STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT IN QWERKYWRITER

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT IN QWERKYWRITER

 

By (Name)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Course Name and Code

Professor’s Name

Institution of Affiliation

Date of Submission

Strategic Management in Qwerkywriter

 

#Question #1

 

Strategic management can be defined as the formulation and implementation of goals set by the organization top management on behalf of the owners. It includes the consideration of the available resources and assessment of both internal and external environment that the organization competes with.

Qwerky industry mainly deal with the production of QwerkyWriters such as tablet keyboard that works like a typewriter. These industrieshave put more consideration into production of their goods mainly in China, India, and Thailand. Like any other industry, they face different forces in the field, for example, they are facing stiff competition from their competitor who are the Apple company, Samsung company and many other companies who that are producing typewriters, this is because they are both fighting to have the largest market for their product in the world hence making them work even harder to fit in the field.

In addition to that, qwerty industry is also facing the threat of substitution whereby some organization are producing good that is almost similar to what they produce, this makes the customer purchase goods from the other company because some customer doesn’t actually consider the company from which the products are produced but instead look at the service they want, this poses a major threat to the qwerky industry.

To add to that, the qwerky industry faces the threat of entries of a new company in the industry. This is because many investors have realized that many people are sensitive to the advancement of technology and that the market for the product is high, this makes them willing to invest so that they can make the profit. These new entries will affect the qwerky industry in that, there will be increased competition for customers and many customers might turn and start purchasing products from the new industries because these new industries always do heavy advertisement hence making their goods more appealing.

Nevertheless, the qwerky industry also faces the forces from the bargaining power of buyers, this is because buyers in many cases dictate the prices of commodity in the market, some buyers, especially bulk buyers may demand the qwerky product at a given price which is lower that the marked price, if denied the will switch to other company with similar product making the qwerky industry to lose major customers and might result to making the industries price for products in the process of ensuring that the industry don’t lose potential customers.

Besides that, bargaining power of suppliers can also affect the qwerky industry, this is because qwerky industry depends on suppliers to provide them with raw materials for the production of their goods, therefore they must ensure that good relationship is always maintained with the suppliers. Depending on how this industry is dynamic, suppliers may dictate the prices of the commodity, this is because if they increase prices of raw material, production cost will increase hence resulting in increasing priced of the qwerky products.

 

#Question #2

Because of the above forces, it is advisable that the qwerky industry nominates a business level strategy that would help them to establish a competitive advantage over their rivals in Thailand, China, and India. To start with, it may adapt and adopt the cost leadership strategy to compete for large market based on their prices. Price in many cases is based on the internal efficiency so has to have a margin that is likely to yield above average returns and low cost to the consumer so that the customer will buy those products. This strategy works effectively where the products are standardizing, they can have generic products that are acceptable by a wide range of consumer and can also be offered at a lower price. Putting more effort in lowering prices relative to those of competitors is increasingly important in order to effectively become a cost leader. This may include putting efforts in maintaining strict control in production and overhead cost, minimizing sale costs and building of art efficient facilities which might be too expensive for the competitor to imitate.

Consequently, the qwerky industry can also use the differentiation strategy in Thailand, China, and India whereby they will provide values to customers by use of unique features and characteristics of that industry product instead of prices that are lower. This can be done by ensuring high customer service, quick innovation of product, high quality features, use of advanced technology and also ensure proper image management. High quality can be ensured by making sure that the product doesn’t easily break down and also a faster response to any problem that may arise. Differentiation can also be achieved by ensuring that buyers performance are raised in that, they get high enjoyment using the qwerky industry product. Coupled with that, they can also create some barriers in terms of reputation and uniqueness.

 

Correspondingly, the qwerky industry can apply the focused low-cost strategy in Thailand, China and India to outdo their competitors. This can be done by studying and selecting a small market segment for example only the Germany market. This is essential because it will have enough time to study the market to have sufficient knowledge of what is required by the consumer in that market, it will also promote the relationship with that market in that, the qwerky industry will be in good terms with the suppliers of that market and will always buy product from that given industry. In addition to that, it will make their product more appealing to the customers in that market hence new entrance in that market will have little or no effect on that industry.

 

Besides that, since the qwerky industry cannot base their competition in differentiation only in Thailand, China and India, there is a need to use a focused differentiation whereby a focus is put in serving a need of a particular customer segment, for example, a federal government. By doing this qwerky industry will be able to serve a small segment as compared to a competitor who will be serving a wider segment. This is easily applicable where special needs are required and cannot be met by the industries with wide competitors in that, they cannot be able to provide specifically required products. By serving this segment that was once poorly segmented, the qwerky industry will have the unique capabilities to serve the niche hence faces very little or no competition in their operation.

Additionally, the qwerky industry can also apply the use of integrated low-costin countries such as India, China, and Thailand whereby they ensure that they are dynamic in that, they can be able to change and adopt any environmental changes that may take place by ensuring that they learn new skills and learn to use advanced technology in production. They can also ensure more operative control in major competencies through the organizational units and products lines which should help the firm to produce products with differentiated features and at a lower cost. This will make the consumer to realize the value grounded onthe product features and also the low prices. However, the qwerky industry must be careful so that it doesn’t get stuck in between, that is, not being in a position to successfully manage all the five competitive forces hence not achieving competitiveness strategies. It will be important to ensure that it is able to consistently minimizing cost while maximizing differentiating feature.

 

#Question #3

the main objective of marketing strategy is to categorically identify a target market and create a marketing mix that will be appealing to the potential buyers. The decision on the most appropriate marketing mix can be systematized in terms of price, product promotion and finally place. However, the main objective of marketing strategy is not just coming up with a specific strategy but also to put emphasis on the provision of values to their potential market segment. Therefore, marketing strategies will help qwerky industries in promoting market for its qwerkywriting materials in the Europe, Oceania and Unites States in the following ways;

To start with, marketing strategy will help qwerky industries in identify its strength, weakness, opportunities and threats. This is vital in that, it will enable them to identify the problem they are likely to encounter while expanding their business to countries such as Europe, Oceania and Unites States and come up with strategies that will help them to get rid of those uncertainties hence get rid of events that might result in financial loss.

Additionally, marketing strategy will help qwerky industry to easily penetrate into the markets in Europe, Oceania and United States by using strategies such as doing more aggressive marketing, increasing and improvement of renewal rates or involving activities that attract competitor’s clients directly

Comparatively, marketing strategies will help the qwerky industry in developing the market for its qwerkywritter in the Europe, Oceania and United States by obtaining more information about the target customer and do heavy advertisement to reach them in that international market. Dissemination of information to a wider market will make customers have prior knowledge on that product and will be willing to buy.

Coupled with, marketing strategy will help the qwerky industry in developing their product in Europe Oceania and the United States. This can be achieved by working close with their customers and finding more innovative ways to improve the quality of their product hence making them be more satisfactory to their customers hence making them be willing to buy that product again and again hence increased market.

Also, marketing strategy will help the qwerky industry to diversify their product in Europe, Oceania and United Stated market, this is because diversification will help them to completely start new business lines which new goods in the market. They can do this by mitigating risks that are related to an economic variable, for example, recessions. Mitigation of these risk will reduce the chances of making loss hence encouraging them to invest.

It is also very essential that the qwerky industry understands the market segmentation best practices which include the naming of wide product market so as to make it easy to select a target market. When doing this, it is important that, qwerky industry to evaluate promising market opportunity, look for a definition that is broader that the industry current goods market but not too wide that the industry cannot handle the demand in case it is generated but work to attain a slightly wider definition of the current market for their goods.

To conclude, it is very important that qwerky industry like any other industry put the above factors into consideration and put some emphasis so as to ensure its success.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Performance Management at Accenture

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Performance Management at Accenture

                                                           Name:

                                                           Date:

                                                           Institution:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. ExecutiveSummary

This research work will focus on analyzing the new review system of Accenture. Traditionally, it is observed that the organizations provide a formal review to their employees on an annually or bi annually. However, Accenture has decided against this system and is moving towards a new review system that will provide a regular informal feedback to the employees. Although a lot many experts have criticized this informal feedback system but the management seems to be positive on it. During the course of this research work, it has been found that the traditional feedback system is not working effectively for numerous organizations across the globe. The same is the case with Accenture. Hence, it is wise to experiment with new techniques that may prove to be better in reference to employee management. Informal feedback system may work well for Accenture if it is implemented in a strategic manner.

This research work will discuss the different aspects of new informal review system and provide recommendation to the organization in reference to the strategic implementation and execution of the system. These recommendations mainly include motivating the employees by associating an incentive system with the new review process, implementing this new change with the help of the Kotters theory to engage the employees as well, make accountability of the department head towards the review of their employees and using a transformational style of leadership. These recommendations can assist the organization in implementing the new review system in an effective manner and will also ensure that the review process is undertaken in a professional manner.

 

  1. Introduction

Strategic human resource management or SHRM is defined as the systematic process of aligning the corporate vision and mission with the human resource strategy of an organization (Mello, 2006). According to Armstrong & Baron (2002), the task of strategic human resource management goes beyond the traditional functions of recruitment, selection, training and development. It is more concerned with managing the performance of the employees, keep them motivated inside the organization and hence retain them for a longer period. In the recent past, it has been observed that the attrition rate in the organizations across the globe is growing in leaps and bounds. This is mainly because not many organizations are able to engaged their employees and enhance their job satisfaction.

The case study presents the situation of Accenture, a well-known organizations operating in the global markets. Accenture has always focused on managing its employees in the most effective manner. However, the organization is now attempting to implement an innovative performance management system that aims at eliminating the systematic performance review system and focus on providing regular feedbacks to the employees. A lot many experts in the recent past have appreciated the traditional performance review system and hence have criticized such an approach that is neither formal nor systematic in its execution. This research work will focus on exploring the efficiency of this system in a comprehensive manner.

