Know students and how they learn 1.1 Physical, social and intellectual development and characteristics of students (Australian Professional Standards for Teachers)




Research Proposal


Student’s Name


Institutional Affiliation





Research Proposal

Research proposal based on Self-audit

Background Information

The teaching profession can be said to be a basis in another profession since it is a stage of all occupations. Teachers are responsible for making students fit for the other professions since they instill the necessary knowledge and skills to the students (Luke & Gore, 2014). In so doing, they can come up with a process in which makes all the students be able to specialize, make decisions and fit in a day to day professions and business.

However, teachers with the required traits may face a series of problems which hinder the operations. These problems are a bug for both teachers and the students. Sometimes the problems might proceed to affect the general public and other bodies that might seem not involved. As a matter of fact, it is evident in all fields that each and every professional and field is encountered with so many problems (Luke & Gore, 2014). For this reason, the question is not the problems but to find a solution for each and every one of them and how to implement the solution so as to counter the problem in the best way there may be.

The Key Study Problems

  1. Coping with the changes in the teaching profession.

As we all know, the world if faced with an inevitable verb called change. Every person and any other thing are always advised and guided to cope and be flexible as to change as change dominates but as much as we do not want to admit it is a harsh and challenging thing to deal with the modification. This is also a problem in the teaching profession. Let us take technology for example. It is known to change overtime, and due to this reason, it becomes tough to cope with it. You will find a learning institution teaching the old stuff to the students knowing very well that they are not applicable in the outside world (Kalantzis et al., 2012). This is always challenging as indeed some do not rag behind due to ignorance or fear of change but due to other factors for example lack of enough funds. If advancement costs a lot than what the school can afford and maybe it is a public school, then it will have to be left behind with the old technology as others advance.

  1. Learning research translation into appropriate practice.

Research is done in every profession to know if there is any problem that they might be facing or even if there is any way that they can develop it. When the researchers give the feedback, there is an assessment that is done to try and come up with the best way to counter the problem, if any, or develop the area that they saw the potential. In so doing they will have come up with a better way in which the problems that were encountered will be eliminated (Cammarota & Fine, 2010). The problem is usually successful, but a problem arises when they want to implement the strategies given out after the assessment. Putting the plans to practice is usually the problem since it calls for a lot of factors e.g. time (to educate), commitment, funds and also supervision. In other institutions, these are usually deemed irrelevant as they see it as a big task to implement the strategies hence making no difference and advancement even after the research have been done. A body should be picked out tolarger with the implementation of the plan. The body should be such that it comes up with a process that helps to make the implementation easier and possible. It should not be in haste as it can lead to other problems arising rather it should follow the given steps as to be successful.

  1. Professional development and new audience support,

As time goes so are the ages of the professionals who have become pros in the teaching field, and hence this means that they soon will retire which will lead to a gap in the position they leave. Many times, the position is filled with people who do not hold enough skills about the previous ones. The teachers should be in time be developed so as they can be able to advance and later be able to be fit in as many slots as possible (Cammarota & Fine, 2010). With this, the profession will not suffer if a vacancy is found as they have a variety who can replace the position. If there is a new staff in the school, they do not know how things goon around the school, and they require an orientation. An orientation might not be enough as there are other things not pointed out in the orientation hence there should be a way in which they are introduced to the culture of the institution. This guide will help them cope and be familiar with the school and how it does its things so that they will not have problems in their line of duty.

  1. There is a challenge as students become over-reliant to the teacher.

Students always believe that the teacher knows everything and for this reason, they depend on him/her too much. If a question is asked in the class which perhaps no one knows they do not struggle to get the answer since they believe that the teacher will respond to the query for them. This makes the students not to think harder as they expect the teacher to give them the answer. This is usually a difficult problem to eliminate as it depends onwith the attitude and perception of the students (Cammarota & Fine, 2010). Right from the lower levels, the teachers should teach the students to struggle so as to get the answer the questions which in turn will help them to tackle problems both in tests and in lively situations.

  1. Lack of support regarding material and equipment

Mostly, this problem is faced by the public schools as they tend to be more reliant on the government and other institutions. For this reason, the systems supporting them might fail to support them leading to problems since the school might run out of facilities and so they will end up to be less operational and giving low-quality teachings (Cammarota & Fine, 2010). The problem should be countered by making the government on toes to provide necessary resources so as to make the education more quality and delivered in the best way there can be to everyone.

Focused Literature Review

As pointed out in the earlier thematic, the teacher is the most important element in learning, and evidently, this point seems factual. The teacher facilitates learning as they are the ones holding the required knowledge and skills to be instilled in the students. Research conducted showed that teachers were in fact very positive in their training and this led to a good grasp of the required knowledge and skills. Cakir in his argument says that a good integration between teaching and culture was noted which very much brought about harmony which in other words made teachers to teach with high efficiency and commitment (Cakir, 2008). The situation though did not lead to a relative progress on the students’ side as they were noted to be two different bodies. The students showing up were not in proportion. Those who showed up gave a small percentage of the good performance not as expected (Baines, Blatchford & Kutnick, 2008). The research done showed a great relationship between culture and teaching (education). It was discovered that if the learning was out of culture or against it, the students ultimately did not seem engaged. Some did not even seem interested. The culture shown was traditional and also the practices and other ways of life that the community had adopted.

Hopkins, Harris (2000) argued that the focus on attitude is given to the students forgetting that the view of the teacher also matters a lot. Research done showed that the teacher is having a good attitude to the student and keeping them friendly in big manner necessitated learning. This is because the teacher created a good society mood to the students which friendliness brought about a good mood constrainingknowledge (Cakir, 2008). Right attitude towards the disabled, wanting, and also those abolished by the society changed their approach which in return made them to studying an involving and efficient way. His condition, however, did make things tough for the teacher as it called for excessive activities and resources hence bringing about a hardship that the teachers had to cope with in their teaching practice.


The appropriate and right way of conducting teachings leads to a very positive outcome directly for the student and the school as well. Theories pointed out have a different focus as others focus on the behavior of the students and others claim that the environment and the curriculum of the school are the key things that should be changedto achieve good learning (Korthagen, 2010). Situated cognition theory is one theory that argued that students best learned when they were in the right environment. This theory guides the students to direct their behavior in the right way. The environment was judged to have the ability to help in involving the student directly into learning which led to a better understanding as the students applied the skills. These skills were important and relevant because it is the essential thing required in the practical world (Korthagen, 2010). Disconnected prerequisite strategic approach poses barriers which hinder them from getting good performance and getting the strategies. Situated cognitive approach attaches the new upcoming ideas and skills in use which in fact leads to good performance and understanding.

Metacognitive processes, a new model of learning different from the previous ones, help the students to monitor their studies and give them the ability to be able to choose the best learning strategies. This theory in a way explains the instructions that guide the students as well as the learner’s self-reflection.

Instructor’s behavior theory the teacher is the one who makes decisions which in a big way affects the environment in general. This theory involves a general inclusive classroom. This theory calls for an involvement of the students so that there can be internalization.

Talent development theory developed by Austin (1984, 1985) As a matter of fact, many students are judged from the outside look just because others need learning assistance as being poor in learning. Austin judges that the sole purpose of education is to add into a student what they lack. Hence, Austin urges the teachers to understand a student’s strength and work to improve it and make it better rather than trying to work on something that they do not seem to dwell on (Austin, 1984).

Research questions:

  1. How can teachers develop their teaching practices?
  2. What are the tenets of effective teachings?
  3. What features do students portray?

How can teachers develop their teaching practices?

  1. Persuade feedback

Many times, we try to evaluate ourselves about our teaching practices not knowing that our students can be a good way to know how to improve our teaching skills. During exams and continuous assessment tests, one can gather the feedback and be able to tell what is missing and where to improve (Baines, Blatchford & Kutnick, 2008). Unfortunately, this might be too late as the data cannot be used to help the students as it is collected at the end. However, asking questions in class will contribute to gather information by evaluating the answers given, if it is correct and the number of students willing to respond to the question.

  1. Talking with the faculty

The talking includes discussing the course logistics and the pedagogical strategies assist in noting the problems that might be in the teaching process. The discussion should be an exchange of ideas which in return will help each and everyone in the group.

  1. Outside consultation

Seeking help from within the institution might not bring about the solution since it might be a problem suffered by everyone. Finding assistance from outside helps one find a variety of choices and also enlightens one more.

What are the tenets of effective teachings?

The first one is that student best learn in an appropriate environment that is nurturing and involving. As discussed earlier, the environment in which the class is conducted should be participating to the students so that they can ultimately understand the concepts being taught. A favorable environment is an added element which in fact will help a lot to cultivate a real learning to the students due to the advantages that come in hand with it (Smith, Mestry & Bambie, 2013). Secondly, some teachers tend to focus on what they teach too much that they forget the potential that is contained within the students. The teachers should, therefore, focus on what the student is good at and make sure that they nurture it to produce an apple bright. If a student is furnished with areas that they do not have potentials, then they will end up failing since they lack even a little zeal in them. Effective teachers tend to plan the environment in such a way that it fosters this strength in them and then grows it to be a great skill (Smith, Mestry & Bambie, 2013).

Teachers should also take all the students as a class and tend to balance all the factors of concern within them. By these, I mean the social, physical and even coming up with an instructional program which involves all the students in the curriculum. If this is done, then all the students will have been catered on, and no one among them will be left out. For active learning to take place, then all the students must be involved in the education. This is done by asking them questions and giving them tasks in the teaching process. By doing so, the students will hence go on to understand better and teach more practically (Smith, Mestry & Bambie, 2013). Teachers should also know that learning is a process and a further learning is cultivated from one done before and the social and cultural knowledge held by the student. If this fact is not considered, then there will be a problem since the students will suffer a hard time, and they will probably understand nothing. Furthermore, it is worth noting that learning is an individual and social endeavor. Society influences education since it is mainly the first knowledge that the student holds. It is also a day to day life experience including family, culture, among others.

What features do students portray?

Basing on pedagogy, the features of a student are merely those that affect the learning of the student. The learning traits of the student could be slow, medium or even quick which in fact dictates the understanding of the student. Other characteristics that happen to define students are; the discipline of the student, if the student is hardworking or not and how he/she reacts to every situation e.g. if a job is tough and they would proceed to tackle it or will it mean that they will lose hope. All this and many others determines how the student will behave meaning that it will affect how they learn (So & Kim, 2009).

Some strategies were discovered to be excellent ways in which learning can be delivered to students with useful feedback and understanding:

  1. Use of groups

Research showed that groups were an effective way of learning. It is where students come together and share ideas as they work on a problem which laterwords lead to the attainment of their solution. Groups seemed to give the students a panel where each and every student gave their idea as the others listened. It helps others to learn as they ask a question. Groups provide an opportunity of working together at their pace as they use the given working materials (Baines, Blatchford & Kutnick, 2008). Group work seemed to be more motivating and having a synergy outcome as the teacher intervened if the problem exceeded their ability. However, it was discovered that some students were not participating as they left the others to do the whole thing as they listen. They used the groups as cocoons where they would hide and wait for the others to play the whole part.

  1. Use of teaching and learning materials

There are many teaching materials that a teacher can use during his/her learning but the efficiency of the usage justifies the relevance of the materials. Research done showed that the teachers who use a variety of teaching and learning materials made learning effectively as the students were more involved leading to more understanding. The teachers who used textbooks only did not seem to have a practical lesson as not all thatwas taughtwas understood since the knowledge of the students varies (Baines, Blatchford & Kutnick, 2008). The use of teaching and learning materials created a vivid image that the student kept in mind and it was easier to remember since some were even more practical.

  1. Questioning

Questioning according to research is an effective way of learning. Teachers use questions to evaluate the understanding of the students and hence know where to work on to eliminate the problem. Questions seemed to be a motivator for the students to work hard as it appears to have a good outcome as students worked hard not to fail. Open-ended questions were relevant as they made the students have agood understanding to answer a question openly (Baines, Blatchford & Kutnick, 2008). However, the questioning was challenged as some of the students seemed to study only for the sake of answering the questions and not for learning purposes.

  1. Planning and structure of lessons

Structuring of the classes helps the students to fit in the lessons as for how it is structured it will contribute to making the students flow in the studies. When a teacher plans a class so that the classes are in such a way he/she begins with the introduction, at the end of the lesson the students will be able to understand the topic. The involvement of the students in the studies will help to make them understand better as they are ultimately involved in the lesson (Baines, Blatchford & Kutnick, 2008). If a lessonis planned wrongly, then there will be a problem as the manner in which lessons are delivered will be unplanned, and there will be high chances of not giving the teachings.

The research

The research design used in this study is a review where a literature review was done on the pedagogical practices articles. In the study, it was found out that the teacher is an essential element in learning. They possess the ability to foster good teaching to the students, but this situation is affected by some factors some of them being the attitude of the teacher, the resources provided to them and the strategies used (Creswell, 2012). It was found out that the teacher can be able to plan the class in a manner that the student will be able to take full advantage. What matters is not the teaching but ways in which the students will get to understand the lessons.

Evidently, involving the students solely in the lessons helps a lot in understanding and apparently makes learning complete. Another research design used is descriptive. This is where one practically goes to the field and tries to identify the aims which he/she will work on to come up with the solutions and report at the end of the day. The observation was done to both teachers and students to try and identify the problems related to the situation. One of the things observed was the relationship between the teacher and the student which seemed to be a factor affecting the learning. It was seen that if the relationship was wanting, then the learning could not be efficient since communication could also be affected (Creswell, 2012). However, the relationship required a difference since respect was of the essence so that the students could be serious and listen to the teacher. Another thing observed was that the environment in which teaching was done also mattered. Each and every teaching required a different and particular environment. For example, while teaching a chemistry class, the teacher would prefer it in the laboratory where they were equipment which in fact created a mood of learning. A sociology class seemed to be more efficient outside the class. With this, the student grasped the atmosphere of the society which was easy to relate and understand (Creswell, 2012).

The research methodology is based on primary and secondary data. On primary data, we assessed the schools that were seemed of the essence on the research questions and other areas that are of concern. With this, firsthand information was acquired and recorded. This data is based on day to day practicality, for example, the relationship between the student and the teacher. Another thing gathered by first-hand analysis are some of the problems faced during teaching.

Firsthand analysis cannot be enough for this research, and so an endeavor in secondary data was done which helped to support our facts and on the other hand base and relate the data to its respective parts. Using the arguments from the journals and the articles written not forgetting the theories based on pedagogical practices we were able to come up with enough information to support our argument. Vague answers might be found and this might be a hindrance in the research analysis but comparing this data with others will help one in the judgment, analysis and also reports.

Data collection and analysis

Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in data collection. Quantitative information entails numbers, and figures are used to base repetition of occurrences. If a situation has a high count due to the constantevent as per the research was done, then there will be a notification that the issue noted is critical. With this, it will be easier to know the places to concentrate on. The figure also given, for examples the performance of particular students in a given subject, help analyze and spot out the issues therein (Kalantzis, Cope, Noble & Poynting, 2012).

Qualitative data comprises of the data given during the research. These data can be said to be raw data, and with this, there can be an analysis done to come up with information fit for presentation.  If in the first place there is no data collected, then there will be no information to be presented.

Data analysis procedure

The first step involves knowing what to measure and how to measure it. In our situation, one should have the aims or research questions which have a broad context to be used in further studies. If there is no clue of the data to be measured, then there will be no way one can do the research.

Secondly, is where the data is collected; at this stage, both primary and secondary data can be collected, and this will help to come up with enough information to base your argument (Kalantzis et al., 2012). The data is collected in a planned manner, therefore, one must have a checklist or some objective listed in order to flow in the research. However, if information is found and does not appear then one can include it

Summarizing the data is another important step. There is a lot of data obtained, and these data might be repetitive, or in some other cases, some data might be unnecessary. Summarizing the data helps remain with contextual information. Analyzing and interpreting the results is the last stage where the filtered findings are analyzed, and the report is given as per the goals set at the beginning.


Teaching is solely a profession, and evidently, it is a job that is apparently used to mold the other profession. It requires a lot of features which in return lead to more efficiency. For learning to be effective, there should be enough facilities which will be useful for the learning. If this equipment is not available, there will be a horrible poor outcome as there are no realism in the teaching. The involvement of the students in the teaching is also an important step as observed because in a way it seems to motivate the students and also increase their concentration. In the profession of instruction, the teachers should be molded in a way that they reach the quality as the standards set. If a teacher does not achieve the set standards, he/she will not be in a position to deliver quality teachings to the students such that they will be equipped necessarily. Teachers also requiredeveloping their skills as there is an evolution in the world so as to make them fit for other positions. Furthering the education will help the teacher to increase the knowledge and skills which in return will provide enough teaching skills for effective teaching.





Cammarota, J., & Fine, M. (Eds.). (2010). Revolutionizing education: Youth participatory action research in motion. Routledge.

Luke, C., & Gore, J. (2014). Feminisms and critical pedagogy. Routledge.

Kalantzis, M., Cope, B., Noble, G., & Poynting, S. (2012). Cultures of Schooling (RLE Edu L Sociology of Education): Pedagogies for Cultural Difference and Social Access. Routledge.

Cakir, M. (2008). Constructivist approaches to learning in science and their implications for science pedagogy: A literature review. International journal of environmental & science education, 3(4), 193-206.

Korthagen, F.A. (2010). Situated learning theory and the pedagogy of teacher education: towards an integrative view of teacher behavior and teacher learning. Teaching and teacher education, 26(1), 98-106.

So, H. J., & Kim, B. (2009). Learning about problem-based learning: Student teachers integrating technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge.Australasian Journal of EducationalTechnology, 25(1), 101-116.

Baines, E., Blatchford, P., & Kutnick, P. (2008). Pupil grouping for learning: Developing a social pedagogy of the classroom. In The teacher’s role in implementing cooperative learning in the classroom (pp. 56-72). Springer US.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Sage publications.


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