Why don’t male domestic violence victims seek legal protection?

Abstract

There are legal systems set in place to solve the problems of family violence where both the civil law on domestic violence and the criminal law have been utilized to offer protection and punish the perpetrators respectively. However, previous studies have shown that the number domestic violence cases reported to the CPS gradually decreased from 2010 to 2013 despite the steady increase in the previous years. Moreover, studies have revealed that that abuse of men takes place in a higher frequency that many would expect. This study aimed at solving the problem of domestic violence from a male victim’s perspective through an investigation of the reasons why male domestic violence victims failed seek legal protection. The study classified the major barriers to seeking legal protection for male domestic violence victims into two categories namely personal or social factors and structural or systematic factors. The study used a qualitative research method. Further, a secondary research design was adopted where the researcher analysed articles on the topic of domestic violence in the context of male victims. The study concluded that that social norms and the concept of shame, help-seeking behavior, experience and trust, small community and cultural effects and transient lifestyle explained significant percentage of variations in the act of seeking legal protection. Also, the study concluded that non-identification, service provider priority areas and limitations of support services currently available explained a significant proportion of the variations in the act of seeking legal protection.

 

 

 

Table of Contents

Abstract 2

Chapter One: Introduction. 4

1.1 Background Information. 4

1.2 Problem Statement 6

1.3 Study Objectives. 8

1.4 Research Questions. 8

1.4.1 Research Questions. 8

1.5 Study Justification. 9

1.6 Thesis Outline. 9

Chapter Two: Literature Review.. 10

2.1 Empirical Literature Review.. 10

2.2 Domestic Violence Prevalence. 12

2.3 Approach by the Public Service. 14

2.4 What is Protection. 16

2.4.1 The criminal law-coercive or controlling behavior 17

2.4.2 Civil Law.. 17

2.4.3 Domestic Violence Protection Orders. 18

2.5 Impact of Domestic Violence. 18

Chapter Three: Research Methodology. 19

3.1 Research Method. 19

3.2 Research Design. 20

3.4      Data Collection. 20

3.5      Data Analysis. 21

3.6 Ethical Considerations. 22

Chapter Four: Discussions. 24

Chapter Five: Conclusions and Recommendations. 34

5.1 Conclusions. 34

5.2 Recommendations. 34

References. 36

 

Chapter One: Introduction

1.1 Background Information

Domestic violence is an act of aggression committable by a partner or a member of the family. It is viewed as willful intimidation, battery, physical assault, sexual assault or any other abusive act to attain some level of control or system pattern of power perpetrated by persons against their intimate partners[1]. Some general warnings of domestic violence include criticism by partners for small mistakes, forced sex against one’s will, strict monitoring of the victim by the partner and placement of the blame for a violent outburst on the victim. Some other warnings include the destruction of property, threats against the victim or members of the family and controlled victim’s medications by the abuser. According to Lazarus-Black (2013), the definition of domestic violence can be made from financial, emotional and physical perspective.

The legal protection solves the problem of family violence from two perspectives. First is the civil law on domestic violence which aims at offering protection to the victims[2]. A victim of domestic violence is supposed to make an application for non-molestation or an occupation order. Often, the two applications are made simultaneously. Second, there is the criminal law which is primarily aimed at punishing the perpetrators[3]. The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) authorizes a decision to charge the offender after the offense has been reported and investigated by the police. The case of the offender is then charged in the magistrates’ court and a decision made where the type of the punishment is based on the severity of the offense[4]. Therefore, criminal law can also offer protection to the victims of domestic violence by imposing bail conditions which are prohibitive upon the Defendant. According to the report on the legal protection from domestic violence in the UK, the number domestic violence cases reported to the CPS gradually decreased from 2010 to 2013 despite the steady increase in the previous years[5]. This was an indication that fewer people were seeking legal protection in the UK.

 

Fig 1.1: The trend of domestic cases reported to the CPS in the UK from 2007 to 2013

The topic of domestic violence matters in current world because it has been prevalent in all communities and it affects all categories of people regardless of social, economic status, age, sexual orientation, race, gender, nationality or religion[6]. The seriousness of the matter is evidenced by the alarming danger resulting from cases of domestic violence. According to research, 19% of domestic violence cases in 2015 in the UK involved a weapon. Only 22%, 25% and 16% of the men injured by intimate partners in the UK, US and Ireland respectively received medical care for their injuries[7].

Approximately two in every five victims of domestic violence are men, a fact that contradicts the widespread impression that women are the often victims of the situation. Research conducted by Jordan (2014), on revealed that despite the fact that the proportion of female victims was larger than that of male victims, a significant percentage of men suffered too. A proportion equal to 13.2% of the men stated that they had been victims of domestic abuse since they were 16 years old against a percentage of females which was 27.1%[8].

Data obtained from the British Crime Survey and Home Office statistical bulletin showed that about 40% of victims in domestic violence case each year from 2004 to 2009 were men[9]. With a higher value of standard deviation, the statistics implied that the values for each year varied significantly. The moving averages of the percentage of male domestic violence victims in the years 2006-2007, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 were 43.4%, 45.5%, and 46.2% respectively[10]. This indicated that an increase in the proportion of males who had suffered partner abuse was evident.

From the information already available in the literature, there is enough evidence to demonstrate that the view of domestic violence as a female victim versus male perpetrator problem is a false picture. Hence, scientists should indulge into the topic and reveal the reasons why the many male domestic violence victims do not seek legal protection. Moreover, researchers should investigate the reasons why domestic violence is viewed as a female victim/ male perpetrator problem.

1.2 Problem Statement

While the bigger proportion of domestic violence victims are women, previous research has shown that abuse of men takes place in a higher frequency that many would expect[11]. Men have been termed as belonging in the stronger gender though that does not necessarily ease escape from the violence or the relationship. Men face challenges such as skepticism from police, shortage of resources and significant legal obstacles especially in gaining custody of the children from a mother who is abusive. Statistics show that a proportion equal to a third of the victims of domestic violence is male. However, despite the large fraction, men are often reluctant to make reports concerning abuse by women. The fear of not being believed, avoidance of embarrassment, and the assumption that they will be seen as the perpetrators of the violence and not the victims are some of the major factors hindering males from seeking legal protection from domestic violence[12].

