Archive for January, 2017

Getting Beyond Counting

January 18, 2017




The central theme of the paper is to address the management of decision-making systems in finance. The article starts by focusing more on why CPAs usually hate being referred to as bean counters. However, the most critical aspect that is found existing in the journal is to address the points of historical counting, comparing, recording and reporting of financial information. The journal in many of instances tries to focus on how data can be used in making various valid business decisions. The role of the article is to come up with the theme those accountants in business and other industries can have the capability of revitalizing themselves by making sure they offer the necessary information in a suitable manner to the right people. Besides that, the collection of CPA data on how such data can be presented to useful management and investors, banks and internal revenue services. Further, the  article seems to assist managers so that they can run their respective businesses and get more profitable returns(William and Michaelle,1996).


From the analysis of the journal, it can be outlined that the role of the article on GBC is to make sure that all “getting beyond counting” models  tends to focus more on the articulation of a vision of accounting as information to relevant professionals. On recommendations regarding GBC, it is said that GBC should ensure that data is well presented to different accountants to make it easy for managers to handle the data in a suitable manner. For an organization to make more profits as a result of adopting GBC, it becomes necessary to make sure data is presented in a manner that it can be understood by investors and other financial institutions. The use of reporting in GBC should be based on ensuring that necessary decision-making methods are used in analyzing financial statements and making it easy for representation of different data across the entire business units. In conclusion, it can be argued out that GBC is one of the means that can be used to ensure financial data is well designed(William and Michaelle,1996).To ensure GBC is effective, financial data should always be correct and be acceptable by different decision-making platforms. When coming up with GBC issues, accuracy is another aspect that should be considered. For accuracy to be met, decision-making systems should be optimal and deliver the necessary accounting information to relevant departments.




Getting beyond Counting by Reeb, William L.; Cameron, Michaelle Year of publication 1996



January 17, 2017










There are multiple scientific definitions used about Dementia. The term ‘dementia’ is applied to a collection of signs and symptoms such as loss of control of physical functionality, changes in behavior and mood, challenges in planning and organizing one’s daily activities, challenges in communication and memory lapses. These indicators, taken together, indicate possible physical brain damage, owing to an acute progressive deterioration of nerve cells. This progressive brain damage can come because of a combination of various ailments: whereas Alzheimer’s is the best-known and most common cause of Dementia, there are other, similarly known causes, for instance, prion ailments, alcohol-associated dementia frontal, temporal dementia, as well as vascular dementia. For this research, the term ‘dementia’ will refer to a combination of all these factors that result in brain damage.

Incidence of Dementia

Estimations of the rate of incidence of Dementia vary widely across the different averaged age sets. The rate of occurrence among individuals aged over 85 years, for instance, has a higher rate of occurrence that estimations of individuals aged from 65 years and above. Laures-Gore (2012) notes that one in every five individuals aged over 80 years has some form of dementia (Ishi et al., 2016). Furthermore, data relating to the rate of prevalence is frequently classified more narrowly or more widely than ‘dementia.’ The CDCP (Center for Disease Control and Prevention), for instance, cites data for prevalence rates for certain specific causative factors for dementia, usually Alzheimer’s disease, whereas the NIH (National Institute of Health) incorporates dementia within the serious mental disease category.

Information relating to the spread of Alzheimer’s shows an increasing rate of occurrence. Beginning at the age of 65 years, chances of contracting the disease increases twofold every five years (Laures-Gore, 2012). At the time one is hitting 85 years, between 25% and nearly 50% of the individuals will have started exhibiting symptoms of Alzheimer’s illness. The CDC estimates that nearly 5.3 million US citizens have Alzheimer’s and other related ailments. Estimations further indicate that by the year 2050, that number is anticipated to be twice as much, owing to aging of the baby boomers generation. Scholars have singled Alzheimer’s disease as the sixth largest cause of death in the US (Beckett, 2015). The disease has further been singled out by Heron et al. (2009) as the leading cause of death among senior citizens aged 65 years and above.

It is important to note that, in spite its strong link with old age, the disease is not specifically a reserve of the old persons. It is estimated that 900,000 individuals under the age of 65 years living in North America have dementia. Similarly, in the UK, it is estimated that 18,050 people below 65 years have dementia. These numbers represent slightly fewer than 2.5% of both the United States and the UK populations of individuals living with dementia. Individuals living with Down syndrome (Prasher, 2014) are at a higher risk of suffering from dementia at an early age, with a projected incidence rate of approximately 9% of the individuals aged between 40 and 49 years, as well as 36% of individuals aged between 50 years and 59 years (Heron et al., 2009).

Risk Factors

Medical research analysts have discovered various significant risk factors that are closely associated with dementia. These comprise genetics and age, but also lifestyle choices and medical conditions. An individual’s risk of developing dementia is dependent on a blend of all these risk elements. Some risk factors, for instance, genetics, which is passed on from one generation to the other and age are beyond our control (Beckett, 2015). The other risk factors include controllable elements, for instance, certain life’s choices such as smoking, which increases the risk of developing dementia.

Different dementia risk elements additionally appear to be significant at various stages in a human being’s life. For instance, multiple studies indicate that remaining in education past the age of 17 years appears to lessen risk factors in old age. A majority of the most common and avoidable risk factors for the disease, which include type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure, seem to initially appear between the ages of 40 years and 65 years (mid-life). Researchers have claimed that changes in the chemical composition of the brain, which begins in mid ages may be directly associated with the high rates of occurrence. The following are some notable risk factors for dementia.


Of all known risk factors for dementia, age is the strongest risk factor. Whereas there is a possibility of developing the disease at an early age, the probability of developing dementia increases largely as people grow older. After reaching 65 years, an individual’s likelihood of contracting the disease becomes twice as high every five years (Beckett, 2015). Such a high prevalence rate is attributed to factors such as immune system changes; the natural flagging of the body’s natural healing and repair systems; loss of sex-related hormones after experiencing changes in mid-life; changes to cell structure, DNA, and nerve cells; increased risk of cardiovascular conditions, for instance, stroke and heart disease; and high blood pressure.


Research indicates that women are more likely to develop Alzheimer’s as opposed to men. The rates for women victims are significantly higher, despite their age at death being significantly higher than that of men. It is not yet clear why women have higher incidence rates. Scholars have many times suggested that Alzheimer’s disease among women is associated with lack of estrogen – the female sex hormone especially after reaching menopause. There are, however, no medical tests to support this argument. For a majority of dementias that is not specifically associated with Alzheimer’s, women and men have similar levels of risk (Mayo et al., 2013). In cases involving vascular dementia, the prevalence rates for men are higher than for women. It is the reason why cases of heart disease and stroke in men are higher than in women.


Some evidence shows that individuals from various ethnic communities have a higher likelihood. For instance, people living in South Asia – countries such as Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh have higher rates of developing vascular dementia than natives from western countries. South Asians are known to have extremely high occurrence rates of diabetes, coronary ailments and stroke, which scholars argue explains the higher rates of dementia. Equally, individuals of African origin have higher rates of occurrence of dementia. Africans are more susceptible to stroke and diabetes (Beckett, 2015). These effects can be traced down to a blend of variances in genes, exercise, smoking, and diet.


Medical researchers have known for a long time that genes handed over from one generation to the other can affect people’s levels of susceptibility to certain ailments. There is insufficient evidence highlighting the importance of genes lineages about the illness. Nonetheless, significant strides have been made in the world of science in the recent past. Researchers have discovered about 21 genes that enhance the risk factors associated with dementia (Prasher, 2014). For instance, APOE (Apolipoprotein) increases individuals’ chances of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, there are high chances of developing the disease if one or multiple immediate family members have the disease.

Diseases and Medical Conditions

Cardiovascular Factors. There are strong indications that ailments or conditions that affect blood circulation, arteries, and the heart have an effect on an individual’s probability of developing the condition. The primary cardiovascular risk factors for dementia include obesity – in mid-life, high blood cholesterol levels, high BP (Blood Pressure) and type 2 diabetes. These risk factors are avoidable for cardiovascular ailments (heart disease and stroke, for instance, abnormal heart movements) and dementia.

Depression. Individuals that have suffered from depression whether early or in later years additionally have higher rates of developing dementia. There is no medical evidence linking depression to dementia directly. There is some evidence, nonetheless, which indicates that dementia developed between ages 45 and 60 results in higher risks of dementia in old age (Beckett, 2015). Contrastingly, instances, where individuals suffer depression later in life, may be early signs and symptoms of possibilities of developing dementia as opposed to being a risk factor.

Lifestyle Factors

Medical researchers have established that lifestyle choices have an effect on risks of developing dementia, particularly concerning risks touching on cardiovascular wellbeing. Large group studies indicate that risk of developing dementia is moderate in individuals who have reasonable healthy behaviors between ages of 40 and 60. These behaviors, scholars argue, include maintaining a healthy and balanced diet, moderate alcohol consumption, not smoking, and practicing a regular body toning or physical exercise regime. Practicing the above-listed routines reduces dementia-related risks.

Symptoms of Dementia

Dementia symptoms can vary based on the stage of the disease and diagnosis. Even though late-stage symptoms and signs may be the same across etiologies, distinguishing early signs and symptoms can differ significantly. For instance, people with Huntington’s disease and Frontotemporal dementia experience depression and behavior changes. On the other hand, individuals with primary progressive aphasia endure a continued loss of dialectal functionality; and people suffering from Binswanger’s disease, which is a different vascular dementia experience dysphagia and dysarthria – two conditions linked to neurological challenges (Pendlebury et al., 2010). Beliefs, opinions regarding the aging process and cultural values about the decline of cognitive abilities may affect an individual’s or family’s decision regarding salutary services. In addition, it may sometimes delay or inhibit individuals from seeking assistance until signs are evidently above the mild or early stages.

People with dementia report a continued loss of memory. As the illnesses aggravate, early signs intensify, and in the end, affects the individual’s capacity to function independently and communicate effectively. The following are the common symptoms and signs of dementia.


People with dementia are attention deficient. Common characteristics include among other things being distracted easily; challenges in giving attention, save for simplifications and restrictions; process information at a reduced speed – processing takes longer than expected.

Memory and Learning

Common memory and learning insufficiencies include challenges in remembering and acquiring new data (information), for instance, new routines, events, or appointments (Blackburn, 2014); working/short-term memory loss – Acute forgetfulness of information recently acquired or seen; and periodic memory lapses, including challenges in recollecting specific experiences, situations or autobiographical events.

Executive Functioning and Reasoning

Executive functioning and common reasoning deficits comprise mental capacity deficits; lack of inhibition (Ronnald et al., 2015). Others include challenges in correcting personal errors, self-monitoring, and reacting to feedback; challenges in handling intricate tasks and multi-tasking; impaired reasoning and poor judgment; challenges in making sound decisions concerning safety; challenges in planning, and setting objectives, including dependence on other individuals to make decisions or plan activities.

Social Behavior and Cognition

Common cognition and social behavior deficits include delusions and paranoia of persecution (Ronnald et al., 2015). Others include loss of motivation/initiative; strange or erratic behavior; obsessive or compulsive conduct; negative response to questioning; depression; restlessness; fluctuation of mood, including crying and agitation; loss of empathy; and reduced capacity of reading facial expressions.

Types of Dementia

Currently, there are more than 100 dementia categories the most prevalent being Alzheimer’s disease. The CDC reports indicate that Alzheimer’s has the most number of victims of all cases of reported dementia, averaged at 62%. Others categories include Parkinson’s disease (2%), frontotemporal dementia (2%), Lewy bodies dementia (4%), and vascular dementia (16.9%) (Yamin et al., 2016). There are other less prevalent causes of dementia, which include; syphilis, prion illnesses, alcohol-based dementias, and the Huntington’s disease.

Alzheimer’s Disease

For the duration of the disease, abnormally folded, as well as excessive bodily proteins, which accumulate in the human brain, bring about the growth and formation of elements commonly referred to as protein ‘plaques’ around “tangles” and neurons, which leads to the suffocation of the brain cells, and in particular in the area mandated for keeping memory. The level of chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) are additionally affected, a situation which results in the disruption of brain communication (Yamin et al., 2016). A blend of these factors, including diet, environmental factors, genetic inheritance, and age compound the challenges further, enhancing the disease progression.

Vascular Dementia

Vascular dementia is a series of many strokes that results in the damaging of the blood vessels network – also commonly referred to as the human body vascular network, which is responsible for transporting blood within the human brain network. The resultant interruptions in oxygen supply – which is usually transported in the form of hemoglobin often results in the death of the human brain cells. Dead cells in the brain subsequently lead to vascular dementia, characterized by death of brain cells. Vascular dementia risk factors include diabetes, high level of cholesterol, heart challenges, and high blood pressure. Vascular dementia is also caused by Binswanger’s disease, also commonly known as ‘sub-cortical VD (Vascular Dementia).’

