stranger who applies the interventions, then the students may not behave normally as they are used to, thus defeating the purpose of the research. Research on people behavior should be carried out through the direct observation, without informing the learners so that they cannot modify their behaviors for a biased outcome.

The use of peer-level learning helps the students with ASD condition to feel equal in the learning process. This is useful in striving to excel when they are not dominated, unlike when they get assistive learning from the adult researcher. The inclusive learning environment where the students with ASD get the opportunity to learn alongside the typical students gives an enriched learning environment to learn.

The Role of the Researcher in Data Collection

The researcher records every activity that the students participate. The researcher records the progress of the students in a tabular form. The data is then analyzed for both the students in every group. The teachers and the parents are given the chance to fill in a survey about the students before the learning process. The teachers and the parents are also given the survey to complete questionnaires about the children’s improvement after the application of the learning therapy. The analysis will thus involve comparison of the learning abilities before and after the learning therapy for the children with autism and other normal children.

 

 

Bibliography

Chiapella, K.M., 2016. Critical Literacy: An Innovative Approach to Learning among Students with Reading Disabilities.

DuFour, R. and DuFour, R., 2010. The role of professional learning communities in advancing 21st century skills. 21st century skills: Rethinking how students learn, pp. 77-95.

Maharani, S., 2012. Improving Students’ Vocabulary Mastery Through the Use of Wall Charts (Doctoral dissertation, Sebelas Maret University).