  1. Literature Review
    • Is it good to abandon the formal review system for Accenture?

According to Sharma (2015), performance review system is highly crucial for managing the performance of the employees. However, not many organizations in the recent past are able to execute these systems in an effective manner (Sharma, 2015). The case study also states the traditional review system has not proved to be effective for the organization. Hence, searching for innovative performance review system is the need of hour. If the performance review system of an organization is ineffective then it may not be in a position to provide relevant feedback to the employees. This in turn will affect the productivity of the organization. Therefore, the need of an effective and innovative review system is highly felt in the field of human resource management. The same attempt has been made by Accenture. Although it is difficult to understand whether this system would prove to be effective for the organization or not but an organization should always find innovative means of completing a process. Hence, it seems that implementing this new system is a good idea for the organization as it may prove to be beneficial for the organization in the long future.

It is hereby recommended that the organization should make the department heads responsible for providing regular reviews and feedback to their span of control. This implies that the department heads will regularly assess the performance of the employees and provide feedback to them on a monthly basis. Since the department heads are in direct contact with their span of control, it is convenient for them assess their performance. In addition, the top management should ensure that the department heads are accountable for the review of their employees and provide a informal draft of the same to the management as well. This will ensure that there is no biasness or discrimination in the regular review system as the department heads are accountable and answerable to the management for the entire process.

 

  • Removing all formal reviews may reduce cost but create problems in the future

This new review system may prove to be cost saving for the organization in the near future. This is mainly because the cost involved in assessing the performance of employees and providing a formal review can be high. Hence, this will prove to be beneficial for the organization. An assumption to this cost saving approach is related to its nonperformance. This implies that if the new system does not work effectively then it may lead to additional costs for the company. Also, if the employees don not take the new review system seriously then it may prove to be ineffective for the organization. It is usually seen that any change inside the organization may find a lot of resistance from the parties that may get affected from it. In this case, the employees may get affected because of the new feedback system and hence they may oppose it. However, it is recommended that the organizational leader should ensure the effective implementation of the change process to ensure that the overall efficiency is enhanced and the costs are reduced (Bennis, 2001). The leader should focus on implementing the Kotters theory of change management at the time of implementing this new system –

Nograšek (2011)

This theory may assist the organization in implementing the system in an effective manner and ensuring that the employees are also positive towards this change (Smollan, 2011). The first stage of the theory requires the leader to create a climate for change inside the organization. This implies that the leader should focus on listing down the significance of this change for the employees and the organization. The second stage of the theory focuses on engaging the employees in the change process. This implies that the leader should focus on maintaining a constant communication with the employees regarding the change process. This will assist in understanding the employee’s perception about the new system and clarifying their doubts (Weiner, 2009). Lastly, implementing and sustaining the change process is the final stage of the theory. This states that the leader has to make sure that the change process is used for a decent period of time so that it gets an opportunity to prove itself. Therefore, if the new review system is implemented in a positive manner then it may assist in saving cost and should not have any adverse impact in the future (Smollan, 2011).

  • Recommendations

From the above discussion, it can be very well stated that the new review system might prove to be effective for Accenture but it needs to ensure that a strategic approach if followed in the implementation of the same. Following are some of the recommendations that may assist in enhancing the efficiency of this system –

Firstly, the organization should keep its employees motivated and engaged. Motivation can be defined as the inner drive of an individual that accomplishing the tasks (Maslow, 1954). A lot many theories have been given by experts in the area of employee motivation. However, Maslow’s theory of motivation is one of the most renowned theoretical frameworks in this area. The Maslow’s theory of motivation was put forward by Abraham Maslow in the year 1954. According to the Maslow’s theory of motivation, the organizations should fulfill five needs of the employees i.e. the basic needs, social needs, safety needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs (Maslow, 1954). The basic needs are the needs that fulfills the necessity of life such food, water and shelter. The social needs are the need for love and belongingness from the family members and the society (Pfeffer, 1995). The safety needs are the needs to be secured in life and calls for elements such as job security and security in personal life. The esteem needs are the needs for high respect and recognition in the society (Azad, 2011). Finally, the self-actualization needs are the needs to do something more than what has been already accomplished (Cheˆnevert and Tremblay, 2009)

 

 

 

(Maslow, 1954)

During the course of this research work, it was observed that a regular review system may prove to be motivating for the employees. This is mainly because if the employees are provided with regular reviews then they will be in a position to understand their strengths and weaknesses. This will enable them to further leverage their strengths and overcome the weaknesses. This in turn will assist in getting a better career growth and appraisals in the future. The traditional review system may provide formal and written feedback only once to the employees. This may not give them an opportunity to improve their skills thereby leading to less career growth. Hence, this review system may prove to be highly beneficial for Accenture and for the employees as well.

It is hereby recommended to the organization that this new review system should be associated with several incentives. This implies that an employee gets positive reviews for three months continuously then they should be entitled for monetary or non-monetary rewards. This will ensure that the employees are also positive about the new review system and hence it is undertaken in positive spirits. As already mentioned, motivation is concerned with encouraging and engaging the employees at the work place (Bowe and Martin, 2007). With the help of this recommendation, this new review system will be motivating for the employees.

Secondly, the organizational leader should adopt a transformational style of leadership that may assist in the effective utilization of this process. A transformational style of leadership always focuses on encouraging changes inside the organization. This implies that the leader always screen the present operational activities and find new and improved ways of completing the tasks. In addition, a transformational leader also works as a part of the team. The leaders at Accenture should also become a part of the employees and explain them the essence of this new system. In any change process, the biggest hurdle is communication. However, a transformational leader can very conveniently maintain effective communication with the employees by being one of them. This will assist in creating positivity for the new review system and testing an innovative process that may enhance the organization’s productivity.

Lastly, the management should also focus on the proper vigilance of the entire review system. Although this is an informal approach of giving feedback to the employees but the top management should ensure that they keep an eye on all the different aspects. This will ensure that there is no biasness or discrimination done by the department head while giving informal or verbal feedbacks to the employees. As mentioned earlier, accountability and responsibility is highly crucial for the success of this system. Hence, by keeping strict vigilance on the entire system, the management can ensure a fair and just informal feedback to the employees on regular intervals.

 

  1. Conclusion

Performance management is a crucial area in the field of strategic human resource management. Over the years, many experts have constantly stated that giving formal feedback to the employees may assist them in enhancing their performance. However, Accenture is now shifting towards a contemporary style of giving feedbacks by eliminating its traditional formal feedback system. The new system will focus on providing informal feedbacks to the employees on a regular basis. During the course of this research work, it was found that this new system may prove to be beneficial for the organization. This is largely because it may keep the employees updated about their individual performances and hence assist them in improving the same. However, a lot many recommendations have been provided to the organization that may assist in enhancing the efficiency of the new review system. These recommendations mainly include motivating the employees by associating an incentive system with the new review process, implementing this new change with the help of the Kotters theory to engage the employees as well, make accountability of the department head towards the review of their employees and using a transformational style of leadership. These recommendations can assist the organization in implementing the new review system in an effective manner and will also ensure that the review process is undertaken in a professional manner.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Armstrong, M. Baron, A. (2002). Strategic HRM: the key to improved business performance, Chartered institute and Personnel and Development, London

Azad, P.(2011). Employee motivation and organizational success, APH Publishing Corp

Bowe, H. and Martin, K. (2007).Communication across Cultures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Bennis, W. (2001). Why leaders can’t lead: The unconscious conspiracy continues. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

Cheˆnevert, D. and Tremblay, M. (2009). “Fits in strategic human resource management and methodological challenge: empirical evidence of influence of empowerment and compensation practices on human resource performance in Canadian firms”, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 20 No. 4, pp. 738-70.

Day, N. (1998).Informal learning, Workforce 77(6), 30-36.

Huselid, M.A. (2000). “The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance”, Academy of Management Journal

Mello, J.A. (2006). Strategic human resource management, Thomson South western, USA

Maslow, A.(1954). Maslow’s Need hierarchy theory, Motivation and personality, New York Harper

Nograšek, J. (2011). Change management as a critical success factor in e-government     implementation, Business Systems Research, 2(2): 13.

Needham, D. (2012). Business for Higher Awards. Oxford, England: Heinemann.

Pfeffer, S. (1995). Workplace learning: Its potential and limitations. Education & Training 37(5), 20-27

Sharma, S. (2015). Diversification of human work force, The Journal of Human Sciences

Smollan, R.(2011).Engaging with resistance to change, University Of Auckland Business            Review, 13(1): 12-15.

Weiner, B. (2009). A theory of organizational readiness for change, Implementation Science,     4(67).

 

 

Strategic Management

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Performance Management at Accenture

                                                           Name:

                                                           Date:

                                                           Institution:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. ExecutiveSummary

This research work will focus on analyzing the new review system of Accenture. Traditionally, it is observed that the organizations provide a formal review to their employees on an annually or bi annually. However, Accenture has decided against this system and is moving towards a new review system that will provide a regular informal feedback to the employees. Although a lot many experts have criticized this informal feedback system but the management seems to be positive on it. During the course of this research work, it has been found that the traditional feedback system is not working effectively for numerous organizations across the globe. The same is the case with Accenture. Hence, it is wise to experiment with new techniques that may prove to be better in reference to employee management. Informal feedback system may work well for Accenture if it is implemented in a strategic manner.

This research work will discuss the different aspects of new informal review system and provide recommendation to the organization in reference to the strategic implementation and execution of the system. These recommendations mainly include motivating the employees by associating an incentive system with the new review process, implementing this new change with the help of the Kotters theory to engage the employees as well, make accountability of the department head towards the review of their employees and using a transformational style of leadership. These recommendations can assist the organization in implementing the new review system in an effective manner and will also ensure that the review process is undertaken in a professional manner.

 

  1. Introduction

Strategic human resource management or SHRM is defined as the systematic process of aligning the corporate vision and mission with the human resource strategy of an organization (Mello, 2006). According to Armstrong & Baron (2002), the task of strategic human resource management goes beyond the traditional functions of recruitment, selection, training and development. It is more concerned with managing the performance of the employees, keep them motivated inside the organization and hence retain them for a longer period. In the recent past, it has been observed that the attrition rate in the organizations across the globe is growing in leaps and bounds. This is mainly because not many organizations are able to engaged their employees and enhance their job satisfaction.

