Racism in America and Strategies to Curb On Racism and Stereotypes in the USA

Racism in America and Strategies to Curb On Racism and Stereotypes in the USA

Introduction

Brief Description of the Problem

Racism from the definition is about the belief that one’s skin color, race, a group, or religion is more superior to the other on humanity grounds. Racism has been a topic that has raised concern from the international community, the civil society, the communities that define our existence and many other stakeholders. The issue of racism has had topics of confrontation in the past years, and nothing, in particular, has happened to either to curb racism and its prominence in the American society. Racism has its roots from time immemorial in the American history and all along, the impact of racism has been felt in society.[1] The repercussions are evident right from the lowest ranked individual in society to the top most. Moreover, racism manifests itself in many ways and the list and manner in which it shows up differ greatly in many ways. Important is that racism exists in American society and has been in existence all the way back to 17th century. There have been activists that stood at the outposts to malign the acts of racism in all efforts that they could. Nothing was forthcoming, and in the event of time, some were assassinated in the event of carrying out the noble duty if saving the population and more specifically the undermined and an inferior lot of people that make up the society. America is one great nation in many spheres, but racism has taken a huge percentage of their problems. Racism has been in America for Native Americans, African Americans, Jewish Americans, and Islamophobia and against the Japanese Americans.[2] It can be understood that racism has taken roots in the society and has impacted negatively on the larger percentage of the American Citizens. It is a national disaster that has hit the nation mercilessly and is not at any point giving the nation a break. It is a malady that eats the nation from within, a nation that is destined for greatness and one that other nations revere in leadership and levels of competency it depicts in its institutions of change for the better society.[3]

Research Question

What should be the best alternatives that can be applied to help rescue America from the malice and humiliations of racism as a national disaster that has gotten the better part of the nation from time immemorial?

Thesis Statement

Racism is a counterpoint to all the prevalent practices and beliefs of equality in most developed nations. It exists despite the efforts used to combat it in all manners possible. It has gained ground in the societal setup and clings to human life and coupled with stereotypes that are the agents of doom to societal progress. It is so entangled in the society that it forms the fabric of the same society.

Summary Argument

Defining the concept of stereotype and racism helps one to think about how the two relates to each other and the way they influence the social interaction. Racism as a universal concept happens if individuals’ in the society have affective or emotional response to people of a particular social group. On the other hand, stereotype as another major aspect that has been passed over time refer to the belief that certain people have regarding the characteristics, attributes, and behaviors of specific members of a particular group in the society.[4] Today, the American society is far more diverse than at any other time in the nation’s history. Despite the tremendous change in the society, it can be revealed that many people, especially the minorities continue to encounter racism through disparate treatment, which is affecting the life of many individuals in several ways. Thus, the government through its legal framework and the society should take the defying initiatives to deal with racism under any circumstance for the well-being of the society members.

Frame Work and Roadmap

          The paper will address the contemporary issues that the American society is experiencing in as far as racism is concerned. It will help expose the ill associated with racism in society and work on provision of the remedies to the problem to be assured of a unified society that has a common history and one that lives on utmost believe of highest social and political morality. The paper will explore the pertinent issues that are leading to uproars in the public domain as well as what contributes to the stalemate of the matter. In any sense thereof, the paper will try to bring out the truth that is hidden behind falsehoods on which community propagates racism the most and the way to calm down the situation amicably. The paper, however, will not hold anyone at ransom but work on proving that every community is responsible for the problems associated with racism and the only solution is to own up and work on remedies. Issues, as stipulated in the outline, will follow each other concurrently to bring out the exact meaning of the main objective of the paper in the most congruent manner possible.[5]

The main objectives to meet is to ensure that the issue of racism has got the ultimate solution basing reference to the earlier experiences on the matter and working on the best way out to bringing a lasting solution to the American population that is overburdened with the state of affairs. It will be for everyone’s joy if the nation heals from the malady that has been eating it from within and for any reason contributing to its low scores as compared to other nations out there that seek the same position as America.

