Business Letter


I am writing to request a meeting with Mr. Frank Dobbs. I am concerned with the reports that one of your chief members of staff has been using inappropriate language while communicating with the junior staff. As journalists, I am seeking more details about the matter for the sake of identifying the true version of the story.

Organizational management is supposed to be considerate to the affairs of the employees. I am aware that the complains may be particularly launched by the employees who do not appreciate the leadership style of Ms Alice. In most cases where I have experienced a case like this one with staff complaining, It is commonly because the staff are opposed to the changes in the organization being introduced by the new manager, just as it is the case of Alice.

Organizational culture cannot be changed abruptly. For the sake of upholding harmony in all operations, I think that Alice has to align the needs of the employees with those of the organization it is not ethical to impose changes or restructuring processes that are abrupt. Employees are part of the organization and their views and opinions should consider before making these changes.

In our meeting, I expect to review the current situation that is making the employees to complain over the changes that Ms Alice has introduced. Also, I expect to evaluate the recent complains that have been submitted to your desks in relation to the same issue. As a reporter, I kindly request that you provide me with the necessary details concerning the same issue.

Looking forward to meeting with you. If any changes concerning our meeting are made, kindly let me know.

Yours faithfully




Plate Tectonics Theory

The plate tectonics theory, advanced by Alfred Wegener in 1912, is comparatively new idea – having been imagined and established in the last 100 years and it is broadly recognized as the best description of the formation of continents and oceans. Further, it is the best explanation for creating of earthquakes and volcanoes. It has now revised and repealed other previous theirs such as the continental drift.

Contraction theory

The contractionist theory was accepted by some scientists at the close of the nineteenth century as one of the explanations for the formation of the continents and oceans (Stallings, 1995, p. 114). The theory postulated that mountains, oceans and the continents were formed due to a gradual cooling of the earth. It stated that cooling caused shrinkage of the earth’s surface, which resulted in the formation of earthquakes and mountains (Stallings, 1995, p. 115). From around 1858, different scientists challenged the contraction theory. However, it was only Alfred Wegner, who created a comprehensive explanation of what he termed as the continental drift theory.

Stabilist theory

Prior to plate tectonics acceptance as a unifying theory of geology, other theories that explained the behavior and the origin of the continents were available. One of such theories included the stabilist theory, which held that continents were static, thus, the continents are presently where they were many years ago (Laporte, 2000, p. 115). Nonetheless, biogeographical evidence opposed this notion. Biogeography refers to the study of geographical distribution of animals and plants. Since the fossils of India and South Africa were very similar geologists suggested that an ancient continent existed that linked them but the continent had sunk under the ocean. Therefore, they referred to their continent as Lemuria since the lemur was one species that appeared in areas that were not linked by land, therefore the lemurs and their predecessors may not have made the journey themselves.

In spite of this hypothesis, another proof that contradicted the stabilist view existed. Glacial fossils are considered to be the “trails” that glaciers display and reveal where, when in what route they moved (Laporte, 2000, p. 196). Many glacial fossils did not show any significance when considered under the stabilist theory. However, the glacial fossils in Australia, South America, South Africa, and India appeared inconsistent and implausible. Thus, Alfred Wegener suggested that the continental drift as opposed to land bridges triggered these similarities. He theorized the existence of an antique super continent that split apart many years ago. Wegener called this continent Pangaea, which means “single earth”. Therefore, once the continents reshuffled as Wegner had hypothesized, the glacial fossils displayed consistent movement external from a single point. Similar species during the time were now seen to have been in the same region.

Shock dynamics theory

The main idea of Shock Dynamics theory is that for a long time, a big mass hit the earth at a region between Madagascar and Africa. The shocks from the impact broke the continents apart and made them move into different directions. The theory stated that after the mass collided, the generated momentum made the earth’s surface to wrinkles, creating valleys and mountains (Gioncu, & Mazzolani, 2010, p. 109). The theory gave examples of mountains in Australis, South America and North America. Near the crater, the pressure moved the magma in between the seafloor crust, creating the Seychelles islands and the Seychelles islands. Further, the rupture caused the formation of Mount Kilimanjaro and the Kenya Dome. Further, the point is believed to be the location of impact since the continents look like the radiated directly outwards from it. Further, the Impact Mountains, named the “Brake Mountains” was another method that the mountains formed. The Shock Dynamics theory states that as the continents were sliding over the earth, the front of land masses lost momentum first while the back continued to move, and thus pressing against it. Therefore, the land masses wrinkled to create mountains on the front side of the land mass, which is best evident with the brakes m0units such as the Rockies.

The Shock Dynamics theory is suspected of being inadequate because of the belief that the force created by the theory was small. It is argued that to create a force that would have caused mountains like the Himalayas, it would have required about 1500-6000 bars while the force observed with the plate tectonics was much less.

Continental drift theory

Continental drift theory came before the tectonic plate theory. It alludes that the positions of continents have changed over time. Continental drift was proposed by Alfred Wegener in 1912. According to continental drift, 200 million ago earth existed as one mega-continent referred to as Pangaea. According to Vavrek, et al. (2016), Pangaea split to from two large landmasses namely Gondwanaland and Laurasian (Meschede, 2015). Over time both Gondwanaland and Laurasia broke apart and drifted to occupy a different position. Earth rotation caused significant changes to the two land masses floating on the sea. From the friction drag along the floating continents, mountains were created. The scientific community disagreed most of the ideas in this theory. This led to the development of the tectonic theory (Vavrek, et al. 2016).

Tectonic plate theory

Alfred Wegener observed continents have the jigsaw fit. For example, South America and Africa coastlines seem to fit together, which suggests that at one time they were connected to the one super continent named Gondwanaland and another one known as Laurasia (Condie, 2013). This observation was later supported by fossil material, where dinosaur remains were found in the Gabon and Brazil Coasts. Further, additional and similar fossilized rock sediments and pollen species were also found on the outlined coastlines.

Through the Wegener’s concepts were simple, they were later proven to be right and build upon and enlarged the knowledge of the tectonic events. The discovery of the Sea floor spreading pointed to the evidence that the rock was being created and destroyed, which proves on the reality of the plates and the plate boundaries (Kelemen et al., 2016). For example, the Sea floor spreading was demonstrated at Atlantic, in which it was considered that the North American and Eurasian were moving apart, at the constructive plate boundary. In this location, magma rises in the rift and cools quickly on the surface, producing a new plate substance and volcano ridge named mid-Atlantic ridge. The above shaped Iceland that has rift valleys, pointing to evidence that the plates move apart. The 1963 Surtsey eruption produced a new Island proves that plate and land created along the same margin.

Modern technology has successfully proved the plate tectonics. Carbon dating for oceanic crust indicated that crust that is near the UK seems to be older than the crust that is beside mid-Atlantic ridge. Further, deep sea search exposed the paleomagnetism and ‘black smokers.’ The Palaeomagnetism describes a case in which metallic quantities in the crust get associated with the opposing layers (Kelemen et al., 2016). Notably, after some 100000 years, ogles flip – which implies that at this time metallic components align in the opposite direction and face pole that they drew close. Therefore, every each band of opposing aligned components for the crust shows some hundred thousand years crust produced at the time. The above evidence proves the sea floor is spreading, but also indicates that when a plate as being produced at one location, then it must have been getting destroyed at another place.