The case study presents the situation of Accenture, a well-known organizations operating in the global markets. Accenture has always focused on managing its employees in the most effective manner. However, the organization is now attempting to implement an innovative performance management system that aims at eliminating the systematic performance review system and focus on providing regular feedbacks to the employees. A lot many experts in the recent past have appreciated the traditional performance review system and hence have criticized such an approach that is neither formal nor systematic in its execution. This research work will focus on exploring the efficiency of this system in a comprehensive manner.

  1. Literature Review
    • Is it good to abandon the formal review system for Accenture?

According to Sharma (2015), performance review system is highly crucial for managing the performance of the employees. However, not many organizations in the recent past are able to execute these systems in an effective manner (Sharma, 2015). The case study also states the traditional review system has not proved to be effective for the organization. Hence, searching for innovative performance review system is the need of hour. If the performance review system of an organization is ineffective then it may not be in a position to provide relevant feedback to the employees. This in turn will affect the productivity of the organization. Therefore, the need of an effective and innovative review system is highly felt in the field of human resource management. The same attempt has been made by Accenture. Although it is difficult to understand whether this system would prove to be effective for the organization or not but an organization should always find innovative means of completing a process. Hence, it seems that implementing this new system is a good idea for the organization as it may prove to be beneficial for the organization in the long future.

It is hereby recommended that the organization should make the department heads responsible for providing regular reviews and feedback to their span of control. This implies that the department heads will regularly assess the performance of the employees and provide feedback to them on a monthly basis. Since the department heads are in direct contact with their span of control, it is convenient for them assess their performance. In addition, the top management should ensure that the department heads are accountable for the review of their employees and provide a informal draft of the same to the management as well. This will ensure that there is no biasness or discrimination in the regular review system as the department heads are accountable and answerable to the management for the entire process.

 

  • Removing all formal reviews may reduce cost but create problems in the future

This new review system may prove to be cost saving for the organization in the near future. This is mainly because the cost involved in assessing the performance of employees and providing a formal review can be high. Hence, this will prove to be beneficial for the organization. An assumption to this cost saving approach is related to its nonperformance. This implies that if the new system does not work effectively then it may lead to additional costs for the company. Also, if the employees don not take the new review system seriously then it may prove to be ineffective for the organization. It is usually seen that any change inside the organization may find a lot of resistance from the parties that may get affected from it. In this case, the employees may get affected because of the new feedback system and hence they may oppose it. However, it is recommended that the organizational leader should ensure the effective implementation of the change process to ensure that the overall efficiency is enhanced and the costs are reduced (Bennis, 2001). The leader should focus on implementing the Kotters theory of change management at the time of implementing this new system –

Nograšek (2011)

This theory may assist the organization in implementing the system in an effective manner and ensuring that the employees are also positive towards this change (Smollan, 2011). The first stage of the theory requires the leader to create a climate for change inside the organization. This implies that the leader should focus on listing down the significance of this change for the employees and the organization. The second stage of the theory focuses on engaging the employees in the change process. This implies that the leader should focus on maintaining a constant communication with the employees regarding the change process. This will assist in understanding the employee’s perception about the new system and clarifying their doubts (Weiner, 2009). Lastly, implementing and sustaining the change process is the final stage of the theory. This states that the leader has to make sure that the change process is used for a decent period of time so that it gets an opportunity to prove itself. Therefore, if the new review system is implemented in a positive manner then it may assist in saving cost and should not have any adverse impact in the future (Smollan, 2011).

  • Recommendations

From the above discussion, it can be very well stated that the new review system might prove to be effective for Accenture but it needs to ensure that a strategic approach if followed in the implementation of the same. Following are some of the recommendations that may assist in enhancing the efficiency of this system –

Firstly, the organization should keep its employees motivated and engaged. Motivation can be defined as the inner drive of an individual that accomplishing the tasks (Maslow, 1954). A lot many theories have been given by experts in the area of employee motivation. However, Maslow’s theory of motivation is one of the most renowned theoretical frameworks in this area. The Maslow’s theory of motivation was put forward by Abraham Maslow in the year 1954. According to the Maslow’s theory of motivation, the organizations should fulfill five needs of the employees i.e. the basic needs, social needs, safety needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs (Maslow, 1954). The basic needs are the needs that fulfills the necessity of life such food, water and shelter. The social needs are the need for love and belongingness from the family members and the society (Pfeffer, 1995). The safety needs are the needs to be secured in life and calls for elements such as job security and security in personal life. The esteem needs are the needs for high respect and recognition in the society (Azad, 2011). Finally, the self-actualization needs are the needs to do something more than what has been already accomplished (Cheˆnevert and Tremblay, 2009)

 

 

 

(Maslow, 1954)

During the course of this research work, it was observed that a regular review system may prove to be motivating for the employees. This is mainly because if the employees are provided with regular reviews then they will be in a position to understand their strengths and weaknesses. This will enable them to further leverage their strengths and overcome the weaknesses. This in turn will assist in getting a better career growth and appraisals in the future. The traditional review system may provide formal and written feedback only once to the employees. This may not give them an opportunity to improve their skills thereby leading to less career growth. Hence, this review system may prove to be highly beneficial for Accenture and for the employees as well.

It is hereby recommended to the organization that this new review system should be associated with several incentives. This implies that an employee gets positive reviews for three months continuously then they should be entitled for monetary or non-monetary rewards. This will ensure that the employees are also positive about the new review system and hence it is undertaken in positive spirits. As already mentioned, motivation is concerned with encouraging and engaging the employees at the work place (Bowe and Martin, 2007). With the help of this recommendation, this new review system will be motivating for the employees.

Secondly, the organizational leader should adopt a transformational style of leadership that may assist in the effective utilization of this process. A transformational style of leadership always focuses on encouraging changes inside the organization. This implies that the leader always screen the present operational activities and find new and improved ways of completing the tasks. In addition, a transformational leader also works as a part of the team. The leaders at Accenture should also become a part of the employees and explain them the essence of this new system. In any change process, the biggest hurdle is communication. However, a transformational leader can very conveniently maintain effective communication with the employees by being one of them. This will assist in creating positivity for the new review system and testing an innovative process that may enhance the organization’s productivity.

Lastly, the management should also focus on the proper vigilance of the entire review system. Although this is an informal approach of giving feedback to the employees but the top management should ensure that they keep an eye on all the different aspects. This will ensure that there is no biasness or discrimination done by the department head while giving informal or verbal feedbacks to the employees. As mentioned earlier, accountability and responsibility is highly crucial for the success of this system. Hence, by keeping strict vigilance on the entire system, the management can ensure a fair and just informal feedback to the employees on regular intervals.

 

  1. Conclusion

Performance management is a crucial area in the field of strategic human resource management. Over the years, many experts have constantly stated that giving formal feedback to the employees may assist them in enhancing their performance. However, Accenture is now shifting towards a contemporary style of giving feedbacks by eliminating its traditional formal feedback system. The new system will focus on providing informal feedbacks to the employees on a regular basis. During the course of this research work, it was found that this new system may prove to be beneficial for the organization. This is largely because it may keep the employees updated about their individual performances and hence assist them in improving the same. However, a lot many recommendations have been provided to the organization that may assist in enhancing the efficiency of the new review system. These recommendations mainly include motivating the employees by associating an incentive system with the new review process, implementing this new change with the help of the Kotters theory to engage the employees as well, make accountability of the department head towards the review of their employees and using a transformational style of leadership. These recommendations can assist the organization in implementing the new review system in an effective manner and will also ensure that the review process is undertaken in a professional manner.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Armstrong, M. Baron, A. (2002). Strategic HRM: the key to improved business performance, Chartered institute and Personnel and Development, London

Azad, P.(2011). Employee motivation and organizational success, APH Publishing Corp

Bowe, H. and Martin, K. (2007).Communication across Cultures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Bennis, W. (2001). Why leaders can’t lead: The unconscious conspiracy continues. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

Cheˆnevert, D. and Tremblay, M. (2009). “Fits in strategic human resource management and methodological challenge: empirical evidence of influence of empowerment and compensation practices on human resource performance in Canadian firms”, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 20 No. 4, pp. 738-70.

Day, N. (1998).Informal learning, Workforce 77(6), 30-36.

Huselid, M.A. (2000). “The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance”, Academy of Management Journal

Mello, J.A. (2006). Strategic human resource management, Thomson South western, USA

Maslow, A.(1954). Maslow’s Need hierarchy theory, Motivation and personality, New York Harper

Nograšek, J. (2011). Change management as a critical success factor in e-government     implementation, Business Systems Research, 2(2): 13.

Needham, D. (2012). Business for Higher Awards. Oxford, England: Heinemann.

Pfeffer, S. (1995). Workplace learning: Its potential and limitations. Education & Training 37(5), 20-27

Sharma, S. (2015). Diversification of human work force, The Journal of Human Sciences

Smollan, R.(2011).Engaging with resistance to change, University Of Auckland Business            Review, 13(1): 12-15.

Weiner, B. (2009). A theory of organizational readiness for change, Implementation Science,     4(67).

 

 

Project Management (Quality Implementation and Improvement of New Convex Restaurant)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Name

Project Management (Quality Implementation and Improvement of New Convex Restaurant)

Professor

Affiliation

Date

 

 

 

Objectives and Stakeholders

In the streets, people need to feed and also take some food with them. Therefore, food outlets and cafes play a great role in sorting out those who do not cook in their homes. The new convex restaurant has come to save the people, and it will supply all the requirements that anyone who need to dish or take food with them wherever they are going. It can accommodate 150-200 customers at a go, most importantly, it is operational during the day and night throughout the week. The primary objectives of this enterprise are to serve those busy personnel who hardly get home to cook, and they need quality food. Therefore, New Convex ensures the services and goods paid for are delivered with no compromise. Few stakeholders work in close collaboration with this restaurant, a branding company that provides adverts about the restaurant and several private financiers who have contributed to rising of the restaurant.