PDD (Parkinson’s Disease Dementia) and (DLB) Lewy Bodies Dementia

Lewy bodies are round protein elements that accumulate in brain cells, interrupt the chemical composition of the brain, and unsettle the regular operational processes of the brain cells. The same protein deposits are found in victims of the Parkinson’s. Research indicates that many victims of Parkinson’s develop dementia later on in life. The correlation between PDD and DLB is intricate at the very least. Researchers argue that while the two disorders constitute part of the same band, they result in varied symptoms and signs owing to the differences in the manner in which the Lewy bodies are distributed in the brain.

Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD)

FTD (Frontotemporal dementia) is one of the most intermittent types of dementia. The term – Frontotemporal – covers an extensive range of conditions including dementia related to motor neuron ailment, front lobe degeneration, and Pick’s disease. FTD is caused by extensive damage to the temporal lobe or frontal lobe of the brain (Revesz et al., 2011). Nearly 50% of all the diagnosed cases report a family history of the disease in the familial lineage. Even though symptoms differ between different people, damage typically is seen in the front part of the brain, at first affecting behavior and mood more than the individual’s memory.

Treatment Options

Presently, the currently available treatment options for dementia are not able to reverse the causal degeneration of a human’s brain cells, even though they might provisionally delay or improve cognitive functionality (Paranji et al., 2016).


For dementia treatment, Cholinesterase inhibitors can be applied to people showing moderate signs and experts should administer the treatment for such people. An individual’s past cognitive capacities – whether low or high – should be considered when evaluating their ailment as moderate. Memantine should only be administered to individuals with moderately acute Alzheimer’s (Harrison Dening et al., 2016).

Cholinesterase Inhibitors for Alzheimer’s Disease. A majority of individuals would put into consideration rivastigmine, galantamine, and donepezil, which form part of cholinergic medication for the ailment. These three drugs have varied pharmacological properties, although they operate through the inhibition of the breaking down of acetylcholine, a significant neurotransmission agent linked with memory through obstructing acetylcholinesterase (Harrison Dening et al., 2016).

Memory Training Programs

Memory training programs concentrate on retraining or improving memory skills through methods such as didactic approaches, vanishing cues, procedural memory stimulation, errorless learning, and spaced retrieval (Peavy et al., 2000).

Reality Orientation

RO (reality orientation) comprises a method for improving quality and reducing confusion of life of persons diagnosed with dementia through the provision of orientation information (person, place or time) to further enhance the awareness and understanding of the environment (Lewis et al., 2015). All throughout the day, information is repeated at unvarying intervals.


Nutrition involves changes to one’s diet. Dietary changes comprise changing the taste, temperature, texture, and viscosity of liquid or food to facilitate ease of swallowing and safety. Characteristic changes may incorporate pureeing solid foods, chopping, softening, or thickening liquids, for instance, juice, coffee, or water. Temperature or taste of food may be changed to give extra additional sensory matter for eating, and preferences of the person are put into consideration to the farthest extent (Kwok, 2007). The medical safety of the treatments and nutritional needs are additionally put into consideration before changing the diet.













Beckett, M. W., Ardern, C. I., & Rotondi, M. A. (2015). A meta-analysis of prospective studies on the role of physical activity and the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease in older adults. BMC Geriatrics159. doi:10.1186/s12877-015-0007-2

Blackburn, D. J., Wakefield, S., Shanks, M. F., Harkness, K., Reuber, M., & Venneri, A. (2014). Memory difficulties are not always a sign of incipient dementia: a review of the possible causes of loss of memory efficiency. British Medical Bulletin, 112(1), 71-81. doi:10.1093/bmb/ldu029

Hadžović-Džuvo, A., Lepara, O., Valjevac, A., Panić, J., Hujdur, M., Ćorić, A., &. Ščetić, L.    (2016). Serum total antioxidative capacity level is positively associated with cognitive functions in patients with probable Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Medical Journal, 22(2), 77-82.

Harrison Dening, K., King, M., Jones, L., Vickestaff, V., & Sampson, E. L. (2016). Advance care planning in Dementia: Do family carers know the treatment preferences of people with early Dementia. PLoS ONE, 11(7), 1-15.

Kang, H. S., Kwon, J. H., Kim, S., Na, D. L., Kim, S. Y., Lee, J., & … Kim, D. K. (2016). Comparison of neuropsychological profiles in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mixed dementia. Journal of the Neurological Sciences369, 134-138. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2016.08.022.

Khan, A., Kalaria, R. N., Corbett, A., & Ballard, C. (2016). Update on Vascular Dementia.  Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry & Neurology, 29(5), 281-301.

Kwok, T., Twinn, S., & Yan, E. (2007). The attitudes of Chinese family caregivers of older people with dementia towards life sustaining treatments. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 58(3), 256-262.

Laures-Gore, J. S. (2012). Aphasia severity and salivary cortisol over time. Journal of Clinical And Experimental Neuropsychology34(5), 489-496. doi:10.1080/13803395.2012.658356

Lewis, M., Rand, E., Mullaly, E., Mellor, D., & Macfarlane, S. (2015). Uptake of a newly implemented advance care-planning program in a dementia diagnostic service. Age and Ageing44(6), 1045-1049. doi:10.1093/ageing/afv138.

Lugtenburg, A., Zuidersma, M., Oude Voshaar, R. C., & Schoevers, R. A. (2016). Symptom dimensions of depression and 3-year incidence of dementia: results from the Amsterdam study of the elderly. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology29(2), 99-107. doi:10.1177/0891988715606235.

Mayo, A. M., Wallhagen, M., Cooper, B. A., Mehta, K., Ross, L., & Miller, B. (2013). The relationship between functional status and judgment/problem solving among individuals with dementia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry28(5), 514-521. doi:10.1002/gps.3854

Paranji, S., Paranji, N., Wright, S., & Chandra, S. (2016). A nationwide study of the impact      of dysphagia on hospital outcomes among patients with dementia. American Journal         of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias, 1533317516673464.

Peavy, G. M., Salmon, D. P., Rice, V. A., Galasko, D., Samuel, W., Taylor, K. I., & Thal, L. (2000). Neuropsychological assessment of severely demeted elderly: the severe cognitive impairment profile. Archives of Neurology53(4), 367-372.

Pendlebury, S. T., Cuthbertson, F. C., Welch, S. V., Mehta, Z., & Rothwell, P. M. (2010). Underestimation of cognitive impairment by Mini-Mental State Examination versus the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in patients with transient ischemic attack and stroke: a population-based study. Stroke; A Journal Of Cerebral Circulation, 41(6), 1290-1293. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.579888

Prasher, V. P. (2014). Practical Dementia Care for Adults with Down Syndrome or with Intellectual Disabilities. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Revesz, T. (2011). Globular glial tauopathies (GGT) presenting with motor neuron disease or frontotemporal dementia: an emerging group of 4-repeat tauopathies. Acta Neuropathologica122(4), 415-428. doi:10.1007/s00401-011-0857-4

Rönnlund, M., Sundström, A., Adolfsson, R., & Nilsson, L. (2015). Self-reported memory failures: Associations with future Dementia in a population-based study with long-term follow-up. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 63(9), 1766-1773

Su, B., Liu, H., Wang, X., Chen, S. G., Siedlak, S. L., Kondo, E., & … Lee, H. (2009). Ectopic localization of FOXO3a protein in Lewy bodies in Lewy body dementia and Parkinson’s disease. Molecular Neurodegeneration432. doi:10.1186/1750-1326-4-32.

Yamin, S., Stinchcombe, A., & Gagnon, S. (2016). Comparing cognitive profiles of licensed drivers with mild Alzheimer’s disease and mild dementia with Lewy Bodies. International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 6542962, 1-11.    






January 17, 2017

Parts A

The research questionwhetherincome inequality subverts democracy. The importance of this study follows from the place of democracy in the current society. Notably, democracyis considered an important factor for assuring harmony, peace, and ability to control government power by limiting people in power from abusing it or using it for their stakes. Democracy is achieved by holding elections to allow people choose those who would serve them, and then holding them accountable their actions. In essence, elections do not only create allowance for people to hold the government accountable for its actions, but also lets people participate in the political processes of making decisions. People under the democratic government have the ability to influence the decision of the government by joining political parties, forming lobby groups, and taking part in political movements, among other ways. Consequently, democratic systems are best placed to limit government power, which is associated with order and peace in the governing process. Thus, by understanding the antecedents of democracy, such as whether inequality can subvert democracy, this study will go a long way in guiding ways of achieving desirable democracy.
Part B

The question of whether income inequality can subvert democracy strands between two competing views — one that asserts that income inequalities could encourage democracy and the other that asserts income inequalities could subvert democracy. The former considers that since the need to articulate social inequality would be the driving motive for therealization of democracy. In other words, people would so hurt by social inequalities that they would endorse and support democracy, which they would consider as a way of ameliorating the inequalities. The later considers that social inequalities demoralize people about the government, orchestrated by the thinking that democratic government has failed to meet their needs. Consequently, what would have been a democratic process soon subverted, as people look for alternatives to address pertinent inequality issues affecting them.

Perhaps, the study by Jackman (2009)  is one of the most relevant studies for this subject. The study pursued to test the hypothesis of whether increasing economic gap between the poor and the rich have an impact on democracy. The study concluded that inequalities could subvert democracy. Jackman (2009) explains that once inequalities become acute, they breed political instability and resentment. These cause further erosion of legitimacy of democratic institutions. Eventually, inequality can polarize politics and create gridlock, causing splits in the political systems that make it difficult for governments to address inequalities and looming crises.

Part C

This study is exceptional because, contrary to a study by Jackman(2009) that assessed the impact of increasing economic gap between the poor and the rich on democracy within a single country.It seeks to compare data on relationship between income inequalities and democracy across various countries.By assessingthe relationship between data on income inequalities and democracy across various countries, this study poised to give results tat further complements the results of earlier findings.

In this study, I hypothesize that income inequality subvert democracy. He substantive and null hypothesis are stated as follows.

H0: Income inequality subvert democracy

H1: Income inequality does not subvert democracy

I adopt thequantitative approach, which is a numerical measurement and usually deals with figures using statistical models to explain the data. This method is generally conducted by the use of sampling techniques whose conclusion may be represented numerically and are modifiable through mathematical operations enabling the researcher to predict future events. The mainobjective of quantitative study is to find out the relationship between the independent variables and the outcomes of the research population. In particular, I will use regression analysis, which is a statistical approach that estimates the relationship between tow variables, independent and dependent variables. Regression is well placed to help understand how values of dependent variables change with respect to changes in anindependent variable.  In this case, I regress values of democracy of various countries against their corresponding values of income inequalities.

The independent variable is income inequalities while the dependent variable is ademocracy. The income inequality measure is based onGini coefficients. The Gini coefficients are convenient because they are a popular inequality measure and show a range of numbers between 0 and 1, in which 0 corresponds to perfect equality, while 1 corresponds to perfect inequality. The measure of democracy is based on democracy index, which is based on an array of sixty indicators about political culture, pluralism, and civil liberties. This approach is convenient because it includes all elements of democracy.

This study considers six countries for analysis. The sixcountries are considered such that all seven continents are included. The countries chosen include Kenya (Africa) Australia, United States (North America), Brazil (South America), Germany (Europe), and China (Asia).This inclusivityis considered objective in assuring reliability of the study.

Part D: Analysis

The data on income inequality and democracy index are as follows

Country Democracy Index (Economic Intelligence Unit 2010) Income inequality index (World Bank Gini)
United States 8.11 41.1
Brazil 7.38 52.7
Germany 8.64 30.6
Kenya 5.13 47.7
China 3.0 37.0
Australia 9.01 30.5


The summary output of the regression is as follows

Regression Statistics
Multiple R 0.318853
R Square 0.101667
Adjusted R Square -0.19778
Standard Error 2.773785
Observations 5
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 2.612225 2.612225 0.33952 0.601012
Residual 3 23.08166 7.693885
Total 4 25.69388      
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 9.809636 5.592758 1.753989 0.177709 -7.98902 27.60829 -7.98902 27.60829
41.1 -0.08004 0.137367 -0.58268 0.601012 -0.5172 0.357121 -0.5172 0.357121

The population regression model is given by the equation y = β1 + β2 x + u, where the error u is assumed to be distributed independently with constant variance and mean zero. The summary of the above output follows that:

The line of fit is 9.809636 — 0.08004x

The slope of the coefficients hasan  error estimated to be 0.137367.