Breuer et al., (2015), argued that the core is separated into liquid outer and solid inner core. The main content of the core is nickel and iron. The mantel is split into two sections, upper and lower mantle; its main components are magnesium, oxygen, and silicon. Breuer et al., (2015), suggested that the outermost layer of the earth supports life since it is rich in silicon, oxygen, sodium, magnesium, potassium and iron. Tectonic plates are found between the mantle and the crust (Condie, 2013). Condie et al. (2013) suggested that the outermost of the earth’s surfaces dived into asthenosphere or lithosphere depending on their physical characteristics (Kelemen et al., 2016). The asthenosphere is seen as the lower category since it is composed of flowing mantle, while lithosphere is the upper category. Lithosphere includes both the crust and rigid mantle layers.

Deep sea exploration has also proven the plate tectonics theory. Many volcanoes and earthquakes happen along the Pacific Ring of Fire. Parallel and close to the boundaries are deep ocean trenches such as the Marianas Trench. Scientists proved that ocean trenches demonstrated that various plates are subducted – which is the point at which they are destroyed. In this stage, the oceanic plate is dense would subduct the continental plate, and plate could melt in the mantle and create a pool of magma that could rise amid the rocks to form a volcano. The above addition to plate tectonic theory showed why the volcanoes are usually located along plate boundaries that are constructive – because of growing magma – caused by plate melting.

However, the plate boundaries are noted to be dissimilar. Most earthquakes get dispersed along the Indo-Australian or Eurasian plate boundary in places where no volcanoes are present. Further, the region has very high mountains like the Himalayas (Condie, 2013). The plate tectonics explain the oceanic plates since they become denser and they continually subducts the continental plates. However, in this region, two continental plates meet – which made the scientists formed the theory of Fold Mountains (Kelemen et al., 2016). The continental plates converge, but none subducts, and they push sediments up to create high fold mountains. There is pressure build-up and finally the plates faulted upwards, leading to the breaking and addition to the formation of the mountain, which explains a way in which the plates could be shattered – through fracturing.

Plate tectonic theory clearly explains why earthquakes and volcanoes were created along the imaginary lines – since there existed some different plate boundaries. However, some issues exist. For example, the Yellowstone and Hawaii Volcanoes exist in the middle of plates (intra-plate) and thus did not relate to the dominant knowledge that volcanoes would occur along the plate boundaries viewed. Tuzo Wilson successfully explained the above phenomenon through the Hawaiian hot spot theory. He stated that magma plumes created the hot spots in the mantle that caused the crust melting at the point establishing the volcano. He outlined that the plume would be stationary and that crust transferred over it. After plume had created a volcano, crust moved, and thus plume would not further from a volcano there and thus start another one along. Wind and wave would erode the old volcano until it falls into the sea, forming the coral reef about it such as the Midway Islands (Condie, 2013). Finally, Seamount could get wrecked as the destructive plate boundary around Russia. Therefore, the intra-plate hot spot assists in proving the plate movement and thus the plate tectonics theory.

According to Kelemen et al., (2016), oceanic crust tends to be denser than the continental crust. Therefore, when the two plates collide the continental crust overrides the oceanic crust. Three forms of tectonic boundaries usually exist. Divergent boundary tends to be the first boundary that frequently occurs in mid-ocean ridges. Due to the override, the oceanic crust is bent leading to the formation of a subduction zone. In a subduction zone, most of the old oceanic crust is recycled and dragged down. Subduction zones result in the formation of the deep-sea trenches (Kelemen et al., 2016).


The plate tectonic theory best explains the formation of continents and oceans. The plates are constantly shifting, and the earthquakes and the volcanoes are located sideways the boundaries. It combines concepts in both sea floor spreading theory and the continental drift to explain the structures of earth’s surface. This approach primarily has been developed from three main stages. Continental drift initiated the discovery of the tectonic theory through concepts related to the sea floor spreading to oceanic subduction which lay a great foundation for the tectonic. The second stage involved the oceanic subductions, via continental subduction to instances of collisional orogeny. The third stage involved activities from continental collision to effective marginal orogeny which lead to intercontinental reworking.


Breuer, D., Rueckriemen, T., & Spohn, T. (2015). Iron snow, crystal floats, and inner-core growth: modes of core solidification and implications for dynamos in terrestrial planets and moons. Progress in Earth and Planetary Science, 2(1), 39.

Ciochon, R. L. (Ed.). (2013). Evolutionary biology of the New World monkeys and continental drift. Springer Science & Business Media.

Condie, K. C. (2013). Plate tectonics & crustal evolution. Elsevier.

Fokas, A. S., & Pelloni, B. (Eds.). (2014). Unified transform for boundary value problems: applications and advances. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

Formisano, M., Federico, C., De Angelis, S., De Sanctis, M. C., & Magni, G. (2016). The stability of the crust of the dwarf planet Ceres. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 463(1), 520-528.

Geist, H., McConnell, W., Lambin, E. F., Moran, E., Alves, D., & Rudel, T. (2006). Causes and trajectories of land-use/cover change. Land-use and land-cover change, 41-70.

Gioncu, V., & Mazzolani, F. (2010). Earthquake engineering for structural design. CRC Press.

Kelemen, P. B., & Behn, M. D. (2016). Formation of lower continental crust by relamination of buoyant arc lavas and plutons. Nature Geoscience

Knighton, D. (2014). Fluvial forms and processes: a new perspective. Routledge.

Laporte, L. F. (2000). George Gaylord Simpson: paleontologist and evolutionist. Columbia University Press.

Lobkovsky, L. I. (2016). Deformable plate tectonics and regional geodynamic model of the Arctic region and Northeastern Asia. Russian Geology and Geophysics, 57(3), 371-386.

Meschede, M. (2015). Plate Tectonics: An Overview.

Stallings, R. A. (1995). Promoting risk: Constructing the earthquake threat. Transaction Publishers.

Vavrek, M. J. (2016). The fragmentation of Pangaea and Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrate biodiversity. Biology Letters, 12(9), 20160528.




Uncle Tom’s Cabin

  1. Uncle Tom’s Cabin is an anti-slavery novel covering the life of the lowly in the society. Published in 1852, the novel’s main theme is anti-slavery considering that at the time United States was recovering from slavery about 75 years after gaining its independence. In the novel, it is argued that emancipation without education is wrong. This forms the major difference between slavery in the novel and that occurring in the United States before gaining independence where the colonizers were not interested in the education of the locals. Education was introduced by missionaries in most regions though the role of missionaries in introducing slavery is also subject to discussion. The effect of slavery on families is the same in the novel as was witnessed during colonial times. The characters in the novel were used to bring out the author’s thoughts on slavery.