Quality Metrics of the project

Based on the requirements of the customers and the project’s standards, the following parameters have been created for the New Convex restaurant. Mainly they have been reviewed using the feedback that the customers have given out.

Firstly, the number of workers in the restaurant should be adequate to ensure the customers get the services they require efficiently. There are times when the customers are many, for example, in the morning, evening and also during the time when shifts are interchanged. Secondly, there is the use of credit cards. Therefore, there is no need to carry cash whenever one wants to use our services. Also, the rooms are spacious and ever fresh therefore there are no issues of stuffiness.

 

 

Quality requirements.

To give quality services to the clients, the workers ranging from the cashier to the manager should have the customer’s interest at heart. Employing people who have undergone a hospitality course is important because there will be numerous cases of return clients. Proper branding should be done to attract more customers from other streets in the town.

Quality requirements in the project management plan

Some steps ensure the standards, quality control of activities and quality roles and responsibility are met. The services that thus enterprise deliver should meet the agreed-upon standards; the processes are performed well as documented, and any mishap in the line of duty is dealt with appropriately. All the meals should be professionally cooked to meet the customer’s taste. Mostly, the quality should also coincide with the price; it should be realistic.

Quality Assurance Audit

Firstly, rules and regulations audit would be the first step towards ensuring quality is maintained. Documents and posters that are required by the law and other health policies should be well outlined. Accident records should be preserved to ensure new staff learns the risks of some locations to avoid making loopholes.

The facilities that can cause injuries if not well maintained should frequently be checked, hygiene in the restaurant should be at its best, the floors should be free of  the obstacle. The building should undergo the exact contracting process and errors rectified. Auditing should also review on the lighting and parking whether they meet the estimated standards.

Food safety is the main issue that the audit should aim. Managerial steps should be taken to ensure that the food given to the customers is safe. Cases of food poisoning can cause a lot of negative impacts on the restaurant; such errors should be avoided by working with HACCP. It helps to establish consistent food preparation processes and most importantly quality control strategies.

How variance was identified

Variance on business projects is the difference between the actual results after the expenditure and the expected results as calculated. To discover the difference, testing the project can be of great use, or else use the results of a similar project that have been put functioning. To ensure that the results do not frustrate the stakeholders and the project manager, realistic objectives are set and goods initial funds are put in place.

Relevance of project management lifecycle

The objectives should be well outlined in the initial phase; the shareholders can join to come up with absolute aims that will remain relevant in this stage. While planning the strategies in the second period, it is important to work on the guidelines of the objectives. Resources, finances, risks, suppliers will be taken care of at this level well. Execution phase ensures that the objectives are stated in building deliverable, monitoring and controlling. Finally, project closure and completion is the last stage in the cycle of project management. It ensures that the processes remain relevant to the set objectives of the project.

Project Outcome Review

Quality management is the most vital process in the entire process of project management. The results varied from the estimated figures positively. That is, there was a slight difference that came in the real results that were a bit higher than expected. Uncertainties were reduced by increasing the estimated values and expectations which gave an allowance to the final value.

Lesson Learnt

In project management that a businessman carries out, there are some lessons that they learn, and they help them to make better decisions in future projects. In this case, I learned that quality management is the most important step if one wants to have a successful project. The quality of the services one want to offer should coincide with the objectives stated.

Project Management

Introduction

Most of engineering projects involve large amount of funds. The funds are normally provided either from the government or non-government institutions. Different projects involve different engineering aspects that are normally evaluated. The level of evaluations required depends on the amount of data available and the nature of safety aspects involved. Additionally, different engineering aspects drives different engineering decisions. The engineering decisions can only be taken after evaluating their cost-benefit analysis (O’Brien and Ponticelli, n.d.).

The cost benefit analysis is undertaken to understand the cost implications for each of the decisions that are valid for a given scenario. As such, a lot of data is gathered and the related cost vs benefits computed. In this way, it becomes easy to visually understand the cost of different options that can be used to solve a single problem. A similar case is presented in this paper.

In this project, the cost benefit analysis is undertaken to evaluate different decisions. So far, there are four options that are considered valid for the project. Each options is evaluated separately in relation to the data already gathered. The final decision on which option to settle will then be determined by the top management (O’Brien and Ponticelli, n.d.).

The project involved flood mitigation options that are considered for a given road. At the moment the road is considered to suffer from regular floods which not only force the users to divert to other roads but also increases the repair costs for the concerned government agencies. There are different options that are available for solving the problem at hand (O’Brien and Ponticelli, n.d.).

The first option involves the zero costs on the agency side. As such, the road will continually be closed on such periods when floods occur. The users will then be forced to make long detours. The second options involves construction of a low-level causeway that will reduce the level of flooding. The second option will experience occasional floods although it will be cheaper to build. The third option involves the construction of a medium-level causeway that will cope with all but worst floods. This options is considered to be costly although it will eliminate most of the floods on the road. The fourth and final decision will involve construction of a high-level bridge. This option will eliminate occurrence of any form of floods on the road. It is however, considered to be costly and also time consuming. The selection of a given option to execute for the case at hand requires further analysis on the data available in order to determine the best possible way forward (O’Brien and Ponticelli, n.d.).

Data required for decision making

The options mentioned in the previous section can only be quantified and analyzed when there is relevant data available. Some of the data may cut across a number of options which will make it easier for comparison. The data required should relate to both the users and the agency utilization and underlying costs (O’Brien and Ponticelli, n.d.).

The road utilization data is considered to be the most vital data that is required for this kind of analysis. There is a variety of road data that can assist to understand the engineering aspects that should be incorporated in the final decision. There is need to understand the nature of the traffic that is normally involved on the vehicle. The traffic involves the total amount of the vehicles that use the road per day. An average amount of vehicles that use the road will assist to understand the level of inconveniences that arise as a result of the diversions experienced if option one is undertaken. Additionally, the types of the vehicles that are using the road can also be considered. Different types of vehicles have different occupancy levels. This implies that the determination of the type of vehicles that normally use the vehicle can assist to understand the total population that is affected by the road in case of floods per day. Further different vehicle are associated with different maintenance costs. As such, the impact of the road on the maintenance cost of the vehicles can equally be analyzed (Kuster et al., n.d.).

The other engineering aspects that are considered critical in determining the final decision include the trip length and the average speed of different vehicles using the road. The trip length defines the time that is taken to go through the road on a normal day. The time spent on the road can then be compared to the time that can be taken when a diversion is taken. As such, the extra amount of fuel that is used when a diversion is taken can assist to know the additional costs that are involved as a result of the unavailability of the road. It is important to note that the average trip length also depends on the average speed that different vehicles have on the road (Kuster et al., n.d.).

Perhaps the lifespan of the road can also be important in making the final decision. The lifespan defines the number of years that the road was designed for. As such, an evaluation on the period of utilization remaining against the benefits that have already been accrued from the project is paramount. The road can easily be considered for an upgrade when it has already provided the anticipated level of utilization. However, new roads may require further analysis to determine the amount of money that will have been wasted as a result of early demolition (Kuster et al., n.d.).

It can also be noted that the number of crashes that are experienced during the floods is critical in evaluating the final decision. This is the engineering aspects that considers the safety aspects related to the floods that occur on the road. The crashes can then give a hint on the number of lives that have been lost on the road as a result of its current status. It can further provide an idea on the level of vehicle damages that have been experienced as a result of the status of the road. These aspects are considered critical in evaluating the best option that can be undertaken to not only reduce the safety related incidents on the road but also reduce the maintenance costs that are incurred both by the road users and the agency.

Cost Benefit Technique

The project can further be evaluated using the cost benefit technique. The cost benefit analysis considers all the costs implied against the benefits before selecting the final decision. As such, all the necessary data that had been outlined in the previous section will be analyzed and their costs and benefits realized before selecting the final decision. It can further be noted that the model computes the incremental costs and benefits for the project in relation to the different options available. As such, the costs and the benefits associated with each option are compared with the base-case option. This clearly explains why the BCR is considered to be a sum of all non-capital costs and benefits divided by the underlying capital expenditure (Karlson, 2015).

For instance the cost of implementing the second option is evaluated on the basis of the maintenance costs that are anticipated to be incurred every year by the agency if the option is implemented. As such, any resulting repair costs that are projected after the construction and also the maintenance costs are included in the final decision. The decision made therefore tends to focus not only on the capital costs that will be incurred to implement the option but also the future costs that will arise as a result of the same option. The technique will also evaluate the benefits that will be accrued on the road users and the safety standards associated with the option. This can be measured in terms of the frequency of the diversions that are incurred in the course of the year. Since the average utilization parameters of the road are known it then becomes easier to compute the actual costs involved. Note that the second option involves the construction of a low-level causeway that will mitigate the frequency of the floods experienced on the road. The number of crashes reported in a year can also be used to analyze the benefits accrued from this option. This implies that the BCR will focus on the comparison of the number of crashes reported before and after the implementation of the option. Similar analysis will be done for both option 3 and option 4. The results obtained from the BCR analysis will then be used to determine the viability of the options (Karlson, 2015).

Discussion on the CBA results

There are four techniques that were used to evaluate the viability of the three options proposed for the flood mitigation. The techniques were applied on the data already gathered and computed for the project. The four techniques used are the benefit-cost ratio, the net present value, and the internal rate of return and the first year rate of return. An excel spread sheet was used to compute the values and the graphical presentation for each of the parameters associated with the results of the techniques (Karlson, 2015).

The output measures have been calculated for each of the options used in the project. The basic parameters including the rate of discount, the projected growth rate of the traffic of the vehicle, the capital cost of each of the options and the share of LCV and HV were adjusted accordingly before the start of the computation. The output measures for each option was compared and then rated in reference to the other output measures. The following graphs can be used to show the result of the different output measures that were evaluated for the project. Discussion on the results of the output measures is then provided in reference to each of the decision options;

Figure 1 Results for NPV

As can be seen from the above results the net present value of option 1 has a net effect of a positive of 1265. This implies that the benefits that can be accrued from this options exceed the costs that can be incurred in implementing it in relation to the current road conditions. The road agency costs however have a negative NPV value. This can be attributed to the fact that the costs are considered to reduce the value of the net present value. The total net road agency costs had a value of -729 against the benefits associated with the current traffic levels of 1994. This was achieved after using a discounting rate of 4% (Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses, 2015).