The slope of the coefficient has a t statistic of -0.58268.

The slope coefficient has a p value of 0.601012..The 95% confidence interval for βis-0.5172 and 0.357121.

A measure of the fit of the model is R2 = 9.809636

The standard error of the regression is 0.365148.

The hypothesis is tested such that

H0: Income inequality subvert democracy

H1: Income inequality does not subvert democracy

We are supposed to reject H0 at P < 0.05 and accept H0 at P > 0.05. An assessment of the P values reveals leads to the inference that a Income inequality varies with democracy. Furthermore, considering that the best line of fit is 9.809636 — 0.08004x, the negative coefficient of X points to negative gradient, which leads to the inference that income inequality (independent variable) and democracy (dependent variable) are negatively correlated. This further implies that an increase in income inequality results in a decrease in democracy index. Conversely, a decrease in income inequality results in a increase in democracy index. Assuming that there exists a perfect causal relationshipleads to the inference that income inequality subverts democracy.

Part E: Conclusion and analysis

In conclusion, of particular interest for this study was to question whether income inequality subverts democracy.I adopted regression analysis, which is a statistical approach that estimates the relationship between tow variables, independent and dependent variables. Regression is well placed to help understand how values of dependent variables (democracy index) change with respect to changes in independent variable (income inequality index). The results of regression analysis have pointed to the fact that income inequality subverts democracy. This relationship can be accounted such that onceinequalities become acute; they have the ability of triggering political instability and resentment. Consequently, these cause erosion of legitimacy of democratic institutions. The eventuality is that inequality can polarize politics and create gridlock, causing splits in the political systems that make it difficult for governments to address inequalities and looming crises.

The implication of the findings of this study guides that efforts aimed at realizing desirable democracy should consider addressing income inequalities crucial. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that this study only included a limited sample of 6 countries, each from every continent. The potential limitation with limited sample size is limited validity and reliability. There is a need to conduct further studies in the future using a relatively large size to ascertain whether there could be any discrepancies. Furthermore, there is also the need for the study to approach the subject on basis of region-by-region to ascertain the significance of potentially confounding factors, such as culture and geographical differences on the relationship between income inequality and political indices.











Jackman, R.W.(2009) Political democracy and social equality: A Comparative Analysis.American Sociological Review, Vol39(1), pp.29-45



January 16, 2017









Student’s No:


Course No:






Leadership refers to the act of helping others do what is right. Leaders are mandated to set direction, build and inspire vision, and innovate. Today’s organizations have become more diverse and as such leadership has shifted from basically setting direction to guiding people. To have a clear understanding of leadership, various models, styles, and theories have been developed(Northouse, 2016). Some of the approaches include skills approach, situational approach, behavioral approach, trait approach, and psychodynamic approach (Northouse, 2016). Employees are the most critical resource in an organization, and as thus they should be treated as such(Baporikar, 2016). Due to the complexity and dynamicity of the current business environment, organizations have to gain or retain competitive advantage in order to survive or grow. Leaders major role is to direct employees effort towards achieving set organizational goals. This essay will discuss the applicability of the various leadership theories or models and traits in the current organizations.

According to Northouse (2016) there are both learned and born leaders. Trait theory stipulates that effective leaders have common personality characteristics. According to this theory leaders are born, and as such leadership an instinctive quality that a person may or may not have. Some of the traits that make an effective leader include integrity, assertiveness, effective decision-making skill, and empathy (Northouse, 2016). Contrary, behavioral theory emphasizes on how leaders behave. According to this theory, there are certain behaviors that make an effective leader. There are three types of leader identified under this theory including autocratic leaders, Democratic leaders, and laissez-faire leaders(Mariene, 2014). Autocratic leaders do not involve their followers in decision making while democratic leaders are more open and always consult with their teams. On the other hand, laissez-faire leaders allow team members to make most of the decisions.

Leadership style in most cases is usually dictated by the situation at hand. When a leader has followers who are less experienced that him/her, he/she is more likely to use autocratic leadership. Hence he/she makes all the decisions (Baporikar, 2016). Trait theory best describes me as a leader. I have all the traits that make an effective leader. I always empathize with others, when my team is faced with a challenge I always take it as my problem and try to address it from that perspective. Also, when making decisions, I always consult with my team. I take members’ ideas seriously and incorporate them in making decision. As such I make use of democratic leadership style.

Effective leaders share common traits that distinguish them from ineffective leaders. According to the trait theory, some of these traits include, but not limited to, integrity, empathy, assertiveness, effective decision-making skill, charisma, and creativity (Northouse, 2016).  As a leader, I have all the above traits. I am an effective decision maker, during the decision-making process I always incorporate my followers and as such make them feel valued. Also, I understand leadership and the various challenges which come with it. This gives me confidence in handling all my responsibilities as a leader. Creativity is within me; I never do things the same way as other. My team members are always motivated, and as such in most cases, I manage to meet both team and organizational goals. On the other hand, being assertive in most cases it has been a problem to me. I would like to learn on the best way I can stand up for both my rights and those of my team members without being aggressive.

Leadership has different meaning to different people and applies differently in different situations. However, the major role of a leader is to influence his followers towards a direction he/she thinks is right and that which can lead to the achievement of set goals (Mariene, 2014). Leaders can either be born or trained (Baporikar, 2016). The only difference between the two types of leaders is the way they perform their responsibilities. Followers are more inclined to a leader who in the best way possible caters for their needs. Followers should first accept their leader as being effective before they can follow his/her way of doing things (Mariene, 2014). Based on this fact, as a follower, I prefer leaders who use behavioral approach. The behavioral approach focuses on how a leader behaves, and it is how a leader behaves that determines the levels of motivation from his/her followers. For instance, there is leader who dictates what to be done and at the same time expect corporation. This kind of a leader is practicing autocratic leadership style, and in the current age, it cannot work well as people have become more informed(Lussier & Achua, 2015). Contrary, there are leaders who constantly involve their followers in decision making. This act motivates the followers, increases team cohesion, and the result is improved team performance.

Situational model to leadership best describes how a leader can influence his/her followers. The current working environment has become more dynamic in nature. To cope up with the changes, different situation needs different leadership styles (Northouse, 2016). The kind of leadership style, a leader, employs determines the levels of influence he/she may have on his/her followers. Different activities require different plan of action and as such leadership has to be different. To be effective in all situations, a leader should understand the interpersonal relationships within his/her team, the characteristics of the team as a whole, characteristics of the team’s environment and the respective environments from which each member comes from, and physical constraints of the team (Mariene, 2014). For instance, faced with two situations such as an implementation of a new technology and upgrading an already existing system within an organization, a leader should use different leadership styles. For the former, a leader should strictly use democratic leadership while in the latter he/she can use autocratic style.

Based self-assessment I have two major leadership goals to achieve. These include improving my strategic thinking and coaching skills. Strategic thinking is very important in leadership. Effective leaders should be able to think ahead and have the ability to foresee eventualities and come up with solutions (Baporikar, 2016). There are currently very many risks involved in leadership, a leader who is not in a position to foresee and constitute effective mitigation measures can hardly survive. Coaching skills are also very important as followers have to be trained on the best ways of achieving both personal and organizational goals (Lussier & Achua, 2015). To improve my leadership, I will have to shift my leadership style from basically directing and learn how to develop and keep my direct reports. I will make use of my direct reports to assist my team to make their own development plans. To improve my leadership, I will also implement a platform to enable me acquire cross-functional knowledge and perspective. This will enable me to learn about other businesses or departmental activities other than my docket.

Motivation is very important for every leader. Motivated leaders are more able to achieve personal, team, and organizational goals (Northouse, 2016). To improve my motivation, I will implement financial strategies such as financial acumen. This will allow me to learn how to understand, interpret, and use accounting systems to improve performance. Having a smooth running team is always a source of motivation for a leader (Lussier & Achua, 2015). Leaders should remain motivated at all times; this is translated to the entire team. To assist me to achieve my goals, I will make use of the situational model. My leadership style will be dictated by the current situation or problem. This will allow for flexibility, and as such I will be able to achieve my goals.

To complete the above self-improvement goals I will employ six steps. These steps will include engaging my motivation to grow, assessing my current strengths and weaknesses, develop cognitive and social skills, measure the goals, get feedback, and continuous improvement (Lussier & Achua, 2015). My two major goals; improving strategic thinking and coaching skills will be achieved through following the above six steps. Engaging my motivation to grow will be the first step. I will agree to take up my responsibility as a leader and be prepared to improve it. As such I will remain focused to achieve the goals. Secondly, I will assess my current strengths and weaknesses. Ways to improve weaknesses will be developed, and the strengths will be used to mobilize support from my team and the entire organization. Thirdly, I will have to develop my cognitive and social skills. This will enable my team members and other employees to give me feedback on my progress. As I interact with my team, I will constantly brainstorm to gain new perspectives on how to best achieve my goals.

The fourth and the most important step will be to measure the goals. Goals should be specific, measurable, attainable, and time bound (Baporikar, 2016). For instance, the coaching skills are diverse, and as such, they should be made specific in a way that they can be measured and achieved within the specified period. After the goals a measured the process of achieving them will begin, to ensure efficiency of the process the feedback will sort from team members. Frequently, team members will be asked to comment on the progress made. Areas of improvement will be noted and rectified accordingly. At this point, the goals will have been attained after which a continuous improvement process will follow. Self-improvement goal takes a continuous process to develop; there is no particular time that a leader will have all the skill he/she needs.

In conclusion, leadership entails directing other people’s efforts towards the accomplishment of a course that one deems important or right. Over the years, due to group or team dynamics leadership has completely changed. For a leader be effective he/she must practice a combination of both leadership and management skills. Due to the complexity of current leadership, various models or theories and styles have been developed to help create a better understanding of what leadership entails. The mostly used models or approaches include, but not limited to, skills approach, situational approach, behavioral approach, trait approach, and psychodynamic approach. Leadership has different meaning to different people, and it applies differently in different situation. There is no single approach that can be said to be effective in all situations. It is the responsibility of a leader to know what type of leadership style or approach is best for him/her. This is determined by the situation at hand. Effective leaders share a common set of traits which distinguishes them from the rest of leaders. According to trait theory, these characteristics are in-born and as such the theory suggests that leaders are born. On the other hand, situational model stipulates that leadership depended on the situation being addresses. Therefore, in the current workplace environment, situational model is the most appropriate leadership model to use.




Baporikar, N. (2016). Management Education for Global Leadership. Hershey: Business Science Reference

Lussier, R. N & Achua, C. F (2015). Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill Development. 6th Ed. New York: Cengage Learning

Mariene, J.G (2014). Critical Aspects of Leadership and Training in the 21st Century and Beyond: A Resource for Organizational Growth.  New York: Eureka Publishers

Northouse, P. G. (2016). Leadership: Theory and Practice. 7th Ed. Thousand Oaks: SAGE








January 16, 2017


My primary goal is to become an industrial designer who will be able to help the people from diverse educational and cultural backgrounds and most importantly, contribute positively to the generic world community. This goal has been influenced by many contemporary world’s issues that I find significantly alarming. For instance, the world is full of hunger, poverty, terrorism, global warming, fear, and disunity between countries and religions. The idealization of how people suffer due following the aftermath of the crisis is unbearable when I put myself in their shoes. This inspires me to play a role in eradicating or solving these problems.

I started my college career XXXXXXX College in XXXXX. I always wanted to be a mechanical engineer. The idea and my perception of mechanical engineering was, in regards to how engineers were very innovative to design automatic tool, and most importantly, the working principles behind them was very fascinating. My curiosity on how mechanical things work fueled my ambition to become an industrial designer.

Industrial designing is discipline that allow one to associate knowledge, ideas and principles in new technological application. It also fosters good decision making and leadership specifically in relation to the people’s culture, social practices, traditions, believes, perspectives and norms.

Leadership is one of the virtual that I believed has naturally been invested in me. I have. People around me, mores so those I have led in different projects or activities in the past, acknowledges that an I am a very ambitious, goal oriented person, who, under his leadership, would stop at nothing to ensure that the given set of goal, or pre-established objectives, are duly met or achieved, in the end of the given project.

I am a hardworking, ambitious and philanthropic person who believes in collective social development. Indeed, my passion for travelling and, socializing and assisting people from any given society is one of the major reason that fueled me to pursue Global Management. I believe that I possess the key prospects, motives, skills and effective personal traits, that doe not only make me a suitable candidate for the program in your institution, but also, the spirit to bring forth positive changes the generic The community at Arizona State University, and add value to the program as well.

