Social Cognition

PSYC/ORGS 404 Portfolio

 

Each item should be treated as a short essay question. Your answer should rarely exceed 200 words; 120-200 words should be your target range. Occasionally, an item might have additional instructions that are specific to it, so read carefully. As this is an MSWord document, your best bet is to simply rename the document so that your last name is prominent (e.g., “smithportfolio.docx”) and put your responses below each question. We begin with the first two chapters. The portfolio will grow as we add chapters and will be complete in a few days (mid-Sep). We are all masters of cut and paste these days, so this should not be much of a problem.

 

 

 

CHAPTER 1 (THREE ITEMS)

 

  1. Describe two ways in which social cognition and object cognition differ.

 

Social cognition concentrates on how individuals store, process, and apply information concerning other people as well as social situations. The process involves four stages, namely encoding, storage, retrieval, and processing respectively. On the other hand, object cognition focuses on how people perceive, process, and apply pieces of information concerning non-human objects in their social surroundings. It entails two schemas, namely salience and priming. The later spells out the prior experience with the object while the former defines how the object stands out. Besides, social cognition involves interaction with the people to create a perception about them, whereas object cognition encompasses observation of the specific object with a view to making something out of it.

 

  1. In what ways was the early behaviorist approach to psychology incompatible with the study of cognition? What were some challenges to the behaviorists’ approach?

 

The early behaviorist approach to psychology mostly pursued empiricism, which was considered incompatible with the notion of internal mental conditions. Secondly, at the dawn of the 20th century, the behaviorist approach to psychology largely employed pragmatism, which drew mostly on physical concepts to expatiate phenomena such as thought and memory, which made it incompatible with the study of cognition. On the same note, some of the challenges the behaviorists like J.B Watson faced was the fact that pragmatism could not produce any appropriate psychology of the thought and action of human beings. The slow development of computer science also hindered the distinction between the computational role of computers and human thought with a view to unearthing newer concepts in psychological thought.

 

  1. Do people around the world have similar cognitive processes? Use specific examples.

 

People around the world have the same baseline cognitive processes, namely encoding, storage, retrieval, and processing. However, these processes, in each person, are highly influenced by the environment in which they live or their social context. The primary function of the social context is to provide the requisite symbols of representation as well as linguistic expression. Education also influences the cognitive processes in people. For example, language acquisition is similar for people in the same environment and with the same educational experience, while it differs for two people in different social and educational contexts. Contextually, the choices of the teachers have a greater impact on the choices of the students, which, since the students learn under the same teacher, they tend to have similar cognitive processes that explain the similarity in their choices.

 

 

 

CHAPTER 2 (SIX ITEMS)

 

  1. In fewer than 200 words, what is the difference between automatic and controlled processing? Answer either this question (1) or the next question (2), not both.

 

Controlled processing requires strict attention and deliberate investment of effort in a particular situation. A person is entirely conscious of the action and has to think about each decision he or she is about to make concerning the action. The fact that it requires the use of numerous mental resources makes it relatively slower and serial since each thought is processed independently. On the other hand, automatic processing necessitates neither attention nor putting effort in the situation. It occurs independent of human thought and involves parallel and quick processing of items side-by-side. Automatic processing can be built over time through practice. For instance, an experienced driver can drive and sing simultaneously without getting distracted because automatic processing requires a few mental resources, and can process more than one item simultaneously.

 

  1. Describe an example of an intentional thought and a different example of an unintentional thought, and explain the difference. Is it possible for an intentional thought to be automatic? Why or why not?

 

An intentional thought involves what a person actively and deliberately decides to think about an object or situation. For instance, even though relationship partners are fully cognizant of the consequences of cheating, they may decide to engage in the behavior either way. Such thoughts and the subsequent actions may be preceded by weakness in their partners that they can compensate through cheating. On the other hand, unintentional thought, for instance, stepping on ants one did not see, involves the thoughts that a person did not predetermine. Such thoughts happen in an instance, without a predetermining factor. When stepping on the ants, the person did not see them, thus did not decide whether to step on them or not. It is possible for intentional thoughts to become automatic. When one does something for a long time, it becomes a part of his or her behavior and finds it hard to forego the thoughts, thereby becoming a routine.