Prevalence of Racism in the United States

Racism in the United States became more prevalent in the 1950s and 1960s, where reports claim that the African Americanss people were the subject of racism in the 19650s and 1960s era. Despite the implementation of overtly racist policies such as disfranchisement laws and Crow segregation laws, racism in the U.S. continues to spread intensively.[6] Further, racism in the U.S. is spreading mostly in areas where people of different races meet that include in the learning institutions, workplaces, as well in the prison and it has become difficult for the people in the U.S. to follow the rule of segregation laws in these areas. The measure of racism prevalence has been difficult since report claims that the pattern of racism prevalence has been shaped by the various levels that may be difficult to observe. However, it is believed that the operating individuals, organizations, and society have accelerated the spread of racism in the United States. Each level contains a certain range of dynamic that is instigating the spread of racism. Most of the organizations operate under the aspect of inequality, which is one of the immense factor that is making racism to increase within the employment sector.[7] From the context of organizational inequality, members of the minority groups in the U.S. are the subject here, as working opportunities and constraints favors the White people over the minority groups such as African Americans and Hispanic community. The issue of racial profiling is also encouraging racism in the U.S. specifically for African Americans. This is making people in the society to encounter gendered racism, as many African Americans are being searched in every sector of the society.

The aspect of disagreement in the society is also causing racism prevalent more than people can imagine. Experimental survey reveals that by the year 2012, 53% of the African Americans people reported that discrimination against minority community is a major issue in the America.[8] Contrarily, only 17% of the Whites who acknowledge that racism inform discrimination in the one of the prevailing problem in the America and it is affecting the minority groups. As it is a fact that the White people are finding it hard to accept the prevalence of racism over the past years, this is making the American society more biased with the major victims of the racism issue being the Africa-American people.

Reason for the Mistreatment of People Basing on Stereotypes

In most of the stereotypical issues, women are the victims, as they are more judged according to stereotype perceptions. In the United States, the victims of the stereotype are women from the minority groups, and if people are discriminating others because of their stereotypical perception, this is violating the standard of rationality. One of the primary reason that makes women from the minority group to encounter stereotype is self-esteem or the desire to rationalize inequality in the society.[9] In essence, as many people in the society use their self-esteem to make an accurate judgment about others, this may make some individuals feel weak and lose motivation. When people, especially women, are given weak judgment, it makes them feel threatened, which make them get the feeling of discrimination and mistreated by their colleagues within the society.

The social hierarchy is another factor that has been identified as a major cause of mistreatment of people based on stereotype concepts. For example, in the U.S. many women are primed as kind and nurturing, which is making them accept the treatment from men who views them as weak and individuals who can make decisions according to what they are told to do by men.[10] This makes women get lower status in the society and viewed as people who are less powerful compared to their colleagues. From this argument, it is open that women in the American society are being discriminated by the system justifying attitude, where men view them as individuals who depends on the decision that men make. For instance, if people in the America view the individuals from the minority community as a being shrewd, the Whites’ people are likely not to see the ability of the people from the minority ethnic groups.[11] This kind of stereotypical attribute can make the U.S. people fail to see the range of characteristics that the people from minority groups have, which make minorities becomes the victim of the issue of discrimination.

The Ways to Heal the Nation from Racism

There should be put measures to help reduce and if at any cost stamp out racism in the American society if the nation has to move forth and adopt the proposals laid out below. Healing from the injustices performed in the name of racism and stereotypes have to be brought to an end by concerted efforts from everyone including the federal governments, national government, the civil society, and more importantly, the people. The American society should encourage the interracial and intercultural communication in many setups of the society to help reduce on the sharpness of the effect of racism. The move will allow for closer interaction with the people as a whole and a build-up of relations in the longrun. Good relationship among people from various divide would result in finer interactions that would help eliminate the animosity that exists in society on the grounds of racism.

Reduction of the incidents of hate crimes on the minorities in the country would help cool down the racism and encourage multiculturalism, which is the main institutional practice to help curb the disaster. Avoiding judgment at individual levels about certain races as it has been done before basing on stereotypes, and instead judgment be based on one’s performance and level of competency at work. Moreover, the proclamation of one being lazy and underperforming without getting a personal feel for the problem would only make the state of things for the country worse. The civil society should come in on the same issue for this is where it performs based. Institutions of learning should also be involved in controlling of racism by setting up a syllabus to be learned in a class by students on the benefits of social cohesion through the elimination of racism. It will serve the country a big deal since the knowledge will gain ground right from the grass roots. Politicians spreading the gospel of cohesiveness and opposition to racism in society should be encouraged and be elected to leadership positions as their visions get upheld for the future generations. Politicians should be at the forefront of the anti-racism campaign.[12]

