Literature Review on Pedagogical Practices
Hopkins, Harris, Singleton and Watts (2000) in their study argued that learning consists of all the conditions that are required to make it more efficient. In the argument, they stated that focus should systematically be on teaching and learning. Teaching and learning are the co-business of the pedagogy, and for this reason, it should be given enough attention so as to deliver the knowledge in the most efficient manner (Smith, Mestry & Bambie, 2013). As pointed out in the past literature, learning and teaching is not the only principle that should be considered or rather, other policies are critical and should be considered since if they are assumed, they will end up to mess the whole operation (Armbruster et al., 2009). The study proceeded to explain that the relative performance should be the basis of measuring improvement. The growth should be checked on three levels i.e. at school, as a team and also at a personal level.
According to Cakir (2008), at school, a student should be able to deliver as per the requirements by the teacher. In every test given, a student should be able to provide what the teacher expects them to give (Luke & Gore, 2014). The contribution, discipline, and cooperation should be high since these are traits that show evidently that the students are on the right track. If a student is not in a position to provide all this, then it will be judged that their class performance is poor. In the team practices, cooperation is a significant element that is very much looked upon (Cakir, 2008). This situation is due because there will be no enough output if each and every student does not cooperate. Groups in learning are also used to enlighten others in case one did not understand a certain thing during the class proceedings.
Groups also depict the ability of a person to cope and relate to others in the day to day livelihood. The impeccable relation is a remarkable trait that will amuse the teacher (Armbruster et al., 2009). At a personallevel, one should be able to make good decisions and proceed to achieve as per the learning. How one relates to them is necessary as it shows how one can be able to handle a given situation. If a student cannot be able to work on them solely, it indicates that they are more dependent on the others. Hence, he/she require others to produce as per the teacher’s requirements In the three levels; there should be a close observation and hence a recommendation that will tell how to improve and also how to deliver the learning.
As a matter of fact, being a teacher does not mean that one is an ideal and does not have room for improvement. Due to aspects of technology and change, it is evident that there is required to be an improvement on them (Armbruster et al., 2009). This incident canbe improved by joint teaching where teaching is done when teachers teach as a group but do it in turn. Henceforth, joint teaching makes sure that the students will get all that will be missed by one teacher. It also supports synergy and helps to achieve quality learning. Team teaching is also another way in which this can be done as the teachers teach as a group and also meet to discuss the lesson (Armbruster et al., 2009). Team teaching will foster quality learning and also make sure that the teachers will be developed in learning skills for their betterment. Observation and feedback are also a way to improve and increase quality in the teaching of the teachers. This is because there will be observation where the observer will observe the way the teacher is delivering the lessons and also the behavior of the students which will help tell if the studies are done in a proper manner. The feedback will be given in a manner that shows the flaws noted and the way that this can be improved. With this, it will be easier to improve the teaching and the way the students respond to the classes. The feedback will come in hand with the solution to the situation i.e. if a problem is noted they will in details state it and then the best way to make the solutions to it and from the solutions, the best one is given. However, observation is faced by some problems one of them being that the teacher and the student will tend to fake the way they do it so that they can avoid faults being pointed out from them. For example, a teacher will happen to give it all he/she can and do some unnecessary things that in reality he/she does not do all in the name of amusing the teacher (Cammarota & Fine, 2010). For the students, they may try to entertain the observer by just asking random questions that are against the reality, and the observer will insinuate this that they are keen and ultimately involved in the teaching (Armbruster et al., 2009).
The situation will lead to the observer giving him some credits that will be all but impunity and unnecessary since afterward; they will venture to the past behaviors (Armbruster et al., 2009). Because learning is all about development in general, not in studies only but another basis, there should be plans to make it flexible in a manner that they will be able to develop the personal traits and needs and whole-school needs. This endeavor will help to keep the balance and make sure that a student is fit not only in class but also in other fields like societal relations and other things which are of the essence in the day to day life.
Various scholars have proposed for three domains of teaching that include professional knowledge, professional practice and professional engagement. Based on Professional knowledge, Koehler & Mishra (2009) asserted that teachers know all about their field. They hold the knowledge of each and every student and are aware of their character. They know how the personal issues will affect their learning and so they proceed to come up with the best way in which they will be able to tackle these problems and teach the students in the most efficient way.
On the other hand, concerning professional Practice, Koehler & Mishra (2009) argue that teachers possess a repertoire of effective teaching strategies. They know what to do, how to do it and when to do it. They make sure that they are meeting all the requirements of teaching and those that lead to the betterment of their services. The idea of professional engagement is associated with the room for advancement and for this reason teachers find it necessary to advance for the betterment of their profession. In so doing they will be able to make progress in their education and skills to be more efficient and knowledgeable. Teachers also should know and respect their relationship with each and every person (Koehler & Mishra, 2009).
In conclusion, the reviewed studies have created the need for further research to access the effectiveness of current teaching practice and propose for improvement measures. The primary research question that requires more evaluation is: How can teachers develop their teaching practices? Other study questions arising from the review are: What are the tenets of effective teaching? What features do student portray as they react on teaching practices? Even after all the above problem, the key issue stands, “what is the perfect way of conducting teaching?” the answer is not a straight and fixed one but it is of essence to know that the teaching is dictated by the teacher and the lesson to be held. The research questions developed in this review of literature will be used to propose for a study based on self-audit of teaching profession.
Armbruster, P., Patel, M., Johnson, E., & Weiss, M. (2009). Active learning and student-centered pedagogy improve student attitudes and performance in introductory biology. CBE-Life Sciences Education, 8(3), 203-213.
Cakir, M. (2008). Constructivist approaches to learning in science and their implications for science pedagogy: A literature review. International journal of environmental & science education, 3(4), 193-206.
Cammarota, J., & Fine, M. (Eds.). (2010). Revolutionizing education: Youth participatory action research in motion. Routledge.
Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge.Contemporary issues in technology and teacher education, 9(1), 60-70.
Luke, C., & Gore, J. (2014). Feminisms and critical pedagogy. Routledge.
Smith, C., Mestry, R., & Bambie, A. (2013). Roleplayers’ experiences and perceptions of heads of departments’ instructional leadership role in secondary schools. Education as Change, 17(sup1), S163-S176.