 

  1. In person perception, are threat-related stimuli more likely to be encoded deliberately or automatically? Use examples to back up your claim.

 

Threat-related stimuli are highly likely to be encoded automatically. Automaticity involves the manipulation of a person’s internal psychological processes by the stimuli in the external surroundings. On that note, threat-related stimuli can be automatically encoded by particular social representations. For example, the physical features of a person such as gender or age-related features can activate associated group stereotypes by default, thus inform a person’s constant reaction in the presence of such features. In particular, given the previous experience, the ‘skin color’ of a black person may make the person seem a threat to a white counterpart. Threat stimuli encoding comes from automatic triggering by social representations.

 

  1. Give an example of a goal-directed automatic process and describe why such processes are both automatic and controlled. (See page 38–40)

 

An example of a goal-directed automatic process would be driving a car. To achieve this goal, a person has to set the goal deliberately, lay down the framework, and set the associated objectives concerning reaching the destination of their driving. On the same note, especially with prolonged practice, a person does not need to set any objectives. At this point, they can even operate the car without looking ahead for some time, especially if they are driving on a familiar course. This exemplifies a goal-directed process, which is both controlled and automatic. The automaticity of this process, however, depends on other factors such as the level of experience and the dynamics of the goal such as driving, the nature of the terrain and the person’s exposure to the road, and mastery of his or her car.

 

  1. Describe three recent views of consciousness as described by cognitive psychologists. (See page 43–5)

 

The first view stems from Graziano and Kastner’s 2011 ‘attention schema,’ which holds that certain cortical areas, mostly in the temporo-parietal junction and superior temporal sulcus are used in the building of consciousness as well as its distribution to others. Another view by Rodolfo Llinas states that consciousness is a product of repetitive thalamo-cortical resonance. In this case, the cognitive psychologist is of the view that content and centromedial thalamus context interact through synchronous oscillations in the gamma band frequency. Dieter Vaitl supposes that there are states of the brain, which involve the absence of consciousness such as death, dreamless sleep, and coma.

 

  1. If you were a supervisor in an organization, what are the two most important things you covered in this chapter, and how might you apply them. If you see yourself as a practitioner or researcher in the future, you may reinterpret this question to fit one of those situations.

 

The two most important things I covered in this chapter include processing techniques and thought patterns. I uncovered the subtle differences between automatic and controlled processes as well as intentional and unintentional thought patterns. In particular, I will apply the covered tenets of automatic and controlled processing to achieve my career and professional goals. A combined application of both controlled and automatic processing as well as their specific features is vital in informing the nature of goal-oriented decisions that I will make, especially in the formulation of the framework to succeed in the goal. Similarly, intentional and unintentional thinking will be used to shape my thoughts concerning every situation and environment of practice in a manner that benefits my career and improves my relationship with co-workers. Finally, the two elements will be applied in different areas to improve my job performance.

 

CHAPTER 3 (FIVE ITEMS)

 

 

  1. Discuss the central difference between the properties of salience and vividness of a given stimulus. Based on this difference, why might salience and vividness have such different effects on attention? (See page 66–74)

 

Salience defines the ease of remembrance of a given stimulus in the sense that some stimuli are easy to remember in comparison to the others. It describes the likelihood that a stimulus may appear causal whereas, vividness spells out how easily a stimulus is recalled by a person. In this sense, salient stimuli may be overestimated given they are easily remembered. Thus, a person may focus most of their attention to such stimuli. Vividness, on the other hand, affects attention differently in the sense that vivid stimuli capture attention only momentarily with a view to attaining persuasion, but can be easily forgotten after the goal is met.

 

  1. As we have seen, the word ‘salience’ has a complexity that is sometimes under-appreciated. Describe a real-world situation or event that would help you explain what salience is to a friend, and then, of course, explain it.