The second options similarly has negative NPV for the road agency costs. The road amount of costs incurred however for the second options are more negative as compared to the first option. This can be associated with the extra costs that will be incurred in constructing an middle level causeway to mitigate the floods on the road. The value of the NPV for the road agency costs is -1563 against the benefits that are having a value of 5982. The net effect on the NPV for this option therefore evaluates to a positive value. It can however be mentioned that the NPV for the second option is more positive when compared to the first option (Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses, 2015).

The third option has a negative agency costs in the value of -6823 against the benefits that are valued at 7976. The high costs that are incurred in this option is as a result of the high costs that are anticipated if the high level causeway is constructed. There are many benefits that are associated with this option. Unfortunately there are equally many costs that are involved in implanting the option. In overall the NPV technique can be used to recommend the second option since has the largest marginal benefits compared to the rest of the options explored in this project (Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses, 2015).

The following figure can be used to illustrate the results that were obtained from the output measures of the Benefit-Cost ratio technique;

Figure 2 BCR output measures

The BCR equally was used to evaluate the options valid for the project. As can be seen from the project the benefits that can be accrued from the second options are more compare to the costs involved in relation to the options that are valid for this project. The first option has a ratio of 2.74, the third option has a BCR value of 1.17 while the second option has a BCR value of 3.83. In relation to the BCR technique the second option is again recommended for implementation as a result of the ratio of the benefits involved in relation to the underlying costs (Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses, 2015).

The following figure can be used to illustrate the output measures of the internal rate of return;

Figure 3 Illustration of IRR results

The above results indicate that the second option has the highest internal rate of return in comparison with other options valid for this project. This further implies that the second options has a return rate on the capital costs incurred in the implementation much higher compared to the rest of the options. The third options is noted to have the least rate of return on the capital that is invested in implementing the options. As such, this technique again recommends the implementation of the second option if there is desire to have return on the investment much earlier (Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses, 2015).

The following figure can be used to illustrate the results of the output measures obtained for the first year rate of return technique;

Figure 4 Illustration of the results for FYRR

In reference to the results shown above the second option is considered to have the highest rate of return in the course of the first year after its implementation in relation to other options explored in this analysis. The second option is capable of returning 16.6% of the costs incurred for the first year only. This is the highest rate of return that is realized on the project in regard to the other options being explored on this project. The FYRR therefore recommends the implementation of the second option since it has the highest rate of return for the first year after its implementation (Barker and Cole, n.d.).

Sensitivity analysis

It can be noted that the changes in the different parameters in regard to the three options explored in the project indicate that the second option surpasses all other options. As such, the second option is highly recommended for implementation when a careful consideration is made on the results obtained (Barker and Cole, n.d.).

Conclusion

The paper has explored different options that are available for implementation on the mitigation aspects of the flooding currently experienced on the road. The paper has provided discussion on the different parameters that are relevant for evaluation on this project. Both the engineering and financial aspects have been considered in the decision. The cost benefit analysis is undertaken to understand the cost implications for each of the decisions that are valid for a given scenario. As such, a lot of data is gathered and the related cost vs benefits computed. In this way, it becomes easy to visually understand the cost of different options that can be used to solve a single problem. A similar case was presented in this paper.

The paper also presented the cost benefit analysis to evaluate different decisions. So far, there are four options that were considered valid for the project. Each options was evaluated separately in relation to the data already gathered. In reference to the output measured results the second options was highly recommended for implementation.

References

Barker, S. and Cole, R. (n.d.). Brilliant project management. 1st ed.

Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses. (2015). 1st ed. Washington, D.C.: United States. Office of the Assistant Secretary of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

Karlson, L. (2015). Corporate Value Creation. 1st ed. New York: Wiley.

Keane, P. and Caletka, A. (2015). Delay Analysis in Construction Contracts. 1st ed. Hoboken: Wiley.

Kuster, J., Huber, E., Lippmann, R., Schmid, A., Schneider, E., Witschi, U. and Wüst, R. (n.d.). Project Management Handbook. 1st ed.

Milošević, D. and Martinelli, R. (n.d.). Project management toolbox. 1st ed.

O’Brien, W. and Ponticelli, S. (n.d.). Computing in civil engineering 2015. 1st ed.

Project 2015. (2002). 1st ed. Albany: New York State Office for the Aging.

Rossberg, J. (n.d.). Agile project management using Team Foundation Server 2015. 1st ed.

Walker, A. (n.d.). Project management in construction. 1st ed.

Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet: A Look Into the Life of The Founder of the American School for the Deaf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet: A Look Into the Life of The Founder of the American School for the Deaf

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On the 10th of December in the year 1787, Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet was born in the county of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Peter Wallace Gallaudet and Jane Hopkins both of which have Huguenot origins and who have deep roots in the Protestant religion (Barnard, 2010, p. 9). The eldest child of twelve children, he was often described as a skinny child who suffered from numerous health problems, which mainly stems from weak lungs. He also experienced nervous attacks, a frequent bout of nightmares and low self-esteem. These health problems prevented Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet from enjoying his childhood with his younger siblings and friends with rigorous physical activities, which was something he seem to prefer. However, it did not prevent him from educating himselfboth in academics and religion.

Their family soon moved to Hartford, Connecticut where he enrolled to and attended grammar school. At the age of fourteen, Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet took the entrance exam at Yale University, where his high test scores qualified him to start as a sophomore during his first year at the university. He excelled academically and was well-liked both by his professors and his peers. By 1805 he earned his Bachelor’s degree at the top of his class. In 1808, by the age of twenty-one, he received his Master’s degree (NWE, 2013, p. 4).

His fragile health and his inability to decide what he wanted to do with his life led to his becoming a law apprentice, which he quit after a year due to the smoke from the pipes used by the lawyers and their clients. This made it difficult for him to breathe. He was then offered a teaching position at Yale which he enjoyed, as he was well-liked by his students, but he eventually had to quit, again due to his lung problem. Thinking that travel and fresh air might help with his lung condition, he decided to try his luck asa businessman, travelling and doing sales which took him to Ohio and even as far as Kentucky. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet sold his merchandise during the day. During the evenings, he was invited to stay at the houses of families he met during his travels. During his stay with these families, he would be seen to teach the children geography, history and stories taken from the Bible. This experience, together with his strong religious background, inspired him to pursue training in theology (Enders, 2017, p. 5).

When he came back, he attended Andover Theological Seminary where he studied a two-year course after which, in 1814, he became a preacher. He was offered a job as a minister, but the nervous breakdowns which he suffered since he was a child, prevented him from accepting the post. He decided to go back to Connecticut for a visit and stayed at his parents’ house where he was able to observe the young daughter of their neighbor named Alice Cogswell, who is both deaf and mute (Enders, 2017, p. 5).

Based on stories told, Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet saw that while his younger brothers and sisters were playing, they excluded this young girl from joining them. Trying to investigate the reason why, he found out that Alice Cogswell was deaf and mute. He then tried to communicate with her by pointing to his hat and writing out the letters H-A-T on the dirt which Alice understood. This inspired him to try to help educate her more which led him to meet Alice’s father Mason Cogswell, who is a wealthy doctor (Enders, 2017, p. 5).

Appreciating what Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet is trying to do for his daughter, Mason Cogswell encouraged him to study methods on how to teach deaf students, which at that time were only offered in Europe as there were still no schools that taught deaf children in the United States. Mason Cogswell then financed Gallaudet’s travel to Europe where he first travelled to England and met with the Braidwood family (NWE, 2013, 8)..

The Braidwood family was known for their various schools in London, England and Edinburgh, Scotland,that taught deaf students the Braidwood method, which focused on the oral method of education wherein the students were taught and expected to master both lip reading and speech. Although the Braidwood family was not too keen on sharing their method with Gallaudet, they finally agreed to do so but only if Gallaudet promised to become their apprentice for three years, keep the knowledge to himself and not share whatever he learned  with anyone else, and pay the exorbitant fees they requested in order to learn. With Gallaudet’s funds running low and not really convinced that the Braidwood method is really as effective as the Braidwood family claimed it to be, Gallaudet declined and prepared to go back to the United States (NWE, 2013, 8).

However, before he had the opportunity to leave, Gallaudet was able to meet AbbéRoch-Ambroise Sicard, the head of the Institution Nationale des Sourds-Muetsá Paris or the French Royal Institute for the Deaf, together with two of its deaf faculty members namely, Jean Massieu and Laurent Clerc through a public demonstration of their method which they called the French model (DHMS, 2017, 4). The demonstration showed that while Sicard communicated with the audience through his voice, he asked the same questions to Clerc through sign, which Clerc then responded to by writing out fluent and comprehensive answers on a chalk board. Amazed by the demonstration, Gallaudet approached the group. Upon learning the reason why Gallaudet was in England, Sicard offered to bring Gallaudet to Paris to study at his school for free.

Here, Gallaudet learned the school’s method of using manual communication. While Sicard himself taught Gallaudet the teaching methodology of the manual method of communication, both Massieu and Clerc taught him sign language. After learning all he can from the school, Gallaudet decided it was time to go back to the United States. Laurent Clerc offered to come back with him to the United States not only to help establish the school, but also to help educate the students as one of the school’s teaching staff.

The return trip to the United States kept Gallaudet and Cogswell busy as they tried to raise funds from donations from rich private benefactors and get the approval of the Connecticut Legislature to establish the first public school that would educate the deaf people in the United States. With the help of Laurent Clerc, who was the best example of what education could do for person who is deaf, the approval for the incorporation and the donations easily came through thereby establishing the Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons on April 15, 1817. The institution is now American School for the Deaf (Barnard, 2010, p. 93).

The school’s seven students who were the first to enroll included Alice Cogswell, and Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet not only became its founder, but was also its first principal. Soon it also accepted students who can hear, but would like to learn how to do sign language. In 1818, the school was visited and recognized by then President James Monroe which led to a government grant of a three-story building on a large piece of land for the growing number of students of the school.

