Health System

 

 

 

 

 

 

Health System

Name

Institution

Date

 

 

Health System

What is a health System?

There has been increasing concerns to improve the health systems in most countries especially among those developing due to the low health outcomes. Policies and research communities have been extensively involved in orchestrating for reforms in the health systems to facilitate improved population health. However, according to World Health Organization (2007), these attempts have been impeded by the lack of a common definition of a health system. The result has been increased challenges to the various interventions aiming at improving health care. The World Health Organization defines a health system as a combination of actions, people and organizations concerned with the promotion, restoration and maintenance of health. The achievement of this requirement requires influencing determinants of health and the various activities that improve health. This assertion implies that the system also involves other entities and people whose actions facilitate the attainment of good population health.

What are the Major Components of the U.S Health Care System?

The health care system comprises of different components depending on its structure that varies between different countries. Shi and Singh (2015) explained that the U.S health care system comprises of four components. The functions of these systems overlap while being indistinguishable in public health organizations. Shi and colleague explain that the U.S system has four basic components that include the delivery system, financing, Insurance and the payment components. The delivery system is concerned with the various health care providers such as the physicians, nursing homes, hospitals and community health centres. These are the different individuals and individuals providing or facilitating the delivery of health care services. The financing component is required for insurances for health care services. Such can be through employment-based insurances or by the government for public health care insurances.

Why is Change Needed in the U.S Health Care System?

The payment component is concerned with process and structure of the reimbursement to the health care service providers (Shi & Singh, 2015). It is concerned with how much is to be paid for a particular health care service. This payment involves an out-of-pocket amount and also from premiums paid to an insurance company or MCO. However, tax revenues are used to pay health care providers in case of government insurances plans. The insurance component involves insuring individuals against expensive health care services. This component determines the services that can be provided for particular insurance plans, how and where they are provided.

According to Shi and Singh (2015), the U.S health care system network lacks rationality and integration.  The various components of the system are loosely coordinated making it difficult to function as a system. Moreover, the definition of a health system implies that accessibility to health care services should be to all citizens. However, this is not the case for the U.S health care system. It is due to these factors that the country’s health care system has been extensively criticized and hence requires to be changed.

How is Public Policy Created? What is the Role of Data in Policy?

According to Birkland (2014), public policies are decision-making frameworks made on behalf of the public with the aim of solving problems. They are made after an issue or problem is identified after which formulation of the most efficient framework for decision making to address the problem occurs. The framework is adopted and then implemented after which its is evaluated. These stages form a cycle such that the process is repeated after evaluation. Data plays a crucial role in the process of policy-making. Data helps to guide discussions and in determining the various likely alternatives. Moreover, data is essential to aid the monitoring and management of the later stages of implementation and evaluation.

 

 

References

Birkland, T. A. (2014). An introduction to the policy process: Theories, concepts and models of public policy making. Routledge.

Shi, L., & Singh, D. A. (2015). Delivering health care in America: A Systems approach.

World Health Organization, (2007). Strengthening Health Systems to Improve Health Outcomes: WHOs Framework for Action. Ginebra: OMS.

 

 

 

 

 

 

LEADERS IN JAPANESE HISTORY

 

 

 

 

 

Name of Student

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Subject Name Here

Date Here

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LEADERS IN JAPANESE HISTORY

The success and rise of Japan to being a dominant player in the world economy is to a large extent attributed to its leaders who mostly had military background. In other words, Japan evolution has it foundation on its leaders who were often drawn from the military. Given their influence and ranking not just within the military ranks but more so in the national politics and the society in general, the leaders with military background assisted in shaping, protecting and driving the economy of Japan to where it is today; world class economy. While most military leaders made good country leaders, it is important to note that not all such leaders were successful or made important contribution to evolution of Japan. One such remarkable leader however is the 40th Prime Minister of Japan, one Tojo Hideki. Tojo who was elected in 1941 masterminded social unrest and political chaos, which was felt not just in Japan but in the entire world.

Tojo’s decisions and dictatorial powers lead to devastation economically, socially and politically of Japan.  This type of leadership culminated to tension and bad foreign relations between Japan and the Western countries as well as other countries in the world. Despite the fact that Tojo as a leader greatly impacted on Japan history and subsequent evolution, his was a devastation and destruction role. While in public, Tojo presented himself as a people servant, self effacing individual who was doing his best to serve his people[1]. However, behind doors, Tojo was an apt bureaucratic individual who sole interest was gathering power and ruling by the fist.  In fact, it is accurate to say that Tojo lead to the ultimate non-realization of Japan’s evolution.

Hideki Tojo was born on 30th December 1884 in a town referred to as Tokyo in Japan.  He was from the family of samurai descent and was the third son of Hidenori. His father was Japanese general therefore he decided to take Tojo to Military Academy and later to Army College. Tojo made great achievement after he graduated in 1924 where he afforded to be attached in Switzerland as a military member while still teaching at the Army Staff College. He was a sharp and a quick decision maker and thereby he was referred to as Razor in the military circle. Above all, Tojos greatest achievement was his ability to arrest of the main conspirators in the incident that took place in 26th February before the occurrence of the World War II.

The incident on 26th February was the coup d’état attempt to the government of Japan. It was as a result of bitterness of the Japanese military younger officers because of increased corruption and poverty in rural areas. The younger officers in Japanese military believed that removing some of the government official could help to solve the problem. Some of the target official to be removed included Keisuke Okada the prime minister and Makino Nobuaki who had a great relationship with Hirohito the Emperor. Tojo and some of the military members were able to prevent and arrest many of the conspirators and end the rebellion because they were against it. Therefore, the incident made Tojo to be promoted to be the Chief of Staff and later in 1929 he became the Commander of the First Infantry Regiment which is well known.

Tojo was supported military actions for instance the Second Sino Japanese war and the 1931 Manchurian invasion because he believed in the hostility of foreign policy and had a great right wing views. Japan had established a small government in Manchuria referred to as Manchuko where Puyi was the leader. The participants of the invasion were the Manchuria and Korea under the control of Japan. The Second Sino Japanese War was caused by the colonial policy to take over China and start using it raw material and resources. The two wars caused death of many Chinese and japan was banned from the international community. Japan was banned from the League of Nations blaming them for military aggression.

At this time, Tojo had admiration for Hilter and Mussolini who were great dictators in Europe. Hilter for instance was a great mentor to Tojo because of his passion and toughness in his operations. Because of this increased interest on European dictators, Japan signed a Tripartite Pact that was to join them together with Italy and Germany. Many Japanese especially Tojo considered Americans to be self indulgent, lazy and immoral hence lacked respect for them as they did to the European dictators[2]. The attitude led Tojo to authorize the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Tojo was later appointed as the Prime Minister by Emperor Hirohito where he had belief that war with United States could not be avoided because of the high tension that existed between the two. United State established a restriction to export of oil to Japan which had a negative impact to the expansion of Japan military. Therefore, Tojo argued that an attack on Pearl Harbor could lead the US to lose many ships preventing them from interfering with the naval interest of Japan[3]. It would also give Japan enough time to reinforce and it navy. Tojo still argued that the attack could enable Japan to have full control of Southern Asia region because the morale of United State was to be lowered[4].

Tojo also lead the Battle of Midway where Japan wanted to withdraw United State as controller in the Pacific theatre of World War II. The incident was a great hope for Japan as it could cause the United State to end it operation on the Pacific and therefore Japan was to dominate countries in the East Asia[5]. Before this battle, the empire had gained victories from many battles especially Battle of the Philippines. Later, Japan started experiencing many defeat after they lost against United State on the Battle of Midway. The war includes the battle of Okinawa and Iwo Jima which has some historical remembrance to Japanese.

In Conclusion, the discussion on the paper is clear evidence that most of the Japan leaders had a great contribution and participation in the military. Tojo Hideki played a significant role in Japan’s evolution. This is properly evidenced in this essay by the various important events that Hideki initiated. The events include but not limited to the Battle of Midway and the Pearl Harbor. Despite the fact that Tojo was not the most “notorious’ leaders in Japan, he made his military skills felt during his leadership. Through the many pivotal initiatives, Hideki conjured; he proved that he was indeed a leader to look out for in as far as Japan’s evolution is concerned.

Tojo participated directly in the military sector of Japan there by qualifying to have authority over the citizens. Many of these leaders had great idea on how to strengthen the economy of Japan but it could only be achieved through wars tactics. For instance, Tojo could plan a battle with a certain objective of improving the status of other citizens. Therefore, I agree with the statement that many leaders in Japan were in military.

 

 

Bibliography

Brown, D. (1962). The Journal of Asian Studies, 21(2), 231-232. doi:1. Retrieved from             http://www.jstor.org/stable/2050535 doi:1

Bowers, J. (1962). Tojo and the Pacific War. The Review of Politics, 24(1), 153-155. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1405463

Hinder, M. (1942). Hideki Tojo. Zeitschrift Für Politik, 32(10), 705-707. Retrieved from             http://www.jstor.org/stable/43348565

Grajdanzev, A. (1943). The “Ethical Elevation” of Japanese Politics. Far Eastern Survey, 12(7),            67-71. doi:1. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3022768 doi:1

Wetzler, P. (1998). Tōjō and the Emperor: Mutual Political Convictions. In Hirohito and War:   Imperial Tradition and Military Decision Making in Prewar Japan (pp. 61-81).           University of Hawai’i Press. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt6wqzs6.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

[1] Brown, D. (1962). The Journal of Asian Studies, 21(2), 231-232. doi:1. Retrieved from             http://www.jstor.org/stable/2050535 doi:1

 

[2] Hinder, M. (1942). Hideki Tojo. Zeitschrift Für Politik, 32(10), 705-707. Retrieved from             http://www.jstor.org/stable/43348565

 

[3] Wetzler, P. (1998). Tōjō and the Emperor: Mutual Political Convictions. In Hirohito and War:             Imperial Tradition and Military Decision Making in Prewar Japan (pp. 61-81).       University of Hawai’i Press. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt6wqzs6.7

 

[4] Grajdanzev, A. (1943). The “Ethical Elevation” of Japanese Politics. Far Eastern Survey, 12(7),          67-71. doi:1. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3022768 doi:1

 

[5] Bowers, J. (1962). Tojo and the Pacific War. The Review of Politics, 24(1), 153-155. Retrieved            from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1405463

 

Foundations of Capitalism

Capitalism

Name

Institution

 

 

Capitalism

Capitalism is the economic system that advocates for privately owned means of production and distribution, where business are operated for profits. In nations with capitalist economies, business operators use their resources and decide on the prices they charge (Marable, 2015). However, no country is purely capitalist. The foundations of capitalism are, right to: (1) private property (2) freedom of choice (3) freedom of competition (4) own a business and retain its profits.

Why reject capitalism for communist or socialist state

In the socialist country, the government gathers all the taxes and distributes them equally to the whole population, which favors the poor person (Nickels et al., 2014). However, in a capitalist society, the poor man would lack basic requirements since he would not have the resources to get a degree or money to start a business.

1st Plank: Land and property ownership abolition and incorporation of rents for public land.

2nd Plank: Graduated income tax – 1909 Corporate Tax Act. The 16th Amendment that was ratified in 1913. The 1913 revenue act, section 2, Income Tax. The above laws are continually wrongly applied in the United States.

3rd Plank: Abolition of inheritance rights. It was achieved through enactment of federal and state “estate tax” laws that taxed the “privilege” of transfer of property following demise or gift prior to death (Schumpeter, 2013).

4th Min: Confiscation of property for rebels and EMIGRANTS – This was achieved through prosecution of such persons in a courtroom drama for violating non-existing regulatory laws.

5th Plank: Credit Centralization in heads of state through the national bank with exclusive monopoly and State capital.

6th Plank: Communications and transportation centralization.

7TH Plank: Government owned production instruments and factors extension which enhance cultivation of wasteland and soil improvement.

8th Plank: Equal labor liability – Creation of industrial armies mainly for agriculture. Attracted the rise of the First labor unions, referred to as federations in 1820.

9th Plank: Agriculture and manufacturing industries combination, gradually abolish the difference of county and town through increased distribution of population.

10th Plank: Free education for school children. Eradicate children’s factory labor, and combining industrial production an education.

 

 

References

Marable, M. (2015). How capitalism underdeveloped black America: Problems in race, political economy, and society. Haymarket Books.

Nickels, W. G., McHugh, J. M., & McHugh, S. M. (2014). Business: Connecting principles to practice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Schumpeter, J. A. (2013). Capitalism, socialism and democracy. Routledge.

 

 

Foundations of Capitalism

Capitalism

Name

Institution

 

 

Capitalism

Capitalism is the economic system that advocates for privately owned means of production and distribution, where business are operated for profits. In nations with capitalist economies, business operators use their resources and decide on the prices they charge (Marable, 2015). However, no country is purely capitalist. The foundations of capitalism are, right to: (1) private property (2) freedom of choice (3) freedom of competition (4) own a business and retain its profits.

Why poor or under-employed may reject capitalism for communist or socialist state

In the socialist country, the government gathers all the taxes and distributes them equally to the whole population, which favors the poor person (Nickels et al., 2014). However, in a capitalist society, the poor man would lack basic requirements since he would not have the resources to get a degree or money to start a business.

The Communist Manifesto is phrased in a melodramatic language. It starts with an assertion that communism has been haunting Europe and may only be understood as a class struggles where the slave society allowed feudalism and feudalism to capitalism. Further, capitalism gave way to communism or socialism (Marable, 2015). The communist planks include ideas like eradication of private property in land; universal liability to labor; and the abolition of inheritance right. The communists’ make a declaration that the ends may only be achieved through a forcible overthrow of the current social conditions (Schumpeter, 2013). The ten planks are possibly written by Engels, considering 13 other similar planks were existent in the works “principles of communism” that acted as a precursor to the manifesto.

Capitalism argues that industrial development can increase of wages in the world. Further, the section on the accumulation of capital states that there could be higher wages with higher reinvestment of money, which would increase demand for workers to increase about supply (Marable, 2015). Finally, it is critical to consider that the Communist Manifesto was only a practical political program that was created for a political party during Marx’s early life. However, much of the Manifest Marx economics was abolished as his economic theory grew, which is a theory of increased poverty under capitalism.

 

 

 

 

 

References

Marable, M. (2015). How capitalism underdeveloped black America: Problems in race, political economy, and society. Haymarket Books.

Nickels, W. G., McHugh, J. M., & McHugh, S. M. (2014). Business: Connecting principles to practice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Schumpeter, J. A. (2013). Capitalism, socialism and democracy. Routledge.

 

 

Foundations of Capitalism

Capitalism

Capitalism is the economic system that advocates for privately owned means of production and distribution, where business are operated for profits. In nations with capitalist economies, business operators use their resources and decide on the prices they charge (Marable, 2015). However, no country is purely capitalist. The foundations of capitalism are, right to: (1) private property (2) freedom of choice (3) freedom of competition (4) own a business and retain its profits.

The Communist Manifesto is phrased in a melodramatic language. It starts with an assertion that communism has been haunting Europe and may only be understood as a class struggles where the slave society allowed feudalism and feudalism to capitalism. Further, capitalism gave way to communism or socialism (Marable, 2015). The communist planks include ideas like eradication of private property in land; universal liability to labor; and the abolition of inheritance right. The communists’ make a declaration that the ends may only be achieved through a forcible overthrow of the current social conditions (Schumpeter, 2013). The ten planks are possibly written by Engels, considering 13 other similar planks were existent in the works “principles of communism” that acted as a precursor to the manifesto.

Capitalism argues that industrial development can increase of wages in the world. Further, the section on the accumulation of capital states that there could be higher wages with higher reinvestment of money, which would increase demand for workers to increase about supply (Marable, 2015). Finally, it is critical to consider that the Communist Manifesto was only a practical political program that was created for a political party during Marx’s early life. However, much of the Manifest Marx economics was abolished as his economic theory grew, which is a theory of increased poverty under capitalism.

Another difference between the foundations of capitalism and the 10 planks of the Communist Manifesto is that they do not form a separate party as it is the caase for the Foundations of Capitalism.  The Communist Manifesto do not have separate individual interests as it is the case in Foundations of Capitalism.

Why poor or under-employed may reject capitalism for communist or socialist state

In the socialist country, the government gathers all the taxes and distributes them equally to the whole population, which favors the poor person (Nickels et al., 2014). However, in a capitalist society, the poor man would lack basic requirements since he would not have the resources to get a degree or money to start a business.

 

 

 

 

 

References

Marable, M. (2015). How capitalism underdeveloped black America: Problems in race, political economy, and society. Haymarket Books.

Nickels, W. G., McHugh, J. M., & McHugh, S. M. (2014). Business: Connecting principles to practice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Schumpeter, J. A. (2013). Capitalism, socialism and democracy. Routledge.