Arizona State University is one of the most renowned institution in the world. The reason for choosing this institution is that the university offers first class facilities and technologies that help student acquire knowledge in a more effective manner. Arizona State University has very innovative faculty members. it nurtures innovation, personal and professional growth

motivational psychology

January 16, 2017







Motivational Psychology











  1. What is temporal discounting, and how does it affect motivation?

Temporal discounting refers to the tendency of people to attach greater value to rewards that are approaching the temporal horizon either from the future or the past. Temporal discounting occurs when people are more interested in something now, but were less interested in the past or in the future. For example, it is likely that most people would prefer to have $50 today than have the same amount one month from now. On the other hand, most people would prefer to be denied the $50 if they are promised that they will get $200 in two months. This aspect of Smaller Sooner Reward (SSR) compared to Larger Later Reward (LLR) is used in motivation studies. Individuals’ motivational levels react differently to SSR and LLR with some people being motivated more by one than the other.  
b. How are the concepts of impulsiveness and self-regulation related to temporal discounting?

Impulsiveness or impulsivity is the tendency to act with little or no forethought or consideration of the consequences. Impulsive individuals also pay little attention to detail, and this reflects their choice of SSR and LLR as dictated by temporal discounting. Impulsive individuals seem to prefer the Smaller Sooner Rewards because they pay little attention to future possibilities. Hence, they are less likely to choose the Larger Later Rewards. On the other hand, self-regulation is the ability to control behavior such that the individual acts according to the situation. Therefore, self-regulation enables an individual to choose the best reward, whether it falls within the temporal horizon or not.



  1. What are psychoactive drugs?

Psychoactive drugs are chemical substances that people induce into their body systems to alter perception, consciousness, or mood by affecting their brain functions. Psychoactive drugs can be grouped into four broad categories: depressants, stimulants, opioids, and hallucinogens. Depressants include alcohol and sedatives which lower the activity of the central nervous system. Stimulants include cocaine and ecstasy which increase the activity of the central nervous system. Opioids include heroine and morphine which relieve pain, induce sleep, and dull senses. Lastly, hallucinogens include PCP and LSD which distort perceptions and can induce hallucinations and delusion.  
b. People enjoy eating when hungry and putting on a sweater when cold, but psychoactive drugs motivate people in other ways. How do psychoactive drugs differ from these behaviors, regarding the motivational aspects of the pleasure that they provide?

The motivational aspect of psychoactive drugs is mainly found in their effects on mood. By increasing or decreasing the activity of the central nervous system, the drugs either boost mood or slow down hyperactivity. Unlike food and clothes, the rewarding effect of psychoactive drugs is often addictive, and users experience withdrawal effects when they quit using them. Additionally, the pleasures that psychoactive drugs provide have been known to cause substance dependence.
c. What do many psychoactive drugs have in common regarding where they have their effects (in the brain)?
Psychoactive drugs affect the functioning of the central nervous system, either by slowing it or speeding it. Their effect on the central nervous system induces emotional and psychological changes in the user, and the effects are rewarding and often pleasant. For instance, opioids such as morphine help recovering patients to relieve pain to a great extent while others like caffeine and tobacco have relaxing effects to the brain.

  1. Discuss three factors that affect the value or utility of an incentive. Include a brief example of each.

The material reward is one of the main factors behind most incentives. In the contemporary world, most institutions and individuals issue rewards in financial or material form. For instance, organizations will reward top performers with promotions, higher pay, or other rewards such as all-expense-paid excursions. The other major factor affecting the value of an incentive is the moral gain. Incentives reward people through recognition, increased self-esteem, and approval, and all these factors determine the value of the incentive. The other factor is the coercive or physical force behind the incentive. Some incentives are fueled by some forms of punishment that the individual is subjected to if they fail to complete a task. More forceful coercion often creates higher value and utility in the incentive depending on the setting and the individuals involved in the incentive measure.

  1. What effect does incentive value or utility have on the motivation of behavior?
    Incentive value and utility determine the mood of the individual and ultimately their motivation. In this regard, incentives that have a greater value to the institution or individual offer higher material and moral rewards. For instance, incentives to increase the productivity of a company offer rewards of recognition, promotion, and salary increments. On the other hand, incentives with a smaller value such as reporting time for work often do not hold big rewards. Still, incentives with a small value could increase motivation if the individual faces the risk of punishment or deprival of benefits or comforts.
  2. What is goal commitment?

Goal commitment refers to the degree of determination that an individual has in achieving the set or desired goals. Goals are central elements of any function, and commitment to them determines the success or failure of the activity. Regarding this, every function and activity has goals, but it is the determination of the stakeholders to achieve them that determines their success or failure.
b. How can goal commitment be measured?

Goal commitment can be measured at two intervals before and after the achievement of a goal. Factors that have to be assessed include the initial intentions of the individual and the maintenance of goals. In this regard, the individual’s actions throughout the activity have to be assessed for their relevance to the initial goals. Constantly changing goals reflect a low degree of goal commitment.
c. How can goal commitment be increased?
Goal commitment can be increased through self-efficacy, or the belief that the individual will achieve the set goals. Self-efficacy can be boosted by setting achievable goals and ensuring sufficient planning before one starts acting on the goals. Goals that are too optimistic are likely to reduce motivation and commitment. Another way that goal commitment can be increased is through teamwork. Team goals are easier to commit to because one has to be as committed to their goals as much as they are committed to the team goals. 

  1. Which do people typically prefer: predictable stressors or unpredictable stressors?
    Stressors refer to events, conditions, or agents that cause stress. Stressors can be grouped into two broad groups: predictable and unpredictable stressors. Predictable stressors are those that everyone who is exposed to them anticipates stressful conditions. They include environmental stressors such as earthquakes, life changes such as bereavement, and workplace stressors such as low pay. On the other hand, unpredictable stressors are those that only some of the individuals exposed to them would anticipate stressful outcomes. Unpredictable stressors can be hidden, or the person affected could fail to realize that they are capable of causing stress. They include chemical stressors such as tobacco and daily stressors such as physical activity. A smoker might not anticipate that smoking will cause stress in their later lives as they try to quit while a person doing physical work may not anticipate muscle pains because he cannot predict the amount of physical work that will create the pain. People typically prefer unpredictable stressors because they create opportunities to enjoy their current environments and situations. This is unlike the case of predictable stressors where the individual is under constant fear of the obvious outcomes, yet they have no power to change them.


January 15, 2017


Mission statement: Jaguar seeks to deliver more great products, faster than they have done before. The company seeks to be the leader in the environmental innovation. To be sure that the customers of the company came first.

Values: The approach taken by Jaguar is based on a set of core values that assist in the creation and manufacture of premium vehicles in a sustainable approach. These values involve the company working together with integrity and understanding and striving to achieve excellence in everything the company does.

Main Objectives of Jaguar Land Rover

  • The company seeks to demonstrate leadership in sustainable business practices. Of main importance is to achieve carbon neutral manufacturing and minimal waste across all the operations.
  • Manufacture vehicles that meet the future requirements of the customers with reduced environmental impact
  • Improve the lives of the wider community. These includes creating opportunities for approximately 12 million people by the year 2020.
  • Engage people, customers and partners in responsible business processes.

Jaguar land rover is one of the largest car manufacturers in the United Kingdom and has been ranked as one of the best employers in the country. The company has become one of the headline grabbing success stories in Britain with its employees doubling over the last four years. Today, the company has employed approximately 45000 employees worldwide and the number is rising fast. Apart from manufacture of vehicles, the company is also significantly active in automotive research, engineering and development in the country and in the transfer and movement of craftsmanship and innovation to the world market. The company has been known for the seductive design of the automobiles and the art of high performance vehicles. The company obtains one of its main successes on the successful automobile brands which commands a global market for the company’s products. Since the company has placed most of its focus on luxurious brands of vehicles, most the vehicles produced by the company have won prestigious awards globally making the products publicly accepted and the company an international automobile icon. It is also important to understand that Jaguar was recently acquired by TATA. Through this acquisition, the company has achieved command over the TATA’s market.

SWOT analysis

A SWOT analysis on the company however, demonstrates some unique issues that the company needs to consider and take actions in order to maintain its market and remain competitive (Adamu, Zubairu, Ibrahim & Ibrahim, 2011). In a SWOT analysis, the weaknesses on the other hand are internal factors within the organization that prevent the organization from taking advantage of the opportunities in the industry. One of the major weaknesses of the Jaguar lands company is the lack of a variety of product range in comparison to the competitors. Product diversification is the process of extending the products or the activities of the corporation outside those that the company is engaged in.

One of the major impacts of lack of varieties is the loss of customers to competitors. Jaguar’s automobile, despite having outstanding performance, are relatively expensive thus rendering a significant proportion of the population unable to afford these products. Since the company does not offer cheaper versions of the products, the competitors take advantage through the manufacture of pocket friendly automobiles. The company should seek means to manufacture a variety of automobiles preferably of different economic levels. The other means is to reduce the cost of their products through ensuring a cheap supply chain. Graduates, being fresh from the colleges and institutions, have innovative and creative minds on achieving high performance while applying minimal resources. Secondly, since graduates come with different views from the outside world, they will be significant and important sources of information on what should be included in the manufacturing process and what needs not be applied.

Apart from the strengths and the weaknesses, the other important factors in the SWOT analysis are the opportunities of the company. Opportunities primarily refers to the new business initiatives that are available for exploitation of the organization. One major opportunity for the Jaguar Lands is that the hybrid models of luxury cars remains to be a massive and untapped market worldwide. However, through Jaguar has made a significant stride towards exploiting this potential while at the same time maintaining its competitiveness, there still exists huge gaps which remains unexploited. This being the case, Jaguar is one of the main companies to have made considerable attempts towards exploiting this market. However, the resources and efforts that the company have placed on the exploitation are still relatively low. Secondly, the company has primarily based its luxury vehicle manufacture operations in Britain while at the same time neglecting the other regions of the world despite potentially high market. The production department at the company should invest more resources on the production of more luxury automobiles. The sales and marketing department on the other hand should take the necessary means towards ensuring the company’s presence all around the globe. This can only be achieved through the establishment of the company’s outlet in different regions of the world. Graduates should be trained on the overall design and production of the luxury vehicles in order to add on the production engineering team. This will enable for an increased production of the luxury vehicles to meet the rising demand.

Training Activities



Time Details of Activities/Training Objectives Delivery Style Resources Needed
Day 1  


5:00 pm

Introduction to Jaguar Land rover community and its creative and innovating culture.

Group talks from the company directors.

Lectures on the company’s objectives for the graduates, its expectations and the core values.

Orient engineers on the Jaguar culture and staff community.

To understand Jaguar’s objectives and aims.

Give an understanding into the expectations of the company from the graduates.

A tour around the company and its facilities with an instructor.

Questions and answer session.

Teacher-student lecture

A projector and a white board. Cost of £700

Manuals on the core values, objectives and aims of the company x 10 £100

Catering for the participants x 11 £110

Day 2  

8:00 am –

12: 00 noon



– 5:00pm

General orientation into the company’s facilities. The objective is to build up on the first day tour with the provision of information on the different compartments of their company and their roles to the company. General tour around the company with an instructor to guide through the facilities of the company. Maps on the company’s different manufacturing facilities x 10 £50

Catering for the participants x 11 £110

Day 3  


General training on the luxury vehicles production process Educate the engineers on the inputs, the process and the output of production and assembly

Training on product manufactured by Jaguar.

Conduct online test and achieve approximately 80% pass.

Classroom training

Questions and answer sessions.

Catering for the participants x 11 £110
Day 4  

8:00 am –

12:00 pm


2:00 pm

5:00 pm

Division of the engineers into the different working groups.

Seminars on all the product production processes.

Display of the different processes in action.

Since the different engineers will work from different sections of the organization, the fourth day will entail specifying the different sections where each will work from.

The second objective is provide specific orientation to new engineers on their expected role.

Classroom and instructor class.

Technical training at the different sections of the section.

Projector and white board



Catering for the participants x 11 £110

Day 5  

8:00 am –

12:00 pm


2:00 pm

5:00 pm

Technical training on vehicle part production and vehicle assembly Provide field experience to the engineers with the objective of emphasizing on the lessons learnt in class. Assimilation of the engineers into the different departments from which they will be expected to work from.

Learning from the already working staffs and engineers at the company.

Catering for the participants x 11 £110


Vehicle parts £6000


Engineering consultant






The first five days of training and development of new employees into the company should seek on providing the new graduates with information with regard to the flow of activities within the organization. As such, the above program has been set to ensure that the new graduate engineers shift their attention from learning towards the application of knowledge and expertise towards development.



