Archive for November, 2016

Circuit Analysis

November 29, 2016

Introduction

Design of electronic and electrical circuits involved a number of stages that are critical for their successful operation. Most of the designs require a lot of analysis in order to establish that the actual intended results are obtained from the design. The design process normally starts with the simulation of the circuit under controlled environment. This implies that the designer will be required to make use of simulation tools in order to determine the overall operation of the circuit. Once the simulation results are obtained and evaluated to be positive the designer can then proceed to fabricate the circuit on a printed circuit board. Most of the laboratory experiments however make use of bread boards as part of the fabrication (Boylestad, 2014).

Each step is considered essential. The components used to build the circuit and their values are normally determined using simple laws. Some of the common laws that exist in the electrical design include Kirchoff’s law, Norton and Thevenin laws, superposition law and many others. This lab experiment is intended to establish the applicability of some of these laws. The paper will outline some of these laws and establish their applications on the circuit design. Different circuits will be built on the basis of the analysis performed using these laws. A small findings report will then be generated to reconcile the findings with the theoretical values (Boylestad, 2014).

Objective

This lab experiment is intended to establish the applicability of some of these laws. The paper will outline some of these laws and establish their applications on the circuit design. Different circuits will be built on the basis of the analysis performed using these laws. A small findings report will then be generated to reconcile the findings with the theoretical values.  The circuits will be built on Multisim. Multisim is a provides a general simulating environment for electrical circuits (Boylestad, 2014).

Evaluation of Kirchoff’s law

Kirchoff’s law is one of the basic electrical laws that define the relationship between voltage and current in a conductor. The voltage is considered to be proportional to the current as illustrated in the following expression;

V=IR

Where R is the resistance in the conductor.

The following circuit was used to establish the relationship of current and voltage as depicted from Kirchoff’s law;

As can be seen from the above figure the total amout of current I2=V2/R2=24/24=1A

Thevenin’s Equivalent and Maximum Power

The following figure can be used to illustrate the concept of the Thevenin’s Equivalent;

 

The voltage drop at point 3 is the sum of the voltage drops across all the components connected to node i.e.

V3=I1R1+I2R2=120+135=255V

Class A power amplifier

The following circuit can be used to illustrate the design that was developed in Multisim.

 

In order to compute the efficiency of the above circuit the base and collector current will have to be determined. In reference to the circuit drawn above, the collector voltage was measured to be 11.12V, the base voltage was measured to be 6mV;

The efficiency of the system can be computed as follows;

Theoretical amplification factor=12V/0.7=17.142

Actual amplification factor=11.2/0.6=18.66

Efficiency=1-(18.66-17.142)/17.142=91.11%

Class B Push-Pull Power Amplifier

The circuit constitutes a pair of complementary transistors that are biased at the cut-off point. The input voltage is normally adjusted to sufficiently forward bias each transistor within the appropriate half cycle of the input waveform (Boylestad, 2014). The following figure can be used to illustrate the circuit design that was developed in Multisim;

The input waveform that is introduced to the amplifier is normally full cycle. However, since the base of individual transistors is negative biased the signal ends up truncating the half cycle signal. As such, there remains only one half cycle that is detected at the output. However the combination of the two transistors makes the output witness full cycle at the output (Boylestad, 2014). The following figure can be used to illustrate the input and output of the two transistors of a push pull power amplifier;

Design of a signal conditioning circuit

Signal conditioning circuits are normally used to control and simulate the electrical applications that involve either too high currents or too low electrical currents that cannot be handled by the normal electronic devices. As such, the signal conditioning circuit tends to adjust the levels of the currents to meet the standards of the electronic devices. In most cases the input signal is reduced to a range of 0-5 V (Boylestad, 2014). The following circuit was developed in Multisim to simulate the signal conditioning application for industrial applications which had an internal impedance of less than 50 Ohms.

As can be seen from the above figure there were three stages that manipulated the values of the current in the circuit. The first op amp was mainly used to sum up the signals coming from different sections of the industry. The signals were then integrated to realize a linear current. The last stage inverted the signal to produce the desired output (Boylestad, 2014).

ADD inverting operational amplifier

The ADD inverting amplifier is a very useful concept that not only adds multiple signals that are introduced at the input but also inverts the output to the desired state. Depending on the number of inputs that are introduced at the input the voltage divider rule can be used to sum up all the inputs which are then introduced to the inverting terminal of the op amp. In this way the output of the op amp will be inverted (Boylestad, 2014). The following figure can be used to illustrate the concept of the ADD inverting operational amplifier.

Conclusion

The paper has considered several applications that have been developed and built in Multisim. Each of the process involved the analysis and determination of the circuit parameters that will optimize the design. Each step is considered essential. The components used to build the circuit and their values were normally determined using simple laws. Some of the common laws that exist in the electrical design include Kirchoff’s law, Norton and Thevenin laws, superposition law and many others. This lab experiment was intended to establish the applicability of some of these laws. The paper also outlined some of these laws and established their applications on the circuit design. Different circuits were built on the basis of the analysis performed using basic laws.

References

Boylestad, R. (2014). Introductory circuit analysis. 1st ed. Harlow, Essex: Pearson.

 

 

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Effects of Parenting on Child Development

November 25, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Effects of Parenting on Child Development

Student Name:

University Name:

Effects of Parenting on Child Development

Introduction

This research paper analyzes three journal articles within the realms of parenting and child development. Consequently, the first article was authored by Kaufmann et al. (2000). This article examines the relationship between authoritative and authoritarian parenting approaches. The second article by Sebrin et al. (2014) examines whether parental support, behavioral control and structure has a bearing on early childhood health care consumption as well as whether it reduces the adverse effects of  socioeconomic disadvantages. The third article which was authored by Konnie and Alfred (2013) sought to examine the dominant parenting approaches, as well as the influence of this type of parenting on the social development of children. Whereas the first and the third journal articles share certain similarities, they differ fundamentally as the former is a scholarly journal while the latter, an empirical research article. The subsequent section reviews the literature review across the three articles.

Literature Review

Within the field of lifespan development, the research topic ofKaufmann’s journal relates to the field as it offers insight into ‘childhood’ which is the second of the six phases of lifespan development. Accordingly, this stage of development is characterized by the push for individuality from children as they seek to become independent from their parents, having learned to do things for themselves.Similarly, it is at this stage where children begin developing cognitive skills as they begin telling right from wrong. Kaufmann’s research attempts to shed light into the different approaches of parenting at this crucial stage, as well as how each parenting technique ultimately impacts the child’s capacity to adjust socio-emotionally while in their elementary schools. As noted earlier, this research focuses on the childhood developmental stage. According to Kaufmann’s journal, the children are between the first and fifth grades which places them in the childhood stage.

This research is based upon the theoretical frameworks developed by Baumrind(1966), where the author postulates three prototypes of parenting approach mainly authoritarian, authoritative as well as permissive. Accordingly, the paper argues that authoritarian parents believe in the strict enforcement of their rules and have no room for discussions with their children as they prioritize obedience and discipline. As expected, the paper notes that such authoritarian parents score poorly on parental warmth to their children and responsiveness to their emotional needs. As for the authoritative parent, the article notes that such parents do well on acceptance and control.Essentially, authoritative parents maintain their control during disagreements but take note of their children’s different perspectives. More importantly, the authoritative parent allows for deliberation over the set rules. For Kaufmann et al. (2000), the research sought to establish whether past findings on the positive impacts of authoritative parenting approach and the more adverse outcomes of authoritarianism would be replicated in the existing sample of children, with their mothers playing the role of informants. The study was also informed by the desire to find out whether such impacts were consistent across socio-demographic groupings.Within this study, the authors emphasize developmental domains like children’s socio-emotional development as this is the focus of the study.

The topic within research journal by Sebrin et al. (2014) is equally relevant in the field of lifespan development as it addresses the issue of child healthcare. Essentially, the research explores the impact of parental support, structure as well as behavioral control on the usage of pediatric medical services like nonemergency care, emergency room visits as well as hospitalization. By establishing a connection between parental care and child safety, this paper offers significant insight into the lifespan development discourse. Like in the case of Kaufmann’s paper, Sebrin et al. places emphasis on the second developmental period of childhood. This is evidenced by the research sample of children between the age of 1 and 6 years as can be seen from the methodology section of the paper.