 

When one is driving, they pass through different spots on their way to the destination. However, in one of the cases, one may encounter or witness a grisly road accident in one of the spots along the road. Correspondingly, when the same person will be approaching the accident spot next time, they will automatically slow down or exercise utmost caution based on what transpired earlier. The person may be driving carelessly along the entire road, but the previous site of the accident. The accident, thus, becomes a stimulus that makes the spot and the events easy to remember and unforgettable. They may not necessarily remember other points along the way, but will hardly forget the area where the accident occurred.

 

  1. Essay Question: Describe an experiment that showed priming effects. Select one of the ones mentioned in the chapter. Were the participants conscious or unconscious of the effects? Why did the researchers use the methods they did? What was found?

 

In one of the experiments, Bargh and colleagues primed participants with words like wrinkle and forgetful. The participants were unconscious of the effects. The researchers found that the participants walked out relatively slowly outside the testing booth.

 

  1. Explain why describing someone’s features can inhibit later recognition of the person being described. What parts of the brain are involved?

During the description, there may be more items than the designated seven items of information for short-term memory. Thus, some of the critical information will be lost with time. Parts of the brain involved include temporal lobe and Corpus callosum.

 

  1. If you were a supervisor in an organization, what are the two most important things you covered in this chapter, and how might you apply them. If you see yourself as a practitioner or researcher in the future, you may reinterpret this question to fit one of those situations.

 

As a practitioner, I have learned the differences between vividness and salience as well as the memory aspects. In my practice, I will apply these, for instance, when interviewing a witness to help in making the final decision after incorporating these aspects.

 

CHAPTER 4 (FIVE ITEMS)

 

  1. Describe an example of a “pure” exemplar-based process, and a separate example of a pure prototype-based process. Use these examples to describe one strength and one weakness of each type of model. (See discussion of integration, page 110)

 

One of the pure exemplar-based processes involves a person who escaped death by a whisker after being involved in the particular instance. A pure prototype-based process is illustrated by a similar case, but this time, the person simply witnessed the situation, say an accident, happen without being involved. Regarding strength, prototype-based processes use abstract over examples, and exemplary processes remember instances. Regarding weaknesses, prototypes change with time, and, in exemplar-based processes, people would format by domain rather than nest the hierarchies.

 

  1. What is another name for category-driven processes, and what is another name for data-driven processes? Explain the main difference between these types of cognition, using an example if needed. (See discussion on pages 104–5)

 

Category driven processes are also known as schema, whereas data-driven processes are also called bottom-up or stimulus-driven processes. The main difference is that while the category-driven perceptual processes are highly influenced by a person’s experience, data-driven processes are driven by stimuli.

 

  1. How can categorical processing contribute to the phenomenon of “false memories”?

 

There is a possibility that people may store the general prototype and induce the new information in the existing prototype. In this manner, they may recall information that is consistent with the category that never existed in the prototype. This contributes to ‘false memories.’

 

  1. Describe the effect of embodiment on emotions and evaluations. Provide three empirical examples (naming specific researchers).

Embodiment underpins the processing of social information in both direct perceptions in the course of interaction, and in cases that lack a social object commonly known as offline cognition. For example, when people are physically connected or verbally closer, they literally feel warmer.

 

  1. If you were a supervisor in an organization, what are the two most important things you covered in this chapter, and how might you apply them. If you see yourself as a practitioner or researcher in the future, you may reinterpret this question to fit one of those situations.

 

The two most important things covered in this chapter include social categories and embodiment. I will apply in tailoring my expectations of people and situations, both in social and physical scenarios. In this manner, I will avoid disappointments that result from higher expectation or lower expectations.

 

CHAPTER 5 (SIX ITEMS)

 

  1. Give an example of a person’s need for self-improvement and a different example of a person’s need for self-enhancement. How do these motives differ in their probable outcomes?

 

An example of a person’s need for self-improvement is upward social mobility while an example of a need for self-enhancement includes ethical standards that form part of requirements for a particular profession. Self-improvement motives make someone feel at par with the society while self-enhancement motives result in outcomes that make a person feel comfortable with themselves, for instance, through higher self-esteem.

 

  1. What is meant by the “desire for a consistent self”? What are some of the ways in which people attempt to fulfill this desire?