Adamu, N., Zubairu, I., Ibrahim, Y. & Ibrahim, A. (2011). Evaluating  the  Impact  of Product  Diversification  on  Financial  Performance  of  Selected  Nigerian Construction Firms. Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 16 (2), pp. 91-114.





Health and Social Care – Supporting Anticipatory Care for Long Term Conditions

January 13, 2017

Supporting Anticipatory Care for Long Term Conditions

Advances in healthcare mean that more people are living longer with conditions which previously they might not have survived (Nolte and McKee 2008). They are grouped under the terms chronic disease, long-standing illness or the term used in this essay, LTCs. These are recognised as requiring on-going care and support, limiting what people can do and lasting longer than a year (SEHD 2005). LTCs cannot be cured and so the focus of care shifts to means which enhance functional status, minimise distressing symptoms and reduce exacerbations of the condition through secondary prevention (Nolte and McKee 2008).

LTCs are also characterised as common in older people, people living in deprived areas and among the Scottish population (SEHD 2005; Loretto and Taylor 2007). The picture is further complicated by the prevalence of people living with more than one LTC and the rise in chronic multimorbidity (Barnett et al. 2012). This epidemiological and demographic shift represents a significant challenge to governments and healthcare providers (WHO 2011). The challenge for healthcare providers is to improve the management of care of people with LTCs. Traditional healthcare models focus on care for people with individual diseases; people with LTCs need a broader approach (Nolte and McKee 2008; Barnett et al. 2012) whose development has been shown to improve the health of people with LTCs (SEHD 2005). It should include increasing support for self-management, greater focus primary care, and the recognition and management of vulnerable cases ( Audit Scotland, 2007; SEHD 2005). Greater emphasis on patient empowerment and closer alignment of health services to patients’ needs is being proposed (Barnett et al. 2012).

In its broadest sense, anticipatory care is defined as a health improvement efforts involving primary, secondary and tertiary prevention interventions which are conveyed within or in tandem with health care and including direct contact with target populations. Anticipatory care planning is basically proactive thinking (Tapsfield et al., 2015) and is regarded “as a philosophy which promotes discussion in which individuals, their care providers and those close to them, make decisions concerning their future health or personal and practical aspects of care” (Scottish Government 2011). This process allows constructive deliberation and recording of future healthcare needs and preferences prior to the deterioration of health. ACP gives individuals the opportunity to make informed choices about their health and well-being and engage in conversations with care providers about their concerns. This involves respecting individual choice and implanting dignity and care in practice (Parsons and Assin, 2014).

Long term conditions

The drastic increase in long-term conditions (LTCs) poses a big challenge to individuals, families, and to healthcare systems globally (WHO, 2014). LTCs are now the most common causes of morbidity, disability, and mortality in Scotland. The burden of LTCs continues to grow annually as its population continues as their prevalence rises with age, affecting about 50 percent of people aged 50, and 80 per cent of those aged 65. According to data from the Patient Team Information (PTI) nearly 47% of the Scottish population see a member of a GP practice team for a possible LTC ` in a period of one year, although it includes many patients with the capability to manage their conditions and as a result their quality of life is not affected. In the Scottish Health Survey, some form of health complications, long-term illnesses, or disability was reported among nearly 37% of the population, while another 11% reported having a condition that limits their daily activities.

Gray and Leyland  (2012) reporting the results of the Scottish Health Survey  2012 show that the incidence of adult LTCs rose from 41 percent in 2008 to 46% percent in 2012. This increase is more among women whereby in 2008, 42% of women in Scotland were diagnosed with an LTC, a figure that rose to 49% on 2012. This is in contrast to 38% and 42% for men in 2008 and 2012, respectively (Gray and Leyland, 2012).  Statistics also show that in 2012, nearly a third  (32%) of the adult population in Scotland had a limiting LTC, with a high prevalence of limiting LTCs observed to be higher among women (35% ) compared to men (28%).

Barnett et al. (2012) note that the incidence of multiple chronic conditions is increasing rapidly as the population ages. This implies that unless morbidity is significantly compressed, the demand for long-term care will grow exponentially over the next decades as the population becomes old. This precipitous age gradient also implies that unless individuals with multiple LTCS have access to high quality of health and social care as those with a single LTC, the elderly individuals with multiple LTCs have a higher risk of receiving lower quality care compared to younger people with lower probabilities of developing multiple conditions (Allen and Glasby, 2010). Essentially, the rise of LTCs with age poses significant challenges regarding quality and accessibility of some forms of care. In Scotland, like elsewhere in the world, the increased incidence of multi-morbidity has critical implications for the healthcare system. Notably, as patients continue to lead longer lives the risk of developing more LTCs increases, which subsequently increases the complexity of care and management of these conditions (Wanless, 2002). Several studies indicate that elder individuals with LTC multi-morbidity have more physician visits, had longer hospital stays and inpatient bed days and used more pharmaceuticals (Gallacher, et al., 2014).

Given the high costs implicated in the care of patients with age-related LTCs, health practitioners, and policy makers that current heath care systems need to be transformed to offer more proactive care in the management of LTCs. Despite this recognition, patients with LTCs still receive extremely fragmented service, which in turn results in less than expected outcomes, care experiences, and costs levels (Goodwin, Sonola, and Thiel, 2013). In the last decade or so, Scotland has adopted unique strategies to support care coordination and promote effective management of LTCs. However, these strategies have regularly failed to accomplish their objectives. Moreover, there has been a knowledge deficiency regarding the best approach through which the Scottish health system can apply and combine the different strategies to remain proactive against LTCs. In a recent research in Ireland by Darker et al. (2011) established that key barriers to providing chronic care within the settings of general practice were the main cause of increased workload and a lack of sufficient funding for the management of chronic disease. Developing tools and models that can be used to identify and monitor patients who are at risk of developing long-term illnesses is one best approach to understanding and managing chronic disease in any population. Further, understanding the dynamics of chronic disease within a population requires social, and healthcare services requir better planning on health promotion, prevention and self-management strategies.

Policy background

Health policy has been devolved to the four nations of the UK; since 1999 for Scotland and Wales and 2000 for Northern Ireland (Murray et al. 2013). Since then the promotion of self-management support for people with LTCs has been managed separately in the four regions. At a recent conference LTCs (Tackling LTCs, 2013) three themes emerged as influencing the future direction of self-management: the importance of an integrated team approach to avoid fragmentation and better reflect a true patient-focused approach to care; greater recognition of the social capital and asset that people themselves present in being able to manage their health; and the importance of risk-profiling to target patients most in need of intervention (Shippee, et al., 2015).

Much of the early discussion in Scottish policy documents addressed the change needed to develop self-management support as a national priority. The Scottish Government’s commitment to improving care for people with LTCs was set out in “Delivering for Health” (SEHD 2005a) in which clear drivers for change are set out, legitimising and establishing the issues outlined in the document as worthy of attention. Responding to these policy-drivers is the objective of policy-makers and in a top-down model of should also be the objective of policy-implementers. Change and its delivery and management are the underlying frameworks informing how policy should be taken forward. “Delivering for Health” (SEHD 2005a) sets out the following drivers: increasing patient expectations, shifting population trends and medical advances. These can only be addressed if health services change. Legitimising self-management has not been established through theoretical ideas drawn from policy implementation literature but through reference to the need to change and modernise: “The NHS in Scotland needs to change. Not because it is in crisis as some would have us believe – it is not; but because Scotland’s healthcare needs are changing rapidly and we need to act now to ensure we are ready to meet future challenges” (SEHD 2005).

The Department of health’s 1980 report showed that while the general health had improved as a result of introducing the welfare state, it was noted that there existed widespread health inequalities (Department of Health, 2012). Thus, it was established that health was reliant on the economic wellbeing of individuals. This is similar to the facts established by the Barnett et al., (2012), a report which indicated that people living in poor neighbourhoods develop LTCs 10 years earlier. The finding remains a big influence not only in England and Scotland and has therefore widely contributed to the political standpoint of health policy. In another report, The Health Divide: Working together for a Healthier Scotland (1998) it was equally concluded that economic inequality had a positive correlation with health. Thus, solid connections have been identified between LTCs, lifestyle and economic factors and health determinants (Scottish Government, 2009). Based on these findings regarding LTCs’ concerns the Scotland government has implemented policy driven strategies to counter their challenges in addition to planning for the future.

For instance, one such key policy is the Building a Health Service whose objective is to create a national framework for service change through the provision of an action plan aimed at providing solutions to changing health care needs in the country (Scottish Executive 2005). The policy proposed a balance shift in terms of care from hospital to community-focused interventions. It recommended for an integration system where both the social and health care are involved and for the emphasis to be on individuals and their health needs instead of being disease specific. Also, the report recommended an approach based on preventive strategies towards ill health, especially in poor neighbourhoods. Thus, it encouraged the reduction of ill health and inequalities through economic empowerment, and this shifted the reactive approach of health care. The policy projected the involvement of strategies that would maximise community services and rehabilitate health care through the provision of state of the art communication equipment that would enhance accessibility, effectiveness, and quality.

Another intervention that supported these proposals was the Better Health Better Care Action Plan which made a commitment to enhance healthcare quality, improve the general health nationally, and narrow the health inequalities. To realize its goals the plan proposed the establishment of a common NHS Scotland where all departments were required to work collaboratively, but with the focus being on the patient’s needs as well as share experience for purposes of improving care. Healthcare bearing in Scotland today is driven through The Healthcare Quality Strategy for NHS Scotland of 2010, which is founded on the findings of The 2007 Better Health Better Care Plan (2007) combined with the 2020 Vision which is focused on effective approaches for implementing the Quality Strategy. On major objective of the Quality Strategy (2010) is to provide the “highest quality healthcare services to people in Scotland.”  It is focused on collaborative working with the intention of delivering effective, safe and person-centred care that is based on internationally recognised six healthcare quality dimensions. However, this policy remains the pillar of making health care provision and management better in the future. For instance, it makes it a priority to address LTCs and initiates approaches that will lead to a shift towards a multidisciplinary strategic approach tol health for purposes of minimising the progression and impact of chronic diseases.

Therefore, the common theme in these policies is the adoption of an approach that is focused on anticipatory care planning (ACP). Such an undertaking will help individuals to identify any worsening or progression of their LTC at an early stage. Further, it seeks to equip individuals with guidance, knowledge, and support that will help them to be confident when making choices regarding their preferred healthcare interventions as well as in the planning and delivering personalised care (Coulter et al., 2013; Healthcare Improvement Scotland, 2016; Loretto & Taylor, 2007). This relies on findings by Baker et al. (2012), who noted that self-management and home treatments play a significant role in reducing or preventing unnecessary hospital admission.

The self-care model

According to the Alliance for Self-Care Research 2006, self-care is defined as, actions undertaken by individuals to prevent illness, maintain their health, seek medical interventions, and manage the illness and related side effects of treatment for purposes of realizing admirable recovery, rehabilitation and management of a chronic illness and disability (Long Term Conditions Alliance Scotland, 2008).  Equally, according to the Department of Health’s definition, it describes the actions taken by individuals or their families to remain healthy and maintain good physical and mental health (Department of Health, 2013). To this effect it involves the management of minor ailments and injuries; however, its greatest potential is more in the framework of the management of LTCs.

Challenges for improving self-care skills

Living in poor neighbourhoods, employment, the level of education, language barriers, cultural religious and sexual orientations, as well as age has been identified as the common barriers that limit individuals from accessing self-care services. Accordingly, they have been identified by the Alliance Scotland (2008) as equal barriers to self-care skills improvement. Accessibility must be improved so in order to enable disadvantaged groups to gain access to health care services and improve their awareness on health. However, improving awareness on health is a big challenge, and as a result varying opinions regarding how health literacy can be promoted have been identified.

For instance, the Expert Patients Programme’s (EPP) is an initiative whose key agenda has been documented as “establishing the principle of individual self-management and self-care as a recognised public health measure” (EPP, 2008). The program offers free training to individuals living with any recognized long-term condition. However, even with its benefit of cost-effectiveness, several limitations have been noted on the programme. In one study by Richardson et al. (2008), it was identified that individuals living in poor neighbourhoods were less attracted to the programme. Thus, noting that these neighbourhoods suffer the worst regarding education levels and employment they equally report the highest frequency of LTCs and hence, the Scottish Government is targeting these areas with increased self-care support resources.
Evidence from research indicates that self-care benefits highly outweighs evidence to the contrary and hence such an initiative should be supported. For instance, a report by the Department of Health clearly demonstrated that many patients are in its preference and are hopeful that the government will invest more in it (Department of Health, 2013). This resonates the government’s primary objective of making patients the key subjects in all health care interventions. Nevertheless, attention needs to focus on its effectiveness since various studies have identified that effectiveness is unlikely among patients who have lived with the condition for a long time. Finally, it is important to change how individuals with long-term conditions are managed and supported; however, it is more important to establish effective strategies to manage the demand.