Government Acts and Laws of Racism

The United States government has taken the initiatives of making sure that no individuals in the U.S. encounter the issue of racism regardless of his or her race. The federal government has initiated several laws over the years as a way of curbing racism and stereotype mistreatment. In 2001, the U.S. Congress introduced a bill that is meant to counter or end racial profiling as one of the most prevalent racial discrimination concept.[13] In this year, the “End Racial Profiling Act (ERPA)” was introduced in every U.S. Congress, where the lawmakers proposed through the Act, to ban the aspect of racial profiling and if any individual is found doing racial profiling, he or she will face a legal hearing.[14] Although the bill is yet to be implemented into law, through such policies, it can be affirmed that the U.S. government is doing all it can to end racism and make the American society a place for every member of the society no matter the color.

In areas of the labor sector, the U.S. government has implemented legislation policies such discrimination law and occupational laws that are responsible for creating a better working relationship between employers and people of color. The regulatory frameworks in the workplaces are set to end the aspect of Labor-Hire Contracting, where all members of the society will be treated equally regardless of their races. The reason why the U.S. government introduced such form of legal framework was that most of the Africa-American people has reported that under contract work, their supervisors treat them favorably because of their race, which makes the working environment intolerable.[15] Other policies that are being used by the U.S. government to end discrimination in the working sector include the Affirmative Action Controversy and The Affirmative Action Laws that were established in the 1960s. The two policies are set to regulate the employers against spreading racism based on color, race, or nationality. The VII Civil Right is another law that is being used by the American Federal government to curb on racism. The Act was introduced in 1964, and it has broadened the Affirmative Action where people in the U.S. are subjected to benefit from different activities that relate to the federal financial assistance.[16] The policy has been efficient in the U.S., as it has banned any forms of racial discrimination and it has reduced the segregation life aspects of the Africa-American people.

Individuals Contribution toward Propagation on Racism

Racism is acquired largely by what people are writing and what they are talking about other people or certain groups of people in the society. The press or the media has been identified as a major contributor of racism in the United States. For instance, in the U.S. newspaper, magazines, and televisions have their own White people agenda, which makes the society view the minority people as the problem and individuals who are judged stereotypically.[17] Most of the press companies do not focus on reporting things pertaining the African Americans people such as discrimination, segregation, and racism, which makes the community to ignore such frameworks. When the society do not pay attention to issues affecting the African Americans people as the press do not present their coverage, racism, and aspect of stereotype continues to spread in the community, as the White people view the African Americans as less privileged individuals.[18]

The structural forces such as social acts are also identified as key contributors of racism in the United States. Social acts refer to the behavior of individuals in the society. Key examples of the social acts are things such as stereotyping, discrimination in the hiring processes, job promotion, stigmatization, and admission in the learning institutions. These acts are actions of people or group exercising power over the others. Since racism is a common issue in the U.S., the Africa-America people are always the victims of such event, which makes them go through a rough time dealing with the issue of racism inform of social acts. In addition, in the U.S. social processes are endorsed as the other forms of fundamental forces contributing to racism, which is affecting the minority groups. The key form of social processes that has been recognized within the American history includes processes such as Jim Crow segregation laws, voting restrictions, as well as racial profiling.[19] In each of these processes, the people who are set to be protected are the minorities. Consequently, this led to the creation of differences in the society where some groups view themselves superior than the others under the aspect of color and race. Typically, whenever there is a difference in the society one group is likely to encounter racism and this has been a major issue in the America. Thus, it can be argues that the social process that are set to promote public safety are in some ways contributing to racism in the America.

The Ultimate Solution to Racism

The most effective solution for racism is for both the White and minorities in the U.S. to come together and work toward abolishing stereotypes. Racism is not a White problem alone, as it never functions in one way. From the historical reports and record about racism, it is evident that for racism to spread over, it manifests itself in both the culprit and the oppressed.[20] Therefore, since most cases of racism are based on the stereotypical views of others, policymakers and society need to create a cooperation where people will work together and try to come up with a universal view of racism. Changing the social institutions is another ultimate solution that the American people should focus on if they want to curb racism in most efficient manner. As such, the U.S. Federal government should focus on encouraging the discussion of racism in learning institutions, as this will change the perspective of young students concerning stereotyping as well as the social structural. Moreover, to do away with racism in the U.S. the community should initiate forums such as creating new agendas that will promote integration between minorities and White people, allowing the people to determine their roles and functions, regardless of their color and gender.