      The relationship between masters/mistresses and the slaves is not presented as injured. Stowe says ‘whoever visits some of estates there, and witnesses the good-humored indulgence of some masters and mistresses, and the affectionate loyalty of some slaves…’ (p. 50). America was among the first countries to gain independence. There are limited differences between slavery there and in other countries considering that the colonial masters were the same using the same tactics to rule. However, comparing it with slavery in Africa, there was no slave trade among Americans as there was enough work to be done by American slaves in the region. African slaves were transported across the Atlantic Ocean to America to work in farms. Indentured servants were individuals who signed contracts to work for a specific number of years if they were transported to Virginia. They were equally exploited as in slave trade with their families suffering the same effects as those of enslaved ones.

  1. Stowe uses the characters in the novel to communicate ideas in regard to slavery. Augustine St. Clare is Eva’s father. He also briefly owns Tom. Stowe presents him as a contradictory character since he sees and understands what ought to be done but decides to adopt a different approach which is often wrong. Augustine knows that slavery is wrong. He is presented as a lazy man. Though he is strongly against slavery, he still needs slaves to do some work for him. He is therefore a hypocrite preaching water and taking wine. His actions are defended by the argument that he was heartbroken and missed a chance to live in the North where he would have a better chance to oppose slavery. Marie is Augustine’s wife in the novel. Marie is pro-slavery as she is presented as a woman who would not do anything for herself without the help of slaves. Augustine’s efforts to denounce slavery stands in jeopardy after foolishly marrying Marie.

Alfred St. Clare is Augustine’s twin brother in the novel. He supports slavery and believes that slaves should be brutally managed to ensure that the life of the master is good. Among the three, Augustine holds different opinion on slavery but cannot execute any change due to the attachment he has with his wife and his laziness. A conversation between Augustine and Miss Ophelia presents Augustine as a critical thinker. He argues that Christians are pretenders just hiding in religion and doing what is evil (Stowe 353). Augustine St. Clare is not always clear in the effects of slavery since he is at some point a hero for fighting it and in other sections a villain for practicing it. However, he yearns for a society where slaves would be free and be regarded as normal humans.

  1. After independence, real freedom was not attained in the United States and other countries across the world. What emerged was another class of citizens who exploited citizens with the gap between employers and employers continuing to widen. Defenders of slavery argued that slavery ensured that individuals who could not fend themselves and their families got a chance to do so. However, the approach was very wrong Slavery dehumanized the slaves and converted them into objects to meet the needs of the slave masters. In some cases, they were beaten, raped or even killed. The campaign against slavery was therefore not based on their ability to fend themselves but the cruelty of the whole process which needed to be curbed. In the novel, the Shelby family has an affectionate relationship with their slaves. To raise money to salvage his sinking empire, Shelby decides to sell one slave. This is a major ill of slavery where masters considered slaves their property having the ability to sell them. In St. Clare’s family, Alfred and Marie have similar opinions while Augustine holds different thoughts about slave trade. The assertion that slavery gave slaves a way of getting food, clothing and shelter was not true. The masters were using them for their personal and selfish gains.
  2. Stowe presents an argument that if slaves are treated well they won’t run away. Eliza Harris is Miss Shelby’s maid/slave. She is brave and intelligent. Her escape from the Shelby’s is prompted by the attempt to sell her son, an attempt which she accords full resistance. In a spectacular move, she crosses Ohio River taking advantage of patches of ice found on the water. This supports the statement since she could have stayed if the peace and existence of her son was not threatened. George Harris (the slave) is an innovative and intelligent young man. He invents a labor saving machine while working in a bagging company. Though his master is cruel, he endures the cruelty refusing to leave the family alone. The institution of slavery suppresses great minds such as George’s. Later in the novel, he is able to get education courtesy of his sister who returns as a rich widow. He settles in Liberia believing that he should not be suppressed by whites as they were equal in all measures. Considering the two slaves, slavery is viewed as lack of a better option in life with the two persevering up to the point when they cannot stand it longer.
  3. Slaves faced various obstacles including physical abuse, lack of medical attention, sexual harassment, poor living conditions among others. However, despite the challenges they faced, very few slaves had the courage to leave the homes of their masters and live on their own. The slaves were made to believe that they could not make it on their own with the masters ensuring that they relied on them for their shelter, food and clothing. The slaves were also intimidated facing harsh physical abuse if they contemplated leaving their masters’ homes and farms. The working conditions were also detrimental. In rice plantations, slaves contracted malaria and died because of lacking proper medical attention. Slave codes were established in the 18th century to further oppress the slaves. Slave codes determined the rights of slave owners and the state of the slaves. In all the states, slave owners were granted absolute powers over their slaves. The Fugitive Slave Act was passed by the US Congress in 1850. Earlier fugitive laws provided that slaves who tried to escape would be captured and be returned to their masters. The Fugitive law of 1850 provided that officials who failed to adhere to the earlier laws would be penalized. Anyone suspected to be a runaway slave was to be arrested and be taken back to their master. The Fugitive Act of 1850 was different to previous laws since it provided a penalty of $1000 which officials failing to adhere to the previous and new law would be penalized. From the novel, slave action was facilitated by attempts to pass the line where the slaves could persevere. Slaves could be prejudiced against each other slaves considering the way they were treated. Resistance was also curbed by being affectionate or overly brutal. Physical abuse suppressed slave action in some cases ensuring that they remained loyal to their masters.
  4. The Haitian Revolution (1791-1804) was prompted by increased brutality and slave labor as Haitians worked in plantations (Popkin 12-15). The Haitian revolution led to the birth of a new state. Toussaint L’Ouverture was one of the slaves leading the revolution which overthrew the French regime at the time. The revolution was as a result of slave uprising as the slaves refused to work on the 8000+ plantations which produced crops for export (Geggus 5). The American Underground Railroad was devised by Levi and Catherine with more than two thousand slaves having their escape through it. It was not a physical underground rail but a figurative way of describing the approach used to see the slaves get their way back to freedom. The abolitionists played a key role in the escapes ensuring that slaves got their freedom and reunited with their people. Therefore, both in the novel and the case studies presented, slaves resisted by running away from their masters when they felt they could not hold it any longer. In some cases, they needed an internal or external force to push them to resist the force of their masters and fight their way to freedom.
  5. Stowe was a white abolitionist with the ideas presented in the novel through the characters chosen presenting her ideas on slavery and ways to stop it. Abolitionists were pushing for the abolition of slave trade and set slaves free so they could be in a position to live normally and reunite with their families. One of the major differences between abolitionism and anti-slavery movement is that abolitionists (mainly women) rose to become significant figures in American politics pushing for the rights of women whom they argued had not realized the full taste of freedom. They later formed majority of feminists who pushed for women inclusion in public institutions and their participation in activities such as national elections. However, it is only in the early 20th century that women were allowed to participate fully with the effort being attributed to the feminists and other groups which fought for inclusion and equality regardless of gender or race. Abolitionists and anti-slavery movements used different methods to pass their message such as organizing riots which would ensure they addressed the right authority to convey their message. They also pushed for inclusion of all races in public positions to offer equality and inclusion.
  6. Stowe was among the few Northern Whites who were against slavery. In her work, she presents the different opinions held by people in America through her characters. Majority of the white were pro-slavery considering that they wanted people to work in their plantations. A few like Augustine St. Clare were against slavery but the situation they were in prevented them from taking any step to end it. The greed for cheap labor dominated the pro-slavery approaches. Majority of those who were supporting slavery felt that it was the right of the slave masters to get service from the slaves. The Fugitive Act of 1850 shows the attempts to ensure that slavery was not abolished. The Fugitive Act of 1850 provided that officials who violated the earlier laws to return runaway slaves would be penalized an amount up to $1000. In the Novel, Senator Bird and Mrs. Bird live in the free state of Ohio where most slaves passed on their way to Canada. Senator Bird helped in the passing of the Fugitive Slave Act which criminalized the act of runaway slaves. This presents the opinion of most westerners who viewed it as their right to be served by the slaves. Slaves were not united and so their ability to revolt against the oppressive rule was highly jeopardized. However, Mrs. Bird is the complete opposite in her character to Senator Bird. She strictly subscribes to Christian doctrines and feels it is her responsibility to assist anyone in trouble. It is on that basis that she tries to make her husband understand why the fugitive act is wrong on moral grounds. She holds that the slaves are similar to whites in the face of God and so they should be treated as such. Ophelia is an abolitionist from the North. She holds that slavery is wrong and should be treated as such. Slaves suffered physical abuse as the government through its laws allowed it. The Northern slaves were oppressed as the ones in the south.
  7. Unlike in the North, many southern Christians felt that slavery was not disallowed in the bible. In fact, Christianity seemed to support slavery considering that the teachings in the Old Testament presented men of God with slaves to serve them. Abraham had slaves. The commandments also approved of slavery with the concept being widely spread in early civilizations. Therefore, slavery could only be abolished on moral and humanitarian grounds and not from a Christian approach. In Stowe’s novel, Mrs. Bird tries to make her husband adopt a different approach based on moral acceptance to abolish it. She fails. According to Stowe, every aspect of slavery is wrong. However, considering that it was written after the passing of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, it shows she was more against the act of returning running away slaves to their masters. The idea is further presented in her work as she shows characters running away from their masters because of oppression (Eliza) and also to seek better opportunities in life (case of George Harris).