Consequently, the research is informed by an earlier multideterminant modelin the child development literature that hypothesizes aspects of parenting like parental support, structure, as well as control. According to this theoretical framework, parental support is the parent’s ability to have awareness and be responsible to the needs, states, and goals of their children while also remaining warm and respectful to them. This model argues that parental support leads to positive outcomes like greater psychological functioning and social competence. The second aspect of this model structure which refers to how parents offer a well-organized and consistent environment to their children. Earlier studies suggest that good parental structure leads to children’s competence, compliance and adjustment.The third element under the framework is ‘control’ which means actions towards children that direct their behavior towards standards that are both acceptable and age appropriate without being too punitive.

The third and final research paper is authored by Konnie and Alfred (2013). Like in the first paper, the research topic is relevant to the field of lifespan development as it addresses the relationship between parenting style and its impact of child social development. According to the child developmental stages, the onset of puberty indicates one’s transition into ‘adolescence’ stage. Like in the ‘childhood’ stage, children in this age strive to form their own identity. Unlike the child, however, adolescents tend to be more idealistic and complex in their thoughts. Thus, the research offers scholars and parents insight into how such development may be enhanced. Unlike in the first research journal by Kaufmann et al., this research emphasizes the adolescence phase as can be seen from the research sample size made up of 480 boys and girls in their teen age.

Like in the kaufmann research, this study was based on Baumind’s parenting typology of authoritative, authoritarian and permissive approaches. By using empirical data collection instruments like questionnaires and structured interviews, the study was able to establish that the parenting approach has considerable impact on the social development of students. The study further infers that authoritative parenting approach founded on reason, understanding, trust as well as consensus leads to pro-social traits whereas authoritarian parenting characterized by tough rules, threats and punishments leads to anti-social behavior.

Reflection

The information within the three research articles will be quite resourceful in helping scholars advance the body of knowledge in the field of lifespan development. The study by Kaufmann et al. (2000) adds yet another scope of knowledge to our comprehension of parental behaviors and attitudes in the second stage of development. Thus, the study will encourage future researchers to include data from other multiple angles. More importantly, it clears the way for future researchers to investigate all elements of the Baumind’s parenting typologies as noted in child development literature as well as their effect on children’s competence and emotional development.

As for the second paper, the findings offer an important revelation of how certain parenting practices may prove resourceful in helping to improve healthcare among children especially those whose parents belong to the lower economic cadre, as well as other population considered to be at risk. At present, there are numerous programs aimed at promoting parental support for the health of children. However, most of these programs focus on certain practices like the hygienic preparation of food and hand washing. Whereas the programs may have attained certain objectives in the past, it is apparent that sensitizing parents on other workable approaches may prove valuable for their children’s well-being.In this regard, health practitioners such as pediatrics and child developmental experts have the unique opportunity to create, enforce and conduct assessment on new programs that relate to their particular areas of specialization in parenting as well as child development. As can be noted from the article, children who come from families and neighborhoods considered poor are at a higher risk of suffering poor health. Event when they have a medical emergency, they still find it challenging to access the hospitals. These findings also offers them an opportunity to benefit immensely from the initiatives aimed at improving their parenting skills.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Kaufmann, D. et al. (2000). ‘The relationship between parenting style and children’s adjustment: the parents’ perspective’.Journal of Child and Family Studies, Vol. 9(2), pp. 231–245

Serbin, L. A. et al. (2014).‘The influence of parenting on early childhood health and health care utilization’.Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 39(10) pp. 1161–1174.

Konnie,M.M.  &Alfred,K. (2013).‘Influence of parenting styles on the social development of children’.Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Vol. 2 (3), Doi:10.5901/ajis.2013.v2n3p123

 

 

Pharmacology

November 25, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pharmacology

 

 

 

Name

University Details

Submission Date

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 1: Reliability ofPubMed Database

PubMed database uses sources from the U.S National database (Medline) for referencing. The U.S National Library contains over 19 million medicine sources of information. These sources include journal articles that are peer reviewed. Besides journal articles, the database contains information from newspapers, magazines and news articles. Therefore, students, scholars and other researchers in the field of nursing, nutrition, pharmacy, dentistry, veterinary science and public health easily access validated and up to date information from PubMed database. Additionally, this database is particularly helpful to users who are not familiar with searching online data given that it is easy to use. The database also allows a user to fine-tune his or her search so as to access information quickly.

Most importantly, PubMed database contains data that an advisory committee reviews. Furthermore, the National Institute of Health is responsible for the operation of the literature review committee given that it monitors its activities. Therefore, it is evident that PubMed database contains information that is credible giventhat it is peer reviewed and accredited. Besides sourcing its information from the National Institute of Health, the database contains literature from government agencies and non-governmental websites.

 Performance enhancing drugs

Performance enhancing drugs are medications that individuals consume with the main purpose of improving their physical performance. Individuals in sports, such as athletes, mainly consume the drugs with the expectations of boosting their energy levels. Individuals also refer to these drugs as doping agents. Performance enhancing drugs are classified according to the specific functions that they perform. For instance, they include human growth hormones, anabolic steroids, diuretics, androstenedione, erythropoietin, creatine, and stimulants.

Mostly, athletes take doses of anabolic-androgen or anabolic steroids so as to build up muscle strength and mass. Notably, these drugs contain a certain level of testosterone hormonesthat alters the normal functioning of the body. For example, steroids with anabolic effects contain mineral elements that aid in the growth of body muscles. Thus, athletes take these drugs to increase the rate at which their body muscles grow and also to maintain their body mass. Athletes may also take steroids with androgenic effects so as to enhance their male traits such as deepening of thevoice. Furthermore, individuals with a habit of indulging in vigorous activities take performance enhancing drugs not only to build muscles but also toaid in the quick healing of torn muscles.

The effectiveness of anabolic steroids

Health practitioners use anabolic steroids for medical purposes but in no way do they prescribe it as a medication that can boost athletes’ performance. Although the drugs have severe consequences on the users, athletes still use it to improve their performance. The drug boosts their energy as well as fasten the growth of body muscles, especially on the thighs, arms, legs, and chest sections. Additionally, intensive physical activities may at times lead to the wearing of muscles thus causing a decrease inbody mass. Individuals in sports consume performance enhancing drugs so as to help the body recover quickly from intensive physical activities. Thus, it is correct to state that anabolic steroids enhance athletic performance only for ashort while but they do not have a long-lasting effect.

Side effects of anabolic steroids

The habitual use of anabolic steroids may severely affect the health of an individual. Kidney failure is one of the health consequences of using steroids. Intake of the drugs results in the overworking of the kidneys which in turn lead to their inflammation. The kidneys overwork because body muscles increase at an abnormally high rate than the normal rate. Hence, they have to increase their rate of filtration which causesthe organ to strain. Additionally, health research institutes prohibit the use of anabolic steroids for performance enhancement reasons because they contain toxic elements that can harm the kidneys. Thus, both male and female athletes put their health at risk when they consume performance enhancing drugs.

Athletes face the challenge of stopping the usage of anabolic steroids because they contain addictive elements just like alcohol and tobacco. Also, steroid dependenceoccurs as a result of an athlete wanting to perform well. Thus, they heavily rely on the drugs to improve their performance. The individuals who decide to stop using the drugs may experience depression episodes. Hence, they may show aggression, withdraw from friends and family, become violent and even entertain suicidal thoughts. Both men and women who experience withdrawal symptoms may continue to have a diverse range of symptoms for several months. Also, men using steroids may experience difficultiesregarding sexual performance when they are not using the drugs.

Individuals who take anabolic steroids also experience hormonal imbalance. Steroids interrupt normal secretion of hormones thus affecting theproper functioning of the body. Hormonal changes can have irreversible or reversible effects to men or women. For example, men start producing lesser sperms than what they would produce when their bodies were normal. Additionally, some men experience the shrinking of testicles. These changes may affect the fertility of a man. An impotent man may develop complex psychological problems associated with depression, anxiety and self-esteem issues. Hormone imbalance can result in breast development which may affect the self-image of a man. Women, on the other hand, may develop male features such as growing too much hair on their legs and chest regions. They may also develop excessive muscles which may make them appear masculine.Androgenic drugs may cause male users to develop baldness as a result of hormonal imbalances. This change is irreversible.