 

‘Desire for a consistent self’ describes a situation where a person is at par with respect to both their goals and members of the society concerning such aspects as social class and cultural elements. People attempt to fulfill this desire through self-assessment, self-presentation, self-enhancement, and self-improvement.

 

  1. What is meant by “social projection”? What are some of the motives and mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, and what are some of the consequences?

 

Social projection refers to a tendency of a person comparing their traits, attitudes, social status, and problems with those of the other members of the society. The phenomenon is motivated by one feeling inadequate in comparison with others, or socially backward. The major consequences associated with social projection include low self-esteem and impeded goal attainment.

 

  1. Describe the likely difference in conceptions of the self for a child growing up in an independent culture versus one growing up in an interdependent culture.

 

In an independent culture, the child would likely perceive and express their unique individual qualities while in interdependent cultures, a child’s perception would be influenced by social and situational factors.

 

  1. Describe three benefits of self-enhancement. Cite, or generate, an example for each.

 

Self-enhancement may raise a person’s self-esteem and boosts their confidence, for instance, in a case a person has enhanced their looks. Secondly, it may lead to better job performance, for instance, a person who feels better about themselves will be motivated to do more in such areas as their profession. Finally, self-enhancement promotes emotional and spiritual wellbeing in the sense that such people are receptive to negative criticism; for example, a person who feels good about himself or herself is highly likely to dismiss naysayers and prevent the negativity from affecting their wellbeing.

 

  1. If you were a supervisor in an organization, what are the two most important things you covered in this chapter, and how might you apply them. If you see yourself as a practitioner or researcher in the future, you may reinterpret this question to fit one of those situations.

 

I have learned the difference between self-improvement and self-enhancement, and the means to accomplish both of them. As a practitioner, these two aspects are critical in the achievement of my professional and social goals. I will apply these in determining the best ways to improve my individual and societal status through ways that facilitate upward social mobility, as well as in overcoming the associated challenges.

 

CHAPTER 6

 

  1. Is the self-centered bias the same as a self-serving attributional bias? Discuss the similarities and differences. (See pages 174–5)

 

No. Self-centered bias involves a person taking more credit than they deserve for an outcome that involved several people, whereas self-serving bias describes the tendency of a person to credit themselves for their successes but blame their failures on external factors. However, in both cases, the conflict occurs between the person and their environment as determinants of personal progress. Additionally, both cases involve a person being inconsiderate of the facts with a view to making themselves feel better.

 

  1. When people observe their own behavior, sometimes they infer dispositions about themselves, but sometimes they implicate the situation. What influences the type of attribution people make about themselves? (See discussions about Self Perception theory (page 163), fundamental attribution error (pages 169–71) and actor-observer bias (pages 171–2).

 

Factors that influence the type of attribution include their social perception, the fundamental attribution error that leads to idiosyncratic traits, false polarization effect, and hostile mediator effects. Overall, naivety plays a major role in influencing the type of attribution that people make about themselves.

 

  1. What is meant by the “correspondence bias”? Give an example. What are some conditions that might exaggerate or mitigate this bias?

 

Correspondence bias denotes the tendency of a person to make inferences about their enduring and distinctive dispositions based on behaviors whose explanations are possible given the situations of occurrence. For example, a person walks cautiously down a slippery path in the rain but ends up falling. After the ordeal, the traveler increases their level of care, but then notices a person slipping and falling on the same path. The first traveler then concludes that the person who fell after them is clumsy. Possible exaggerating or mitigating factors include the just-world phenomenon, silence of the actor, lack of effortful adjustment, and culture.

 

 

  1. Kelley suggested that consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness information (to the degree they are known) help us make judgments about the causes of behavior. Create an example that illustrates how the 3 interact to produce attributional conclusions.

 

Consider this example: “Erick laughs at his brother.” Here, the outcome results from the person (Erick), the stimulus (the brother’s actions), the circumstance (the brother’s behavior at that time) or a combination of all these elements. If Erick is the only one in the room laughing at the brother (low consensus), he laughs at his brother in different situations (high consistency), and he laughs at other people besides his brother (low distinctiveness), then, the effect will come out as stemming from Erick himself. This results in personal attribution.