Cited Works

Geggus David Patrick, ‘Haitian Revolutionary Studies,’ Indiana: Indiana University Press,      2002. Print.

Popkin Jeremy, A Concise History of the Haitian Revolution. Oxford: John Wiley and Sons,    2002. Print.

Stowe Harriet Beecher, ‘Uncle Tom’s Cabin; or, Life among the Lowly. Boston: John P.          Jewitt Publishers, 1852. Print.

Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Job Shop Scheduling Problem


Scheduling difficulties have in the past decade received increased attention. Scheduling can be labeled as the apportionment of communal resources and this is often done over time as a result of competing activities. Scheduling glitches have been examined from several different angles. More specifically, the Job shop problem has received increased scrutiny and it has turned out to be a very important scheduling problem (Bedoya-Valencia¸ 2007). According to the job shop scheduling, there is a determinate in jobs, and individually of the jobs consists of different sequence processes. There is the existence of predetermined machines, and every machine can be able to be able to process at most one operation at every time. Every process that exists needs to be properly managed during a time frame that is uninterrupted of a certain measurement on a given mechanism. The optimal solution is to discover an agenda, which can be described as an distribution of the different processes to time intervals as well as machineries, which in the end has minimal length.

Description of Job shop Scheduling Problem

The n X m job scheduling issue can be described in the following manner. Firstly, there are n jobs and m machines. Each of the job I comprises of n1 operations. The task of production scheduling often consists of several temporal planning and this is done in the processing of several orders. The processing of an order in most instances often corresponds to the production of a certain product (Martin, 1966). This is often accomplished by the overall execution of a set of problems in what can be defined as a predefined sequence on different resources, and this is subject to several different constraints.

It is imperative to realize that the result of scheduling can be defined as a schedule which shows the temporal assignment of operations of different orders to the resources which are used. Each operation in the problem can be processed by only one machine from the candidate machine. There are several assumptions that are followed by the job scheduling problem. Firstly, each machine can be used at time zero. Secondly, each job can often be processed at time zero. Thirdly, the job scheduling problem can only process one process at a time (Pinedo, 2016). Further, there are sequences of operations for all the jobs which are pre specified. Finally, there is the assumption that all the machines are not always identical (Hooker, 2000).

A schedule can be described as a purpose that for every operation v often outlines a start time. Anagenda S can be labelled as practicable if

In the problem, the entire stretch of the schedule S is described as . It is imperative to understand that an illustration of the JSS problem can often be signified as a result of disjunctive diagram and this is represented by G=(O,A,E). In this instance, the apexes in O has over the years represented the dissimilar operations. There are diverse arcs in A which can help give precedence between the different operations (Xhafa & Abraham, 2008).

Example of a disjunctive graph

The Job shop scheduling problem is often well-thought-out to be a good depiction of the entire sphere and it has over the years received the standing of being problematic to solve (Bedoya-Valencia¸ 2007). The Job shop scheduling problem fits to the course of assessmentglitches that are NP. For example, 3*3 problem, N*2 illustration with no more than three different operations per job, the N*3 problem with more than 2 operations per job and finally the N*3 problem where all the operations that are in the sum are of unit processing time belong to the set of NP problems. There are several methods that are often used in order to try and solve the Job shop scheduling problem. The first one includes mathematical formulations and this includes mixed integer linear programming, I will examine the Multi Agent Based Job Shop and compare it with other methods.

The second method that can be used in order to get a solution to the problem is the Branch and Bound method. However, over, the years, there has been increased conflict regarding this method, where many people state that it does not actually solve the problem but rather complicate it even more (Hooker, 2000). There are many approximation methods that have been developed to try and solve the Job shop scheduling problem (Bertsimas & Gamarnik, 1998). They include the priority dispatch rules, local search methods as well as bottleneck based heuristics. Evolutionary algorithms and Ant Colony Optimization for Job Shop Scheduling Problem are also other important methods. Finally, there is also the issue of artificial intelligence and this includes constraint satisfaction approach as well as neural networks.

Branch and Bound

The Branch and Bound method often uses a dynamic tree structure which signifies the resolution space of different achievablearrangements (Neumann & Schneider, 1997). The search in this method often starts with the uppermost node and the entire comprehensive section is often accomplished once the lowermost node has been effectively assessed. Ever node at a level p in the entire search tree often represents anarrangement of p processes and the sequence is partial. From the unselected node the different branching operations is critical in that it regulates the set of conceivable nodes where the search can further go on and progress (Bertsimas & Gamarnik, 1998). The whole bounding procedure is critical because it helps to select the operation that continues the search and this is grounded on aprojected LB and is often attained through an extensive UB. It is of the essence to note that at any node, the projectedLB is in way superiorto the current best UB, then it is said that the selection is partial and all the subsequent descendants are consequently discarded and disregarded (Holloway, 1973).

In the priority dispatch rules, at every consecutive step all the different processes are deemed obtainable and consequently they are well scheduled and they are further allocated precedence and the process which has the uppermostimportance is then chosen in order to be sequenced. The Priority dispatch rules are often scheduled using several runs of the PDRs are they are created in this manner in order to make sure that they achieve results that are valid (Emmons & Vairaktarakis, 2013). The constraint satisfaction approach argues that there is a need to aim at plummeting the realscope of the quest space and this can be done by applying different constraints which in the end limit the directive in which several variables are designated and the arrangement in which the different conceivablestandards are allocated to every variable. There are several variables that can be examined and they include constraint propagation, variable heuristic, and value heuristic as well as backtracking (Bedoya-Valencia¸ 2007).