On August 1821, Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet married a deaf student, Sophia Fowler, who graduated from his school. When the couple had their first child, Sophia was worried that the child might also be deaf like her, upon testing. However, it was seen that the child was able to hear. The couple’s seven other children were also able to hear normally.

Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet’s direction, his supervision of the school as its principal, the public appearances he made in order to promote and educate the people about the importance of teaching people who are deaf and mute, his writings which focused on theology for children and the youth, as well as archives regarding the education of the deaf and mute, made a great impact on making the school widely renowned in the United States. In 1830, after thirteen years of being a teacher and the school principal, Gallaudet retired due to health conditions brought about by his lung problem. He declined other offers to join other universities as a faculty member or lead other schools for special needs and devoted his time to raising his children and writing books for children. He took care of the people who were suffering from mental illness by serving as a chaplain for an insane asylum and a county jail (EWB, 2017, p. 5). Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet passed away on September 10, 1851 at his home in Hartford, Connecticut at the age of sixty-three (EWB, 2017, p. 5).

Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet’s fame is not only due to the fact that he was instrumental in establishing the American School for the Deaf in the United States, but also due to the legacy that he left behind through his works and through his family. The numerous books he wrote which focused on educating the children and the youth, as well as those which he wrote in order to inform and educate the people about the importance of educating everyone including those who are deaf, mute and the blind. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet also had the vision to see and understand that the French method of communicating with the deaf and mute which was being demonstrated by Sicard and her group would be groundbreaking in terms of communication, to the point that American Sign Language (ASL) has been officially recognized as an autonomous language in the 1960s.

There were works done by Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet’s family: in particular, his two sons Thomas Gallaudet, who was an Episcopal priest who also worked with deaf people; and especially his youngest Edward Miner Gallaudet who followed in his father’s footsteps by establishing the first college for deaf people and serving as the college’s president for forty-six years. The college which was later renamed in 1986 as the Gallaudet University, after his father, now offers education for grade school deaf children through the Kendall Demonstration Elementary School, and for middle school and high school through the Model Secondary School for the Deaf, both of which could be found inside the Gallaudet University Campus.

 

 

 

 

 

References

Barnard, H. (2010). Tribute to Gallaudet. Massachusetts: Applewood Books.

“Gallaudet, Thomas Hopkins.” Katalin Enders. Retrieved April 9, 2017, from

https://www.learningtogive.org/resources/gallaudet-thomas-hopkins

Disability History Museum Staff (DHMS) (2017). Education: Essay – Rev. Thomas

Gallaudet. Retrieved April 9, 2017, from

http://www.disabilitymuseum.org/dhm/edu/essay.html?id=37

Encyclopedia of World Biography (EWB) (2017). “Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet.” Retrieved

April 8, 2017, from http://www.encyclopedia.com/people/social-sciences-and-law/education-biographies/thomas-hopkins-gallaudet#3404702365

New World Encyclopedia (NWE) (2013). Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet. Retrieved April 9,

2017 from http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Thomas_Hopkins_Gallaudet

 

Inequality and Poverty

Name:

University:

Tutor:

Date:

Inequality and Poverty

As the contemporary world enjoys vast advancements in almost every sectors there is still that portion of the overall populations within nations that still experiences extreme inadequacies despite the achievements gained. In particular, this is overly linked to the economic imbalances that have in turn resulted in high poverty rates amongst the less privileged. In this vein, it is quite evident that despite the generated economic growths, the gap between the rich and the poor continue to widen (Keeley). Basically, this is a clear indicator that the achieved economic growth has never been fairly shared. In this regard, poverty and as a major social challenge in the modern world is overly contributed by unequal distribution of national wealth particularly in the distribution of national resources.

Typically, inequality by all aspects is regarded as the major cause of persistent poverty rates. Particularly, income inequality in the modern world has rendered majority incapable of meeting their basic needs. In the United States, for instance, the majority comprises of the middle class and working people (Keeley). Basically, this does not necessarily imply that the people are satisfied with their current status. As it is relatively easy for the poor to become people of means the opposite is true. This typically implies that any sort of economic changes within a short period of time may have significant changes within the society. For instance, economic recessions experienced over the times have had a profound impact both on the poor and the rich with the former being the most affected.

The proliferation of poverty rates have commonly been attributed to the economic inconsistencies and the fact that the available opportunities have as well unequally distributed. Based on the governmental classification of income classes, the middle class and in extreme cases poor families are basically those categories of incomes whereby the families find it quite difficult to survive without serious problems. In this regard and based on their economic status in the overall sense, such families are placed in great risks especially when faced with any sort of economic crisis, for instance, sickly family member and or an injury at work (Yates). This, however, does not generally imply the essence of families failing to meet such basic needs like food, shelter, and healthcare but also the ability to embark on long-term programs that in the long run cushions them from such situations.

In this point of view, the difference in income amongst the populations has enormous influences on several ways that do not necessarily center on the economic status of the people but their overall welfare in the actual sense. It this vein, it is highly linked to such factors that promote illiteracy levels amongst the less privileged, infant mortality, homicides, high levels of incarcerations and to an extent harsher sentences, teenage births, mental illness including drug and alcohol abuse and social immobility amongst other social ills in the society (Marcuse). In return, the effects generated by such inadequacies amongst the populations in a definite area do not only affect individual welfare but also the overall well-being of the society, that is, the country in general. As a result, this negatively influences the factors that promote the economic status of the given country and that in return also become a challenge to the economy itself, for instance, life expectancies (Marcuse). In overall, a healthy working nation has well-balanced incomes that in turn promote the overall economy by eliminating all the challenges involved.

 

 

Works cited

Keeley Brian. Income Inequality: The Gap between Rich and Poor. OECD Insights, OECD

Marcuse Peter. “Poverty or Inequality: Does It Matter?” Inequality. 2015. Web. 9 May. 2017 <http://inequality.org/why-economic-language-matters/&gt;

Publishing: Paris, 2015. Print.

Yates Michael. “Poverty and Inequality in the Global Economy.” Monthly Review. 2004. Web. 9 May. 2017 <https://monthlyreview.org/2004/02/01/poverty-and-inequality-in-the-global-economy/&gt;

 

 

 

 

 

Tuberculosis Transmission Among Healthcare Workers

Tuberculosis Transmission Among Healthcare Workers

Name of the student

Institution Affiliation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

The journal that was selected in this case was the BioMed Central Public Journal. The reason as to why this journal was chosen was based on the fact that this journal has been prepared by highly-qualified and experienced writers who have a wide range of experience in the field of medicine(Tudor et al., 2014). Therefore, by using this journal, there is a high possibility that the right information that is highly reliable will be utilized. The criteria to be used in submitting the journal will be based on the quality of the journal as well as the impact factor.

Abstract

  Tuberculosis Among Health Care Workers (HCW) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

This research paper main title will be Tuberculosis Among Health Care Workers (HCW) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The reason as to why this title was used is based on the fact that there has been an increase in the number of tuberculosis cases among healthcare workers in KwaZulu hospitals(Tudor et al., 2014).

Research Steps/Problem Statement

The problem that this peer-reviewed journal aims to address is the increase in the number of tuberculosis transmission among healthcare workers in a hospital setting. Apart from this, another problem that this nursing journal has pinpointed and aims to address is the poor handling of patients who have tested positive for tuberculosis.

Purpose of the Project

The goal of the project is to address the reasons behind the increase in the number of nosocomial tuberculosis transmission among healthcare workers. Also, the project aims to devise ways of combating the never-ending increase of tuberculosis in hospitals among healthcare workers. Since the transmission of new tuberculosis cases leads to the devising of new modes of treatments, this project also aims at minimizing the costs incurred in the treatment procedures.

Research Questions

The initiation and implementation of this research is to address the increase in the number of TB cases among healthcare workers. With this in mind, this research project aims to ask, address, and answer the following questions.

-What is the main reason as to why the cases of TB transmission among healthcare workers is high?

-How can these cases of nosocomial transmissions be reduced?

-Among the health workers that attend to these patients, who are mostly affected? Is it nurses, laboratory technicians, or clinical officers?

-Is the transmission due to negligence or poor handling of patients?

-Among the affected patients, are there cases of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis?

-What is the level of mortality among the affected patients?

Hypothesis

With the main aim of this peer-reviewed journal been to formulate ways of minimizing the level of TB transmission in the hospitals or any medical-oriented facility, formulating a hypothesis is of the essence. This journal will be based on the notion that; when the right measures are put in place to address the topic at hand, there is a high possibility that the cases of TB transmission will be minimized accordingly.

Methodology

Research methodologies are usually grouped into quantitative and qualitative methods(Lewis-Beck, Bryman, & Liao, 2004). Both of these methods play a crucial role the overall collection and usage of data used for research purposes. In this journal, the methodology that has been used to gather information is quantitative methodology. The notion behind this argument can be based on the fact that, unlike qualitative methodology where data is collected through participant observation, the data gathered in this case has been done via data gathering and estimation. As a matter of fact, the researchers used chart reviews from three different hospitals as well as performed multivariate and bivariate analyses by using Poisson Multilevel mixed approach(Tudor et al., 2014).

Project Implementation Steps

For this project to identify the underlying problems and design ways of solving them, it will be of the essence to formulate a well-detailed guide that will help us in implementing the project. The implementation steps to be followed will be as follows;

Infrastructure Preparation

In this step, the methods and tools to be used to gather information will be assessed and grouped into different categories depending on their urgency.

Consult with the Hospital

Since the study mainly involves interacting with nurses, doctors, and patients in a hospital setting, it is evident that we will require permission to interview the medics and the patients. This will only be possible if the target hospital allows us to use their facility for information gathering purposes.

Staff Training

When it comes to gathering information, employing the right people to get the information is an important factor in any given research. In the case at hand, the group that will be mandated with gathering information will be trained so as to ensure that the required and accurate information has been obtained as requested.

Information and Data Gathering

With the staff members trained, the next step will be to gather information. This will be the most crucial stage since the information obtained from this step will be the determinant of the research outcome. Apart from this, the results obtained will be used to compile the final report.

Project Implementation

The final step will be the project implementation process. At this stage, all the steps mentioned above will be brought into one place and implemented one at a time. For example, it at this juncture that data gatherers will be sent out the target hospital to gather the information.

Results

A total of 1,313 medical charts were and documented. Out of this charts, a total of 112 charts were positive for TB. From these charts, a total of 112 healthcare workers (HCWs) were tested positive for TB. Thirty-six of them were cured while 13 of them succumbed to the disease. The remaining 33 were placed under medication.

From the results obtained, the majority of the infected patients had a history of working in TB admission wards. The incidence of tuberculosis was among health workers working in this prone environments was two-fold greater as compared to the rate of transmission in the general population. This basically confirmed that nosocomial tuberculosis transmission was a result of poor handling of patients especially those admitted to the wards.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conclusion

Cases of tuberculosis transmission among medical personnel have been on the rise in the recent years. This form of increase has been attributed to various factors with the most common ones been negligence, poor handling of patients and the lack of proper education both on the patients and the medics side. From the information covered in this project, it is evident that if the right measures are put into place as recommended, the cases of tuberculosis transmission will be reduced. This project will have a positive impact on the overall hospital setting especially in hospitals that handle tuberculosis patients. As a matter of fact, more ways on how to address these patients will be devised. Apart from this, it will be easier for the medical staff to isolate multi-drug resistant tuberculosis-infected patients from those suffering from mild tuberculosis. The rate of mortality seen in HCWs will be minimized as well if this paper is to be adhered to accordingly.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Lewis-Beck, M., Bryman, A., & Liao, T. (2004). The Sage encyclopedia of social science research methods (1st ed., p. 896). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.

Tudor, C., Van der Walt, M., Margot, B., Dorman, S., Pan, W., Yenokyan, G., & Farley, J. (2014). Tuberculosis among health care workers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a retrospective cohort analysis. BMC Public Health, 14(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-891

ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE

 

 

 

 

ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE

 

 

Student’s  Name:

 

 

Code&Course name

Professor’s name

University

City, State

Date

 

 

Environmental Change

There is dependably a continuous change between the environment and human activities. This is alluded to as co-advancement and co-adjustment. Hence, human activities have repercussions on the community they live in. The environment likewise impacts human activities. Regular catastrophes, such as storms and tremors drive individuals to act. These normal elements can either be created by human activity purposely or unconsciously, which results in human behavior having to adjust to another circumstance. Consequently, humansare now more vulnerable to changes in the environment than ever before.

For instance, the continuous atmospheric temperature rise leads to the destruction of the ozone layer, thus, causing climate change. This change, if not precisely managed by everybody, it might jeopardize the economy, health, national security, and societies. Consequently, global warming may arise. Global warming alludes to a dynamic increase in temperature of the earth and its seas; a change that is said to be responsible forclimate change (Wuebbles, Chitkara, and Matheny 04, p 568). For this reason, climate change is one of the greatest environmental and world crisis today. It has upset individuals’ lives by meansdestructive climatic conditions like, surges and dry season leading to numerous deaths.

Global warming has been classified as a major environmental issue, especially over the past few decades. Reijnders (2016, p 8) defines global warming as a process wherebythe Earth’s average surface temperature increases due to by increased emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Global warming is happening due to the enhanced greenhouse effect, deforestation and agricultural sector. Global warming can bring impacts to the environment and society; affect human health and causes changes in the ecosystems.

It is for this reason that many countries including USA have been faced with quite a number of weather havocs. For example, the storm that engulfed the east coast in early 2014 is one such occurrence. The snow storm greatly affected lives within and around the east coast. The snow accumulating to close to 12 inches, affected the lives of people by altering their businesses and social lives. Havoc was also experienced in the west where life came to a standstill. In the mild south, a total of 750000 homes and businesses lacked power (Zhang et al. 2014, p 174). At the same time, 6500 flights were cancelled as reported by FlightAware.com. The storm affected 2 states, with 18 deaths reported. Movement was minimal as people kept off the snow covered streets. Festivities such as the winter celebration at Lake Placid in New York were cancelled. The snowing was far too dangerous a d disruptive. The US has also experienced unexpected dry conditions. For instance, there were bizarre weather conditions in early 2014 around California which experienced abnormally high temperatures (Zhang et al. 2014, p 174).

In a similar occurrence, drought affected California and a greater part of the west with some places experiencing wild fires. For instance, Oregon, a place expected to have wet conditions at that time experienced two wild fires. For this reasons, states should actively be involved in preparing the people for the adverse conditions and possibly prevent the expected effects. For instance, the authorities can plan on thawing the ice on the roads and make them passable. The weather forecast department should also give adequate and accurate predictions to prepare the people (Boersma 2016, p. 90). Furthermore, businesses activities and manufacturing plants should be checked to make sure they do not affect the environmental trends.

Countries should be held accountable for their contribution to climate change. Regulations should be put in place to make sure that countries do not exceed a particular contribution on the total carbon print (Aguilar-Fenollosa and Jacas 06, p 43). With this, states are going to be more responsible on how they manufacture their products and conduct business. They will put in place environmental laws that will help curb the general impacts on the environment. However, it should also be considered that the sky is expansive and countries do not have their share of the sky enclosed to them.

With the increasing population, the world faces the eminent need for increased production of goods and services. Manufacturing plants will have to produce more. Agricultural practices will have to be advanced. The world is more likely to rely on Genetic modification. More machines will be used, more vehicles and consequently increased pollution and increase in greenhouse gasses (Adam and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 7). The global temperatures are likely to go very high making it very unhealthy for live. This is also coupled with depletion of the ozone layer leading to a penetration of UV rays that cause can cancer. To curb this, strict regulations should be put in place to keel the carbon print of various companies, industries and manufactures in check. People should also be encouraged to conserve the environment, for instance, use public transport means or bicycles instead or personal cars (Adam and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 9).

First, high amount of exhaust gasses released by cars and factories causes great harm to the environment. The most compelling motivation for a wide range of environmental pollution is the excessive amount of gasses, destructive to the earth, which is discharged by the different commercial enterprises. Prime amongst these gasses are C02, S02 and NH3 (Collins 2016, p 77). Obviously there are some more, and these are the fundamental destroyers of the ozone layer and the cause of the unnatural climate change.

In other terms, human activities have major effects in climate change through different ways. These ways, like the burning of fossil fuels, leads to a change in the atmosphere with regards to the levels of greenhouse gases, aerosols, and cloudiness (In Hough et al., 2015, p. 23) One of the major contributors to the climate change is the burning of fuels, which discharges carbon dioxide gas to the air. The greenhouse gases and small particles impact climate by transforming received solar radiation and departing infrared radiation that help in balancing the earth’s energy (Holtsmark, 2014). Altering the atmospheric composition or elements of these gases and aerosols can result in a warming or cooling of the earth’s climate. In 1750, there was the initiation of the industrial processes. This caused the warming effect of the climate as a result of the human activities (Reijnders, 2009). The human influence on climate during this period greatly surpasses the warming effects because of the recognized alterations in natural processes such as volcanic explosions and solar changes. This paper argues for the burning of fossil fuels as a major contributor to climate change.

Several scientists such as Schneider insist that the accelerated warming is brought by greenhouse gases that humans are releasing into the atmosphere (Markham 2009, p 65). Other scientists such as Richard Somerville argues that the cause of this temperature rise is because of human beings are transforming that greenhouse effect by adding to the air, gases that raise the natural amounts of these gases. These additions are mainly due to the burning of fossil fuels that include coal, oil, and natural gas (Collins 2016, p 67). The burning of these substances yields carbon dioxide, which directly causes the global warming.

Close second comes the deforestation. Everywhere throughout the world, forests are cleared for wood, farming and other different reasons. Deforestation causes real problems for one straightforward reason; it decreases the number of trees, which provide oxygen, eliminate carbon dioxide, and influence rainfall designs (In Valdés 2009, p 45). This is the significant motivation behind calls for tree ranch; it is to compensate for this misfortune.

Third,effluents are another by-product of commercial enterprises which postures danger to the environment. They include are released from tanning businesses, petroleum commercial enterprises, and chemical assembling plants. These businesses produces real waste, which are discharged straightforwardly into nearby streams without treatment, making waterways contaminated and hurting aquatic life (In Valdés 2009, p 89).

Similarly, some agricultural practices are destructive to the environment. For instance, overloading farms with fertilizers, overgrazing, and moving agribusiness are ruinous agricultural practices that degrade land, making soil disintegration that leads to silting in real waterways and repositories. Soil pollution is a nonstop cycle and it eventually prompts desertification and degradation of land by permitting the immediate activity of disintegration on cultivable land (Collins 2016, p87).

However, people arenot entirely to blame for this misfortune. Earth itself causes environmental issues, too. While environmental degradation is regularly associated with human activities, the reality of the situation is that nature is continually evolving (In Valdés et al. p 90). With or without the impact of human activities, a couple of natural frameworks degrade to the point where they cannot support the life that should live there.

It is salient to know the details about the fossil fuels, and how their combustions are contributing to the rise in the earth’s temperature. The fossil fuels were created hundreds of millions of years back from the fossilizedvestiges of living things. The death and decomposition ofthese substances coupled with the gradual pressure and heat from the earth’s mantle consolidated the particle into strata of sedimentary rock(Reijnders, 2009). Such physical formation and biological formation lead to the production of different varieties of fossil fuels based on the types of plants and animals that were subjected to the decomposition. All thesefossil fuels produce carbon whenever they are burned. Specifically, coal has relatively the highest percentage of carbon as compared to gas and oil. The Union of Concerned Scientist states thatcoal is a major contributor towards global temperaturerise since it is the main source of electricity that is used by the power facilities (Adam and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 2014, p 64). The organization also notes that these power facilities are single largest sources of carbon dioxide. Every year, nearly 7 billion tons of carbons are discharged via the combustion of fossil fuels. Theactionof carbon with oxygen produces carbon dioxide. The amount that can be generated can be above 20 billion tons.

Moreover, the United Nations Framework Conventionon Climate Change reported that the averagetemperate of the surface of the earth has increased by 0.74 ° C from the late 1800s(Holtsmark, 2014). It is also projected to rise by additional 1.8 ° C to 4.0 ° C by the year 2100, which is a quick and extreme change if the essential steps are not taken(Holtsmark, 2014). The report indicates that the major reason for the mounting temperature is the extended period of industrialization. In other words, the burning of the constantly large amounts of gasoline, oil, coals and other adverse human activities,is the cause of the overwhelming high temperatures. Besides, regardless of no global warming in 10 years up to 2014 and the extreme low temperatures in 2007-2008, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and computer modelers still anticipate that there will be a catastrophic global warming in the coming century(Holtsmark, 2014). Global warming of the last century was 0.8 ° C, which is nearly immaterial as opposed to the size of more thanten global climate alterations in the last 15,000 years(Holtsmark, 2014).

Subsequently, due to the use of fossilfuels in the generationof energy, the amount of carbon in the air has increased significantly. This has led to the rise in the carbon dioxide abundance inthe atmosphere. Although the natural quantities of carbon dioxide have fluctuated from 180 to 300 parts per million (ppm), the levels are high today, hitting are around 400 ppm. This implies that level is 40% above the highest natural amounts over the last 800,000 years(Holtsmark, 2014).

Global warming can cause a few effects on the environment and the general public. Basically, the rising global temperatures will speed the dissolving of ice sheets and ice tops and cause the ocean levels to rise. Researchers anticipate an expansion in ocean levels worldwide because of the liquefying of two huge ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland (Markham 2009). In case global warming proceeds, the ocean levels are expected to rise to a higher level before the end of this century.

Consequently, the increase in temperature because of global warming has critical ramifications for human wellbeing. Rising temperatures will probably prompt increased air contamination, the spread of creepy crawly borne ailments, more successive and hazardous warmth waves. These changes posture genuine, and expensive dangers to general wellbeing of individuals. A large portion of the real impacts, for example, diarrhea, ill health, intestinal sickness and dengue are exceedingly sensitive to climate change and are required to compound as the climate changes (Adam and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 2014, p 98). Climate change influences the social and environmental determinants of health, for example, clean air, safe drinking water, and adequate nourishment and secure homes.

In summation, population increase comes with more pollution, which causes environmental change. This is a growing issue that requires a solution for the sake of the environment and its occupants. Environmental change has only become worse over the years and is only made worse with the further utilization of coal and fossil fuels. As a result, there are many causes of environmental changes, which include pollution, climate change, and global warming. Hence, scientists, governments and individuals must work together to overcome this threat.

 

 

 

Bibliography

Adam, J., & Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US). (May 15, 2014). What is the importance of climate model bias when projecting the impacts of climate change on land surface processes?. Biogeosciences, 11(10):2601–2622.

Aguilar-Fenollosa, E., & Jacas, J. A. (June 01, 2014). Can we forecast the effects of climate change on entomophagous biological control agents?. Pest Management Science, 70, 6, 853-859.

Boersma, M., Grüner, N., Tasso, S. N., Montoro, G. P. E., Peck, M. A., & Wiltshire, K. H. (January 01, 2016). Projecting effects of climate change on marine systems: is the mean all that matters?. Proceedings. Biological Sciences, 283, 1823.)

Collins, A. (2016). Contemporary security studies. Oxford, United Kingdom : Oxford University Press.

Holtsmark, B. (2014). A comparison of the global warming effects of wood fuels and fossil fuels taking albedo into account. GCB Bioenergy, 7(5), 984-997. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12200

In Hough, P., In Malik, S., Moran, A., & Pilbeam, B. (2015). International security studies: Theory and practice.
London ; New York : Routledge.

In Valdés, L., International Council for the Exploration of the Sea., North Pacific Marine Science Organization., & Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. (January 01, 2009). Effects of climate change on the world’s oceans: Proceedings of an ICES-PICES-IOC symposium held in Gijón, Spain 19-23 May 2008. Ices Journal of Marine Science, 66.

Markham, D 2009, “Global Warming Effects and Causes: A Top 10 List”, accessed on 31 May 2014, http://planetsave.com/2009/06/07/global-warming-effects-and-causes-a-top-10-list/

Meisner, J. (January 27, 2016). Anticipated effects of climate change on freshwater fishes and their habitat. Fisheries, 10-15.

Reijnders, L. (2009). Are forestation, bio-char and landfilled biomass adequate offsets for the climate effects of burning fossil fuels?. Energy Policy, 37(8), 2839-2841. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.03.047

Wuebbles, D. J., Chitkara, A., & Matheny, C. (December 01, 2014). Potential effects of climate change on global security. Environment Systems and Decisions : Formerly the Environmentalist, 34, 4, 564-577.

Zhang, Y., Guan, D., Jin, C., Wang, A., Wu, J., & Yuan, F. (January 15, 2014). Impacts of climate change and land use change on runoff of forest catchment in northeast China. Hydrological Processes, 28, 2, 186-196.

 

Software Engineering

 

 

 

 

 

Software Engineering

[Your Names]

[Name of your Institution]

[Date]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The functional requirements for software to manage a department are;

  • It should allow head of departments to create accounts for employees within the department
  • It should allow the head of department to view employee information
  • It should allow head of departments to send messages to all department members
  • It should allow head of department to view employees attendance on that department
  • It should allow the head of departments to assign incentives for employees who are performing well
  • It should allow the head of department to view, assign and manage department ‘s resources.
  • It should allow employees to update their information in their accounts
  • It should allow employee to view assigned resources and incentives
  • It should allow employees to view messages, news and notifications from head of department

The non-functional requirements of the system are;

  • It should implement information security such as information confidentiality, integrity and availability by allowing only legitimate staffs to access their accounts using the correct username and passwords.
  • It should be able to easily backup information stored in it so as to restore the system back to its previous state in case a natural disaster hits the areas on which the system is hosted or installed.
  • It should have high performance in such that various heads of departments can access the system and generate accurate and reliable reports without any errors.
  • In availability nonfunctional requirements, the system should have low mean time before failure where it should be online in more than 99.99% of its time so to be available to its users (Dennis, Wixom & Roth, 2009.).

Requirement documentation

The proposed department management system will be an online based system where head of departments will manage employees and resources within the department. On employees the head of department should be able to view employee attendance information, and give employees incentives bonus after they have evaluated the employees performance. On managing the department’s resources, the proposed system should allow the head of departments to view the departments’ resources, assign the resources to the employees within the department, and record the resources returned back to him or her if the resources are to be returned.

The proposed system will be a two tier architecture where it will have the database and the end user or the client interface where the user will be interacting with the system and accessing the database. On the first tier which is the database tier, it’s the end in which all the information within the system will be stored starting with the users credential’s to any other information that users will save in the system. This tier will be stored or save on the company’s main server or on any other hosting service provider’s servers as it will be accessed by the system users on the remotely or through the network on the second tier.  The second tier will be the client tier where all users of the system will be interacting with the system and the database. This tier will be accessed via the users’ browsers on their end user devices such as laptops and desktops as theinterface will be made  as a web base system so as it can be accessed remotely and concurrently by various users in the department regardless their location.

For the proposed system to be used by all users within the department regardless their level or experience on information systems, the user interfaces or the point of interaction will be developed with usability considerations which will be start by determining how the users will interact with the system.The interface of the proposed system will be made to have graphical user interface and menu driven interfaces.  For the graphical user interfaces the interaction between the user and the proposed system will be facilitated by graphics which will be command driven. Such as buttons, drop down menus and other graphics.  For menu driven interfaces the proposed system the interaction between the system and the users will be made by menus which will be made to be straight forward in a way that they any user regardless the level of knowledge in information system will be able to navigate through.  The system interfaces will be developed with consideration of usability where which will allow users to easily navigate through the system and complete their business processes without experiencing much difficulty.  Some of the usability requirements that the proposed system will have are;

  • The user interface such as color, font, and capitalization on every page should be consistent to help users to easily learn and use the system.
  • The user interfaces should be developed to offer informatory feedback to every user’s action such as clicking a done or cancel button so as the user may know that his or her commands have been successfully executed.
  • The system should have the capability to prevent errors where it should minimize the users input and maximize on areas that users select their choice from the list of choices provided.

Context model

The context model of the proposed department management system is as shown below;

The above context diagram shows the external entities that will be interacting with the proposed department management system which are the department staffs, human resource systems for accessing employed staffs, accounting systems for accessing employee finance statements, and payroll systems which will be providing information regarding the employees payment statements.

 

 

 

Interaction models – use case

The use case model showing how the user will interact with the proposed system is as shown below;

The above use case diagram shows the users who will be interacting with the system who are head of department and the employees where their functionalities when interacting with the system is as shown by the use cases.

 

 

 

Interaction models – sequence diagram

The sequence diagram showing the sequence of how the functionalities will be completed is as shown in the diagram below;

The above sequence diagram shows sequence of events which will be happening when the employees at the department will be completing their business processes when using the system.  For example, the head of department will start by creating accounts where then the department employees can access their accounts.

 

 

 

 

Structural model: Class diagram

The class model showing the proposed system entities, attributes, operations and how they are related is as shown in the diagram below;

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Budgen, D. (2003). Software Design (2nd Ed). United States of America: Pearson publishers.

Burd, D.S. ed.,2011. System Architecture. United States of America: Cengage Learning, Inc.

Dennis, Wixom, Roth. Ed., 2009.System Analysis and Design (4th Ed.). New Jersey: John Willey                      &            Sons, Inc.

ShneidermanB ,Plaisant C. (2010) Designing the User Interface: Strategies for effective human- computer interaction (5e). Boston, Mass. Addison-Wesley

Rainer,R.K&Cegielski,C.G (2012). Introduction to information system.  New Jersey: John Willey & Sons, Inc.

Shelly, B.G., Rosenblat, J.H. ed., 2011. System Analysis and Design (9th Ed.). UnitedStates of America: Cengage Learning.