 

  1. If you were a supervisor in an organization, what are the two most important things you covered in this chapter, and how might you apply them. If you see yourself as a practitioner or researcher in the future, you may reinterpret this question to fit one of those situations.

 

I have covered self-serving and self-centered attribution biases. I will apply this in my supervision capacity to evaluate the situation and improve accuracy in performing my mandates and learn the roots of specific behavior from the people I supervise.

 

 

CHAPTER 7

 

  1. Describe the situations in which people are most likely to use heuristics, versus using more systematic processing. If it were possible to reduce people’s reliance on heuristics, would this be beneficial for the social perceiver? (See section on when we use heuristics, pages 198–9)

 

People use heuristics when they perceive a task as unimportant and less deserving of their complete input. The use of heuristics is intended to save online capacity for the judgments that a person considers more significant. Besides, people are more likely to use heuristics when the stakes of the task are low. People also use heuristics to reduce the effort consumed by decision-making. Reducing the use of heuristics will be beneficial for the social perceiver in that it will increase the efficiency of performing a task and improve the likelihood of a positive outcome.

 

  1. Is it possible to learn from the past? Discuss what happens when people make judgments based on hindsight, and whether this is generally a useful strategy. (See section on hindsight, pages 201–3)

 

It is possible to learn from the past only in circumstances, especially when there is a clear pattern of events leading up to the current one. However, when people base most of their judgments on hindsight, there is a high likelihood of hindsight bias, which invalidates the use of this strategy. Hindsight bias distorts memory leading to false theoretical conclusions.

 

  1. What do we mean when we say that people are not very good at using base rate information? When are they more or less likely to use it?

 

People do not make use of consensus information concerning how other people reacted in similar circumstances, instead, resort to dispositional attributions, which are relatively simpler. They are less likely to use the base rate (consensus) information in situations involving probabilistic data.

 

  1. Give an example of an “illusory correlation,” and an example a conjunction fallacy. (Answer could be as short as a sentence or two for each.)

 

Illusory correlation: A dog bites a person; the person then confesses their hatred for all dogs since they all bite.

Conjunction fallacy: When a person says that an out-of-stock commodity is likely to be brought in today, then they say next week and month; then it is clear that the items may not be in sooner.

 

  1. How does temporal or spatial distance change judgments and decision? Describe this change.

 

Temporal and spatial distance, for instance, to imaginary future events manipulates a person’s evaluative representation of the events such that the greater the proximity, the higher the likelihood of one conceptualizing the events as a set of some abstract ideas.

 

  1. If you were a supervisor in an organization, what are the two most important things you covered in this chapter, and how might you apply them. If you see yourself as a practitioner or researcher in the future, you may reinterpret this question to fit one of those situations.

I have covered heuristics and hindsight bias. Correspondingly, I will apply heuristics in prioritizing my tasks, and apply hindsight bias in evaluating my present choices vis-à-vis the past happenings.

 

CHAPTER 8

 

  1. Should we allow computers to make social inferences for us? Why or why not (or, under which circumstances, and why)? (see pages 216–8 on decision rules, linear models)

 

No. Computers lack certain critical aspects that make them unsuitable as social agents. First, they are non-intentional agents. Second, computers lack mental states since they have no minds. Computers can only be used for social inference in circumstances that involve comparisons like during social decision-making research works and studies.

 

  1. Briefly describe the “law of large numbers.” In what ways do people understand, or misunderstand, its implications? How does this relate to sample selection? Briefly discuss some of the implications for psychological research.

 

The Law of large numbers describes a scenario where frequencies of events that are highly likely to occur simultaneously even out when the trials are performed severally. Most people understand or misconstrue the law to mean that the higher the number of frequencies one conducts an experiment, the higher the chance of a balancing outcome for the odds. Implications for psychological research include a guarantee of credible outcomes after averaging random outcomes. It also implies that a large number of observations will be required for psychology research activities using this method.