Multi Agent Based Job Shop Scheduling includes configurations, which are a finite set of solutions and this helps the cost function to be thoroughly optimized. Under the Multi Agent Based Job Shop method, there is also the issue of generation mechanism and this helps to generate a changeover from one different conformation to another. The neighborhood function referred to as Nx can be described as a function that defines a transition which is simple in nature from a solution x to another totally different solution and this is done by inducing a change. When choosing the selection of a neighborhood, there is a need to choose the first lower cost neighbor that is found, secondly, one should then proceed to select the best neighbor in the neighborhood and finally, there is the choosing of the best sample of the neighbors (Emmons & Vairaktarakis, 2013).

Ant Colony Optimization for Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Ants are social and they live in their colonies and their behavior in these colonies is often administered by the goal of colony endurance as compared to being focused on the survival of individuals. The main idea of the Ant colony optimization is often inspired by the performance of the different ants probing for their daily consumptions (Emmons & Vairaktarakis, 2013). The ants often communicate with each other regarding food sources, when the ants move, they often release different hormones on the path that they have passed. Other ants are in many cases attracted to follow them by observing the ant trail (Holloway, 1973). As compared to other different and diverse heuristics, the ACO is often characterized by distributed computation as well as positive feedback (Hooker, 2000).

In order to better understand the different operations of ants and compare them with the job shop scheduling, one should look at the operations as if they are ants. There exists a lot of similarities between the colony of ant’s foraging process and job shop scheduling. The first major similarity is that the in both, the operations must ensure that they search for a proper machine to process them (Krige, 1975). There is a need to strive in order to get the shortest path. The nest and food of the ant’s source can be said to be similar with the start and end dummy operation. In fact, if one looks at an operation such as an ant’s path for the foraging of food, then one can be able to see that indeed the relation of the two operations can be examined and interpreted as an alternative path (Chakraborty, 2009). The same case applies to the different processing times that exist in different operations of a machine and they all take different lengths of paths (Fang et al., 1995).

The ant colony algorithm often complies with the process sequence constraints. It is of the essence to note that according to the different constraints of process sequence as well as machine occupancy, ants often travel a total of nine operations of over three jobs in order to search for the operation order on every machine and from there one go ahead and gain the differential optimal or near optimal solution which is important in providing a solution for the job shop scheduling problem (Dahal et al., 2013). Therefore, given these factors, it can be said that indeed, it is feasible for one to use the Ant Colony organization to solve the job shop scheduling problem (Krige, 1975).

Evolutionary algorithms

The evolutionary algorithms are often inspired by different genetic algorithms. It is critical to note that the evolutionary algorithms are a recent contribution towards trying to solve the job shop scheduling problem (Chiong & Dhakal, 2009). The algorithms often use different computational models of evolutionary processes in order to solve problems related to job scheduling problem (Krige, 1975). The evolutionary approach is based on a mechanism of natural selection when it comes to biological systems. The evolutionary algorithms is further structured in a manner that is randomized in order to ensure that there is proper utilization of genetic information and this helps in the finding of a new search direction (Bedoya-Valencia¸ 2007).


The purpose of the job shop schedule is to find a schedule, which can be described as an allocation of different processes to time intermissions to machine which have the negligible length (Chiong & Dhakal, 2009). There are many methods that are used to solve the JSS, however, there is no clear or distinctive method. The Evolutionary algorithms work by the definition of anarea in the form of excellence criterion and this is then used to measure as well as associate solution contenders in a manner that can be said to be a stepwise modification of different set data constructions. If it is deemed successful, the Evolutionary algorithms often help by returning an optimal solution or in some cases, the near optimal one after a several number of different iterations. The improvement process can further be accomplished through either mutation or crossover. It is of the essence to note that indeed there evolutionary algorithms have been proposed as being important in trying to solve the issue job shop scheduling problem.


Bedoya-Valencia, L. (2007). Exact and heuristic algorithms for the job shop scheduling problem with earliness and tardiness over a common due date.

Behnke, D., & Geiger, M. J. (2012). Test Instances for the Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem with Work Centers. Hamburg: Helmut-Schmidt-Universität.

Bertsimas, D., & Gamarnik, D. (1998). Asymptotically optimal algorithm for job shop scheduling and packet routing. Yorktown Heights, N.Y: IBM T.J. Watson Research Center.

Blake, K. R. (1959). Some theoretical results on the job shop scheduling problem.

Błażewicz, J. (2007). Handbook on scheduling: From theory to applications. Berlin: Springer.

Błazewicz, J., Ecker, K. H., Schmidt, G., & Węglarz, J. (1994). Scheduling in Computer and Manufacturing Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Buscher, U., & Shen, L. (2007). An integer programming formulation for the lot streaming problem in a job shop environment with setups. Dresden: Techn. Univ., Fak. Wirtschaftswiss.

Chakraborty, U. K. (2009). Computational intelligence in flow shop and job shop scheduling. Berlin: Springer.

Chiong, R., & Dhakal, S. (2009). Natural Intelligence for Scheduling, Planning and Packing Problems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Dahal, K. P., Tan, K. C., & Cowling, P. I. (2007). Evolutionary scheduling. (Springer e-books.) Berlin: Springer.

Emmons, H., & Vairaktarakis, G. (2013). Flow shop scheduling: Theoretical results, algorithms, and applications. Boston, MA: Springer.

Fang, H.-L., Ross, P., Corne, D., & University of Edinburgh. (1995). A promising hybrid GA/heuristic approach for open shop scheduling problems. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, Dept. of Artificial Intelligence.

Holloway, C. A (1973). An Interactive Program for the Job Shop Scheduling Problem with Due Dates. Ft. Belvoir: Defense Technical Information Center.

Hooker, J. (2000). Logic-based methods for optimization: Combining optimization and constraint satisfaction. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Krige, I. A. (1975). The job shop scheduling problem: A simulation approach to finding suitable operating heuristics.

Ku, P.-S. (1984). Optimal scheduling policies for some stochastic flow shop, job shop, and open shop problems.

Manne, A. S. (1960). On the job-shop scheduling problem. New Haven, Conn: Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics at Yale University.

Martin, P. D. (1996). A time-oriented approach to computing optimal schedules for the job-shop scheduling problem.

Moonen, M., & Janssens, G. K. (2004). A Giffler-Thompson focused genetic algorithm for the static job-shop scheduling problem. Diepenbeek: LUC, Institute for Applied Economic Research.

Morton, T. E., & Pentico, D. W. (1993). Heuristic scheduling systems: With applications to production systems and project management. New York: Wiley.

Neumann, K., & Schneider, W. G. (1997). Heuristic algorithms for job shop scheduling problems with stochastic precedence constraints. Karlsruhe: Inst. f. Wirtschaftstheorie und Operations Research, Univ. Karlsruhe.