Civil Society Response on Racism

The American civil society groups are the actors involved in combating racism and discrimination within the community. The civil society groups in the U.S. are viewed as anti-racism actors working in a wide arena through the public policy and legislation supporting the civil society and any other social movement taking the task of combating racism.[21] The civil society and social movement in the U.S. use specific strategies such as mobilizing the ethnic minority groups and getting into the grassroots position so that they can come up with factors causing racism and then initiates the relevant solutions to curb the problem.

Racism is also known for its negative contribution to the America’s welfare, where some communities are underrepresented while others are overrepresented. As the community continues to become more racially biased, the welfare policies designed in the U.S. are likely to benefit the majority groups and fails to put the minorities group into the welfare of the country.[22] Evidently, the African Americans and Hispanics people are underrepresented in most of the social programs and overrepresented in more insufficient programs that are designed as country welfares in the America. From this argument, it is clear that the minorities groups are harshly treated when it comes to the access of welfare programs that can give them greater benefits all because they belong to a specific minority group.

Civilian on Racism

As the aspect of racism may affect many people psychologically, it is important for the civil society movement to consider the best ways that are applicable in treating the victims. In this context, the civil society may respond to the matter by hiring a mental health practitioner as an individual who will conduct post-victimization counseling to the victim involved and offer emotional support after the initial crisis.[23] When the civil movement responds in this way, the racism victims will confront the crisis as a usual challenge and embrace the journey to recovery in a positive way.

Summary of the Data

It would comprise of most of the statistics that have been initially carried out by any research institution on every sub-topic highlighted beforehand. This would help in giving a projection of what should be done to bring the negative impacts of racism to a standstill. Figures used in this section and other parts of the paper would be based on the true findings, and surveys mostly carried out by the independent civil society and Non-Governmental Organizations. Other research and reports that concur with the paper would also be of value in the provision of leading information for the final draft of the paper and relevance.[24]

From an often-cited review focusing preventing prejudice, it is found out that at about 15% of the White people in the America are racist, largely because of the aspect of authoritarian personality.[25] Despite the effort to curb racism in the U.S., only 25% of the American White adults who are consistently supporting the rights of the African Americanss, thus making almost 75% of the White in the U.S. to be a key driver of racism within the society.[26] Besides, more research on the issues of racism in the U.S. shows that the police officers in the U.S. can make arrest decision based on the race of individuals, which is making racism to increase in the American society. For instance, in a study where a African Americans teenager was shot by a White police officer, 18% of the African Americanss reported that the act was promoted by the fact that the young boy was from a minority group. On the other hand, 52% of the Whites responded the race of the boy was not the reason why the boy was shot.[27] From various studies on the subject of racism, it is demonstrated racism is shaped by specific factors that are based on the difference between the Whites and African Americanss people.

Recommendations

It would serve the nation better if took part in the procedures for remedies and correction of the problem that is amongst the people. It is also wise to for every citizen at their levels to work on the eradication of the problem that undermines our country in many areas. Following the understanding of the racism subject and it is prevalent, the following recommendation will be important in the quest to search for a solution concerning this matter.

  1. The U.S. government should become more vigilant on the aspect of changing the stereotype culture. Although changing stereotype culture is difficult, the society and policymakers should take actions on teaching and support or reinforce for new stereotype for change to occur.
  2. To make the society a better place for every person, the government should make sure that in the society there is no superiority of races. This means that people will see each other as equal, as no race will be controlling another group, especially the minorities. When superiority of races is eliminated, the society will be made up of equal opportunities where people from the Hispanic, African Americans, and Whites will get equal chances.
  3. The need of resolution about racism factors is another recommendation that will make the society become discrimination-free and a place where the African Americanss and Whites can interact without defining who is superior to control the other.