 

  1. Name and describe three reasons why social inference often fails to match normative models.

 

Social inference heavily depends on schemas, thus, are highly likely to overlook useful information (clinical judgment). Additionally, during inferencing, a person may be hoodwinked by small samples that do not really represent a larger population (law of large numbers), and examples. Finally, social inference makes use of heuristics, which negatively influence the overall theoretical outcome.

 

  1. In a controversial 1977 paper, Nisbett and Wilson made a certain claim about cognitive processes. Describe the claim and the empirical evidence. Do you agree with the authors? Describe why or why not in 2–3 sentences.

 

Nisbett and Wilson made a claim against the reliability and directness of introspection. They reported that, in certain studies, respondents verbally offered explanations as to why they preferred particular things, or how they became cognizant of their preferences. Thus, Nisbett and Wilson concluded that the participants had little or completely no introspective access to higher order cognitive processes. I do not entirely agree with the authors since when people are mandated to self-report on mental processes, they may not be able to access the activity as it is unconscious. Even so, instead of acknowledging that they lack insight, they will formulate any suitable explanation without knowing their unconsciousness.

 

  1. If you were a supervisor in an organization, what are the two most important things you covered in this chapter, and how might you apply them. If you see yourself as a practitioner or researcher in the future, you may reinterpret this question to fit one of those situations.

 

I have covered social inference and the law of large numbers, which are critical in supervisory studies. I will apply these pertinent aspects in data analysis and other activities that require inferential decision-making.

 

 

CHAPTER 9

 

  1. How strong is the evidence for selective exposure, attention, perception, learning, and recall? What are some limitations to our knowledge about these phenomena? (See pp. 236–8)

 

Evidence for selective exposure, attention, perception, learning, and recall are not watertight even though they lay a strong ground for further research and attainment of deeper insight into the phenomena. The limitations of our knowledge concerning the phenomena include contradicting studies, insufficient empirical evidence on the phenomena, and lack of requisite resources to facilitate insightful studies into the phenomena.

 

  1. Explain how decision-making processes can be different for groups than they would be for individuals. What are some possible outcomes of group decision-making processes? What are some mechanisms underlying these effects?

 

Group decision making processes feature biases in information collection as well as the perception of a person’s position versus that of the rest of the group members. Possible outcomes of group decision-making include sins of omission underpinned by sunk cost bias, belief perseverance, hindsight and extra-evidentiary bias; and, sins of omission underpinned by base rate bias and fundamental attribution error. Another outcome could be sins of imprecision which draws on availability heuristic, conjunctive bias, and representativeness heuristic.

 

  1. What are some characteristics of strong attitudes? Describe how they are formed, how they relate to other attitudes, and some behavioral consequences of attitude strength.

 

Characteristics of strong attitude include confidence, courage, commitment, control, and purpose. They may be formed through affect, cognitive means where a person systematically receives and analyzes the information then decides their position, and through self-perception. Behavioral consequences of attitude strength include low self-esteem, interpersonal relationship, and interaction as well as poor communication.

 

  1. Which of the following would likely be more persuasive, an attractive communicator advocating an undesirable position or a desirable position? Describe why this is likely to be the case, citing empirical evidence from the text.

 

An attractive communicator advocating for a desirable position is highly likely to be more persuasive. In a study involving 358 undergraduate students aimed at testing the attribution hypothesis, it was determined that the level of persuasiveness reduces to the point that the communicator’s position is expected based on their possessed characteristics.

 

  1. If you were a supervisor in an organization, what are the two most important things you covered in this chapter, and how might you apply them. If you see yourself as a practitioner or researcher in the future, you may reinterpret this question to fit one of those situations.