Domestic violence has also caused significant effect on the growth of economies. Victims of domestic violence across the world lose a total of eight million days of paid work every year[13]. Also, research has approximated the cost of domestic violence to more than 8.3 billion dollars every year. A majority of victims of domestic violence with percentages ranging from 21-60% lose their jobs due to reasons revolving around the abuse with the proportion of men increasing gradually in the recent past[14]. Domestic violence has had a great effect on men lives where a big number of male victims has been termed as criminals. Between the years 2003 and 2008, for example, a total of 142 women were murdered in their workplaces by current or former intimate partners in the US and UK[15]. Men, regardless of being the victims of the domestic violence, were accused of committing murder and subjected to the rule of law.

Additionally, there was very limited information and few incidences reported on domestic violence from male victim’s perspective making the topic less discussed in the modern society[16]. This study, therefore, aimed at solving the problem of domestic violence from a male victim’s perspective through an investigation of the reasons why male domestic violence victims failed seek legal protection. If the necessary information about the topic can be obtained, stakeholders, governments and other bodies dealing with human rights can have an easy task when encouraging men to seek legal protection if subjected to domestic violence.

1.3 Study Objectives

The broad objective of the study was to eliminate or minimize the problems which were brought about silent male victims of domestic violence. Following the analysis of the background information, it was evident that the number of male domestic violence victims who never sought legal protection was increasing gradually in the recent past and this has led to a rise in the problems related to the domestic violence in men[17]. The study classified the major barriers to seeking legal protection for male domestic violence victims into two categories namely personal or social factors and structural or systematic factors. The personal or social barriers included social norms and the concept of shame, help-seeking behavior across gender, experience and trust, transient lifestyle, and small community and cultural effect[18]. The structural or systematic barriers included non-identification, legal service provider priority areas and limitations of support services currently available. To achieve the broad goal, this study focused on the specific objectives which were to;

  1. To investigate whether personal and social factors were significant barriers to male domestic violence victims seeking legal protection
  2. To investigate whether structural/systematic factors were significant barriers to male domestic violence victims seeking legal protection
  3. To compare the legal protection levels among men victims of domestic violence in the UK and Ireland

1.4 Research Questions

1.4.1 Research Questions

The research questions focused on the key elements of the study. The research questions were aimed at seeking detailed information on each of the factors believed to hinder the abilities of men victims of domestic violence from getting legal protection. The research questions were;

  1. Are there any personal and social factors that significantly act as a barrier to seeking legal protection by male domestic violence victims?
  2. Are there any structural/systematic factors that significantly act as a barrier to seeking legal protection by male domestic violence victims?
  3. Are the legal protection levels among men victims of domestic violence in the UK and Ireland equal

1.5 Study Justification

Following the narrated problem, it is clear that a solution to minimize or eliminate the problems related to domestic violence in men should be implemented. Many of the stakeholders and governments, particularly the government of UK and Ireland, have shown interests in understanding the reasons why men victims of domestic violence don’t seek legal protection. According to previous reports, if the reasons can be well understood, then stakeholders can have proper strategies to eliminate the current problem[19]. Therefore, a study to investigate the reasons why men victims of domestic violence don’t seek legal protection is of great importance.

1.6 Thesis Outline

The thesis contained five main chapters. The first chapter was the introduction which aimed at explaining the history and background information about domestic violence in men. The chapter discussed the problem related to the topic which warranted the study and provided the research objectives and questions. The second chapter was the literature review. This section helped in studying what other authors had revealed concerning domestic violence in men and why few men sought legal protection. The third chapter was the methodology which highlighted the method and design adopted by the study. The section also offered a justification of the chosen methods. This section linked the research objectives with the findings. Finally, the thesis had the conclusion chapter. This section provided the full picture of the most significant findings of the study. The conclusion section also provided recommendations based on the findings. References and Appendices were placed at the end of the thesis report.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

2.1 Empirical Literature Review

The society has viewed man as a painless being[20]. This has made some to suffer in silence. The sufferings may be originating from different angles; however the most wanting suffering is the one arising from domestic miss understandings. Statistics have it that as opposed to the perceived notion of only women being victims of domestic violence, men are also victims. The major difference is that while women will go out sharing with fellow women and even rescue centres and seeking justice, men chose to remain silent[21].  With only a handful willingly reporting or sharing their fate with friends or authorities.

According to the Mankind Initiative (2016), 0.132 of men aptly opened that they have been on the receiving end for years starting at the age of 16 years[22]. The opposite gender has orchestrated this claim. A proportion of 0.271 (27.1%) of women reported cases of domestic abuse[23].  These percentages translate to 2.2 million cases of male victims and 4.5 million cases of female victims. This can further be reported in the form of ratio figures as one in every six men and one in every four women they suffer from lifetime domestic abuse. In the year 2014/2015, 4% of men and 8.2% of women reported having experienced domestic violence. The figures translate to male victims to the tune of 600,000 and 1.3 million female victims of domestic abuse[24]. In a more direct language, for every three victims of domestic violence, two will be female, and one will be a male.  Accordingly, 1.7 million men and 3.9 million women reported that since the age of 16 years, they had experienced domestic violence. Among the most experienced types of violence, partner abuse (non-sexual) was the most frequently reported domestic violence[25].  There exist different forms of domestic violence. One of them is the physical form of abuse which involves assaulting and injuring the victim, smashing, throwing objects at the victim, shoving and pushing, hitting, choking, punching, more generally threatening and physical assaults. The victims may face violence in the form of sexual abuse. This is mostly in the form of unwanted sexual contact by the partner or even rape. Psychological abuse is another form of abuse that the victims experience. It involves the victim facing all manner of emotional and verbal abuse mainly in the form of humiliation, the victim being threatened, hovering insults, forced swearing, constant harassment and criticism coming along with victim put-downs[26]. Social abuse is another most common and experienced form of domestic violence. It is expressed in the form of partners or victims being isolated from family members and friends, being denied access to the telephone, restricting and controlling partners’ movement to any place in and out of the homestead or house.

Victims have also reported economic abuse as another form of violence in the home. The victims face exerted control over the household or even family income where they are prevented from accessing finances and financial independence. Another critical form of abuse reported by victims is the spiritual abuse. Partners expose victims to belief and religious manipulation so that they can force them into subordinate roles or justify other forms of ill-treatment[27]. According to Vic Health (2009), while a majority of the people consider domestic violence to be comprised of sexual and physical assaults, there is enough evidence of a small group of individuals in the community and society who only view financial and psychological abuse as domestic violence27.