Pinedo, M. (2016). Scheduling: Theory, algorithms, and systems.

Sadeh, N., & Fox, M. (1995). Variable and value ordering heuristics for the job shop scheduling constraint satisfaction problem. Pittsburgh, Pa: Carnegie Mellon University, the Robotics Institute.

Salais-Fierro, T. E. (2004). Neuro-genetic approach to job shop scheduling problem.. Sage: New York.

Schmidt, S. L. (1963). A job shop scheduling problem. Berkeley: University of California, May.

Sun, X. (1997). A modified shifting bottleneck approach to job shop scheduling with sequence dependent setups (MSBSS).

Townsend, W. B. (1983). Artificial intelligence techniques for industrial applications in job shop scheduling. Monterey, Calif: Naval Postgrauduate School.

Uyar, A. S., Ozcan, E., & Urquhart, N. (2013). Automated Scheduling and Planning: From Theory to Practice.

Waller, L. (1972). An improved branch-and-bound algorithm for the job-shop scheduling problem of minimising makespan. Newcastle upon Tyne: University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Computing Laboratory.

Xhafa, F., & Abraham, A. (2008). Metaheuristics for Scheduling in Distributed Computing Environments.

Zoghby, J. M. (2002). Critical arc strategies for the reentrant job shop scheduling problem with setups.

Recruitment and Selection Policy at Shell Petroleum

Recruitment and Selection Policy at Shell Petroleum


Policies at the workplace are created, developed, and implemented to serve the best interests of all stakeholders involved in an organization. Policies control the operation of an organization and are required to follow both the internal code of conducts and also the national legislation on matters that the policy is designed to address. This assignment entails the overview of the recruitment and selection policy at Shell Petroleum. The area addressed in the paper include its origins, what it is trying to achieve, how helpful it is to the managers, if it serves its purpose for the organization, how it fits the culture of the organization, the current issues around implementing it, the level of commitment and awareness, impacts on business, and its contribution to organizational development.

All policies have their own origins that explain why it exists. The business or legislative origins are the most prominent in policy development. The recruitment and selection policy exists because of the Equality Act 2010 that offers precise guidelines for employers (ACAS. 2014). The employers are requested to follow the guidelines effectively to guide their recruitment and selection processes. The law requires employers to take care of their obligations in ensuring that the workplace is fair for the coexistence of all employees. The Act addresses age, disability, gender, religion, race, sexual orientation, pregnancy, marriage, and belief issues to which all individual subscribe. It is evident that different individuals have different characteristics and opinions toward others, but no one should be subjected to harassment of unfair treatment as a result of their characteristics or opinions. Since organizations desire diversity at the workplace, then the recruitment and selection policy seems to be the best outcome of the Equality Act 2010.

The policy is trying to achieve equality at the workplace by offering all employees equal opportunities irrespective of their race, gender, age, religion, beliefs, sexual orientations, and disability, among others (Dessler & Teicher, Dessler & Teicher, 2004). At Shell Petroleum, the recruitment and selection policy, as provided in the Equality Act 2010, is aimed at ensuring that employees are recruited irrespective of their nature. The policy is aimed at helping Shell Petroleum to recruit and select its employees by giving them equal chances and opportunities. Therefore, the company shall have employees that have equal opportunities to be recruited. The policy will help Shell Petroleum to recruit the qualified applicants irrespective of the physical or social factors named above.

The recruitment and selection policy is helpful to managers because it achieves the organizational goals are regards the promotion of diversity. Managers can easily recruit and select their employees by following the guidelines (Noe 2013). Ultimately, if a manager follows the policy appropriately, then there would be no instances of accusations of facing legal liabilities for contravention of the Equality Act 2010. Additionally, the policy helps managers to develop a group of employees with strong personalities and cohesive in nature. As a result, the management process becomes easier due to the developed organizational culture that strengthens workplace cohesion.

The recruitment and selection policy is aimed at serving its purpose for the organization of ensuring that individuals are employed based only on their qualifications as per the job specifications and expectations. At Shell, the policy serves its purpose for the organization, apart from a few instances of distress that have taken place in the past. However, the organization, with the help of the policy, has enhanced cohesion at the organization.

The recruitment and selection policy should also fit the culture, values, and purposes of BP. Regarding the extent to which it fits the above factors, it can be noted that the policy has really improved the internal human resource operations. Shell is a global company; therefore, its culture is in tandem with the global cultural perspective. To emulate this, the policy ensures that the organizational culture that promotes diversity is readily upheld.

The current issues around implementing the policy entail the conflicts of interests between balancing the qualifications of an individual and the physical, social, or cultural characteristics of that individual. Hence, most of the people who do not qualify for the employment opportunities, due to various genuine reasons, may still think that they have been discriminated. Additionally, as much as the policy requires employers to recruit the disabled, then it poses challenges in task completion as some disabilities genuinely render an individual unfit for a certain position. The other issue identified by Oil & Gas Academy of Scotland (OGAS) is that gender balance is below par in the UK oil and gas industry (Camps 2017). Therefore, it implies that Shell might be employing more male than female applicants.

The awareness of the policy among the stakeholders cannot be termed fruitful as only a few are fully aware of, and can implement it. The policy has also been accepted at BP because it has been proved to build a diverse employee population that is oriented towards the fulfilment of organizational goals. However, the managers are aware of the policy and are hence committed to implement it.

The recruitment and selection policy is relevant to Shell Petroleum organization because it promotes its goals, with the help of the culture of diversity. The company has since enhanced diversity, and through it, different people with different characteristics contribute different skills to an organization. This is why Shell have been able to easily carry out its operations in different parts of the world where oil and gas is being extracted.

The policy directly contributes to the development of Shell as it could further develop the business in the future. The development will be measured by how the policy will make the company more efficient, profitable, and attractive to staff. For instance, the main theme of diversity adds more value to an organization. Similarly, having people from different groups triggers organizational growth. Additionally, by offering adequate workplace conditions and inclusive environment, Shell Petroleum will attract highly skilled labour.


Primary Research

Primary research is the process of collecting data from primary sources. It entails the participation of individuals within the interested area of study (Creswell & Plano-Clark 2011). The individuals then provide data that can be synthesized and analysed by the researcher to arrive at conclusions and inferences. To collect the data, two primary research tools will be applied and they will be the questionnaire approach and the interview technique (Cooper and Schindler, 2014). The choice of the two primary data collection techniques has been influenced by their feasibility, credibility, cost-effectiveness, and the potency to grant the researcher the capability to engage with the participants on a one-on-one basis.


The participants in this case will be colleagues and managers at Shell Petroleum. They will be 30 in total. To collect data from them regarding their perceptions of the recruitment and selection policy, 50 questions will be designed and presented through the questionnaire. The researcher will then present the questionnaires to the participants to be filled within the allocated time and setting. Most of the sessions will take place within the organizational settings to save time and influence participation in the research process. The data will then be collected and presented for analysis to determine the issues that have been addressed by the research participants.


The interview approach will also be used alongside the questionnaire approach. The interview approach is cost effective, fast, cheaper, and capable of collecting additional explanations from the participants (Creswell & Plano-Clark 2011). In this case, only the Shell HR manager will be subjected to the interview to determine his perceptions of about the policy. Additionally, the interview will also try to find and fill the gaps existing and that can be filled by the legislation. The setting of the interview will be in the HR manager’s office. All the issues addressed in the interview will be presented for analysis to determine the extent to which the managers perceive the relevance of the policy to the achievement of the company’s organizational goals.












ACAS, 2014. The Equality Act 2010 – guidance for employers. Available at [accessed 20 April, 2017]

Camps, N. 2017. Gender balance as a business issue in the oil and gas industry – why it matters? Available from [accessed 20 April 2017]

Cooper, D. and Schindler, P. 2014. Business research methods. 1st ed. SAGE.

Creswell, J. W., and Plano-Clark, V. L. 2011. Designing and conducting mixed methods

Dessler & Teicher., Dessler, G. and Teicher, J. 2004. Recruitment & selection. 1st ed. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson Education Australia.

Noe, R, 2013. Human resource management. 1st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.research. London: SAGE.










Financial Fair Play and its effects on Premier League’s Competitiveness

  1. As a financial advisor how would you rank your club’s current financial situation?


  1. Has the Premier League’s Profit & Sustainability Rules affected your club’s financial stability? And how?


  1. How has your team adjusted to the new financial regulations?


  1. On what sources of income is your club relying on mostly? (Please select the biggest three)


  1. Has your club experience financial issues since the introduction of the P&S rules? And what kind of problems were they?


  1. What is your opinion of the P&S rules?


  1. During the last 3 seasons my team’s overall competitiveness has:


  1. Are the owners of the club considering increasing or decreasing investment for the next season?


  1. What is your club’s debt in million £?


  1. Do you believe the overall internal and external financial regulations on English clubs caused their bad performance in the European tournaments in the last seasons?


  1. In your opinion how did the P&S rules affected the profitability and sustainability of Premier League football clubs?



  1. How do you expect the Premier League will develop in the next 5 seasons?


  1. Do you expect to make a profit before the next transfer window opens?


  1. How do you think Brexit will affect Premier League?



  1. Do you think the P&S rules can be adjusted and improved to better suit all Premier League football clubs’ needs? If yes, how?


Football Pre-Financial Regulations

Football and the Premier League could not be compared with any other sport or their leagues for that matter when competitiveness is being discussed. Competition imbalance in the football arena before the FPP was introduced, characterized the sport. The competition was mostly associated with the fact that there was and there is still a higher level of the spread of wealth in football (Simpson, 2017).  Leagues such as the FA Cup and the UEFA Champions League being quite dominant in the European football provides a platform for football to be more intuitive in capturing more consumers. The competitive nature of football was driven by both the performance and the prize which would be later awarded for the aforementioned. The fact that most of the clubs participating in this football functions are from England, then there would be a lot of stiff competition in order to bag the prize.

European football was associated with financial instability. Quite a number of clubs in 1968 as found out by a British government report, were struggling financially.  The deficiency of cash in a certain number of clubs made them exist near the poverty line. This led to their bankruptcy. Consequently, insolvency for clubs, more so in England was not a new phenomenon (Szymanski, 2012). There was fear for increased insolvency due to financial instability. Clubs incurred a lot of losses, and due to lack of proper financial soundness, then, the clubs would face court cases. Deficits which were accumulated over the years by the clubs, raised a lot of worries since profitability was the key reason for their existence and more so, clubs needed to take care of the creditors and also settle their liabilities. Restoring competitive balance is of quite the importance since

Clubs such as Manchester City and FC Chelsea, on the other hand, are able to thrive due to the support they get from their wealthy owners. This fact makes all the difference in competition since the overdue payables hinder the prosperity of most clubs.

Fairness Fair Play

FFP regulation is a license which must be obtained by any club intending to participate in either the Champions League or the Europa League. FPP is was initiated by UEFA, the European football governing body (UEFA, 2012b). It was introduced in order to enhance financial soundness through putting across a financial regulation and framework. Also, it was important to introduce FFP because various clubs in the Europa League were facing a financial crisis that was threatening to the entire system. Competitions associated with UEFA are regulated with FPP as the legal framework. Certain obligations are to be met by the clubs in order to enhance fairness both in the pitch and in the bank.

The FFP aims at standardizing the world of football class. The fact that there exists a certain number of football clubs which seem to be more superior and dominant than others prompted the need for the FFP regulation. According to Vopel (2011), FFP is bound to bring financial stability which consequently will disrupt the nature of football in the European leagues as well as in the clubs themselves. Therefore, to ensure that we have fair play, the State should come in and play its part. For instance, the State should bring about soft credit, soft administrative prices and soft taxation to ensure that all football clubs are bailed out. A good example of State involvement is the use of municipal stadiums based on different agreements that will allow adjustments of prices when the football club is facing some financial issues. Soft credits can be important to football clubs by ensuring that they are either postponed or rescheduled when the club is facing a financial downfall. A paper by Peeters and Szymanski (2014) evaluated the financial and sporting impact of these ‘Financial Fair Play’ (FFP) regulations in four major European football leagues. The researchers used qualitative research method by analyzing the details of FFP and how the regulations are operated in the European football industry. By including the break-even constraint in FFP, researchers showed that FFP can substantially reduce payrolls and increased financial stability of teams. Similarly, another paper by Sendy and Sari (2014) evaluated the implementation of UEFA Financial Fair Play (FFP) in European football clubs and analyzed the financial statements of Arsenal and Manchester United football clubs for 2010-2012. Using the empirical research method of financial simulation the research intended to analyze compatibility of UEFA FFP rules. The study found that the two clubs included in study implemented the UEFA FFP and financial performance was found to be positive with Arsenal having better financial ratios than Manchester United however, the solvency of clubs remained an issue given the debt holdings and high salaries owned by both clubs.


Club licensing

In comparison to regulations, Club licensing is also another issue that brings out the unfairness issues among clubs.Licensing is an issue of concern and is likely to affect the clubs that play in the UEFA Champions’ League (UEFA, 2010). German domestic licensing is one that comes out clearly as since it was introduced in 2000; it has implemented a criterion where it licenses clubs based on different criteria such as infaust Ure, personnel, and administrative, sporting, financial and legal issues (Budzinski, 2014). Although the German licensing body has the authority has the ability to request and send all information including forecast and audit accounts to the Deutsche Fussball Liga, it is evident from the public and interviewees that DFL can only make decisions based on the provided data, but it cannot question it. In some worrying cases, press coverage has argued that most of the clubs are being saved by the asset sales, player securitisations and local state ID. In that case, you will find that even if some financial bodies ensure there is fairness in financial reporting, there will always be limitations that will be an advantage to some clubs and a disadvantage to others business wise.


FFP regulations are projected to bring conflict more so between clubs which are in association. The fairness deal is being felt that it is not promoting competition. Based on the regular market competition, the higher the risk, the better the chances of making a profit. FFP is, therefore, contradicting this, and the consumers are in a dilemma whether the same regulations will befall the premier league (CDES, 2013). By taking a closer look at the regulation, it is clear that FFP has very restrictions that are fairer compared to the US regarding salaries. Such Restrictions will only be beneficial to the FFP but not to the United States government since it is not binding even in a normal business environment.