Conclusion

This study presents the concept of racism and stereotype with the aim identifying the ways that the American people can use to counter racism. As one of the prevailing concept, racism has negative impacts on the society, mostly to the victims who are being discriminated in different ways. From the study, it is identified that stereotype is a common cause of racism and if the U.S. government wants to counter this problem, it should focus on changing the perspective of people toward certain groups. Although the American people are more diverse, African-American people, women, and other minority groups appear to be more vulnerable and exposed to the cases of racism. As racism continues to be prevalent in the U.S., it is affecting the specific group, and this may ruin the life and the life of the future generation.

 

1Sidanius, Jim, Lawrence Bobo, and David O. Sears. Racialized politics: The debate about racism in America. Chicago University Press, 2000.

2ibid

3Jonas, Gilbert. Freedom’s sword: the NAACP and the struggle against racism in America, 1909-1969. Routledge, 2005.

[4]Khan, Saera R., Teena Benda, and Michael N. Stagnaro. “Stereotyping from the perspective of perceivers and targets.” Online Readings in Psychology and Culture 5, no. 1 (2012): 1-10

5Jonas, Gilbert. Freedom’s sword: the NAACP and the struggle against racism in America, 1909-1969. Routledge, 2005.

6Mutua, Athena D., ed. Progressive Black Masculinities?. New York , NY : Taylor &  Francis Group. 2006.

7Pager, Devah, and Hana Shepherd. “The sociology of discrimination: Racial discrimination in employment, housing, credit, and consumer markets.” Annu. Rev. Sociol 1, no. 34 (2008): 181-209.

8Ponterotto, Joseph G., Shawn O. Utsey, and Paul Pedersen. Preventing Prejudice: A Guide for Counselors, Educators, and Parents. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications, 2006.

9Danielson, Chris. The Color of Politics: Racism in the American Political Arena Today. 2013.

10Uhlmann, Eric Luis, Victoria L. Brescoll, and Edouard Machery. “The motives underlying stereotype-based discrimination against members of stigmatized groups.” Social Justice Research 23, no. 1 (2010): 1-16.

10Blum, Lawrence. “Stereotypes and stereotyping: A moral analysis.” Philosophical Papers 33, no. 3 (2004): 251-289.

11Glaser, Jack, Katherine Spencer, and Amanda Charbonneau. “Racial Bias and Public Policy.” Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1, no. 1 (2014): 88-94.

12Jonas, Gilbert. Freedom’s sword: the NAACP and the struggle against racism in America, 1909-1969. Routledge, 2005.

13Van Dijk, Teun A. Racism and the Press. Vol. 5. Routledge, 2015.

14Wilson, William Julius. “Toward a framework for understanding forces that contribute to or reinforce racial inequality.” Race and Social Problems 1, no. 1 (2009): 3-11.

15Nye, Doug. Racing Cars. Rexdale, Ont: J. Wiley and Sons Canada, 2006

16Das Gupta, Tania. Race and Racialization: Essential Readings. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, 2007

17 ibid

18Piven, Frances Fox. “Why welfare is racist.” Race and the politics of welfare reform (2003): 323-335.

19ibid

20Craig‐Henderson, Kellina, and L. Ren Sloan. “After the hate: Helping psychologists help victims of racist hate crime.” Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 10, no. 4 (2003): 481-490.

21 ibid

[19] ibid

[20] Lee, Woojin, and John E. Roemer. “Racism and redistribution in the United States: A solution to the problem of American exceptionalism.” Journal of public Economics 90, no. 6 (2006): 1027-1052.

[21] Nelson, Jacqueline K. “Denial of racism and its implications for local action.” Discourse & Society 24, no. 1 (2013): 89-109.

[22] Piven, Frances Fox. “Why welfare is racist.” Race and the politics of welfare reform (2003): 323-335.

[23] Craig‐Henderson, Kellina, and L. Ren Sloan. “After the hate: Helping psychologists help victims of racist hate crime.” Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 10, no. 4 (2003): 481-490.

24Hernton, Calvin C. Sex and racism in America. Anchor, 1992.

25Ponterotto, Joseph G., Shawn O. Utsey, and Paul B. Pedersen. Preventing prejudice: A guide for counselors, educators, and parents. Vol. 2. Sage Publications, 2006.

26Carter, Evelyn R., and Mary C. Murphy. “Group‐based Differences in Perceptions of Racism: What Counts, to Whom, and Why?.” Social and Personality Psychology Compass 9, no. 6 (2015): 269-280.

27ibid

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