Role of paramedics in supporting the self-care

According to statistics from the British Geriatrics Society (2012), nearly 95% of unplanned LTC-related care in England is delivered through primary care. Thus, continuity of primary care has been identified as an intervention strategy that might equally reduce acute hospital admission especially among the elderly (Goodwin et al 2013; Health Foundation 2011). Conversely, patients with LTC and their families greatly value co-ordinated care, continuity of care, and familiar clinicians, since they consider that discontinuity of care  disjointed care affects its quality (Ellins et al 2012; Haggerty 2012; Health Foundation 2011; National Voices 2013; Roland 2013;; Ross et al 2011).

Indeed, a key indicator for enhancing care for individuals with LTCs is through the reduction of unplanned hospital admissions for “ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs)” (Department of Health 2011). The high admission levels for ACSCs mainly indicates poor harmonisation between the established elements within the health care sector, especially between primary and secondary care. Any unplanned admission for an ACSC signifies poor quality of care, regardless of the quality of the episode management (Haley, 2011).

Based on this, it is evident that the role of paramedics is important since it reduces admissions but only when it is sufficiently managed and supported as an important element of a wider integrated care system. As noted by Mason et al. (2007), additional training for paramedics and supporting their services so that they can efficiently provide initial management and stabilisation of various LTCs, can reduce admissions, length of stay, and increase patient satisfaction. Besides, joint care practises with community services and local acute providers can significantly minimise the frequency of ambulance trips to hospital for older patients who have suddenly fallen or become acutely ill (Logan et al 2010; NHS Confederation 2010). Hence, it is judicious for communities to develop collaborative care practices with ambulance service providers as a means of reducing hospital admissions and enhancing out-of-hospital care.

On their part, ambulance service providers should be professionally managed and must ensure that all paramedics are trained and sufficiently supported. These measures will ensure that older patients receive quality health care services at the comfort of their home. Effective ambulatory care can deliver anticipatory care for patients with LTCs involves allowing speedy contact to professional assistance from experts and delivery of services through ‘chair-based’ ambulatory care clinics (Tian et al 2012; Staples, 2012; Swayze and Jensen, 2016 ). Based on this, the effectiveness of both those unscheduled care services and scheduled service providers’ needs to be enhanced so as to ensure that they positively give support to self-care approaches with the same desired outcomes. It is a fact that unscheduled caregivers are only in contact with these patients for a very short time mainly during episodic care or in acute health needs.

That said, there are various challenges encountered by paramedic in relation to supporting self-care. The key challenge is the unfamiliarity with patient and lack of pertinent patient information which affects their ability to make accurate medical decision. Other challenges include; lack of clinical registers ambulances,  lack of adequate ways by clinicians providing care to LTC patients advising paramedics on the care plan, and that patients are vulnerable when making decisions regarding their health and desired medical intervention (Hauswald, 2002; Mason et al., 2008; Schmidt et al., 2000; Silvestri et al., 2002). However, regardless of these limitations, paramedics are important in supporting individuals to develop their self-care skills.


Self-care programmes are increasingly gaining widespread support, not only from the government but also from patients, patient support groups, and caregivers. Major approaches used in support of self-care are founded on widely recognized researches in the fields of behavioural, social care and science, and health. Accordingly, there exist many evidence-base strategies to support self-care regardless of occasional indication criticising the success of self-care support approaches for identified conditions and specialized needs. However, it has been noted that the implementation of a joined-up approach, especially in relation to training, time and resources. Accordingly, it has been established that it is important to develop a direct link regarding the knowledge and skills framework and their training. Also, the availability of technology tools that enable timely and use of easy-to-learn tools, for example, the 5A’s approach is another approach that will enable shared decision making as well as improve the general content useful to their profession (World Health Organisation, 2004). Thus, it is important to streamline the sector so that the services of self-care by both the planned and emergency and unscheduled services to ensure that neither overshadows the other. Finally, self-care awareness education should involve paramedics and ambulance personnel even though their contact with patients is minimal.





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January 10, 2017

Supply Chain Management


The inception of Giro Food Limtied spans back to the year 1969. It is a catering and wholesale supplier, reputed as an innovator in the ethnic food industry. In regard to catering, the company specializes in among others; Pizza products, Greek products, Fat & Oils, Batters & Coatings, Frozen fish, Fresh vegetables, spice & additives, and soft drinks. All the products are sourced from across the world (, 2016). Again the Giro Food Limited has well established and reputable restaurants which deals with; Dalls & Pulses, Dried fruits & Nuts, Herbs & Spices, Beverages & Soups, Rice & Flour, and Pickles & Pastes among others. In fact, besides operating its restaurants, the company has established cordial working relationships with other reputable and award winning restaurants. Giro Food Limited has a distribution division, operating a large fleet of vehicles, thereby ensuring after-service delivery to the clients. However, the company’s central tenet is based on the cash and carry system. The company supplies its “products to the Indian, Chinese, Afro-Caribbean, Greek and English markets” (, 2016).











A map of the Different Tiers in the Supply Chain

Tier 3















In regard to the above map, Giro Food Limited gets its resource input from different suppliers, manufactures, later stores them in their Birmingham warehouse, and finally presents them to the end users through the restaurants and via their catering services. For instance, some of the resource inputs are obtained from the farms, tier 1. Others may be obtained from the market and manufacturing companies, tier 2. The products are later distributed through the company’s integrated distribution fleet to the respective restaurants as well as during any catering undertaking.

Derive Characteristics of Supply Chain Covering Supply, Demand and Internal Operations

From the onset, it is important noting that every supply chain, regardless of the industry or business, will be seeking to achieve excellence (Bolstorff & Rosenbaum, 2007, p. 20). As such, relative to supply, demand, and internal operations, every supply chain can be defined by the following characteristics. Firstly, the supply chain always seeks to optimize the inventory. Conventionally, the presence of excess inventory in the supply chain can be detrimental to the particular business in question. Equally, failure to meet the minimum inventory requirements in the supply chain will traumatize the system. Consequently, a good supply chain is defined by inventory optimization, which requires an extensive, accurate and precise forecast of the required items (Dubrin, 2009). Eventually, this will ensure maintaining a balance between supply and demand while sustaining the internal operations at the optimal levels.

Secondly, supply chains should be innovative and especially considering the rapid technological advancements taking place day after day. As such, the supply chains should be well placed in the innovative chain to ensure that every operation is kept at watch and achieves optimal outcome. For instance, there has been the fitting of warehouses with smart glasses aimed at facilitating the picking up processes. Eventually, this optimizes the internal operations within a warehouse, and this does not leave out Giro Food Limited.

Thirdly, the best and well managed supply chains have proper planning strategies put in place (Blanchard, 2010). It is admissible that a supply chain involves a lot of operations right from the sourcing of raw materials, manufacturing, and distribution to the end consumer. For instance, there has to be a determination of the workers to be assigned a particular responsibility at a particular section within the entire supply chain. Most of the businesses have put in place enterprise resource planning (ERP) in their supply chains to help improve their overall planning. Without proper planning, any supply chain is deemed to collapse (Tang, Teo, & Wei 2008). Again, through proper planning, there is the ability of critically researching the market and noting any fluctuations that may affect the material sourcing, manufacturing as well as any other element affecting the supply chain processes. Through proper planning, a business is able to establish a strong balance between supply and demand and this is not an exception when it comes to Giro Food Limited.

Fourthly, customization and personalization is another attribute that defines the supply chain. This defines the ability of businesses to implement different supply chain processes so as to meet the diverse needs of the end consumers (Blanchard, 2010). This means, that every process in the supply chain, is designed to specifically deal with a particular process. For instance, in the case of foodstuffs, different ingredients will be added at different stages. The same case will apply to the packaging, sealing, and branding of the foodstuffs.

Fifthly, most of the supply chains in different businesses are sustainable. This stems from the corporate social responsibility (CSR) concept, which is not uncommon in many industries including the food sector. Businesses are expected to utilize their raw materials in the most sustainable manner by ensuring that they cause zero or minimal effects on the eco-system (Tang, Teo, & Wei 2008). This largely depends on the raw materials used and the internal operations, within the supply chain. Through the adoption of the above strategies Giro Food Limited should carry out its activities, ordering, based on the following order quantity equilibrium graph.

Identification of Issues and Challenges in Supply, Demand and Internal Operations

The operations of Giro Food Limited revolve around the food industry. As such it is going to encounter the following issues in regard to the supply, demand, and internal operations. Visibility is the first issue that most supply chain managers face including those in the food industry (Worley, 2016). It is admissible that supply chain management is a complex undertaking, involving different tiers, manufacturers, distributors, suppliers as well as the consumers. The disruption of any of the above mentioned compromises the steadily running of the processes in the supply chain. For instance, there may be field losses, transport damages, as well as consumer wastages. Again, there are a cluster of other challenges emanating from cost controls, owing to the changing labor rates, fluctuating energy costs, and changing costs for the input resources (Worley, 2016).. In the case of Giro Food Limited, its operations are global implying that it has to adapt to the changing commodity prices. It is also important noting that different cultures may need different foods implying that Giro Food Limited must work towards meeting these localized needs. Eventually, this may demand a change in the company’s supply chain, and this is not always an easy undertaking. Also, the mere fact that the company has multinational operations means that it is exposed to relatively many legal requirements and changes and especially considering that it deals with foodstuffs, which are highly sensitive to human health (Eastham, Sharples & Ball 2007). Additionally, planning and disaster management requires regular redesigns, which may interfere with the already established supply chain processes. Finally, the globalization concept coupled with the desire to expand its markets, Giro Food Limited, will be required to adopt the emerging technologies so to produce safe and high quality products. Unfortunately, this is an expensive undertaking in terms of staff requirement, expenses, and the overall changes to be done on the already existing systems and processes in the current supply chain (Eastham, Sharples & Ball 2007).

Competitive Strategies Considering Products Attributes and Customers’ Requirements

According to Michael Porter, there are only two approaches that a company can use in achieving competitive advantage; Differentiation and Cost leadership. It is from the above that the proponent, Michael Porter, derives the cost and differentiation focus. In regard to Giro Food Limited, the following competitive advantages may be derived from its overall structure and with regard to its products attributes and the consumers’ requirements. Giro Food Limited deals with a broad category of products, as captured in the preceding sections. The company has been in operation for more than 47 years, thereby, gunning a lot of experience in its areas of specialization. The company has been offering high quality foodstuffs, drinks and beverages through its catering and restaurants’ approach. As a catering and wholesale supplier, the company has always maintained quality products. Eventually, this enables the company to enjoy a competitive advantage, thereby expanding its markets to the international markets. Again, the company has been able to offer a wide range of products rather than focusing on an individual product. Fortunately, all the products are centered towards the food categories, which enable the company to broaden its expertise while boosting its competitiveness. Nevertheless, Giro Food Limited has been very conscious in regard to its pricing strategies. Although the company is not the price leader in the food industry, in the countries it operates, it has put in place strategies that aim at achieving the above mentioned objective. For instance, it introduced “Winflo”, which despite offering a wide range of products aims at providing alternative brands at relatively cheaper prices (, 2016). Distribution is an important element in business operations. As such, products Giro Food Limited can be obtained from its restaurants as well as other award winning restaurants. Again, its catering services are available for wedding, festivities, and other kind of outdoor parties. Finally, the company has adopted the “cash and carry” approach. In connection with the above, Giro Food Limited, offers after-service delivery to consumers across all the areas it conducts businesses (, 2016). All the above, derived from its business structure, helps the business to have an added competitive advantage.

Supply Chain Strategies Covering Supply Chain Drivers

In coming up with the most effective supply chain strategies, Giro Food Limited must put into consideration the five different supply chain drivers. These include; inventory, production, transportation, location, and information. In the view of the above, the following supply chain strategies may be deemed most efficient. These will span from the sourcing, operations, and route to market strategies (In Ramanathan & In Ramanathan, 2013). Firstly, there is a need to put into consideration the “agility” supply chain strategy. In this case, Giro Food Limited will be working towards creating a balance between supply and demand and especially considering the unpredictable food market fluctuations. In other words, through the “agile” strategy, the company is well placed to optimally address issues of responsiveness which spans across its inventory, production, transportations, pricing, and location, for instance, how to price its products and when to present them in the market. Secondly, there will be a need to make optimal utilization of the “lean”, strategy that primarily aims at cutting down any wastage of products (In Ramanathan & In Ramanathan, 2013). For instance, in the case of Giro Food Limited, the idea will be to mitigate any issues of wastage during the storage and transportation process. Thirdly, there will be the use of the “Leagile” strategy, which combines both the lean and agile supply chain strategies. The approach is mainly used in the “projection of unpredictable demands as well as long lead times” (In Ramanathan & In Ramanathan, 2013, p. 11). In regard to Giro Food Limited, the strategy will mainly be used in the projection of long run market situations in the different locations that the company supplies its food products, either in the form of catering or restaurant services. Lastly, it will be optimal for Giro Food Limited to utilize the “Risk edging” strategy, which is mainly used for functional and evolving processes (In Ramanathan & In Ramanathan, 2013). Giro Food Limited will utilize the strategy so as to try and mitigate any effects of supply uncertainty. As such, the company will be in a position to closely monitor its inventory, production, pricing, and transportation processes so as to achieve optimal gains at relatively reduced losses.



