Psychological Experiments

 

 

 

Psychological Experiments

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Introduction

Psychologists carry out various experiments to understand different characters of human beings by using human as well as animal subjects. The characters include thinking, perception, emotions, and social development among others. I carried out various experiments such as the robber’s cave study, Gordon Bower, Carlsberg social experiment as well as the smoky room experiment.   In this paper, we will intensely look at the tests by looking at the results of the investigation, insight, research as well as the information about the psychologist who came up with the experiment.

The Smoky Room Experiment

The research I carried out supported the hypothesis that many of the people do not take the things that happen around them keenly. I realized that most of the people look upon others to give assistance to the situations happening. In one of the experiments, that I examined is when a person was attacked on the streets. The person screamed, and most of the people came to the scene, but they were reluctant to report. The first person said forty-five minutes after the incidence showing that people are slow to react or say something when they are many. In a different study, there was an attack in a home where only the husband and wife were involved. The wife reported five minutes immediately after the attackers, and the authorities tracked them.  Therefore, it is true to say that people tend to ignore the experiences when in a group thus react slowly. The first psychologist to affirm this theory is John Darley together with Bibb Latane. They carried it in the 1960s using university students from Columbia University. Bibb latane was born in 1937   and is widely known for the smoky room experiment, which was between him and John Darley. Besides that, he has made various contributions to psychology. The contributions include his articles that talk about the social attraction among other. He has also worked in different universities in the department of psychology such as the Columbia University.

                                                      Carlsberg Social Experiment

The research that I carried out was primary on how people judge things by looking at its appearance and quickly. The first research was Rudmin and Cappelli where they were using the Carlsberg as well as various stimuli. After the research, the psychologist learnt after using the people started associating alcohol with the pitch. If they heard a high pitch, they quickly concluded the alcohol content was high. In my experiment, I heard views of various people who saw a person passing by with a tattooed body and many claimed that the individual was a musician. About 70% gave these claims because in that society they hypothesize most of the people with tattoos are musicians as well as celebrities. Mario Cappelli is one of the psychologists in social psychology whose primary focus is the youth, children as well as the young adults for the last 25 years. Other achievements apart from the Carlsberg experiment is that he is dedicated leader in the mental health organization. He is also the spearhead of the psychiatric and mental health studies in one of the hospitals, CHEO. He is also a professor of psychiatry.

Robbers Cave Experiment

One of the psychologists who examined the conflicts was Muzafer Sherif who gives out his claims that the conflict between groups takes place especially if they are competing over a specified resource.  He used the Robbers Cave experiment in studying this, which involved boys from different backgrounds as well as unknown to each other. The place employed in carrying out the study was the Robbers Cave state park in America, and he set a competition between the two groups he randomly selected. During the contest, there was a lot of verbal prejudice, which later developed to action bias. The research thus affirmed that competition leads to conflict between two groups. I carried out research in a class where I divided them into two competing groups. At first, I gave them math test sand one could overhear the groups expressly prejudice verbally against the other. Therefore, I supported the theory that6 intergroup conflict occurs because of a limited resource as they were both competing for the award, which was a trip for the winning group. (Schillaci, 2014).  Sheriff is an American turkey psychologist born in 1906 and died in 1988.  People remember him for this experiment on Robbers Cave however he has made other contributions ion the field of psychology. The contributions include developing the social judgment theory as well as the realistic conflict theory.

Memory and concept learning.

One of the researchers who focused on memory and concept learning is Gordon Bower in 1972.  In his research, he was looking at the use of images to improve one’s memory. In his research, he gave the participants 100 cards where each of them was having two different names. Eighty percent of the people who were linking the names to images recalled them while only 45% of the groups not using images recalled the names.  Therefore, images enhance one’s memory.   I tried to use this in a class wherein one of the lessons I taught the students in one of the experience using images as well as taught another group without the use of pictures.  In the class where I used images 90% of the students passed while in the group I did not use them only 30% passed the test. Therefore, I support the theory that claims that images are one of the things that enhance memory in a person. (Sestieri, 2014). Gordon was born in 1932 and married in 1952 to Sharon Antony Bower. They have been blessed with three children namely Antony, Julia as well as Lori.  In 1954 he went to Western Reserve University and then went to the University of Minnesota where he studied philosophy of science and mathematics. In 1957 he got a PHD in psychology from Yale University. He has made lots of impact in the field of psychology where he has dealt with the conditioning, learning, memory and language comprehension. Besides that, he came up with various mathematical models as well as computer mockup of remembrance.  He also worked at Stanford University in the psychological department, chief science advisor to the director of the countrywide institutions of mental health among other psychological units.

Self-motivation

The proponent of the theory on self-motivation is Albert Bandura. Albert argues in his theory that to create competence in people, one can use self-motivation among them as well as goal setting. In the research where some students were weak in mathematics, we used the Banduras theory of self-motivation as well as proximal goal setting and they excellently performed. ‘Bandura is a Canadian psychologist born in 1925 and has two children.  He was the youngest in his family and went to the University of Columbia in 1949 then the University of Lowa in 1951. He has made tremendous achievement in the field of psychology such as been a professor of psychology at Stanford University. He also in 1961 came up with another experiment known as Bobo Dollo.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the psychological experiment was of great help to me, as they will assist in dealing with individuals. For instance, the theory of conflict will help me understand two conflicting groups. It will help me to know how to enhance unity in the groups working together with less conflict. The experiments have also taught me how to teach various people a particular concept, for instance, the study of memory as well as people’s perception: Carlsberg and smoking room experiment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Schillaci, R. S. (2014). Children’s conformity when acquiring novel conventions: The case of artefacts. Journal of Cognition and Development, 15(4), 569-583. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15248372.2013.784973

Sestieri, C. C. (2014). Domain-general signals in the cingulo-opercular network for visuospatial attention and episodic memory. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 26(3), 551-568. http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/jocn_a_00504#.WPN1uWjK6ms

 

 

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