ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE

 

 

 

 

ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE

 

 

Student’s  Name:

 

 

Code&Course name

Professor’s name

University

City, State

Date

 

 

Environmental Change

There is dependably a continuous change between the environment and human activities. This is alluded to as co-advancement and co-adjustment. Hence, human activities have repercussions on the community they live in. The environment likewise impacts human activities. Regular catastrophes, such as storms and tremors drive individuals to act. These normal elements can either be created by human activity purposely or unconsciously, which results in human behavior having to adjust to another circumstance. Consequently, humansare now more vulnerable to changes in the environment than ever before.

For instance, the continuous atmospheric temperature rise leads to the destruction of the ozone layer, thus, causing climate change. This change, if not precisely managed by everybody, it might jeopardize the economy, health, national security, and societies. Consequently, global warming may arise. Global warming alludes to a dynamic increase in temperature of the earth and its seas; a change that is said to be responsible forclimate change (Wuebbles, Chitkara, and Matheny 04, p 568). For this reason, climate change is one of the greatest environmental and world crisis today. It has upset individuals’ lives by meansdestructive climatic conditions like, surges and dry season leading to numerous deaths.

Global warming has been classified as a major environmental issue, especially over the past few decades. Reijnders (2016, p 8) defines global warming as a process wherebythe Earth’s average surface temperature increases due to by increased emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Global warming is happening due to the enhanced greenhouse effect, deforestation and agricultural sector. Global warming can bring impacts to the environment and society; affect human health and causes changes in the ecosystems.

It is for this reason that many countries including USA have been faced with quite a number of weather havocs. For example, the storm that engulfed the east coast in early 2014 is one such occurrence. The snow storm greatly affected lives within and around the east coast. The snow accumulating to close to 12 inches, affected the lives of people by altering their businesses and social lives. Havoc was also experienced in the west where life came to a standstill. In the mild south, a total of 750000 homes and businesses lacked power (Zhang et al. 2014, p 174). At the same time, 6500 flights were cancelled as reported by FlightAware.com. The storm affected 2 states, with 18 deaths reported. Movement was minimal as people kept off the snow covered streets. Festivities such as the winter celebration at Lake Placid in New York were cancelled. The snowing was far too dangerous a d disruptive. The US has also experienced unexpected dry conditions. For instance, there were bizarre weather conditions in early 2014 around California which experienced abnormally high temperatures (Zhang et al. 2014, p 174).

In a similar occurrence, drought affected California and a greater part of the west with some places experiencing wild fires. For instance, Oregon, a place expected to have wet conditions at that time experienced two wild fires. For this reasons, states should actively be involved in preparing the people for the adverse conditions and possibly prevent the expected effects. For instance, the authorities can plan on thawing the ice on the roads and make them passable. The weather forecast department should also give adequate and accurate predictions to prepare the people (Boersma 2016, p. 90). Furthermore, businesses activities and manufacturing plants should be checked to make sure they do not affect the environmental trends.

Countries should be held accountable for their contribution to climate change. Regulations should be put in place to make sure that countries do not exceed a particular contribution on the total carbon print (Aguilar-Fenollosa and Jacas 06, p 43). With this, states are going to be more responsible on how they manufacture their products and conduct business. They will put in place environmental laws that will help curb the general impacts on the environment. However, it should also be considered that the sky is expansive and countries do not have their share of the sky enclosed to them.

With the increasing population, the world faces the eminent need for increased production of goods and services. Manufacturing plants will have to produce more. Agricultural practices will have to be advanced. The world is more likely to rely on Genetic modification. More machines will be used, more vehicles and consequently increased pollution and increase in greenhouse gasses (Adam and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 7). The global temperatures are likely to go very high making it very unhealthy for live. This is also coupled with depletion of the ozone layer leading to a penetration of UV rays that cause can cancer. To curb this, strict regulations should be put in place to keel the carbon print of various companies, industries and manufactures in check. People should also be encouraged to conserve the environment, for instance, use public transport means or bicycles instead or personal cars (Adam and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 9).

First, high amount of exhaust gasses released by cars and factories causes great harm to the environment. The most compelling motivation for a wide range of environmental pollution is the excessive amount of gasses, destructive to the earth, which is discharged by the different commercial enterprises. Prime amongst these gasses are C02, S02 and NH3 (Collins 2016, p 77). Obviously there are some more, and these are the fundamental destroyers of the ozone layer and the cause of the unnatural climate change.