Analysis of the Synergy between Competitive and Supply Chain Strategies and Identify


In regard to Giro Food Limited, there is a synergy between the competitive and supply chain strategies as demonstrated in the ensuing section. The demand and supply of products will shift from time to time and the ability of a company or business to produce a wide range of products places it a relatively higher competitive position. This is because, at a particular time, some commodities may be having relatively lower demand while others have higher demand. Giro Food Limited is well placed in optimizing this opportunity. Additionally, the ability to offer high quality products helps the company to mitigate any cases of wastage resulting from rejected commodities in the market. In fact, issues of wastage are addressed further by the ability of the company to offer-after service delivery to the clients through its massive transportation fleet. Also, it has been very conscious about its pricing strategies and the products can be obtained from the company’s outlet restaurants and other award winning restaurants. Also, it targets many international markets rather than focusing on the local ones, hence expanding its clientele base. This, coupled with the already established market, enables the company to mitigate its wastage. However, the idea of “cash and carry” may bring about a disconnection between the competitive advantage and supply strategies especially. Most of the clients would prefer the after-service delivery as opposed to “cash and carry” approach.

Develop Relationship between Supply Chain Issues and Challenges with the Strategic Gaps

A strategic gap is defined as the disconnection between a company’s current performance and its projected performance into the future (Chai, 2009). The primary objective of any for-profit company is to maximize its revenue and profit margins through expanded market coverage. Currently, Giro Food Limited has main operations in Europe, Asia, and Afro-Caribbean. Again, the company offers high quality haute cousins that have attracted a large number of loyal clients. However, from a strategic point of view and considering that Giro Food Limited has been in operation for only 47 years, it is arguable that it would love to expand its market and production as well to achieve the pre-stated long term objective. For instance, it could expand its market to the American, African, and Australian continents, especially considering that food is a basic need to everyone and hence could do well in any market as well as it is of high quality and commensurate with the cultures and traditions of the host society. However, to achieve this, there need to be proper planning, extensive management of the supply chain, dealing with a large base in regard to legal requirements and ensuring stiff and extensive innovative capabilities. All these challenges have been previously cited and discussed as some of the issues that face the abilities of a supply chain to achieve excellence.

A Project for Improving Sustainability

From the preceding section, the idea of Giro Food Limited is to expand its operations and ensure their sustainability in the long run. As such, the following strategies are deemed most effective in ensuring a sustainability plan for the company. From the onset, Giro Food Limited must look forward towards ensuring cost effectiveness, focusing on result-orientation, upholding diversification, maximizing the use of available resources, and ensuring efficiency to achieve short and long-term goals. However, in regard to improving its sustainability the company must continue and work extra harder in regard to its corporate social responsibility (CSR). In this case, it should into application the policies put forward by the Environmental Protection Authority (EPA). Firstly, Giro Food Limited should source its raw materials from environmentally conscious suppliers, for instance, the ones that do not use harmful chemicals in food production. In nutshell, they should focus on sustainable sourcing. Secondly, Giro Food Limited should always work towards reducing greenhouse gas (GHS) emissions. This implies continually controlling and monitoring its storage facilities to avert any cases of environmental damages through affluent and waste products.  The company’s packaging and waste disposal should always ensure reduced environmental implications. Thirdly, there is a need to ensure biodiversity by putting in place programs that aims at promoting the stability of the eco-system. Fourthly, it is important for Giro Food Limited to put in place social-economic programs such as sponsorships and philanthropy initiatives so as to promote its relationships with the surrounding communities.

Business Case for the Improvement Project

Despite operating in relatively many countries, Giro Food Limited would like to expand its market base to more continents and countries. This is aimed at expanding the company’s current target markets so as to achieve increased income and profit margins. Conventionally, any for-profit business will aim at maximizing its profits, and this demonstrates the reason as to why Giro Food Limited intends to expand its market. The company operates from one central warehouse, in Birmingham, and distributes its products through the use of its expansive fleet of distributors. It follows that an expansion in its operations, will attract some more investment expenses in bring up new warehouses, restaurants, or establishing new working relationships with award winning restaurants in its projected markets. However, up on undertaking a cost-benefit analysis, the positives will outdo the negatives especially considering the company’s ability to optimally utilize the current technological innovations in the development of its products and processes. Additionally, the company has well established global brand name, which gives it an added advantage. Owing to its high quality products, an increased number of first class restaurants will be willing to form business partnerships with Giro Food Limited.









Blanchard, D. (2010). Supply chain management best practices. Hoboken, N.J., John Wiley & Sons.

Bolstorff, P., & Rosenbaum, R. (2007). Supply chain excellence: a handbook for dramatic improvement using the SCOR model. New York, AMACOM.

Chai, N. (2009). Sustainability performance evaluation system in government: A balanced scorecard approach towards sustainable development. Dordrecht: Springer.

Daly, J. L. (2002). Pricing for profitability: activity-based pricing for competitive advantage. New York, Wiley.

Dubrin, A. J. (2009). Essentials of management. Mason, OH, Thomson Business & Economics.

Eastham J, Sharples L & Ball, S 2007, Food Supply Chain Management, New York, PA, Taylor & Francis. (2016). Giro Food Ltd : Pioneers in Food Service. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Dec. 2016].

In Ramanathan, U., & In Ramanathan, R. (2013). Supply chain strategies, issues and models. London : Springer.

Tang, C. S., Teo, C.-P., & Wei, K. K. (2008). Supply chain analysis: a handbook on the interaction of information, system and optimization. New York, Springer.

Worley, C. (2016). Organizing supply chain processes for sustainable innovation in the agri-food industry: volume 5. [Place of publication not identified], Emerald Group Publishing.


English for Academic Purposes 1

January 10, 2017








English for Academic Purposes 1 (EAP 1) Portfolio (EAPA3004)



Student Number:

Tutor name:


This is your EAP 1 Portfolio. Please save a copy on your computer and back it up regularly (e.g. by saving it on your computer / in the cloud (e.g. Google Drive) / emailing it to yourself. You will receive a printed copy which you should bring to all lectures and tutorials. However, at the end of the course, you need to submit a completed electronic copy. Please refer to suggested word counts for each task included within this portfolio.


Assessed Learning Outcomes (LOs):

  1. Produce cohesive and coherent elements of academic writing.
  2. Read, compare and summarise written academic texts.









Week Contents Page Learning


  Section 1: Written Task

(The written task should be developed throughout the semester but completed in weeks 7-10.)


Academic writing [compare and contrast essay relevant to higher education] (750 words)


3 LO 1 & 2
  Section 2: Portfolio Evidence

(These tasks will often be drafted in class and are designed to inform the written task in section 1. Suggested word counts are included in brackets.)


1 Portfolio evidence I: Self-evaluation checklist 4 LO 1 & 2
4-6 Portfolio evidence II: Essay outline (200 words) 5 LO 1 & 2
5-6 Portfolio evidence III: Summarising (100 words in total, including notes) 6 LO 2
6 Portfolio evidence IV: Paragraph structure (300 words, including notes) 8 LO 1
9 Portfolio evidence V: Self-assessment (100 words) 10 LO 1 & 2


Total Word Count: Written Task (750 words) + Evidence (approx.700 words)

(+/- 10%)












Section 1. Written Task

Academic Writing (750 words)

Please type your essay below (750 words). Don’t forget to modify the grey words in the title and add a reference list at the end.

Make sure that:

  • Your essay has an appropriate title, an introduction, two main body paragraphs, a conclusion and a reference list.
  • You have used at least 2 references (in-text citations) in each of your main body paragraphs (at least 4 references in total).
  • You have discussed BOTH countries in EACH of your main body paragraphs (point-by-point).


Title: Compare and contrast the higher education system in England with that of one country of your choice in terms of funding and quality. Which system is preferable?


Differences between the education system of Sierra Leon and the England

England and Sierra Leon’s higher education systems have both similarities and differences. Sierra Leone is a former British colony. As such, Sierra Leone’s education system has more similarities than differences compared with the England’s education system. For instance, Sierra Leon is among the few English-speaking countries in West Africa. The other nations in that region were colonized by the French, hence, French as their official language.  Sierra Leon enjoyed one of the best educational systems in the world after its independence. Therefore, it has the 6-3-3-4 education system. In the first six years, the learner attends primary school. Later, they attend the junior secondary. The first nine years are considered to prepare the student for a formal education (Wang, 2007). After nine years of study, the learner takes the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) which is used to determine whether they can continue to special senior secondary schools or join vocational schools. The will explicitly show the differences and similarities of the higher education system in England and Sierra Leone.

Those who are lucky enough to join senior secondary school take the International Senior Secondary School Examination at the end of their course (ISSE). After the completion of the senior school examination, the learners are tested again. They sit for the West Africa Examination Council examination where they compete with the rest of the English-speaking countries in West Africa WAEC. Students who pass the WAEC exams are allowed to continue to university for their first degree which typically takes four years. Those who do not make it to university are given a chance to join technical training institutions. Education in Sierra Leon is available for both boys and girls.

Similarly, England’s education system has used continuous assessments to test the ability of learners before proceeding to the next step. Continuous assessment programs are aimed at producing the best intellectuals in the country. Just like in Sierra Leon, England has made it mandatory that both genders to attend school (Carroll & Ryan, 2007).  The government introduced the Education Curriculum in England in 1988. All state schools follow the curriculum, and it caters for individuals between the age of 5 and 18. The education system in the United Kingdom as well takes five stages. The steps start from Key stage 1 to 5.  The first stage just like in Sierra Leonne offers primary education to build the foundation of the learners. The first phase involves primary school education in the second stage (7-11) years, and students attend secondary education. After the second stage, the students are tested for the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) which allows them to continue to higher education.

With the presented information, it can be seen that the education system of both countries aims at producing the best learners in the system. Moreover, students are given equal chances regardless of their gender. Those who fail to pass the assessment tests at each stage are provided with alternatives. For instance, in Sierra Leone, those who do not pass the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) are given the opportunity to join vocational institutions. The same applies in England. Those learners who fail to join University have another option of joining the army or other vocational institutions.

Additionally, there exist some differences in the education system of the two countries. As an example, Sierra Leon accepts the use of four languages in their system which include Mimba, Temne, Krio, and Mende. They also teach French and Arabic at junior and secondary level. On the other hand, England uses English. Contrary to Sierra Leone, higher education in England is chargeable. Although Universities in England offer scholarships, their system is still expensive. This is despite the fact that England hosts prominent universities in the world like Cambridge and Oxford whose fees are out of reach for many citizens.

The Sierra Leone higher education system is impractically owing to the shortage of the educational facilities. This is mainly due to the ravages of war which favours urban children as opposed to the rural ones. We identify that this education is also gendered biased and it restricts the education of girls in the countryside. Therefore, the education of girls is dependent on the parent’s cultural beliefs. The system also offers its students the option vocational training. It is at this stage that the students learn the practical skills associated with their chosen profession. We identify that the literacy rate of this country remains below 60% despite the opportunities that the higher education accords. The vocational training is aimed at reintegrating and training the former combatants. It is evident that the country requires more people to associate with vocations that do not relate to agriculture. The tertiary education is limited since there are only two universities in Sierra Leone.

England’s higher education system is preferred, and it is facilitated by the highly evolved education system. This system is delegated into semi-autonomous regions. Hence, the primary education recognizes the necessary first stages of education. It is evident through the grounding education and the middle education the child receives a basic introduction to the basic academic education. Additionally, they are also encouraged to take extra subjects like music, art, and computer skills. The secondary education identifies more comprehensive syllabus and complex programs challenge the student. Individuals attain a vocational certificate that depends on the stream they followed. They can also take two more years for the completion of their advanced level school education. The vocational education brings to view the post-secondary education recognized by the technical schools that offer a wide variety of courses that lead to formal vocational qualifications. Therefore, those who don’t make it to the university are empowered through the professional education. The tertiary education identified the quality of England’s universities, and they add more weight to the assignments and formal examinations. Therefore, this education system ensures that everyone involved will have opportunities to achieve success in their life and careers.

Sierra Leone, on the other hand, tries to instil the concept of education in its population. The cultivation of knowledge, attitudes and skills will enable this society to improve its living standards. Moreover, it will improve the current situation through both health and social circumstances. The country recognizes the opportunities that education gives individual in the modern world. There is a need for this nation to identify with a system compensates for the chronic neglect of women education. This system should ensure affirmative action in favour women in this region. Additionally, the new training structure utilizes the national languages. This new system ensures that training educators will be active in the process of reforming the educational syllabus. The system will also include curriculum research and development that provides the professional development of this scheme. The professional perspective should be achieved through the inspectors, trainers, adult educators, computer and subject specialists. By training, the personnel will be attained either internal or external, and that will be accomplished through E-learning. The educational services will be coordinated in the process of improving this system.

The Sierra Leone higher education system should learn from England’s system and build on the basics through the lover levels of education. The limited universities have ensured that the tertiary level of education remains a future endeavour. However, they can ensure that this does not have an effect on the country by concentration on the lower levels of education. Through the establishment of an education system that facilitates innovation in this country.

In conclusion, both countries have similarities and differences in their higher education system. The education system in England for instance is more developed due to improvement in technology. England embraces e-learning whereby students and their tutors do not need to meet in an average class set up for learning to take place. The introduction of online classes across most schools in England has changed their system completely. On the other hand, Sierra Leone is a developing country. Most of the education is done manually.




Carroll, J., & Ryan, J. (Eds.). (2007). Teaching international students: Improving learning for all. Routledge.

Wang, L. (2007). Education in Sierra Leone: Present challenges, future opportunities. World Bank Publications.



Section 2: Portfolio Evidence I

Self-evaluation checklist

Below is a list of the skills you will need when working on extended pieces of writing during your university career. The work you do on the EAP I course will help you develop these skills. Tick the appropriate box for each skill, according to how well you think you can do this at the beginning of this course. Look again the checklist throughout the course in order to identify areas for independent study.



Skills Do not know about this Find this difficult/ can’t do this Can partially do this Can do this well
Looking for information        
Identify which books/journals/websites to use       YES
Select relevant parts of a text       YES
Using sources        
Acknowledge sources of information       YES
Avoid plagiarism       YES
Planning/ writing        
Brainstorm ideas     YES  
Plan written work       YES
Link ideas effectively       YES
Paraphrase & summarise ideas       YES
Write an introduction       YES
Write a conclusion       YES
Personal study        
Work independently       YES
Manage my time       YES
Oral presentation        
Discuss written work in a tutorial       YES
Access the internet       YES
Use search engines       YES
Create word documents       YES






Section 2: Portfolio Evidence II

Outline (suggested word count: 200)

An outline is a map of the main ideas included in your essay. You do not need to write full sentences, just notes of the main points that you are going to write in each paragraph of your essay, along with the references.


Title: Comparing the education systems between Sierra Leon and England



Introduction: England and Sierra Leon’s higher education systems have both similarities and differences. Sierra Leone is a former British colony. As such, Sierra Leone’s education system has more similarities than differences compared with the England’s education system. For instance, Sierra Leon is among the few English-speaking countries in West Africa. The other nations in that region were colonized by the French, hence, French as their official language.



Thesis statement:

The will explicitly show the differences and similarities of the higher education system in England and Sierra Leone.


Main body paragraph 1: With the presented information, it can be seen that the education system of both countries aims at producing the best learners in the system. Moreover, students are given equal chances regardless of their gender. Those who fail to pass the assessment tests at each stage are provided with alternatives. For instance, in Sierra Leone, those who do not pass the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) are given the opportunity to join vocational institutions. The same applies in England. Those learners who fail to join University have another option of joining the army or other vocational institutions.









Main body paragraph 2:  


Additionally, there exist some differences in the education system of the two countries. As an example, Sierra Leon accepts the use of four languages in their system which include Mimba, Temne, Krio, and Mende. They also teach French and Arabic at junior and secondary level. On the other hand, England uses English. Contrary to Sierra Leone, higher education in England is chargeable. Although Universities in England offer scholarships, their system is still expensive. This is despite the fact that England hosts prominent universities in the world like Cambridge and Oxford whose fees are out of reach for many citizens.








Conclusion: In conclusion, both countries have similarities and differences in their higher education system. The education system in England for instance is more developed due to improvement in technology. England embraces e-learning whereby students and their tutors do not need to meet in an average class set up for learning to take place. The introduction of online classes across most schools in England has changed their system completely. On the other hand, Sierra Leone is a developing country. Most of the education is done manually.



Sierra Leone to embrace England’s higher education system.


Reference list:  

Carroll, J., & Ryan, J. (Eds.). (2007). Teaching international students: Improving learning for all. Routledge.


Wang, L. (2007). Education in Sierra Leone: Present challenges, future opportunities. World Bank Publications.






Section 2: Portfolio Evidence III

Summarising (suggested word count: 100, including notes)

Question: What are the similarities and differences between universities in England and Scotland in relation to tuition fees?

In order to answer that question you need to:

  1. Read the following texts.
  2. Make some notes of the most important points relevant to the question, using your own words (approx. 20-30 words each).
  3. Write your answer (no more than 50 words).


Text 1:

University fees in England

University tuition fees in England will rise to £9,250 per year from 2017 and the increase could apply to students who have already started courses. The inflation-linked rise represents a 2.8% increase and if that continued would mean fees rising above £10,000 in the next few years.  Universities face the dilemma that under consumer protection requirements they will need to announce the £9,250 fee before the beginning of the next application cycle in early September. However, until formally changed by Parliament, universities are not allowed to charge a fee higher than £9,000, which is the current limit.

The government says the increase can apply to students who have already begun courses – but this will depend on the terms of student contracts in individual universities.  The fees will increase in subsequent years. Royal Holloway and the University of Kent have to still to decide on whether to charge higher fees for current students, but expect to apply them to new students starting in 2017, if the fee limit increase goes ahead. The University of Surrey will not increase fees for its current undergraduates, but fees will increase each year for students starting in 2017.

Universities minister Jo Johnson has published a statement setting out plans to link higher fees to better teaching. Liberal Democrat university spokeswoman Baroness Lorely Burt said: “Linking fees to teaching quality in this way is unacceptable. Enabling any university that scrapes a ‘meet expectations’ rating to increase fees by 2.8% shows that this isn’t about teaching quality at all. If universities need further support then let’s have a proper discussion about where that money comes from, rather than pretending that this is somehow a quid pro quo for providing the quality of teaching students should already be able to expect”. Sir Peter Lampl, chairman of the Sutton Trust education charity, said the fee increase will add to student debts that we have shown to be by far the highest in the English-speaking world. A real concern is that the removal of maintenance grants will almost certainly deter poorer students, who now face debts of over £50,000 on graduation.

Text 2:

University fees in Scotland

For the Scottish government, free university tuition for Scottish students has been a mantra. First Minister Alex Salmond has said the “rocks would melt in the sun” before he’d contemplate introducing tuition fees. It is not just students from Scotland who get free tuition at Scotland’s 19 universities – under European law, students from other EU member states share the same entitlement.

However, students from other parts of the UK do not and Scottish universities charge them tuition fees. Because of European law, the Scottish government also has to provide free tuition at Scottish universities for students from other EU countries – but not for those from other parts of the UK. Essentially this is because it is possible to discriminate between students from different parts of an individual member state but not to discriminate against those from other parts of the EU.

The annual fees charged by Scottish universities to students from other parts of the UK are broadly similar to those charged by universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. For example in the coming year Glasgow will typically charge students £6,750 and Edinburgh charges £9,000.  It can still be more expensive for a student to study in Scotland, however, as the bulk of Scottish degrees typically take four years to complete rather than three.

Despite that, there are factors that can help mitigate this. First, monthly repayments are based on a graduate’s income rather than the size of their debt. So while a student who had paid four years’ worth of tuition fees would take longer to clear their debt they would be no worse off each month. Second, it is sometimes possible for students from other parts of the UK to get straight into the second year of Scottish courses depending on their A Level results. It’s also worth noting that some courses such as medicine, dentistry and engineering take more than three years to complete whether they are taught in England or Scotland so students wanting to study those subjects will be no worse off choosing a university in Scotland.


Notes (Text 1):


Tuition fees in England is high.

A student from England can join a university in Scotland and be able to continue with their studies comfortably

Tuition fee will increase per year as per the new rules

It takes three years for one to finish studies for a degree in England



























Notes (Text 2):


Tuition fee is free.

It takes four years in Scotland.

Universities in Scotland do not charge extra fee for foreign students

Although Scotland universities charge less, they take four years for one to complete a degree. The more time spent on studies causes more fees.


What are the similarities and differences between universities in England and Scotland in relation to tuition fees?


Tuition fees both in Scotland and England is high. Although Scotland universities charge less, they take four years for one to complete a degree. The more time spent on studies causes more fees. Both embrace similar education system. A student from England can join a university in Scotland and be able to continue with their studies comfortably.




In England, tuition fee will increase per year while in Scotland tuition fee is free. It takes three years for one to finish studies for a degree in England while it takes four years in Scotland. Tuition fee in England is much higher compared to Scotland. Universities in Scotland do not charge extra fee for foreign students while England Universities do charge.






















Section 2: Portfolio Evidence IV

Paragraph structure (suggested word count: 300, including notes)

  • Complete the outline below for one of the paragraphs of your essay.
  • Write your paragraph.
  • You may ask for feedback and re-draft it.


My paragraph of choice

In conclusion, both countries have similarities and differences in their higher education system. The education system in England for instance is more developed due to improvement in technology. England embraces e-learning whereby students and their tutors do not need to meet in an average class set up for learning to take place. The introduction of online classes across most schools in England has changed their system completely. On the other hand, Sierra Leone is a developing country. Most of the education is done manually.


Claim 1





The primary focus of this paragraph is to tell my readers what I have discussed in the body section of my essay. The paragraph concentrates on the main points of my essay but in a concluding format. The main importance of this section is to wrap the points together and allow my reader to understand my main point of focus.








Claim 2:







In the above paragraph, I have focused on highlighting the major differences between higher education system of the England and Sierra Leon. I have shown that the type of education offered in England is better than that of Sierra Leon. The difference in the education system between the two countries is caused by the difference in economic autonomy. England is a first class nation. The country has already embraced the right technology. They have the required workforce to drive their education system. Sierra Leon, on the other hand, is developing Nation. Developing nations are usually affected by the poor economy. Their education, therefore, is affected because there is the lack of enough resources and human resources to run their studies. They are faced with challenges such as lack of enough teachers and school facilities.

Concluding remarks:


In this section. I have successfully explained the sentences in my paragraphs by giving enough claim. Paragraph structure involves giving claims and providing evidence to help the reader understand a written text.



Section 2: Portfolio Evidence V

Essay self-assessment form (suggested word count: 100)

Complete this form before you submit your portfolio.




good evidence some evidence insufficient evidence
Essay Structure
A. Has a clear structure including an introduction; body paragraphs, conclusion & bibliography   YES  
B. Has a clear thesis statement that states their sub topics and position YES    
C. Has clear topic sentences in each main body paragraph YES    
D. Has features of an essay not a report, i.e. no headings, bullet points etc. YES    
E. Has compared directly between the two countries in each paragraph YES    
F. Has commented on what we learn from the comparisons   YES  
G. Has included suitable background information in the introduction YES    
H. Has included a suitable summary and overall comment in the conclusion   YES  
I. Has written 750 words (+/- 10%) YES    
Use of Sources and Referencing
J. Has a minimum of 2 sources per paragraph YES    
K. Has in-text citations which follow Harvard style. E.g. (Coughlan, 2014) YES    
M. Has avoided plagiarism YES    



Use of English
N. Writes accurate sentences      
O. Spells and punctuates accurately      
P. Uses a range of language      
Q.. Writes in an appropriate academic style      


Things you have done well (approx. 50 words):

I have written the essay in a logical manner. My essay indicates the similarities and differences of
The education system in both countries. I have as well indicated what the government of Sierra
Leone is required to do in a bid to improve its education system. I have provided references to
Proof my claims. In the second section, I have illustrated the differences between higher education
System in England and Scotland. I have as well indicated the similarities.


Things you need to work harder on (approx. 50 words):

I need to improve my research by providing more credible sources. In this research, I have
Provided only two resources. In section two, I need to improve on providing more similarities
And differences from a text. In the Essay part, I need to improve on giving more examples from
Both sides of my argument.