Performance enhancing drugs affect the cardiovascular system. Excessive use of anabolic steroids increases the risk of myocardial infarction. Incidences of thrombus formation among patients with a habit of using steroids are common in health care systems. These patients also test positive for increased blood pressure. Patients who stop using the drugs resume normal health while those who insist on taking the drugs even after showing signs of cardiovascular problems increase their risks of getting heart-related diseases. Notably, individuals who use anabolic steroids rapidly experience thrombosis which heightens the chances of getting a heart attack that may result in sudden death. An athlete using steroids may also suffer from an increased stiffness of the left ventricular wall. The reason being that the blood vessels in this region increase in thickness due to the high levels of blood pressure.

Lastly, anabolic steroids harm soft body tissues and cause premature closure of the growth plate. Athletes who indulge in vigorous physical training while at the same time take performance enhancing drugs cause the tearing of connective tissues such as tendons. Although the drugs help in the formation of muscles, the rate at which these muscles grow and the intensity of a workout create an imbalance in the body function as connective tissues experience strain. Additionally, anabolic drugs affect the development of epiphyseal plates that are responsible for human growth. The usage of these drugs, especially among teenage athletes, results in the excessive release of estrogen which causes growth plate to close prematurely. Therefore, the users of these drugs may fail to grow accordingly.

Question 2: Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of Canada

IBD is a chronic condition that mainly affects the gastrointestinal tract. The characteristics of patients with Crohn’s disease differ from those with ulcerative colitis depending the location of the inflammation.

Crohn’s Disease

This disease is a chronic inflammatory health condition that affects the gastrointestinal tract.It affects any part of the gastrointestinal wall such as the mouth, ileum, perineum or the anus. At an advanced level, the Crohn’s disease can affect the skin, eyes or the joints. Patients with this condition normally experience symptoms such as diarrhea, rectal bleeding, fatigue, significant weight loss, and fecal incontinence. Crohn’s disease can cause morbidity at an advanced level especially if it goes unrecognized. Young people living in Western countries are at high risk of getting the disease. Particularly, the condition is prevalent among people who are schooling, working or are having a family. Research does not indicate clearly the causes of Crohn’s disease, but genetics and the environment play a role in the advancement of the disease. For instance, a person is likely to get the disease if he or she is closely related to a person with the disease. Environmental factors such as smoking and a poor diet heighten the risk of an individual suffering from the disease. Given that the disease is chronic, people suffering from it have to manage it through medication and living a healthy lifestyle.

Ulcerative Colitis

It is a chronic infection that involves the diffusion of mucosal inflammation in the colon region. The rectum is the most affected part of the gastrointestinal tract,but with time, the inflammation can spread in a circular manner to the rest of the large intestine. Patients with the condition usually complain of abdominal pains, suffer from diarrhea and hematochezia. In severe cases, patients experiencing diarrheas may spot blood stains in their stool. Cases of frequent bowel movement and weight loss are also common among such patients. Additionally, the advancement of ulcerative colitis may result in arthritic complications. Patients that develop this complication prior or after the disease feel pain in weight-bearingjoints such as ankles or knees. Ulcerative colitis is prevalent in Europe, the United States, and other developed countries. It is, however, less prevalent among the underdeveloped states. Females tend to be the most affected group as opposed to males. Notably, it is common among young adults. Environmental factors such as cigarette smoking, oral contraceptives, and poor diet cause the condition. Thus, patients are usually put on medication to manage the condition given that it is chronic.

Collagenous colitis

It is also a type of IBD that involves colon inflammation. The damaging and thickening of connective tissuescomprising of bones, tendons and skin cause collagenous colitis. The affected area is similar to that of ulcerative colitis, but it slightly differs given that the last portion of the bowels next to the anus is affected. The main symptom of the disease is watery diarrhea. Notably, patients with this symptom do not release blood-stained stool. Collagenous colitis is incurable just like the other IBDsbut patients who strictly observe their diet and take medications according to the doctor’s prescription always manage to contain the disease.

Lymphocytic colitis

Research indicates a close similarity between collagenous and lymphocytic colitis given that they affect the same region of the body, the colon, and show similar symptoms. It is yet to be proven if it is true that the two conditions are the same only that they occur in different stages of inflammation. The build-up of the immune system cells, lymphocytes, causeLymphocytic colitis. Similar to collagenous colitis, patients with lymphocytic colitis experience chronic watery diarrhea that does not contain pus or blood stains. Also, patients suffering from the condition may be unable to contain bowel movements and may experience bloating or stomach discomfort. Fatigue is a common symptom of the disease given that patients lose much water from frequent diarrhea.  The disease is, however, non-contagious.

The role of Vitamin D in IBD

The intake of Vitamin D helps in the prevention of collagenous colitis because it strengthens bones. Additionally, patients with ulcerative colitis tend to have low vitamin D thus the nutrient helps to reduce inflammation. Furthermore, apatient who takes adequate levels of Vitamin D regulates their body immunity. Likewise, patients with Crohn’s disease register health improvement if they take vitamin D. Patients can take this nutrient in the form of supplements,food or fromsunlight.

Question 3: REMICADE

 REMICADE Administration

Remicade is a medication given to IBD-relatedailments such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and psoriatic arthritis. Based on theinformation retrieved from the Remicade (infliximab) official website, the doctor administers the drug through intravenous infusion. The process of administration takes approximately two hours. The patient receives the medication through a needle that the doctor places in a vein in his or her arm. Depending on the situation of the patient, the doctor decides whether to administer medication before initiating the process. The doctor also determines the right dosage for the patient depending on their unique cases. For instance, patients with Crohn’s disease will take 5mg/Kg daily then after two weeks, six weeks and lastly after eight weeks. Patients losing their response after adhering to this medication may be allowed to increase their dosage upto 10mg/Kg. For the ulcerative colitis, patients take 5mg/Kg daily, then after two weeks, after six weeks and after every eight weeks. The correct form of administering the dose for intravenous infusion should be 100mg of lyophilized infliximab ina 20 mL vial. During the administration of the drug, a healthcare professional should constantly monitor the patient to detect the development of any side effects. In particular, the physician can conduct several tests to identify any side effects.

Patients should check out for the following:

Patients taking REMICADE medication have to be very cautious of developing health complications because they affect the normal function of the drug. Case in point, patients over the age of 65 are vulnerable to serious infections as they receive medication because of a low body immunity. These patients, therefore, have to be watchful of signs and symptoms such as fever, fatigue,cough, painful skin or development of flu-like symptoms.Patients ought to report this observation to their doctors as soon as possible so that they can test for tuberculosis.

Patients with a condition called congestive heart failure also have to report their case to the doctors so as to facilitate a closer observation of their health by the health care practitioners.The reason being that the condition may worsen during REMICADE medication. Some of the signs and symptoms that a patient should note include shortness of breath, gaining weight suddenly and swelling of ankles or feet.

Lastly, patients taking REMICADE may develop allergic reactions,and their severity may differ. The allergies can develop during the medication or afterward. Patients are therefore urged to check out for common signs and symptoms such as itchy and red skin patches, difficulties in breathing, low or high blood pressure, fever, chills or chest pains. Noteworthy, these signs occur immediately after a doctor puts the patient on medication. On the other hand, delayed allergies include either or more signs that take place between three to twelve days after drug administration. For instance, a patient may experience fever, rash, headache, sore throat, joint ache difficulty in swallowing food or saliva and swelling of the face or hands.

Statistics on the status of osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a disorder that affects the skeletal muscles by reducing the density of the bones and making them vulnerable to fracture. The disease is mainly dominant inolder women than men. However, it affects children, adolescents, young adults and middle-aged individuals. Thus, risk factors for osteoporosis include advanced age, past fracture incidences,cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption as well as bone depleting medications.

Statistics indicate that 10% of Canadians of forty years and above suffer from osteoporosis (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2009). Out of the 1.5 million (10%) individuals, the percentage of women was four times higher than that of men. 21% of the women suffering from osteoporosis had a history of bone fracture after reaching 40 years old. Notably, areas that were most affected included the wrist, spine, hip and the pelvis.

59% of Canadians with osteoporosis are under medication. Less than 50% of 40-year-olds and above Canadians ailing from osteoporosis indulge in routine physical activities. Additionally, only 40% of them take calcium and 42% take Vitamin D. These statistics indicates that a huge population of Canadians is not getting medication for osteoporosis while only a few percentage of those people under medication aretaking their treatments seriously.