In other terms, human activities have major effects in climate change through different ways. These ways, like the burning of fossil fuels, leads to a change in the atmosphere with regards to the levels of greenhouse gases, aerosols, and cloudiness (In Hough et al., 2015, p. 23) One of the major contributors to the climate change is the burning of fuels, which discharges carbon dioxide gas to the air. The greenhouse gases and small particles impact climate by transforming received solar radiation and departing infrared radiation that help in balancing the earth’s energy (Holtsmark, 2014). Altering the atmospheric composition or elements of these gases and aerosols can result in a warming or cooling of the earth’s climate. In 1750, there was the initiation of the industrial processes. This caused the warming effect of the climate as a result of the human activities (Reijnders, 2009). The human influence on climate during this period greatly surpasses the warming effects because of the recognized alterations in natural processes such as volcanic explosions and solar changes. This paper argues for the burning of fossil fuels as a major contributor to climate change.

Several scientists such as Schneider insist that the accelerated warming is brought by greenhouse gases that humans are releasing into the atmosphere (Markham 2009, p 65). Other scientists such as Richard Somerville argues that the cause of this temperature rise is because of human beings are transforming that greenhouse effect by adding to the air, gases that raise the natural amounts of these gases. These additions are mainly due to the burning of fossil fuels that include coal, oil, and natural gas (Collins 2016, p 67). The burning of these substances yields carbon dioxide, which directly causes the global warming.

Close second comes the deforestation. Everywhere throughout the world, forests are cleared for wood, farming and other different reasons. Deforestation causes real problems for one straightforward reason; it decreases the number of trees, which provide oxygen, eliminate carbon dioxide, and influence rainfall designs (In Valdés 2009, p 45). This is the significant motivation behind calls for tree ranch; it is to compensate for this misfortune.

Third,effluents are another by-product of commercial enterprises which postures danger to the environment. They include are released from tanning businesses, petroleum commercial enterprises, and chemical assembling plants. These businesses produces real waste, which are discharged straightforwardly into nearby streams without treatment, making waterways contaminated and hurting aquatic life (In Valdés 2009, p 89).

Similarly, some agricultural practices are destructive to the environment. For instance, overloading farms with fertilizers, overgrazing, and moving agribusiness are ruinous agricultural practices that degrade land, making soil disintegration that leads to silting in real waterways and repositories. Soil pollution is a nonstop cycle and it eventually prompts desertification and degradation of land by permitting the immediate activity of disintegration on cultivable land (Collins 2016, p87).

However, people arenot entirely to blame for this misfortune. Earth itself causes environmental issues, too. While environmental degradation is regularly associated with human activities, the reality of the situation is that nature is continually evolving (In Valdés et al. p 90). With or without the impact of human activities, a couple of natural frameworks degrade to the point where they cannot support the life that should live there.

It is salient to know the details about the fossil fuels, and how their combustions are contributing to the rise in the earth’s temperature. The fossil fuels were created hundreds of millions of years back from the fossilizedvestiges of living things. The death and decomposition ofthese substances coupled with the gradual pressure and heat from the earth’s mantle consolidated the particle into strata of sedimentary rock(Reijnders, 2009). Such physical formation and biological formation lead to the production of different varieties of fossil fuels based on the types of plants and animals that were subjected to the decomposition. All thesefossil fuels produce carbon whenever they are burned. Specifically, coal has relatively the highest percentage of carbon as compared to gas and oil. The Union of Concerned Scientist states thatcoal is a major contributor towards global temperaturerise since it is the main source of electricity that is used by the power facilities (Adam and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 2014, p 64). The organization also notes that these power facilities are single largest sources of carbon dioxide. Every year, nearly 7 billion tons of carbons are discharged via the combustion of fossil fuels. Theactionof carbon with oxygen produces carbon dioxide. The amount that can be generated can be above 20 billion tons.

Moreover, the United Nations Framework Conventionon Climate Change reported that the averagetemperate of the surface of the earth has increased by 0.74 ° C from the late 1800s(Holtsmark, 2014). It is also projected to rise by additional 1.8 ° C to 4.0 ° C by the year 2100, which is a quick and extreme change if the essential steps are not taken(Holtsmark, 2014). The report indicates that the major reason for the mounting temperature is the extended period of industrialization. In other words, the burning of the constantly large amounts of gasoline, oil, coals and other adverse human activities,is the cause of the overwhelming high temperatures. Besides, regardless of no global warming in 10 years up to 2014 and the extreme low temperatures in 2007-2008, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and computer modelers still anticipate that there will be a catastrophic global warming in the coming century(Holtsmark, 2014). Global warming of the last century was 0.8 ° C, which is nearly immaterial as opposed to the size of more thanten global climate alterations in the last 15,000 years(Holtsmark, 2014).