2.2 Domestic Violence Prevalence

Victimization surveys remain the primary source of data on domestic violence. From the personal safety survey, ABS (2006) one in every five men in Australia has experienced physical violence during his lifetime be it with the current or former partner. However the results state that females were more likely to suffer from an act of violence or sexual violence on the hands of the partner than men. Another survey conducted in Australia by Mouzos & Mkkai (2014), demonstrate that one in every three women who have a current or former partner experience more abuse. The survey also demonstrated that the severity and levels of violence were more intense when experienced from a former partner than from a current partner. Victims of former partners were seen to frequently report sustained injuries and assaults and also had a feeling as though their lives were in danger. Non-spousal assaults had minor injuries compared to assaults from spouses that reported more severe injuries. For the ex-partners, the period between relationship break down and the separation was reported as the most risk time to the life of the victim[28]. This is the time when all forms of violence would be escalated. More injuries and life-threatening jobs are on the bream of explosion. This was also termed by the victim as the period of discomfort.  Due to the nature and extent of domestic violence, victimization surveys have proved to be very vital information sources for domestic violence victims. The rate of reporting for family violence is small, however since the last decade; it has increased[29]. Currently, it is estimated that only 14 out of 36 percent of victims would report current violence incidents to the police.  It is argued that the low reporting rate was as a result of the handling of the physical or sexual victims which are committed to the by their current partners where they would be less likely to report the incidence as a criminal case like it was conducted by a stranger29.

Most victims would fail to report due to fear of embarrassment, being ashamed, the decision to handle the incidence on their own; other victims fear the perpetrators or the consequences of reporting the incident. Others believe the incident is too minor to be reported14. Cultural barriers also hinder some victims from reporting. Also some victims fear to have to relive the event through retelling the event on account of every bit of the incidence. In most cases, victims estimate the prevalence of domestic violence in an accurate manner. However, the victimization surveys cast doubts in this to the extent of underestimating the prevalence of the domestic violence. This, therefore, calls for prudent decisions regarding how best multiple sources of information would be used to combat and prevent domestic violence. The notion that most of the domestic violence victims are women should be addressed with concern since all parties are equal and face a similar form of violence in the homestead.   Some surveys have it that there is equality in the rates of violence committed by both women and men[30]. It was also argued that it is the view of some community members that the violence committed by man and women in the society are equal. In intimate relationships, the belief that men become victims of domestic violence has remained a debate for many together with the prevalence and nature of male victimization and domestic violence in relationships which are classified as homosexuals. It is the under-reporting of incidence of domestic violence for male victims that has hindered understanding and prevention of violence against men together with those living in gay, lesbian and transgender relationships19. However, most researchers put it that in most cases, women will experience more victimization than men. There exist rifts in the different forms of violence that men would suffer from their female counterparts similar to the female from their male counterparts. The violence engaged by men is not in any way limited to physical abuse but instead, they are expected to be more severe and in most cases would result to serious injuries14. The motivation of violence by male perpetrators can be classified as either; asserting control over a partner, verbal abuse, physical abuse, intimidation and domination over a partner. Also, it can take the category of not expecting to achieve a specific objective but the expression of frustration, response to emotion and anger resulting to impulsive acts. Violent women are usually driven by frustrations and anger and not a particular specific objective. Usually, women become violent with the primary purpose to defend themselves, their loved ones (children) and in some cases in retaliation to a directed provocation. To develop effective interventions for working with different offenders of domestic violence, it is of cardinal importance to understanding the motivation behind the execution of such acts of inhuman and violence by perpetrators.

2.3 Approach by the Public Service

Different states and governments have adopted way wide approaches in handling victims of domestic violence. The approaches have also been to the extent of working in partnership with other non-governmental organizations and commissions. In the Republic of Ireland, five departments have been given the responsibility of dealing and handling victims of violence. These have a remit in the domain of domestic violence. Provision health services and social services to victims of domestic violence is the mandate of the Department of Health and Children. They also provide funding for work that has been done by the community and voluntary organizations helping the victims. However, in 2005, the government established the Health Service Executive that has since changed the situation. It is has taken the responsibility if providing social and health services[31]. The amenities and services offered range from emergency services, short-term and long-term care for victims of domestic violence, pre, and postnatal care services, mental services to the victims. This has also been extended to children who remain vulnerable as a result of their parents involving in violence. This has been through the provision of social work initiatives. It also provides funding for voluntary services specifically targeted at victims of domestic violence.

The government again instituted the Department of Environment, Heritage and local Government to give emergency on accommodation to victims of domestic violence through funding. This has ensured victims do not remain in the street or stay at the same shelter with the perpetrators to suffer more severe violence.  Victims have been ensured of continued education by the government[32]. This is evidenced by the institutionalizing of the Department of Education and science that ensures that education programs are developed with a particular consideration of victims of the pronounced domestic violence. These programs have been seen to be experienced at the secondary level.  On the corridors of justice, the government has come up with the Department of Justice, Equality and Law reform that have taken responsibility for any necessary legal frameworks and assistance to the victims of domestic violence.  In line to this, the department has recently outlined a strong funding commitment that takes care of domestic violence cases and victims. This is geared towards the provision of funding to specific programs that campaign and creates awareness on the rising cases of domestic violence and the perpetrators at large. This funding is to be spent over the lifetime of the plan on combating the menace of domestic violence pandemonium. With the rise of many community groups handling issues of domestic violence, the government came up with the defunct Department of Community Affairs that works for hand in hand with the community-based organizations. Funding by the government to the groups is done through this department. It also grants-aid to local groups. Involvement by the government has been so vast and pronounced that to date figures on the extent cannot be captured. All this in an effort to ensure that victims of domestic violence are helped and feel a sense of belonging to the community. An assessment done by the department of justice, Equity and Law Reforms on the responses and future needs of victims of domestic violence has remained undisclosed despite a freedom of information requested by the communities.  However a study was done on behalf of the council of Europe, in which the measures employed by the government in combating domestic violence were revealed[33]. This was the culmination of the government responses to its commitments and plans towards dealing and addressing the whole issue on incidences of domestic violence in the country. It was revealed that indeed the government has positive messages to its people on the victims of domestic violence.  It was determined that; apart from working and implementing policies, it is providing funds at all levels of the community (national, regional, local) to sustain support programs that take care of the victims of domestic violence. There is in place a publicized national action plan by the Department of Justice, Equity and Law reform that ensure all the perpetrators of the violence face full force of the law. Institutions have been formulated to record all the incidences of domestic violence at the community level and within the family. Children who witness violence against their fathers are given protection. Intervention programs for all perpetrators of violence are in place. It reported that the government through the non-governmental organizations has come up with around 16 intervention programs. The government has established shelters that provide over 111 places for victims of domestic violence that are free of charge13. The efforts to come up with institutions that coordinate, implement and also evaluate all the activities aimed at combating domestic violence is a plus the government.