Canadian individuals of 40 years and above that have never undergone osteoporosis test are at a high risk of osteoporotic fracture. 29% of these people were women that aged 50 years while 33% comprised of men over 50 years old.  15% of these individuals weighed below 60Kg while 12 reported drinking alcohol on a daily basis. Thus, the statistics imply that a big number of Canadians are at high risk of getting osteoporosis.

Furthermore, only 47% of Canadians over 65 years have gone for bone density screening. Only one out of two Canadians with a history of arm, wrist, hip, pelvis, and spine regions have gone for bone density tests. Hence, it is evident that a majority of Canadians at risk of osteoporosis are not undergoing screening.

Lastly, statistics indicates that about 8% of Canadians have a history of fractured wrist, upper arm, hip and spine after 40 years. It is usually a health complication brought about by osteoporosis. 63% of the reported cases were anupper arm and spinal fractures consecutively. Additionally, 9% of the Canadians also reported of fractures in more than one place. This statistics, therefore, indicates that older people are at high risk of the disorder.

Question 5

  1. Five Vitamins

Folate

Niacin

Vitamin A

Vitamin B12

Vitamin D

  1. Specific Uses

Folate

Folate forms part of the essential types of vitamin B that play significant roles in the synthesis of nucleic acids such as DNA. Besides they production of nucleic acid, Folate also plays important roles related to cell division and the generation of amino acids. Specifically, folate is crucial to the proper development of the skull, spine, and brain of a fetus in the first weeks of pregnancy. In addition to facilitating the healthy development of the fetus, folate benefits pregnant women by expanding not only their blood volume but also growing fetal and maternal tissues. The Canadian Food Guide recommends enough intake of folate among women of a childbearing age to prevent complications and defects related to the neural tube. Anencephaly and spina bifida are the common neural defects associated with folate deficiency in the contemporary world. Increased folate intake in addition to higher RBC folate concentrations decreases the risk of the fetus developing neural tube defects.

Niacin

Similar to folate, niacin, at times referred to as vitamin B3 is essential for the general well-being of the body. Specifically, niacin lowers risks related to the cardiovascular systems besides improving the levels of cholesterol. The use of niacin as a cholesterol supplement is on the increase due to its efficiency in lowering the levels of triglycerides. In addition to reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases through reduced levels of cholesterol, niacin helps minimize the development of atherosclerosis. Niacin helps harden the arteries, therefore, lessening the development of atherosclerosis. The intake of niacin among persons that have suffered a heart attack is important because it lowers the risk of a second occurrence. Sufficient intake of vitamin B3 minimizes the possibility of pellagra, a niacin deficiency associated disease. Medical practitioners utilize niacin for the treatment of health complications such as type 1 diabetes, cataracts, and Alzheimer’s disease.

Vitamin A

Over the years, physicians have associated the sufficient intake of vitamin A with improved eyesight and vision. Apparently, deficiencies related to the intake of vitamin A can result in visual problems due to the absence of retinal. Retinal usually combines with opsin to produce rhodopsin, which is an essential light absorbing component for color vision. Besides improved eye vision, vitamin A plays a crucial role in the maintenance of a robust immune system. Sufficient intake of vitamin A boosts the growth of cells. Specifically, vitamin A stimulates the production of retinoic acid that enhances the growth of epithelial body cells. Just like folate, Vitamin A in the form of retinoic acid is a crucial element for the transcription of genes. Retinoic acid maintains skin health through the activation of genes that enhance the development of undeveloped cells into mature epidermal cells.

Vitamin B12

The use of Vitamin B12 as a supplement is extensive. For instance, physicians recommend the oral intake of Vitamin B12 to treat conditions related to its low levels in the body. The oral intake of vitamin B12 also helps manage complications related to pernicious anemia among the elderly. Vitamin B12 boosts memory by treating Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, medical practitioners encourage sufficient intake of Vitamin B12 because it stimulates body functions related to the cognitive and immune system. Vitamin B12 is an efficient heart disease treatment in addition to slowing aging. Clinicians associate the mouth ingestion of Vitamin B12 supplements with the treatment of Lou Gehrig’s disease. Adequate consumption of vitamin B12 reduces the probability of developing age-related macular degeneration, a condition characterized by excessive production of the thyroid hormone. The application of vitamin B12 to the skin helps in the treatment of eczema and psoriasis conditions.

Vitamin D

Principally, vitamin D is associated with the treatment and prevention of rickets, a condition connected with its deficiency. In addition to preventing and treating rickets, Vitamin D enhances the development of healthy bones through the treatment of osteoporosis and osteomalacia. The vitamin also helps treat bone loss in persons with fragile or easily broken skeletons. Sufficient intake of Vitamin D promotes good health among individuals with kidney failure because it prevents low calcium and bone loss. Besides skeletal conditions, Vitamin D helps in the treatment of heart and blood vessels illnesses associated with high cholesterol and HBP. The vitamin also treats obesity, COPD, muscle weaknesses, diabetes, arthritis, bronchitis, and asthma. The fact that vitamin D regulates the levels of minerals indicates its significance in the treatment of diseases related to low concentrations of phosphorus and calcium.

Question 6

Current Vitamin D Recommendations

The adversities associated with excessive intake of vitamin D necessitated the development of recommendations that guide its consumption in the general population. Excessive intake of vitamin D not related to sun exposure can result in a condition commonly referred to as hypervitaminosis D or intoxication. Conditions related to vitamin D intoxication lead to not only to hypercalcemia but also cardiovascular and renal damage. Notably, the government recommends the use of Serum 250HD as a marker of vitamin D nutrition. Apparently, the circulation of serum 250HD levels is the best available indicator of the net incoming contributions related to foods and supplements. The standard of serum 250HD serves as biomarker exposure because it reflects the supply of vitamin D to the body. Serum 250HD is also a valuable adjunct in the examination of the intake level of vitamin D.

The use of 250HD levels as a vitamin D nutrition marker raises significant concerns related to its efficiency as a biomarker element. Critics question the probability of 250HD levels relating to health outcomes via a central pathway. Additionally, they examine the possibility of 250HD levels serving as predictors of similar outcomes. Regardless of the endless criticism regarding the use of 250HD levels as biomarker element, it is still a significant consideration in the development of DRI values for the intake of vitamin D. Factors such as dietary intake, and sun exposure affects the levels of serum 250HD concentrations in the body.

The current recommendations classify foods such as red meat, egg yolks, fortified cereals, oily fish, and liver as good sources of vitamin D. In addition to the foods as noted above, the government recommends dietary supplements as another excellent source of vitamin D. Babies of between ages 0-1 years require approximately 8.5-10 micrograms of vitamins daily. On the other hand, their one year and above counterparts and adults need around ten micrograms daily for the proper functioning of the body. Pregnant and lactating mothers also need similar amounts of vitamin D. In addition to the daily intakes of vitamin D, the department of health recommends the consumption of supplements among babies of ages 0-1 years. Apparently, children require daily supplements of 8.5 to 10 micrograms to ensure sufficiency. Similarly, the department disapproves the intake of vitamin D supplement among children receiving infant formula. Apparently, infant formula is fortified with vitamin D.

The department recommends the intake of daily supplements of 10 mg among children of ages 1-4 years. Adults and children of ages five years and above should take more supplements because it is hard for them to get enough vitamin D from naturally occurring foods. Despite the government recommending the fortification of vitamin D in other food, the department of health recommends the intake of vitamin D supplements among adult populations. Specifically, the department recommends the consumption of daily supplements containing around ten micrograms of vitamin D for healthy body functioning. For persons with limited or no exposure to sunshine, the department of health commends the consumption of daily ten micrograms of vitamin D supplements.  The department classifies this particular group of persons as those that are frail, institutionalized or wear clothing that cover most of their skin.

In addition to providing guidelines that direct the consumption of vitamin D supplements among children and adults, the department warns about excessive intake. Apparently, excessive intake of vitamin D over long periods can result in hypercalcemia, a condition in which the body absorbs more calcium than it can excrete. High levels of calcium in the body not only damage the heart and kidneys but also weaken bones. Persons that consume more than 100 micrograms of vitamin D supplements daily risk the development of hypercalcemia. Children of ages 1-10 should not consume more than 50 micrograms daily. Similarly, infants of less than one year should not have more than 25 micrograms. For persons with medical conditions that limit their intake of vitamin D supplements, adequate consultation with physicians is essential. Doctors may recommend the consumption of different types and amounts of supplement.