 

The two important things covered in this chapter include group decision-making processes and strong attitudes. I may apply them in the process of decision-making and adjust my attitude appropriately with respect to the work situation and the surrounding.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(NO RESPONSES FROM THIS POINT)

 

Chapter 10

 

  1. Several characteristics about a person, namely their levels of need for cognition, uncertainty orientation, and need to evaluate, affect how likely they are to be persuaded in different ways. These characteristics sound similar, but there are important differences between them. Please comment on their similarities and differences. (See pages 267–8)

 

  1. In less than 200 words, how are Chaiken’s Heuristic-Systematic Model and Petty & Cacioppo’s ELM similar?

 

  1. What are some of the factors that would make an argument maximally persuasive? Describe at least four.

 

  1. Describe what is necessary for a message generate favorable cognitive responses and to be maximally persuasive.

 

Explain how decision making processes can be different for groups than they would be for individuals. What are some possible outcomes of group decision-making processes? What are some mechanisms underlying these effects?

 

Chapter 11

 

  1. Why might ambivalent stereotypes be “useful in unequal societies?” Briefly discuss the evidence. (See pages 299–302)

 

  1. What is one way people cope with stereotype threat? What are the advantages and disadvantages to this method of coping? (See pages 303–5)

 

  1. Describe a real-life situation in which stereotype threat might affect performance. How might stereotype threat be triggered? What would the effects be? Are there any ways in which these effects could be reduced?

 

  1. What might be a negative consequence of attempting to suppress automatic stereotyping? Describe this effect, including possible reasons why this effect occurs.

 

  1. If you were a supervisor in an organization, what are the two most important things you covered in this chapter, and how might you apply them. If you see yourself as a practitioner or researcher in the future, you may reinterpret this question to fit one of those situations.

 

 

Chapter 12

 

  1. Describe two different examples of groups toward which people feel unstable intergroup emotions. How does behavior toward these groups differ from behavior toward non-ambivalently stereotyped groups? (See pages 312–4)

 

  1. Briefly summarize some of the major findings relating to gender and leadership. For example, do women or men prefer to hold leadership roles? In what ways are their leadership styles similar, or different? How do people typically respond to male vs. female leaders?

 

  1. Briefly summarize some of the major findings relating to age discrimination. How are the elderly typically perceived? What are some younger persons’ concerns that contribute to these perceptions? What are some ways that ageism is different from other forms of discrimination, such as sexism? Are these patterns consistent across cultures?

 

  1. If you were a supervisor in an organization, what are the two most important things you covered in this chapter, and how might you apply them. If you see yourself as a practitioner or researcher in the future, you may reinterpret this question to fit one of those situations.

 

 

Chapter 13

 

  1. Are there distinct basic emotions? What is the problem with this question, and what are some ways we might describe how emotions are identified despite these problems? (See pages 345–7)

 

  1. How do interruptions prompt emotions, and how do emotions prompt interruptions? create an example of each of these possibilities. (See pages 362–3)

 

  1. Describe two reasons why affective forecasting research shows people to overestimate the impact of negative events.

 

  1. If you were a supervisor in an organization, what are the two most important things you covered in this chapter, and how might you apply them. If you see yourself as a practitioner or researcher in the future, you may reinterpret this question to fit one of those situations.

 

 

Chapter 14

 

  1. What is the central point of tension between Zajonc’s and Lazarus’s theories of emotion and cognition? What is one possible resolution to this tension? (See pages 389–91)

 

  1. Briefly describe the network model of mood and memory. How has research supported or cast doubt upon this framework?

 

  1. Define the separate-systems view of affective and cognitive processes; describe four arguments that support it.

 

  1. If you were a supervisor in an organization, what are the two most important things you covered in this chapter, and how might you apply them. If you see yourself as a practitioner or researcher in the future, you may reinterpret this question to fit one of those situations.

 

 

Chapter 15

 

  1. People often have goals to manage the kind of impression they make on others. Why is it that sometimes they try to make a positive impression, but sometimes they impede their ability to do so (i.e. self-handicapping)? Describe the empirical evidence and give an example to illustrate this difference. (See pages 416–8)

 

  1. What is meant by a “self-fulfilling prophecy” in social perception and behavior? Explain why this effect occurs and give an example. (See pages 419–21)

 

  1. Describe some instances when targets might attempt to dispel perceivers’ false impressions of them. When might they not?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Fiske, S.T., &Taylor, S.E. (2013). Social cognition: From brains to culture (2nd ed.). London: Sage

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