2.4 What is Protection

Since victims of domestic violence started coming out and disclosing what there were experiencing behind the curtains, government institutions have sprung into action, in conjunction with other partners to come up with protective measures for those involved and even a preventive to those yet to experience[34]. The following is on outline of the remedies seem to be majorly adopted in the society;

2.4.1 The criminal law-coercive or controlling behavior

Through a section of serious crimes, an offence was created after consultation on the 29th day of December 2015. This was the offense of controlling or being coercive to an intimate partner in a family. It was seen that most domestic violence comes as a result of one partner forcefully imparting an order to the other. Once these orders are not taken then it becomes the genesis of probably the short-term or even long-term domestic violence. The act of one partner controlling the way another partner behaves was also seen to contribute a lot to the raising of domestic violence. These were initially perceived to be non-violent which was banked on to be long-term campaign of abuse by the perpetrators[35].  This resulted in the fallout as a common assault, and in turn requiring the victim to shun immediate application of violence against the law. Legislation that considered and took care of stalking and harassment captured elements of non-violent abuse. However evidence has it that in the offence of coercion and control, harassment and stalking are not featured especially in intimate relationships. Perpetrators have been to operate in the disguise of close relation or partner in order to conceal their intended abuse. This adds to the levels and elements intimidation experienced by victims of domestic violence. The subversive notion of domestic violence and ill-treatment is thus seen to be more pronounced than the fore mentioned stalking and harassment. It revealed that the offence was on the right not to impact on intimate relationships. Instead it was suggested that the nature of the behavior be made clear that they are key elements in the new offence.

2.4.2 Civil Law

The remedies to this law are familiarly known and bracketed to be two. We have the family act law and the occupation orders and the non-molestation orders. The occupation order originates from the court, and it serves to govern mainly the occupation of the family home. In instances, this order can be used to make an abuser temporary be excluded from the home family premises for the security of the partner and children. The non-molestation order mainly deals with ensuring the abuser molests none of the family members[36]. Molestation can be considered as all the possible elements of violence, harassment and also threatening behavior. Any attempt to breach the non-molestation order has always been seen to be a criminal offense.

2.4.3 Domestic Violence Protection Orders

In response to increased reports of the violation of family laws and violence against a partner, most countries rolled out the popularly known domestic violence protection orders. In 2004, Wales and England rolled out their order. Immediately after an incidence of domestic violence has been experienced and reported, the orders allow both the police and the magistrates to prevent the perpetrators from going back to their houses to the period of up to 14 days. These are mainly meant to give victims time and space to access support and also ponder on the aftermath and the possible available options to take. A piloting done on these orders revealed that they have all the time given positive results and also have been associated with the reduction of re-victimization of the partners on the receiving end.

2.5 Impact of Domestic Violence

The Australian government at one time in 2002-2003 carried out an audit of the monies spent on all issues surrounding domestic violence summing even those incurred by the private sector. The results were shocking. An excess of $8b was recorded. It was predicted that if no action were taken to address domestic violence, the expenditure would rise to $15.6b in 2022. Some sufferings were listed as the main consequences of domestic violence. The consequences included premature mortality, suffering, and pain to the direct and indirect victims of domestic violence. Provision of health services would be compromised in dealing with victims, the burden of replacing damaged properties, defaulting on personal debts and many other sufferings that result from domestic violence.

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

3.1 Research Method

This study conducted an analysis to get the most appropriate research method among the three methods, namely, quantitative research, qualitative research, and mixed research methods. Quantitative research methods, if adopted, would mean that the study would collect quantitative data and subject it to the statistical analysis process. The study findings would then have been deduced from the analysis results. On the other hand, qualitative research method, if adopted, would include the gathering of qualitative data and the trends in the data judged critically to come up with the study findings.

The qualitative research method is more reliable and objective where they reduce and restructure literature of previously working done to come up with conclusions and recommendations. With the help of huge work done related to the study topic, one then generalizes the findings. Qualitative research enables the researcher to look at the relationships between situations and, hence, can establish cause and effect relationship when the circumstance is highly controlled. However, qualitative research faces a significant disadvantage of being less detailed when compared to the qualitative research.

Qualitative research methods are concerned with participants’ feelings, opinions, and experiences. The qualitative research utilizes qualitative data which is used in developing concepts and theories that help researchers to understand the social world better. Therefore, qualitative research is much applicable in the development of theory and testing of theories which have been proposed. However, qualitative studies are not much reliable and objective when compared to the quantitative studies.

This study used qualitative research method. The primary reason why this study plan was adopted was that it helped in utilizing the strengths of the qualitative research method and, hence, yielding a stronger study regarding reliability, objectivity, and content.

3.2 Research Design

This study adopted a descriptive research design. This study design aims at depicting the study participants in an accurate way. The primary reason why the descriptive research was considered as the most appropriate model to use in the study was that it could utilize elements of both qualitative and quantitative research methods within the same survey. An alternative research design which could have been adopted by the study was the case study design. A case study is a type of study design which involves an in-depth study of a particular problem rather than considering a statistical survey or a comparative inquiry. However, a case study design was disqualified since it faced a major challenge of offering little basis for establishing reliability or generalizing the findings to the large population because of the small number of cases observed.

3.4  Data Collection

Qualitative secondary data was used in this study, to give insight as a basis for ensuring the relational context between historical and current views on solipsism of domestic violence victims mostly men, for this case is captured to the best.  These sources were thought to provide a holistic account of domestic violence provision of services.

3.5  Data Analysis

The technics for data analysis employed were specifically for analyzing qualitative data. They comprised of a range of methods including; documentation, conceptualization, examining relationships, authentication of conclusions and reflexivity. Documentation was vital in ensuring notes gathered from secondary data does not become victims of attrition. Of great importance was the identification and refining of concepts that played a key role in the iterative process of qualitative research adopted in the study. Conceptualization begun with simple observation, that was interpreted directly and then put together more meaningful. The main focus for conceptualization was to provide a detailed description of what was observed and at the same time bring sense to it. However more often, analytic insights are tested against new observations. This allows for refinement of the problem statement and the whole concept under study. On the examination of relationships, it forms the centerpiece of analytics. It enables the researcher to deduce from simple observation to explanations why things happened in the way observed in that particular setting. The relationships are usually displayed in the form of a matrix. The elements captured in the matrix expose the connections among them. Usually, the cells in the matrix are used to display a summary of case studies or opinions of the persons interviewed. This made the possibilities of more opinions a reality that generated many fruitful ideas for this study.  After the simple relationships have been identified in the matrix, the complex model comes in which represent the multiple relationships among the constructs defined in the survey. Lots of analysis preceded the model that ensured careful identification of the existence of the relationship among concepts.

Authentication of conclusions also played a major role in the analysis of documented work. However, it should be made clear that there is no set standard for measuring the validity or authenticity of conclusions, especially in a qualitative study. However, the need to carefully choose the clearest evidence of the existence of relationships was what was employed in the study. The criteria’s used in the research included the credibility of the article or writing under consideration. This was a basis used to ensure the scope and relevance of the research were maintained. If the statements did not seem to be trustworthy as indicators of the actual event (domestic violence), then the best perspective under which they seem to inform was addressed. Reflexivity was employed to best capture the attention from conclusions of past related studies. A majority of the sources used in this study were research studies conducted before this study. As a result, they formed the bulk of information to be used in addressing the subject matter of male victims of domestic violence. As a result, the conclusions arrived at by these studies provided content that ensured the objective of this study was met. The development of the evidence enabled us to rather evaluate the findings and the guiding philosophy (interpretivism) of most qualitative researchers. This is important aspect of research putting into consideration the dynamism of the field work.

3.6 Ethical Considerations

The study ensured that all necessary standards of ethical aspects were maintained in this study. The consideration of ethical standards was done to make sure that the “participants” were protected from harm by weighing the possible risks of harm against the most likely benefits. The study focused on minimizing risks of harm to the lowest possible extent and balanced the risks about the likelihood of benefits. Also, the study aimed at protecting the safety and welfare of the “individuals” taking part in the research. This was done by ensuring a close adherence to the expected benchmarks. The study allowed secondary information to be pivotal in the research study. All the sources used were cited and referenced. In the consent form, the participants were informed about the research objective as well as the justification for the research. The ‘participants’ in the study were assured that their personal details, such as information about their names, age, and the level of victimization in their involvement in the domestic violence, would not be disclosed to the public. That is personal information would remain private and confidential. Further, the study recognized ideas and thoughts borrowed from other authors through in-text citation while writing the report. This ensured that the study avoided accusation of plagiarism offense.

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter Four: Discussions

Men are more worried for not being believed for talking about their experience with women than the way their counterparts would. The majority of the men in most articles expressed shame when sharing their experience with the females. The experience was concerning their beliefs, traditions, and culture that view man as a strong individual who cannot in any way be swayed by a woman. Some cannot dare report to the council that they have been hit by a woman neither would they return violence for the consequences were grave to the extent of one being deported in some countries. Although the same experience was similar to women with the same experience, men appear to more worry than women. They are worried of not being believed once they share about their experience with women.

The ridiculed victims.

It can be seen that the men’s fear of not being believed was unfounded according to some reports. At the crisis centers, it was viewed that police never treat men like actual victims of domestic violence but instead pretense. Only women victims were treated with a lot of weight. This justified the feeling and belief of the men worried of not being belied upon reporting of their experience with women. In other research, it was reviled that men face even many problems when they report of violence they experience with their female partners. Men who are experiencing domestic violence were referred to as the invincible men.  This was attributed to the fact that majority of the male victims would remain silent and not seen or heard once they experienced violence.   Of more concern was the ridicule the male victims suffered in comedy shows. This further shunned any efforts put up by the few who wanted to speak their hearts bout their experience. This was very different when men ridiculed women victims of violence. It was found not amusing.

Arms of Women Going Up.

Men appear to be physically stronger than women on average, and this makes people believe that violence from women cannot be very serious. It is out of this notion that majority believe the women are incapable of doing things that cannot be accepted in the society that renders women, less-all human. The same way men can raise their arms and punish somebody is the same way women can raise their arms; they can pick objects, weapons, and any other object and cause harm or even damage. This makes women similar in character as men. And the treatment of female victims of violence ought to be treated with a similar magnitude as the male victims of domestic violence. Most of these actions are so sudden that the men cannot defend him. Some fear that any attempt to defend themselves might be used against them in the corridors of power and justice. Among the men interviewed in a previous survey revealed that his partner attacked him using a knife and in another one burnt him using an iron box from behind where he could not see him coming and hence an unable to defend the selves. It was made clear from the survey that not all women are weaker than men. Some women are stronger and take part in more physical activities than their male counterparts making them stronger than their partners. The underlying statement was that some men on this earth are experiencing life-threatening violence and they have to be taken care of, and parallel discipline to the responsible partners be acted upon. This would subvert harm or even deaths that would otherwise have been hatched by the perceived weaker women in the society.

Gender segregated crisis centres

As part of a study, an evaluation of crisis centers showed that the services offered to women are different for women than that of men. The crisis centers for women were accorded a much higher degree than that for men. Women are treated with a higher notch in the community. It was, also, seen that most of the men at the crisis centers live alone. The situation was extended to the children who would accompany either the mother or the father. Children who accompanied their mothers were treated with much dignity than those accompanying their fathers. Children with their mothers were accorded more professional services while those accompanying their fathers suffered the risk of being lonely.

The competence of the crisis centres

The history of the establishment of crisis centers dates back to 1970s. A group of women in Norwegian wanted to make domestic violence against women a public problem and not a private one as perceived by many. In this regard, the crisis centers started to be operational. However the violence experienced today is that of very close persons, intimate partners, married couples, fighting in the house, suffering coming along as a result of misunderstandings of close and bloody related individuals, heads of families. The statement should emphasize the experience that the man is not always the abuser and similarly the woman is not always the victim. Suffering has become two-way traffic. From previous research findings and experience, women have suffered from the hands of men; husbands have even killed some of their wives. However, this should not mean that men cannot be victims. Men have suffered too on the hands of women, even today more men have continued to suffer from the hands of their wives. This calls for more research on the police and staffs in health and social services their understanding of gender and the treatment they give to men who are brought to the crisis centers as victims of domestic violence. The problem is even much more if we put men who have fall victims of domestic violence in similar situations as female victims. Everyone in the community must receive equal protection from violence in the community regardless of whether they are male or female.

The devastating and disgruntling effects of spousal violence among individuals in communities have well been documented by researchers in Canada and around the world. The definition of the nature of violence has been put as either physical or sexual, and they are seen to have been perpetrated by either the victims’ current or former legally married common law partner. This form of violence has had an impact on both the social and economic impact of the society. This has been seen to be consistent for former, current and subsequent generations of the community.  A General Society Survey (GSS) is conducted after every five years by Statistics Canada. The survey conducted interviews on spousal violence where the target group included those spouses who are legally married, living in a common-law relationship, or the spouses who have separated from a common law or divorced and have had contact with their ex-partners. The interviews covered both physical and sexual violence. Acts of violence discussed included; being shoved, grabbed, being threatened with violence, slapped, kicked, hit, bit, choked, beaten, and threatened with a knife, gun not forgetting forced sexual violence. Issues surrounding Financial and Emotional insults were not left out. However, they were not used to calculate the proportion of spousal violence experienced by both male and female victims of domestic violence. When reporting violence for men, there are some issues to consider that; official claims of violence against men are better than the lesser non-official claims of male partners being battered by their female counterparts. Secondly, large numbers of reported violence against men are better as an indication of men and women equally suffering from a similar perspective of domestic violence. However, these rules have since been underwritten by the claims of the number of female victims being higher than that of women. Further examination of these sentiments have been given a statistical boost and quantified to the heart of violence territory in most of the communities. Care should be taken not to substitute the quantity for the enemy. This is because of the drawbacks in quantifying the cases and rate of violence which in real sense ought to be approached qualitatively. Qualitative research particularly when viewed from the perspective of social justice orientation gives detailed and rich information about the parties involved in domestic violence.

 

Male Victims of Domestic Violence; Claims and Agendas

There exist arguments from various corners of the globe about the existence of men who are battered by their spouses. An analysis and tracing of these assertions reveal that men indeed are victims and truly serious victim’s domestic violence with only fear of victimization and shame hindering the victims from sharing or even going to police stations and crisis centers for refuge. While the domestic violence was viewed as family violence, a man was seen to use his default position to perpetrate violence. Emotional abuse by a woman of a man was also seen as a form of violence. The result is that women can be perpetrators too. Targeting men as the only perpetrators give the community a one-sided coin in curbing violence among families and communities in different settings. At some instances, previous research work shows that sometimes violence is justifiable when viewed as a form of defense or retaliation. The tragedy is knowing the exact accounts of women violence against men are justified or under retaliation. The other issue of self-defence in any domestic setting does in any way arise and defending it would be a problem. Violence perpetrators usually counter Self-defence. However, it of great importance not to assume such claims of self-defence in household setting even in the absence of hard evidence. Such attempts would be given ignite unnecessary grievances put forward by women groups in early years of the campaign against violence for women that were not considered purposeful. Meanwhile, the field of domestic violence is at a point where advocates for victimized women and men have tried hard to substantiate their claims. This gives room for another feminist to give their grievances similar approach especially when every item if the violence is the same as the current claims under discussion. It, therefore, becomes clear that the evidence of male partners experiencing violence continue to have to confront in their truth and reality as a way to put their claims handled and worked on for their benefit just like the female victims of violence in the society. For the purpose of covering a larger view of the social and gender oppression, the overshadowed male sufferings as a result of domestic violence can best be covered and captured. This is geared towards enabling men to air their pain and experience as victims of violence. The voices of the few men convey a sense of needing and wanting acknowledgment in a way that can be heard and felt by both the victims and non-victims in the society. A group of men should arise and claim men victims are overlooked as on the receiving end. Whenever the claims are backed up by great statistics of men victims of domestic violence, then the climate at present cannot be in any way conducive for female victims and even to the non-victims may be forced to be victims of domestic violence.

In this era of readily available information, people attention and perception have become very selective. This gives other information which might be very vital for consumption may end up in the archives. In most cases what is usually accorded as reasons for attrition culminates to poor recording. Accordingly, women-to-women relationships are in most cases used as a shield against overlooking of male victims of domestic violence in the society while justifying violence originating from women.

Research Indications; Men as Victims of Domestic Violence

Faults in research are experienced and are expected even the most authoritative social research has experienced faults. However, research has remained the only trusted and most powerful source of information. On emerging issues in the society. This has called for a closer examination of the research surveys that have been conducted by research bodies. This is a proposed examination and scrutiny of the model for a couple in the default position of domestic violence. When the examination is extended to the dating couple, couples who live separately, and the violence of young women to young men have been captured in different papers however its findings as published have been very instrumental in informing emerging issues in young couples. Even though most surveys have not captured the reality on the ground as it appears on the ground. Those males have ever become victims of domestic violence. The perception has been put as only the female partners in the house have been facing the wrath of the male which is not the truth.  The argument was based on the frequency of the cases reported by the few who have suffered in the hands of women partners. This character was also attributed to the default position of the male in handling domestic affairs which would not make one even think of the possibility of violence happening for women in the family. This is backed up by the position and state of crisis centers where males are not treated just as women appear to be handled. They do not seem to counter a significant need by male victims of domestic violence.

Male Victims of Violence; Official Records

To obtain credible information the meaningful statistics of male victims of domestic violence, important documents and records had to be accessed from vital points of registration. These included;

Police records  

The majority of the domestic violence cases reported at the police station were those reported by female victims of domestic violence. Research conducted by the crime research center from the University of Western Australia analyzed several data sets which included police records and hospital records. Women reported a majority of the cases. However, a lower percentage of the cases were reported by men victims of domestic violence. The rights groups argued that it is attributed to the frequency with which the male victims report once they become victimized by their female counterparts. Several research reports have put forward the reasons for the inadequate statistics of male victims of domestic violence. It is also put that women who are victims of violence are the under-reporters to official channels of crisis management. This may be attributed to the fact that female victims may want to hide some information for reasons best known to them. Also, fear of information going public has in a way barred some women from making it open that they have suffered at the hands of their male counters.

Hospital data.        

It is not in any way different from the way the patterns were moving with the police data. The casualties in the emergency wings and attention points in hospitals revealed that very high number of women reported injuries from minor to severe injuries that were inflicted by their male partners as a result of misunderstandings between the two parties. It was observed that very few casualties were male and accepted to inform the hospital authorities that they suffered either through kicks, slapped, knife stabs, etc. from their female counterparts. However, the data collected does not guarantee the accuracy of the gender pattern of reporting. Many factors are seen to have attributed to the low turning and reporting by victims. Some also may even shy away from seeking emergency treatment from the hospital which makes it more difficult to capture the correct statistics for victims of domestic violence in the community for both male and female partners. Speculations had it that the under-reporting by emergency patients was attributed to gender bias, which was later realized that it was not true by authorities and research surveys conducted earlier on. The tragedy for all these is that getting the correct statistics for being analyzed, published and made public for public awareness and redress. This can well be captured in whether the data was collected at the admissions or the accident emergency point of recording. Men have been reported to have more reported on emergency presentations than females. This was attributed to the overrating female as victims of domestic violence. In some hospitals, the data for cases of injuries for male patients who are victims of domestic violence were only available indirectly. These could be seen after one looks at the number of cases of domestic violence where the person in the record is a man before it becomes real that indeed yes a male individual suffered from domestic violence. It becomes tough when addressing this since generalization cannot be jumped into to make conclusions. Classification of violence can work to ensure that the correct statistics for the different categories of victims is recorded for reliability and credibility of the information relevant for advanced analysis and data use. These can well be seen in hospital emergency departments that are known to keep up to date data for casualties and victims of domestic violence especially men who most go unseen or unreported. Both the police records and hospital records as sources of data on domestic violence against men is sometimes seen as an underestimation of the prevalence of the precedent battering rates among couples this has led to the scrutiny of criminal records data.

Safety crime surveys

Surveys of this nature are usually conducted in many different ways usually informed by the sponsor and the major objective of interest. However, the general format adopted globally or adopted by most researchers and authorities where men always perceived as perpetrators of violent crimes in the society and usually the result is more women sustaining injuries from battering by their husbands. Some surveys conducted do not produce precise prevalence rates for domestic violence. The government usually runs crime surveys this makes them able to cover large sample. This gives a reasonable amount of data that can be exposed for analysis giving reliable results. A recent national victimization survey by the US government revealed that murder among other forms of crime was part of domestic violence crime where a majority of the victims were women with a smaller percentage of the reported numbers being male victims. Again more female victims were injured than male victims. The difference of proportion of the male victims reporting injuries and that of female victims facing injuries was found not to be significantly different. Severe injuries were reported among victims from young couples than aged couples. Women were more at risk of being injured than men. This was as a result of the grave energy impacted to the conflict by the young couples making women in most cases on the receiving end. However, this does not in any way suggest male partners never experienced battering of high magnitude. In fact,  the extent of the injuries to male partners inflicted by female partners was seen to bring more harm compared to those originating from male counterparts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter Five: Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusions

It is clear that male victims of domestic violence shy away from seeking legal protection for reasons that are mostly kept open. These include; fear of victimization. Male partners who come out and share their experience in the hands of women have been exposed to endless laughing stocks in the society. Fear of not believed. Men have always been viewed as the perpetrators of the domestic violence and hence reporting may be seen as a way of running away from some form of responsibility. Further victimization from perpetrators has also made male victims refrain from reporting cases of being buttered by their partners.

5.2 Recommendations

Researchers must be open when conducting surveys of such a kind. Complex findings must be handled with their complexity, and simple findings dealt with in an easy way. This calls for probing and further probing even if it means the interviewee will not be comfortable with some of the questions with a common goal of getting the best out of the survey. The act will ensure that credible information on the prevalence of any violence is addressed as required and as a result inform the public on the true state of the victimization either male or female victims of domestic violence. This ensured violence that is one sided is not reported, and in the process, it can be easily conceptualized as linked to a particular pattern in the community.

Education; lack of understanding of the impact of violence on both health and economic status of the family or the victims is one of the leading causes of the violence. As a result, it would be prudent for the government to educate its members on the benefits of maintaining peace and living in harmony among partners. Financial abuse being a form of violence needs to be addressed to women who seem not to understand as they are mostly the victims in the society.

More funding; the crisis centers should be improved in all aspects meant to take care of victims of domestic violence. The improvement should be equal for both male and female crisis centers. For all these issues to be addressed, more funds need to be availed. Facilitation of victims requiring support need money.

Change in the overall outlook; protection of domestic violence victims and support services needs to be given greater attention in all plans aimed at reducing the prevalence rates of domestic violence in the community. The best approach to curbing domestic violence is to put into consideration all factors revolving around causes and triggers of violence among couples.

Stakeholders in the legal protection services should come up with measures to overcome personal and social barriers hindering male victims of domestic violence from seeking legal protection. Also, the stakeholders should review the structures and systems to ensure that there are no negative impacts on decisions to seek legal protection for male victims of domestic violence.

The government to educate citizens, particularly men, on how to avoid negative impacts of social norms and the concept of shame, help-seeking behavior, small community and cultural effects and transient lifestyle. According to the study, these factors influenced the act of seeking legal protection for male victims of domestic violence. Also, the governments of UK and Ireland should help citizens on how to avoid negative effects of structural and systematic factors which includes non-identification, service provider priority and limitations of support services currently available. The study revealed that the factors had a significant influence on how the male victims of domestic violence made decisions to seek legal protection. Following the conclusion that men’s denial of the need for support and protection is real, a recommendation is made to the victim support services to use external prompting to encourage contact with male victims of domestic violence.

This study also made recommendations for future research. Future scientists should expand the area of research and include more countries in the sample. The expansion will help in drawing a broader conclusion with a bigger picture of the real situation in the world. Also, the future researchers were recommended to use a more advanced model with all factors which were highlighted by previous researchers as potential influencers of decisions by male victims of domestic violence from seeking legal protection.

 

 

References

Bargreen, O. (2014). MMPI-2 personality profiles of male victims of domestic violence : original research into the ‘silent victims’. Saarbrücken: VDM.

Caldwell, R. D. (2014). Male victims of domestic violence. Thesis/dissertation, 201-235.

Celi, E. M. (2013). Breaking the Silence : a Practical Guide for Male Victims of Domestic Abuse. Melbourne: Elizabeth M Celi.

Cook, P. W. (2014). Abused men: the hidden side of domestic violence. Westport: Praeger.

Davis, R. L. (2014). Domestic violence : intervention, prevention, policies, and solutions. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Day, A. (2014). Domestic violence : working with men: research, practice experiences and integrated responses. Annandale: Federation Press.

Drijber, B. C., Reijnders, U. J., & Ceelen, M. (2013). Male Victims of Domestic Violence. Journal of Family Violence, v28 n2, 173-178.

Drijber, B. C., Reijnders, U. J., & Ceelen, M. (2013). Male Victims of Domestic Violence. Journal of Family Violence, v28 n2, 173 – 178.

Fundi, J. (2014). Male victims of domestic violence. Sydney: NSW.

Gadd, D., Farrall, S., Dallimore, D., & Lombard, N. (2014). Male Victims of Domestic Violence. Criminal Justice Matters, v53 n1, 21-86.

Garfield, G. (2014). Knowing what we know : African American women’s experiences of violence and violation. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.

Gerdes, L. I. (2012). Domestic violence. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.

Hamel, J., & Nicholls, T. L. (2015). Family interventions in domestic violence : a handbook of gender-inclusive theory and treatment. New York: Springer Pub.

Heady, Scott, & vous. (2013). Male Victims of Domestic Violence. Journal of Family Violence, v28 n2, 16-83.

Hilder, S., & Bettinson, V. (2016). Domestic Violence: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Protection, Prevention and Intervention. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Island, D., & Letellier, P. (2015). Men who beat the men who love them : battered gay men and domestic violence. New York: Harrington Park Press.

Iwi, K., & Newman, C. (2015). Engaging with perpetrators of domestic violence : practical techniques for early intervention. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Jackson, N. A. (2016). Encyclopedia of domestic violence. New York: Routledge.

Jordan, C. (2014). Male victims of domestic and partner abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1412-1434.

Keeling, J., & Mason, T. (2014). Domestic violence : a multi-professional approach for healthcare practitioners. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill/Open University Press.

Keith E Davis, D., Frieze, I. H., & Maiuro, R. D. (2013). Stalking: perspectives on victims and perpetrators. New York: Springer Pub.

Lazarus-Black, M. (2013). Law and the Pragmatics of Inclusion: Governing Domestic Violence in Trinidad and Tobago. American Ethnologist, 388-416.

Marcus, & Braaf. (2016). Male Victims of Domestic Violence. Journal of Family Violence, 180-213.

McClennen, J. C., & Gunther, J. J. (2014). A professional’s guide to understanding gay and lesbian domestic violence : understanding practice interventions. Lewiston, NY: E. Mellen.

Miles, A. (2011). Domestic violence : what every pastor needs to know. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

Motz, A. (2014). Toxic couples: the psychology of domestic violence. London: Routledge.

Mouzos, & Mkkai. (2014). Stalking : perspectives on victims and perpetrators. New York: Springer Pub.

Natarajan, M. (2016). Domestic violence: the five big questions. Burlington: Ashgate.

Renzetti, C. M., & Edleson, J. L. (2014). Encyclopedia of interpersonal violence. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Reyes, C., Rudman, W. J., & Hewitt, C. R. (2014). Domestic violence and health care: policies and prevention. New York: Haworth Medical Press.

Toit, M. D. (2011). A narrative inquiry into the experience of a male survivor of domestic violence. Thesis/dissertation, 1-53.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[1] Lazarus-Black, M. (2013). Law and the Pragmatics of Inclusion: Governing Domestic Violence in Trinidad and Tobago. American Ethnologist, 388-416.

[2] Jackson, N. A. (2016). Encyclopedia of domestic violence. New York: Routledge.

[3] Gerdes, L. I. (2012). Domestic violence. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.

[4] Cook, P. W. (2014). Abused men: the hidden side of domestic violence. Westport: Praeger.

[5] Hamel, J., & Nicholls, T. L. (2015). Family interventions in domestic violence : a handbook of gender-inclusive theory and treatment. New York: Springer Pub.

[6] Bargreen, O. (2014). MMPI-2 personality profiles of male victims of domestic violence : original research into the ‘silent victims’. Saarbrücken: VDM.

[7] Motz, A. (2014). Toxic couples: the psychology of domestic violence. London: Routledge.

[8] Jordan, C. (2014). Male victims of domestic and partner abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1412-1434.

[9] Iwi, K., & Newman, C. (2015). Engaging with perpetrators of domestic violence : practical techniques for early intervention. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

[10] Caldwell, R. D. (2014). Male victims of domestic violence. Thesis/dissertation, 201-235.

[11] Fundi, J. (2014). Male victims of domestic violence. Sydney: NSW.

[12] Garfield, G. (2014). Knowing what we know : African American women’s experiences of violence and violation. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.

[13] Davis, R. L. (2014). Domestic violence : intervention, prevention, policies, and solutions. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

[14] Natarajan, M. (2016). Domestic violence: the five big questions. Burlington: Ashgate.

[15] Celi, E. M. (2013). Breaking the Silence : a Practical Guide for Male Victims of Domestic Abuse. Melbourne: Elizabeth M Celi.

[16] Keeling, J., & Mason, T. (2014). Domestic violence : a multi-professional approach for healthcare practitioners. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill/Open University Press.

[17] Hilder, S., & Bettinson, V. (2016). Domestic Violence: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Protection, Prevention and Intervention. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

[18] Reyes, C., Rudman, W. J., & Hewitt, C. R. (2014). Domestic violence and health care: policies and prevention. New York: Haworth Medical Press.

[19] Miles, A. (2011). Domestic violence : what every pastor needs to know. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

[20] Toit, M. D. (2011). A narrative inquiry into the experience of a male survivor of domestic violence. Thesis/dissertation, 1-53.

[21] McClennen, J. C., & Gunther, J. J. (2014). A professional’s guide to understanding gay and lesbian domestic violence : understanding practice interventions. Lewiston, NY: E. Mellen.

[22] Island, D., & Letellier, P. (2015). Men who beat the men who love them : battered gay men and domestic violence. New York: Harrington Park Press.

[23] Day, A. (2014). Domestic violence : working with men: research, practice experiences and integrated responses. Annandale: Federation Press.

[24] Renzetti, C. M., & Edleson, J. L. (2014). Encyclopedia of interpersonal violence. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

[25] Drijber, B. C., Reijnders, U. J., & Ceelen, M. (2013). Male Victims of Domestic Violence. Journal of Family Violence, v28 n2, 173 – 178.

[26] Keith E Davis, D., Frieze, I. H., & Maiuro, R. D. (2013). Stalking: perspectives on victims and perpetrators. New York: Springer Pub.

[27] Mouzos, & Mkkai. (2014). Stalking : perspectives on victims and perpetrators. New York: Springer Pub.

[28] Drijber, B. C., Reijnders, U. J., & Ceelen, M. (2013). Male Victims of Domestic Violence. Journal of Family Violence, v28 n2, 173-178.

[29] Marcus, & Braaf. (2016). Male Victims of Domestic Violence. Journal of Family Violence, 180-213.

[30] Heady, Scott, & vous. (2013). Male Victims of Domestic Violence. Journal of Family Violence, v28 n2, 16-83.

[31] Day, A. (2014).

[32] Celi, E. M. (2013).

[33] Gadd, D., Farrall, S., Dallimore, D., & Lombard, N. (2014). Male Victims of Domestic Violence. Criminal Justice Matters, v53 n1, 21-86.

[34] Island, D., & Letellier, P. (2015). Men who beat the men who love them : battered gay men and domestic violence. New York: Harrington Park Press.

[35] Jackson, N. A. (2016). Encyclopedia of domestic violence. New York: Routledge.

[36] Miles, A. (2011).

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