Effects of Parenting on Child Development
Effects of Parenting on Child Development
This research paper analyzes three journal articles within the realms of parenting and child development. Consequently, the first article was authored by Kaufmann et al. (2000). This article examines the relationship between authoritative and authoritarian parenting approaches. The second article by Sebrin et al. (2014) examines whether parental support, behavioral control and structure has a bearing on early childhood health care consumption as well as whether it reduces the adverse effects of socioeconomic disadvantages. The third article which was authored by Konnie and Alfred (2013) sought to examine the dominant parenting approaches, as well as the influence of this type of parenting on the social development of children. Whereas the first and the third journal articles share certain similarities, they differ fundamentally as the former is a scholarly journal while the latter, an empirical research article. The subsequent section reviews the literature review across the three articles.
Within the field of lifespan development, the research topic ofKaufmann’s journal relates to the field as it offers insight into ‘childhood’ which is the second of the six phases of lifespan development. Accordingly, this stage of development is characterized by the push for individuality from children as they seek to become independent from their parents, having learned to do things for themselves.Similarly, it is at this stage where children begin developing cognitive skills as they begin telling right from wrong. Kaufmann’s research attempts to shed light into the different approaches of parenting at this crucial stage, as well as how each parenting technique ultimately impacts the child’s capacity to adjust socio-emotionally while in their elementary schools. As noted earlier, this research focuses on the childhood developmental stage. According to Kaufmann’s journal, the children are between the first and fifth grades which places them in the childhood stage.
This research is based upon the theoretical frameworks developed by Baumrind(1966), where the author postulates three prototypes of parenting approach mainly authoritarian, authoritative as well as permissive. Accordingly, the paper argues that authoritarian parents believe in the strict enforcement of their rules and have no room for discussions with their children as they prioritize obedience and discipline. As expected, the paper notes that such authoritarian parents score poorly on parental warmth to their children and responsiveness to their emotional needs. As for the authoritative parent, the article notes that such parents do well on acceptance and control.Essentially, authoritative parents maintain their control during disagreements but take note of their children’s different perspectives. More importantly, the authoritative parent allows for deliberation over the set rules. For Kaufmann et al. (2000), the research sought to establish whether past findings on the positive impacts of authoritative parenting approach and the more adverse outcomes of authoritarianism would be replicated in the existing sample of children, with their mothers playing the role of informants. The study was also informed by the desire to find out whether such impacts were consistent across socio-demographic groupings.Within this study, the authors emphasize developmental domains like children’s socio-emotional development as this is the focus of the study.
The topic within research journal by Sebrin et al. (2014) is equally relevant in the field of lifespan development as it addresses the issue of child healthcare. Essentially, the research explores the impact of parental support, structure as well as behavioral control on the usage of pediatric medical services like nonemergency care, emergency room visits as well as hospitalization. By establishing a connection between parental care and child safety, this paper offers significant insight into the lifespan development discourse. Like in the case of Kaufmann’s paper, Sebrin et al. places emphasis on the second developmental period of childhood. This is evidenced by the research sample of children between the age of 1 and 6 years as can be seen from the methodology section of the paper.
Consequently, the research is informed by an earlier multideterminant modelin the child development literature that hypothesizes aspects of parenting like parental support, structure, as well as control. According to this theoretical framework, parental support is the parent’s ability to have awareness and be responsible to the needs, states, and goals of their children while also remaining warm and respectful to them. This model argues that parental support leads to positive outcomes like greater psychological functioning and social competence. The second aspect of this model structure which refers to how parents offer a well-organized and consistent environment to their children. Earlier studies suggest that good parental structure leads to children’s competence, compliance and adjustment.The third element under the framework is ‘control’ which means actions towards children that direct their behavior towards standards that are both acceptable and age appropriate without being too punitive.
The third and final research paper is authored by Konnie and Alfred (2013). Like in the first paper, the research topic is relevant to the field of lifespan development as it addresses the relationship between parenting style and its impact of child social development. According to the child developmental stages, the onset of puberty indicates one’s transition into ‘adolescence’ stage. Like in the ‘childhood’ stage, children in this age strive to form their own identity. Unlike the child, however, adolescents tend to be more idealistic and complex in their thoughts. Thus, the research offers scholars and parents insight into how such development may be enhanced. Unlike in the first research journal by Kaufmann et al., this research emphasizes the adolescence phase as can be seen from the research sample size made up of 480 boys and girls in their teen age.
Like in the kaufmann research, this study was based on Baumind’s parenting typology of authoritative, authoritarian and permissive approaches. By using empirical data collection instruments like questionnaires and structured interviews, the study was able to establish that the parenting approach has considerable impact on the social development of students. The study further infers that authoritative parenting approach founded on reason, understanding, trust as well as consensus leads to pro-social traits whereas authoritarian parenting characterized by tough rules, threats and punishments leads to anti-social behavior.
The information within the three research articles will be quite resourceful in helping scholars advance the body of knowledge in the field of lifespan development. The study by Kaufmann et al. (2000) adds yet another scope of knowledge to our comprehension of parental behaviors and attitudes in the second stage of development. Thus, the study will encourage future researchers to include data from other multiple angles. More importantly, it clears the way for future researchers to investigate all elements of the Baumind’s parenting typologies as noted in child development literature as well as their effect on children’s competence and emotional development.
As for the second paper, the findings offer an important revelation of how certain parenting practices may prove resourceful in helping to improve healthcare among children especially those whose parents belong to the lower economic cadre, as well as other population considered to be at risk. At present, there are numerous programs aimed at promoting parental support for the health of children. However, most of these programs focus on certain practices like the hygienic preparation of food and hand washing. Whereas the programs may have attained certain objectives in the past, it is apparent that sensitizing parents on other workable approaches may prove valuable for their children’s well-being.In this regard, health practitioners such as pediatrics and child developmental experts have the unique opportunity to create, enforce and conduct assessment on new programs that relate to their particular areas of specialization in parenting as well as child development. As can be noted from the article, children who come from families and neighborhoods considered poor are at a higher risk of suffering poor health. Event when they have a medical emergency, they still find it challenging to access the hospitals. These findings also offers them an opportunity to benefit immensely from the initiatives aimed at improving their parenting skills.
Kaufmann, D. et al. (2000). ‘The relationship between parenting style and children’s adjustment: the parents’ perspective’.Journal of Child and Family Studies, Vol. 9(2), pp. 231–245
Serbin, L. A. et al. (2014).‘The influence of parenting on early childhood health and health care utilization’.Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 39(10) pp. 1161–1174.
Konnie,M.M. &Alfred,K. (2013).‘Influence of parenting styles on the social development of children’.Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Vol. 2 (3), Doi:10.5901/ajis.2013.v2n3p123