Question 7

Summary

Over the last few years, bisphosphonates group of drugs have been undergoing a broad range of safety reviews. Medical practitioners utilize this class of medication in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.  Apparently, the ongoing safety reviews resulted from the drugs’ connection with increased risk of a rare but severe type of bone fractures related to the thigh. The government of Canada through its health department desires to inform the public and healthcare professionals regarding the safety concerns associated with the use of bisphosphonate group of drugs. Canada’s reviews will encompass considerations of the labeling change recently communicated by the U.S FDA. According to the U.S FDA, bisphosphonates hinder the loss of bone mass in persons suffering from osteoporosis.  However, its continued use in periods longer than five years may result in fractures.

Scientific reports have suggested connections between continued consumption of bisphosphonates with a bone condition commonly denoted as atypical femur fracture. Specifically, recent reports by the ASBMR indicated the link as noted earlier. Based on the findings of the report, these rare and severe bone fractures often occur in both the general population and patients under bisphosphonate therapy. However, the risk of this rare condition increases among persons using bisphosphonate group of drugs. The risk is especially high after several years of treatment. The use of bisphosphonate is great among post-menopausal women and senior men. In addition to postmenopausal women, bisphosphonates prevent the development of osteoporosis among patients under glucocorticoids therapy.

As mentioned earlier, bisphosphonates is a class of drugs that encompasses a broad range of brand names. The commonly recognized brand names in Canada include Didrocal, Actonel, Fosamax, and Aclasta. The accessibility of the generic forms of Didrocal, Actonel, and Fosamax drugs is unrestricted in Canada. However, the government of Canada restricts the use of Aclasta in either original or generic form. Practitioners associate osteoporosis with aging. The condition usually results in disability, painful fractures, and deformity due to the loss of bone density. Regardless of the recent concerns associating the use of bisphosphonates with atypical femur fractures, the therapy has proved efficient in the management of osteoporosis among the elderly.

Notably, the health department of Canada is yet to restrict the use of bisphosphonates in the management of osteoporosis because its benefits outweigh its risks. When utilized according to the recommendations of the Canadian Product Monographs, the health benefits of bisphosphonate are extensive. Health Canada is yet to identify new information regarding the safe use of bisphosphonate that limits its potential hazards. If the Canadian Heath Department identifies new safety information, the government will undertake appropriate measures desired to inform the general public and health practitioners about the necessary course of action. Health Canada classifies unusual pain in the hip or groin areas to be the common signs of possible thigh bone fractures. The department encourages patients under bisphosphonate therapy that experience this kind of a pain to consult medical professionals for further tests.

Question 8

  1. Concerns of Supplemental Calcium

Health Canada has been undertaking reviews aimed at ascertaining the benefits and hazards associated with the intake of calcium supplements. Undoubtedly, calcium forms part of the essential minerals that enhances body processes related to the building of bones and other tissues necessary for proper body functioning. Typically, early adulthood marks the development point of bones because they reach their thickest and largest size during this period. After reaching their maximum development stage, bones become thinner gradually. The thinning of bones accelerates around the age of menopause among women. Therefore, adults require around 1000 to 1200 micrograms of calcium daily for healthy body functioning. A calcium deficit will occur if the body fails to get enough minerals from the foods consumed. These deficits force the body to remove calcium from the bones to facilitate the proper functioning of other tissues. Continued calcium deficiencies result in osteopenia, a condition characterized by the gradual thinning of bones. In severe cases, continued calcium deficits lead to osteoporosis, an illness that makes bones fragile.

Notably, not everyone can achieve the daily requirement of calcium, which necessitates supplementation. The supplementation of calcium may as well demand the intake of supplemental vitamin D to enhance the absorption of calcium and phosphorus that are essential for healthy bones. In spite of facilitating the development of healthy bones, calcium supplements have been associated with increased risks of heart attack among healthy senior women. Health Canada issued a communication about a report published in the British Medical Journal. Apparently, the report demonstrated a probable connection between calcium supplementation and increased occurrence of cardiovascular events among osteoporosis patients. Specifically, the British Journal termed calcium supplementation without supplemental vitamin D as hazardous.

After reviewing this study regarding its strengths and limitations, Health Canada established some inconsistencies between cardiovascular risks and calcium supplementation. However, the department assures the public of continued evaluations with the emergence of new data to take necessary actions desired to enhance the well-being of Canadians. According to Health Canada, calcium supplementation reduces complications related to bone loss. Similarly, these supplements lessen the risk of the development of osteoporosis during adulthood. The government regulates the intake of calcium through DRIs that ensure safe upper-level consumption and sufficient intake. Calcium DRIs are currently under review by an independent organization to examine the modern scientific evidence in relation to update measures. Health Canada anticipates the findings of the IOM study to assess and make necessary adjustments related to the currently recommended consumption levels of calcium.

Reliable calculation of the estimated daily consumption of calcium depends on the quantity and types of foods consumed in a typical week. As discussed earlier, calcium is not only essential for the development of healthy bones but also for overall good health. Physicians utilize the calcium food calculator to determine the amount of calcium in certain foods. The calculator also plays a significant role in the determination of the amount of calcium required for the proper functioning of the body. Moreover, the calcium calculator informs physicians about the procedures required during supplementation. Notably, the calcium calculator consists of questions related to a number of calcium nutrients patients get from different foods. Issues related to the gender, age, and the amount of calcium consumed are essential for the efficient calculation of the number of minerals consumed. After answering background-related questions, patients enter the servings of food they consume daily to ascertain the amount of calcium they possess. Physicians click the calculate button to determine the total amount of calcium required and compare it to the patients’ daily consumption. Clinicians often recommend calcium supplementation in the case of deficiency.

The amount of calcium supplements consumed depends on the age of the patients. For instance, children of ages 1-3 years consume 500 micrograms of calcium daily. Their 4-8 years counterparts take 800 micrograms while adolescents aged 18 years and below take 1300 micrograms, the highest amount. Adults of ages 19-50 take 1,000 mg, while their 51 and above counterparts consume 1,200 micrograms. Notably, the calcium supplement intake of pregnant and lactating teens differs from that of adults of the same category. Precisely, pregnant and breastfeeding teens consume around 1, 300 micrograms of calcium daily. On the other hand, their adult counterparts consume 1,000 micrograms. The intake recommendations as noted above denote the minimum consumption for each of the groups.

Health Canada also provides the maximum limits of calcium desirable for persons of all ages. Apparently, most people do not get amounts exceeding the classified upper limits alone. Clinicians often associate excessive intakes with the consumption of calcium supplements. At the maximum, birth to 6 months, babies should consume 1, 000 micrograms of calcium. Their 7-12 months and 1-8 years counterparts should ingest 1, 500 mg and 2,500 mg respectively. The consumption of supplements is expressly high among teenagers of ages 9-18 years because they require a significant amount of calcium for proper bone development. Their recommended upper limit is 3, 000mg. Similarly, adults of ages 19-50 years take substantially large quantities of calcium supplements. They consume 2, 500 mg while their counterparts of ages 51 and above consume 2, 000. Pregnant and breastfeeding teens and adults ingest 3,000 and 2, 500 mg supplements daily.

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

Public Health Agency of Canada. (2009). The impact of osteoporosis in Canada and what are Canadians doing to maintain healthy bones. Retrieved from Public Health Agency of Canada website: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/cd-mc/osteoporosis-osteoporose/pdf/osteoporosis.pdf

 

 

The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status Composite and A Student’s Mathematics Identity from the High School Longitudinal Study data set Student Name Institution

November 24, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status Composite and A Student’s Mathematics Identity from the High School Longitudinal Study data set

 

Student Name

Institution

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This paper seeks to establish the relationship between socioeconomic status composite and a student’s Mathematics identity from High School Longitudinal Study data set. The research question is whether high-school students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have high Mathematics identity scores compared to students from high socioeconomic backgrounds.

Null Hypothesis: High-school students from low socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have high Mathematics identity scores compared to students from high socioeconomic backgrounds. The T1 socio-economic status composite variable is the independent variable and is measured on an interval scale, while the T1 Scale of Student’s Mathematics identity is the dependent variable, and is measured on an interval scale.

To determine the relationship between the T1 socio-economic status composite and the T1 Scale of Student’s Mathematics identity, a Pearson correlation was conducted, and it  showed a weak positive correlation between T1 socio-economic status composite and T1 Scale of Student’s Mathematics identity, which was statistically significant, r(21157) = .139, p < .000.

A bivariate linear regression analysis was also used to test if the T1 socio-economic status composite significantly predicted the T1 Scale of Student’s Mathematics identity. A significant regression equation was found (F(1,21157) = 417.47, p <.000), with an R2 of 0.019.  The students’ predicted Mathematics identity scores are .028 + .179 (Socio-economic status composite). The students’ predicted Mathematics identity scores increased .179 for every unit increase in the socio-economic status composite. This model explains 1.9% of the variance.

These findings imply that indeed there exist performance gaps, which are partially determined by the socio-economic status of the students. For instance, the values and beliefs assigned to the subject affect the attitudes of the students and teachers, thus influencing the socially reconstructed Mathematics identity (Fox & Larke, 2015).  Therefore, in addressing the issue of academic achievement among students from different socio-economic backgrounds, it is important to analyze achievement different as they relate to social and economic conditions of the students.

References

Fox, B. L., & Larke, P. J. (2015). Socioeconomic Status and Mathematics: A Critical Examination of Mathematics Performance in Grades Three through Eight by Mathematical Objective. MLET: The Journal of Middle Level Education in Texas1(1), 1.

Appendices

Appendix 1

Table 1: Pearson’s Correlation Results

Correlations
    T1 Socio-economic status composite T1 Scale of student’s mathematics identity
T1 Socio-economic status composite Pearson Correlation 1 .139**
Sig. (2-tailed)   .000
N 21444 21159
T1 Scale of student’s mathematics identity Pearson Correlation .139** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000  
N 21159 21159
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).  

 

Appendix 2: Bivariate Linear Regression Results

 

Table 2: Model Summary

Model Summaryb
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .139a .019 .019 .99402
a. Predictors: (Constant), T1 Socio-economic status composite
b. Dependent Variable: T1 Scale of student’s Mathematics identity

 

Table 3: F-Statistic

ANOVAb
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 412.489 1 412.489 417.469 .000a
Residual 20904.612 21157 .988    
Total 21317.101 21158      
a. Predictors: (Constant), T1 Socio-economic status composite  
b. Dependent Variable: T1 Scale of student’s Mathematics identity  

 

Table 4: Model Coefficients

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. 95% Confidence Interval for B
B Std. Error Beta Lower Bound Upper Bound
1 (Constant) .028 .007   4.061 .000 .014 .041
T1 Socio-economic status composite .179 .009 .139 20.432 .000 .162 .196
a. Dependent Variable: T1 Scale of student’s Mathematics identity        

 

 

 

 

Testing for multiple regression

November 24, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Testing for multiple regression

Name:

Institution:

 

 

 

Testing for multiple regression

Introduction

From the Afro-barometer dataset, this study aimed at testing the effect of countries present economy and the complications in the politics and government on the fear of crime at homes using multiple regression technique.

Research question

Does of countries present economy and the complications in the politics and government impact on the fear of crime at homes?

Hypotheses

Null hypothesis: Fear of crime at homes is not influenced by countries present economy and the complications in the politics and government.

Alternative hypothesis: Fear of crime at homes is influenced by countries present economy and the complications in the politics and government.

Analysis results and discussions

The regression model summary yielded an R-squared value 0.010 implying that the model fit was poor. The r-square value implied that 1.0% of the variations in the fear of crime at homes were explained by the complications in politics and government, and the countries present economic condition.

Summary of the Model analysis
Model R value R Square Adjusted R Square Standard Error
1 .100a .010 .010 1.175
a. Predictors: (Constant), Q16. Politics and government too complicated, Q3a. Country’s present economic condition

The results of the ANOVA yielded an F-statistic value equal to 244.043 with a significance value equal to 0.00. This implied that the model was statistically effective.

ANOVA results
Model SS Degrees of freedom MS F-stat Signf.
  Regression 673.645 2 336.823 244.043 .000b
Residual 66394.878 48106 1.380    
Total 67068.523 48108      
a. Dependent Variable: Q9b. How often feared crime in home
b. Predictors: (Constant), Q16. Politics and government too complicated, Q3a. Country’s present economic condition

 

The summary of the results of the coefficient analysis yielded values equal to 0.966, -0.095 and -0.005 representing coefficients of the model constant, country’s present economic condition and complications in politics and government.

Coefficients
Model Unstandardized Coeff Standardized Coeff t-stat Signf.
B(coeff) Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) .966 .015   64.571 .000
Q3a. Country’s present economic condition -.095 .004 -.100 -21.952 .000
Q16. Politics and government too complicated -.005 .004 -.006 -1.287 .198
a. Dependent Variable: Q9b. How often feared crime in home

 

The t-statistics associated with the coefficients of the regression terms were equal to -21.952 and -1.287 with significant values of 0.000 and 0.198 for the country’s present economic condition and complications in politics and government. Clearly the probability value associated with country’s present economic condition was less than 0.05 (5% alpha), hence, the study rejected the null hypothesis and concluded that Country’s present economic condition significantly influenced the fear of crime at homes. The absolute probability value associated with the complications in politics and government was equal to 1.98, greater than 0.05 (5% alpha), hence, the study failed to reject the null hypothesis and concluded that complications in the politics and government never influenced the fear of crime at homes (Berry & Feldman, 2014).

Recommendation

This study recommends that the society should embrace activities which aim at improving the countries’ economic condition since the study showed that good economic conditions reduced fear of crime at homes.

 

References

Berry, W. D., & Feldman, S. (2014). Multiple regression in practice. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.

 

 

 

Multiple regression

 

Name

 

Institution

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Multiple Regression

Research question

How well does family income in constant dollars predict the respondent’s prestige score?

Null Hypothesis

H0: Family income inconstant dollars is not a significant predictor of the respondent’sprestige score.

Research design

The research design used for this question is causal design. Causaldesign can be used to measure the impact a certain change has on an existing assumption (Labaree, 2016).

Dependent variable and how it is measured

The dependent variable for the study was the respondent’s prestige score.  The variable is measured using a ratio scale

Independent variable and how it is measured

The independent variable is family income in constant dollar. The variable is measured using a ratio scale

Control variables added in the model

The control variables added in the study included:

  • Age of respondent
  • Number of hours usually work a week
  • Respondent’s highest degree

Justification for adding the variables

The researcher was not particularly interested in the control variables but acknowledges some relationship to the dependent variable. Zhou’s (2005) study on occupational prestige uses college education and work hours as control variables, and this justifies their uses as control variables. The researcher was also interested in establishing whether the dependent variable can be controlled for age.

Significance and stregth of effect

From table 2 in the appendix section, since the p-value is less than 0.05 this means that the model has reached statistical significance. However, since the variable family income in constant dollars has a p-value of 0.794 as shown in Table 3. The independent variable is not significant in predicting the respondent’s prestige score. Therefore, the researcher did not find any significance.

Explanation and research question

Table 1 from the appendix shows that the Adjusted R Square is 0.364. This means that 36.4% of the variation in the dependent variable can be explained by the variation in the independent variables.  Table 3 also shows that only the variable respondent’s highest degree had a significant contribution to the model. Given this result, we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that family income does not predict prestige score

 

 

 

References

Labaree, R. (2016, October 21). Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Types of Research Designs. Retrieved October 24, 2016, from USC Libraries: http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/researchdesigns

Zhou, X. (2005). The Institutional Logic of Occupational Prestige Ranking: Reconceptualization and Reanalyses1. American Journal of Sociology, 90-140.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix

Table 1

 

Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .659a .434 .364 10.343
a. Predictors: (Constant), RS HIGHEST DEGREE, NUMBER OF HOURS USUALLY WORK A WEEK, AGE OF RESPONDENT, FAMILY INCOME IN CONSTANT DOLLARS

 

Table 2

 

ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 2628.403 4 657.101 6.142 .001b
Residual 3423.489 32 106.984    
Total 6051.892 36      
a. Dependent Variable: Rs occupational prestige score (2010)
b. Predictors: (Constant), RS HIGHEST DEGREE, NUMBER OF HOURS USUALLY WORK A WEEK, AGE OF RESPONDENT, FAMILY INCOME IN CONSTANT DOLLARS

Table 3

 

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 24.578 10.190   2.412 .022
FAMILY INCOME IN CONSTANT DOLLARS -1.239E-005 .000 -.048 -.263 .794
AGE OF RESPONDENT .074 .146 .079 .508 .615
NUMBER OF HOURS USUALLY WORK A WEEK .211 .157 .202 1.340 .190
RS HIGHEST DEGREE 5.980 1.446 .628 4.134 .000
a. Dependent Variable: Rs occupational prestige score (2010)

 

 

 

 

Multiple regression

November 24, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

Multiple regression

 

Name

 

Institution

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Multiple Regression

Research question

How well does family income in constant dollars predict the respondent’s prestige score?

Null Hypothesis

H0: Family income inconstant dollars is not a significant predictor of the respondent’sprestige score.

Research design

The research design used for this question is causal design. Causaldesign can be used to measure the impact a certain change has on an existing assumption (Labaree, 2016).

Dependent variable and how it is measured

The dependent variable for the study was the respondent’s prestige score.  The variable is measured using a ratio scale

Independent variable and how it is measured

The independent variable is family income in constant dollar. The variable is measured using a ratio scale

Control variables added in the model

The control variables added in the study included:

  • Age of respondent
  • Number of hours usually work a week
  • Respondent’s highest degree

Justification for adding the variables

The researcher was not particularly interested in the control variables but acknowledges some relationship to the dependent variable. Zhou’s (2005) study on occupational prestige uses college education and work hours as control variables, and this justifies their uses as control variables. The researcher was also interested in establishing whether the dependent variable can be controlled for age.

Significance and stregth of effect

From table 2 in the appendix section, since the p-value is less than 0.05 this means that the model has reached statistical significance. However, since the variable family income in constant dollars has a p-value of 0.794 as shown in Table 3. The independent variable is not significant in predicting the respondent’s prestige score. Therefore, the researcher did not find any significance.

Explanation and research question

Table 1 from the appendix shows that the Adjusted R Square is 0.364. This means that 36.4% of the variation in the dependent variable can be explained by the variation in the independent variables.  Table 3 also shows that only the variable respondent’s highest degree had a significant contribution to the model. Given this result, we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that family income does not predict prestige score

 

 

 

References

Labaree, R. (2016, October 21). Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Types of Research Designs. Retrieved October 24, 2016, from USC Libraries: http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/researchdesigns

Zhou, X. (2005). The Institutional Logic of Occupational Prestige Ranking: Reconceptualization and Reanalyses1. American Journal of Sociology, 90-140.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix

Table 1

 

Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .659a .434 .364 10.343
a. Predictors: (Constant), RS HIGHEST DEGREE, NUMBER OF HOURS USUALLY WORK A WEEK, AGE OF RESPONDENT, FAMILY INCOME IN CONSTANT DOLLARS

 

Table 2

 

ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 2628.403 4 657.101 6.142 .001b
Residual 3423.489 32 106.984    
Total 6051.892 36      
a. Dependent Variable: Rs occupational prestige score (2010)
b. Predictors: (Constant), RS HIGHEST DEGREE, NUMBER OF HOURS USUALLY WORK A WEEK, AGE OF RESPONDENT, FAMILY INCOME IN CONSTANT DOLLARS

Table 3

 

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 24.578 10.190   2.412 .022
FAMILY INCOME IN CONSTANT DOLLARS -1.239E-005 .000 -.048 -.263 .794
AGE OF RESPONDENT .074 .146 .079 .508 .615
NUMBER OF HOURS USUALLY WORK A WEEK .211 .157 .202 1.340 .190
RS HIGHEST DEGREE 5.980 1.446 .628 4.134 .000
a. Dependent Variable: Rs occupational prestige score (2010)

 

 

 

 

Multiple Regression Analysis

November 24, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Multiple Regression Analysis

Name

Name of Institution

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research question

Are the following statistically significant predictors of a student’s math self-efficacy?

  1. sex
  2. number of years math teacher has taught high school math
  3. belief about usefulness of math in everyday life
  4. belief that most people can learn to be good at math

 

Results

The results are presented in the tables below.

 

Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Change Statistics
R Square Change F Change df1 df2 Sig. F Change
1 .413a .170 .170 .91765 .170 726.198 4 14157 .000
a. Predictors: (Constant), T1 Student’s sex, Years math teacher has taught high school math, Teenager thinks math is useful for everyday life, Most people can learn to be good at math

 

ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 2446.067 4 611.517 726.198 .000b
Residual 11921.327 14157 .842    
Total 14367.394 14161      
a. Dependent Variable: T2 Scale of student’s mathematics self-efficacy
b. Predictors: (Constant), T1 Student’s sex, Years math teacher has taught high school math, Teenager thinks math is useful for everyday life, Most people can learn to be good at math

 

A total of 14162 cases were analysed in this study. The model summary results show that sex, number of years math teacher has taught high school math, belief about usefulness of math in everyday life, and belief that anybody can learn, and the belief that anybody can learn to be good at math are a statistically significant predictor of a student’s math self-efficacy in students, with R = .170, p < .001. Thus, 17.0% of the variance in self-efficacy is explained by these factors. Further, the ANOVA test confirms that the predictor variables are statistically significant predictors of a student’s self-efficacy for mathematics, with F(4, 14157) = 726.198, p < .001.

 

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. 95.0% Confidence Interval for B
B Std. Error Beta Lower Bound Upper Bound
1 (Constant) -1.855 .050   -37.255 .000 -1.953 -1.758
Years math teacher has taught high school math .004 .001 .032 4.214 .000 .002 .006
Most people can learn to be good at math .398 .012 .274 34.409 .000 .375 .421
Teenager thinks math is useful for everyday life .308 .011 .225 28.315 .000 .287 .329
T1 Student’s sex -.164 .015 -.082 -10.635 .000 -.195 -.134
a. Dependent Variable: T2 Scale of student’s mathematics self-efficacy

 

The coefficients table above shows that each of the independent variable is a statistical significant predictor of a student’s math self-efficacy. The model summary is as follows:

Math self-efficacy = -1.855 + 0.004 (years math teacher has taught high school math) + 0.398 (level of belief that most people can learn math) + 0.308 (belief that math is useful for everyday life) – 0.164 (Female)

The model summary shows that for every year increase in the number of years math teacher has taught high school math, we expect 0.004 unit increase in the level of a student’s math self-efficacy. Though the number of years math teacher has taught math in high school is a significant predictor of math self-efficacy, it accounts for a very small positive change. For every increase in the level of belief that most people can learn math, we expect 0.398 unit increase in the level of a student’s math self-efficacy. Similarly, for every increase in the level of belief that math is useful for everyday life, we expect 0.308 unit increase in the level of a student’s math self-efficacy. Finally, being female is associated with 0.164 unit decrease in the level of a student’s math self-efficacy.

These results provide knowledge for improving math self-efficacy among students. First, study shows the need to encourage girls to like math and believe that they can do well in mathematics. Second, it shows that students need to be encouraged that anybody can do well in mathematics so that they can understand that math is not a preserve of a specific group of students. Three, students need to be made to understand that math is useful for their everyday life.

 

 

Statistics

November 24, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Statistics

Name

Institution

 

 

 

 

 

 

Why did the authors use multiple regression?

The author used multiple regression because they wanted to comprehend the role that independent or individual predictor variables played in the regression (Maxwell, 2000). As such, it becomes easier for the author to understand the relationship that exists between several predictor or independent variables and the criterion or dependent variables. Thus, it was possible to build the regression line and construct a graph, which clear depicts the nature and relationship of the involved variables.
Do you think its the most appropriate choice? Why or why not?

Multiple regression was the most appropriate choice. This is because multiple regression helped the author to answer the general question “which is the best predictor of …?” As such, the author had an opportunity to comprehend how the dependent variable was related to multiple independent variables. The outcome of this is making an accurate prediction of the existence of things as they are displayed.
Did the authors display the data?

The author has displayed the data in an effective manner. The data is displayed in both tabular and graphical means. As such, the reader of the article is able to associate with the formulated hypothesis and develop an analytical and critical thinking of the displayed data. The display of the data also helps in understanding why the authors had to conduct the study.
Do the results stand alone? Why or why not?

The results stand alone. This is because these results add to existing statistical knowledge and insights on multiple regression. The article provides methods, which can be effectively used in the entire process of calculating the effect sizes in multiple regression. The results also indicate how the exchangeability structure can be achieved among the predictor variables. Thus, interested personnel in the field of statistics will find this article very resourceful.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Maxwell, S. (2000). Sample size and multiple regression analysis. Psychological methods. Vol.

5, No. 4, 434-458.

 

Statistics Assignment

November 24, 2016

 

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[Date]

Statistics Assignment

First Scenario

Is there a relationship between trust in police and presence of democracy? The independent variable is presence of democracy (DEMOCRACY_DICH) while the dependent variable is trust in police (Q59h, trust in police). Both variables are categorical variables. The null and alternative hypotheses can be stated as follows:

Null: There is no relationship between trust in police and presence of democracy;

Alternative: There is relationship between trust in police and presence of democracy.

Results suggest that there is indeed a relationship between trust in police and presence of democracy, since the calculated p-value (0.000) is less than 0.05, the accepted level of significance (refer to Table 2 in the Appendix). This can also be indirectly inferred from Table 1. Note that trust in police is substantially higher in democratic states than in non-democratic states. The effect size is small (0.162).

Second Scenario

Here, the goal is to determine whether there is a relationship between trust in police and whether respondents reside in rural, urban, or semi-urban settings. The independent variable is urban or rural primary sampling unit (Urban or Rural Primary Sampling Unit) while the dependent variable is trust in police (Q59h, trust in police). Both variables are categorical variables. The null and alternative hypotheses can be stated as follows:

Null: There is no relationship between trust in police and whether respondents reside in rural, urban, or semi-urban settings;

Alternative: There is relationship between trust in police and whether respondents reside in rural, urban, or semi-urban settings.

Results suggest that there is indeed a relationship between trust in police and whether respondents reside in rural, urban, or semi-urban settings, since the calculated p-value (0.000) is less than 0.05, the accepted level of significance (refer to Table 5 in the Appendix). This can also be indirectly inferred from Table 4. Note that trust in police is substantially higher in rural areas than either in urban or semi-urban settings. The effect size is small (0.093).

Third Scenario

Is there a relationship between extent of democracy and presence of democracy? The independent variable is extent of democracy (Q42. Extent of Democracy) while the dependent variable is presence of democracy (DEMOCRACY_DICH). Both variables are categorical variables. The null and alternative hypotheses can be stated as follows:

Null: There is no relationship between extent of democracy and presence of democracy;

Alternative: There is relationship between extent of democracy and presence of democracy.

Results suggest that there is indeed a relationship between extent of democracy and presence of democracy, since the calculated p-value (0.000) is less than 0.05, the accepted level of significance (refer to Table 8 in the Appendix). This can also be indirectly inferred from Table 7. It is interesting to note that extent of democracy is substantially higher in democratic states than in non-democratic states. The effect size is large (1.000).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix

Table 1. Democracy (dichotomous) * Q59h. Trust police Crosstabulation
Count
    Q59h. Trust police Total
    Not at all Just a little Somewhat A lot
Democracy (dichotomous) Not a Democracy 2143 1396 1074 756 5369
Democracy 8516 10588 11370 11586 42060
Total 10659 11984 12444 12342 47429

 

 

Table 2. Chi-Square Tests (Democracy, Trust in Police)
  Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 1242.165a 3 .000
Likelihood Ratio 1173.593 3 .000
Linear-by-Linear Association 1125.520 1 .000
N of Valid Cases 47429    
a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1206.61.

 

 

Table 3. Symmetric Measures (Democracy, Trust in Police)
    Value Approx. Sig.
Nominal by Nominal Phi .162 .000
Cramer’s V .162 .000
N of Valid Cases 47429  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4. Urban or Rural Primary Sampling Unit * Q59h. Trust police Crosstabulation
Count
    Q59h. Trust police Total
    Not at all Just a little Somewhat A lot
Urban or Rural Primary Sampling Unit Urban 5216 5360 5130 3878 19584
Rural 5937 7082 7973 9237 30229
Semi-Urban 104 178 177 213 672
Total 11257 12620 13280 13328 50485

 

 

Table 5. Chi-Square Tests (Trust in Police, Urban or Rural Primary Sampling Unit)
  Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 877.477a 6 .000
Likelihood Ratio 893.555 6 .000
Linear-by-Linear Association 794.593 1 .000
N of Valid Cases 50485    
a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 149.84.

 

 

Table 6. Symmetric Measures (Trust in Police, Urban or Rural Primary Sampling Unit)
    Value Approx. Sig.
Nominal by Nominal Phi .132 .000
Cramer’s V .093 .000
N of Valid Cases 50485  

 

 

 

 

 

Table 7. Democracy (dichotomous) * Q42. Extent of democracy Crosstabulation
Count
    Q42. Extent of democracy Total
    Not a democracy A democracy, with major problems A democracy, but with minor problems A full democracy
Democracy

(dichotomous)

Not a Democracy 5452 0 0 0 5452
Democracy 0 15200 18013 9439 42652
Total 5452 15200 18013 9439 48104

 

 

Table 8. Chi-Square Tests (Extent of Democracy, Presence of Democracy)
  Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 48104.000a 3 .000
Likelihood Ratio 34003.500 3 .000
Linear-by-Linear Association 19883.756 1 .000
N of Valid Cases 48104    
a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 617.92.

 

 

Table 9. Symmetric Measures (Extent of Democracy, Presence of Democracy)
    Value Approx. Sig.
Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.000 .000
Cramer’s V 1.000 .000
N of Valid Cases 48104  

 

 

Chi-Square Test

November 24, 2016

 

 

Chi-Square Test

 

 

 

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Chi-Square Test

Research question

Is there any association between race and possession of a gun at home?

Null Hypothesis

There is no dependency between therace of the respondent and possession of a gun at home.

The dependent variable

The dependent variable is – “have a gun in home.”The categorical variable has been measured using a nominal scale using six categories. The following code has been used to input data to the SPSS software:

0=IAP

1=YES

2=NO

3=REFUSED

4=DK

9=NA

The Independent variable

The independent variable is –“race of the respondent.” The categorical variable has also been measured using a nominal scale using four categories. To input the respondent’s responses, the following code has been used:

0=IAP

1=WHITE

2=BLACK

3=OTHER

Test Results

From the results shown below in Table 1, the Pearson Chi-Square value is 83.699 with a significance level of 0.00. Since the Significance value is less than 0.05, it can be concluded that the result is significant. Thus, this study fails to reject the null hypothesis and concludes that there is dependency between therace of the respondent and possession of a gun at home.

Table 1

Chi-Square Tests
  Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 83.699a 4 .000
Likelihood Ratio 91.736 4 .000
Linear-by-Linear Association 50.778 1 .000
N of Valid Cases 1711    
a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 5.65.

 

The results from Table 2 below show that the Cramer’s V figure is 0.156. This means that there is aweakdependency between the two variables.

Table 2

Symmetric Measures
  Value Approx. Sig.
Nominal by Nominal Phi .221 .000
Cramer’s V .156 .000
N of Valid Cases 1711  

 

Further exploration of results.

The test results showed that there is anassociation between the races of the respondents and if they have a gun at home. For instance, white people are more likely to have a gun at home as compared to black people and other races. Table 3 below shows the percentages of the respondents amongst the three races.  From the first column, it can be shown that 36.8% of white people have a gun at home as compared to 15.5% for black people and 12.8% for other races. Consequently, this study concludes that people of a certain race are more likely to have a gun at home as compared to other races.

Table 3

 

RACE OF RESPONDENT * HAVE GUN IN HOME Crosstabulation
  HAVE GUN IN HOME Total
YES NO REFUSED
RACE OF RESPONDENT WHITE Count 464 753 44 1261
% within RACE OF RESPONDENT 36.8% 59.7% 3.5% 100.0%
BLACK Count 42 223 6 271
% within RACE OF RESPONDENT 15.5% 82.3% 2.2% 100.0%
OTHER Count 23 152 4 179
% within RACE OF RESPONDENT 12.8% 84.9% 2.2% 100.0%
Total Count 529 1128 54 1711
% within RACE OF RESPONDENT 30.9% 65.9% 3.2% 100.0%