Another criticism that makes it hard to believe in the financial reporting of FFP is the fact that the organization takes in a lot of assumptions when it comes to small and big clubs. The organization assumes that huge clubs and small clubs both have an equal challenge in a system comprising of equal money injections. In the real sense, there is no mechanism that can provide both classes of clubs an unlimited supply of money that will ensure that they are relatively more competitive.

Premier League stakeholders.

Premiere league stakeholder has always had an impact on how the sport is played and managed. In that case, it is important to note that no matter how fairness in football is perceived, there will always exist what is referred as the stakeholder factor. In normal business environments, you will find that stakeholders are always put first since they fund most of these clubs. A paper by Menary (2016) included an interview with various interviewees which showed that due to the interdependence of the clubs as well as the political and social context surrounding football, it has a lot of Limitations when it comes to financial performance measures. Furthermore, they believe that FFP is just a regulatory process and by FFP drawing attention towards the issue will bring about less impact. In that connection, the given the stakeholders and the social and political context of football, it will be difficult for the organizations to disclose all the information for financial reporting purposes.

Comparatively, stakeholders, are also likely to influence the performance of a team as in the case of Chelsea. The clubs have a lot of funding and money injections where they can easily obtain players at whatever cost. Such cases, give as a clear view picture of how Football can be unfair to both the clubs and players and it is obvious that even if the stakeholders can initiate rules that make it fair, they are always guided by their own interests as stakeholders.

Several reports and papers on Premier league shys aways from calling regulations in the league as similar to FFP rules and regulations however, Thompson (2016) in his report highlighted two major aspects of Premier league that are not so different from FFP regulations. These include the Profit and Sustainability and Short term cost control where profit and sustainability “ensure that clubs don’t make unacceptably high financial losses, and that club debts do not grow significantly” while short term cost controls ensures that “clubs don’t blow their bumper TV deal on wages” which means that clubs are ensured to be not dependent on TV deals and any reduction or increase in them. The researcher also highlighted that profit and loss limits for Premier League that are similar to FFP regulations and thus, the money injected in the leagues is similar under the FFP regulations. Similarly, a report by Consultancy UK (2015) highlighted that under the new regulations by FFP and Sustainability regulations for UK football clubs, the leagues are becoming more unified in their approach towards sustainability and revenues as highlighted by interviews with 60 Financial Directors from clubs in the English Premier League (EPL), English Football League Championship (FLC), Football Leagues One (FL1) and Two (FL2) and the Scottish Premier League (SPL). The report highlights that under the similar Financial Fair Play regulations, most of the football leagues (98%) are expected to follow sustainability regulations related to  revenues, high value players and profit and loss margins.

Competitive structure

English Premier League is the most renowned league in the world. In that case, over the years, it has attracted investors and stakeholders who take over the ownership of the clubs. Such cases have brought about the implementation of FFP which is aimed at bringing about what we call fairness in football. It is doing so by preventing any unnecessary or unfair competition between different clubs (Schubert, 2014). Without such bodies, we are deemed to see a hierarchical, competitive structure where wealth teams are successful while unfortunate teams fight financial crisis.

Given that football can attract different wealthy investors, it means that they can use all means of direct investments to make the club successful while attaining their fair share of profits. For instance, a club like Manchester City has wealthy owners who can buy players at their own cost a move that is deemed to be unfair. Although how beneficial it is for a team like Manchester to inject funds, other teams are likely to be affected. It would create an uncompetitive structure especially in the transfer window whereby a small club finds it difficult to bid against a wealthy club. As approached by regulatory bodies like FFP and premiere league, in that case, they are trying to ensure there is fair competition by restricting how a club spends (Schubert, 2014). Also, they have come up with a better way to deal with debts which helps various Football clubs sustain themselves while avoiding instances of financial crisis.

Regulation of Money injections

All clubs are required to operate within the limits of financial resources they can generate. However, rules of the Football industry require that clubs only compete with what they can acquire from Football. If the clubs were allowed to inject more money into their operations or rather competitions, it means they will, for instance, be able to undertake a lot of bailouts in order to stay in operation (Sendy and Sari, 2014). In that case, it is out rightly clear that even though money injection can be important for a team, it will be unfair for the teams that cannot raise money to inject into their team. Comparatively, by injecting money into the team, a club might end up with talented players, happy consumers and wealthier players who are not the case of teams that cannot be affordable to do so. In that case, unregulated money injection is one crucial unfair play since it has the potential to affect all the decision making and associated incentives in football.

According to various critics, by limiting the amount of money injection using FFP, it does not imply that an organization will have less money or players will have less income, it means that it create fairness to the extent that it will restore the efficient managerial incentives. In that case, fair play in regard to injection of money into clubs will only be possible if an effective FFP comes into action. There are several critcisms that football leagues face in terms of money injection, revenues and marketing and sales regulations. An empirical study by Menary (2016) evaluated the impact that prize money distributed by UEFA for participation in the Champions League has on club sustainability and how this impact varies on basis of club size. The study showed that under UEFA’s guidelines for Financial Fair Play there is a conflict of interest for small and large clubs. The UEFA’s interest creates an unregulated free-for-all in financial terms at the lower end of the club game which does not allows sustainable financial position and competitive balance. Similalry, an article in the Guardian (2016) highlighted the ethical criticism on Premier league where since games are now broadcast in 212 countries and territories, with the league claiming a worldwide TV audience of 4.7 billion people, the sponsors include non-UK commercial brands who have often undisclosed and unlimited amounts of money injected in the league. The article highlights that these investments assert that “the ever-increasing raft of deals means global commercial duties are a part of the professional life of many top Premier League footballers”. At the same time, the money spinning deals have created an ethical dilemma among clubs for their sustainability.

Premiere league domestic TV rules.

It is evident that with FFP, regulations and rules form what is commonly known as the break-even rule. This implies that it limits teams or other clubs in terms of transfers and wages. In doing so various clubs were affected since they could not be able to engage in any other activities that will promote or facilitate club Improvements (Sass, 2012). According to the Arsenal manager, it is evident that most of the rules implemented by the FFP, have not been effective. FFP come up with a rule that only was beneficial to the rich clubs and a disadvantage to the less fortunate clubs. Over time various England clubs invested in what is called the premiere league domestic TV rights where they were required to buy different packages probably for showcasing their matches.

Due to the FFP rules, some clubs could not manage to invest since they could not afford the money or rather inject from external sources. In that case, such instances have provided evidence that indeed that rules are not fair and will only benefit the rich clubs. Thus, FFP rules have not worked, and due to the rules, small clubs are finding it difficult to compete with the huge and wealthy clubs (Sass, 2012). Therefore, it is widely believed the rules need to be reevaluated since the rules they had put in place was against the interests of the players as well as those of other stakeholders. Luckily a club like Arsenal was not affected because it only operates on what it earns as revenue.



Sass, M. (2012). Long-term competitive balance under UEFA Financial Fair Play regulations.

Univ., Faculty of Economics and Management.


Schubert, M. (2014). Potential agency problems in European club football? The case of UEFA Financial Fair Play. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 4(4), 336-350.