Subsequently, due to the use of fossilfuels in the generationof energy, the amount of carbon in the air has increased significantly. This has led to the rise in the carbon dioxide abundance inthe atmosphere. Although the natural quantities of carbon dioxide have fluctuated from 180 to 300 parts per million (ppm), the levels are high today, hitting are around 400 ppm. This implies that level is 40% above the highest natural amounts over the last 800,000 years(Holtsmark, 2014).

Global warming can cause a few effects on the environment and the general public. Basically, the rising global temperatures will speed the dissolving of ice sheets and ice tops and cause the ocean levels to rise. Researchers anticipate an expansion in ocean levels worldwide because of the liquefying of two huge ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland (Markham 2009). In case global warming proceeds, the ocean levels are expected to rise to a higher level before the end of this century.

Consequently, the increase in temperature because of global warming has critical ramifications for human wellbeing. Rising temperatures will probably prompt increased air contamination, the spread of creepy crawly borne ailments, more successive and hazardous warmth waves. These changes posture genuine, and expensive dangers to general wellbeing of individuals. A large portion of the real impacts, for example, diarrhea, ill health, intestinal sickness and dengue are exceedingly sensitive to climate change and are required to compound as the climate changes (Adam and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 2014, p 98). Climate change influences the social and environmental determinants of health, for example, clean air, safe drinking water, and adequate nourishment and secure homes.

In summation, population increase comes with more pollution, which causes environmental change. This is a growing issue that requires a solution for the sake of the environment and its occupants. Environmental change has only become worse over the years and is only made worse with the further utilization of coal and fossil fuels. As a result, there are many causes of environmental changes, which include pollution, climate change, and global warming. Hence, scientists, governments and individuals must work together to overcome this threat.

 

 

 

Bibliography

Adam, J., & Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US). (May 15, 2014). What is the importance of climate model bias when projecting the impacts of climate change on land surface processes?. Biogeosciences, 11(10):2601–2622.

Aguilar-Fenollosa, E., & Jacas, J. A. (June 01, 2014). Can we forecast the effects of climate change on entomophagous biological control agents?. Pest Management Science, 70, 6, 853-859.

Boersma, M., Grüner, N., Tasso, S. N., Montoro, G. P. E., Peck, M. A., & Wiltshire, K. H. (January 01, 2016). Projecting effects of climate change on marine systems: is the mean all that matters?. Proceedings. Biological Sciences, 283, 1823.)

Collins, A. (2016). Contemporary security studies. Oxford, United Kingdom : Oxford University Press.

Holtsmark, B. (2014). A comparison of the global warming effects of wood fuels and fossil fuels taking albedo into account. GCB Bioenergy, 7(5), 984-997. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12200

In Hough, P., In Malik, S., Moran, A., & Pilbeam, B. (2015). International security studies: Theory and practice.
London ; New York : Routledge.

In Valdés, L., International Council for the Exploration of the Sea., North Pacific Marine Science Organization., & Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. (January 01, 2009). Effects of climate change on the world’s oceans: Proceedings of an ICES-PICES-IOC symposium held in Gijón, Spain 19-23 May 2008. Ices Journal of Marine Science, 66.

Markham, D 2009, “Global Warming Effects and Causes: A Top 10 List”, accessed on 31 May 2014, http://planetsave.com/2009/06/07/global-warming-effects-and-causes-a-top-10-list/

Meisner, J. (January 27, 2016). Anticipated effects of climate change on freshwater fishes and their habitat. Fisheries, 10-15.

Reijnders, L. (2009). Are forestation, bio-char and landfilled biomass adequate offsets for the climate effects of burning fossil fuels?. Energy Policy, 37(8), 2839-2841. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.03.047

Wuebbles, D. J., Chitkara, A., & Matheny, C. (December 01, 2014). Potential effects of climate change on global security. Environment Systems and Decisions : Formerly the Environmentalist, 34, 4, 564-577.

Zhang, Y., Guan, D., Jin, C., Wang, A., Wu, J., & Yuan, F. (January 15, 2014). Impacts of climate change and land use change on runoff of forest catchment in northeast China. Hydrological Processes, 28, 2, 186-196.

 

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s


%d bloggers like this: