explore the effect of exposing the substrate to UV light based on graphene nanoplatelets and silver nano platelets by using 4APT as a probe molecule



Exposing Substrate to UV light

















New decreased graphene oxide-based silver nanoparticle-containing composite hydrogels were effectively arranged in situ through the concurrent lessening of GRAPHINE and respectable metal forerunners inside the GRAPHINE gel network. The as-framed hydrogels are made out of a system structure of cross-connected Nano sheets. The detailed strategy depends on the in situ co-diminishment of GRAPHINE and silver acetic acid derivation inside the hydrogel grid to frame RGRAPHINE-based composite gel. The adjustment of silver nanoparticles was additionally accomplished at the same time inside the gel composite framework. The as-shaped silver nanoparticles were observed to be homogeneously and consistently scattered on the surface of the RGRAPHINE Nano sheets inside the composite gel. All the more imperatively, this RGRAPHINE-based silver nanoparticle-containing composite hydrogel network goes about as a potential impetus for expelling natural color poisons from a fluid domain. Strangely, the as-arranged synergist composite framework structure can be helpfully isolated from a watery domain after the response, proposing the possibly extensive scale uses of the diminished graphene oxide-based nanoparticle-containing composite hydrogels for natural color expulsion and wastewater treatment.






  • Introduction

Natural dyes are frequently released with wastewater into the nearby condition without sufficient treatment. Quick and advantageous expulsion of natural colors from wastewater has been a testing issue confronted by researchers. For instance, O. Akhavan et al. effectively announced the planning and attractive partition use of superparamagnetic ZnFe2O4/decreased graphene oxide (rGO) composites by aqueous response technique. What’s more, their gathering has additionally explored a few microscopic organism’s bioactivity and connection with condition by accumulated graphene Nano sheets as exemplifying material and compelling photograph warm specialist. Then again, as an alluring class of delicate material, there is significant enthusiasm for amassing graphene and its subsidiaries into 3D permeable gels with ultralow thickness, high compressibility, high conductivity, extensive surface territories and solid mechanical quality.

Likewise, the GRAPHINE-based hydrogels have been acquired by including polymers, macromolecules, little natural particles, or cation mixes into the fluid scattering of GRAPHINE. During the time spent self-get together, the principle main impetuses for gelation are hydrogen holding, communication, or electrostatic cooperation. Considering the permeable structure and the great mechanical quality from the solid stacking of graphene sheet and its subordinates, the 3D gels could be a perfect help for immobilizing different nanoparticles, which can hypothetically give vast water/strong interfaces, where natural colors can be effortlessly gotten to on account of the interconnected permeable structure. In spite of the fact that the arrangement of graphene-based composite hydrogels for photograph impetus has been beforehand announced, recouping the photograph impetus after waste water cleansing has been a testing issue.


4.1. SEM Images

SEM ponder was used to look at the morphologies of RGO-based gel and silver nanoparticles containing RGO based cross breed gels. Both SEM and TEM pictures of the RGO hydrogel demonstrate the GRAPHINE sheets were cross-connected in the permeable PEI systems. To contrast and RGO-based gels, the SEM pictures of silver nanoparticles-containing RGO-based composite gels uncover that the as-shaped silver nanoparticles were homogeneously and consistently deposited on the surface of the RGRAPHINE Nano sheets to get a gel-based nanocomposite framework. Furthermore, the point by point concoction examinations of RGO/PEI/Ag hydrogel were done utilizing EDXS. The substance marks in this way acquired were indistinguishable inside exploratory exactness, and basically Ag, Cu, and C components were watched. The Cu tops began from the TEM network.

It was affirmed by EDXS that we have gotten the silver nanostructures within the sight of vitamin C. The distances across of Ag nanoparticles were resolved from the SEM pictures, which are for the most part in the scope of 60– 70 nm for Ag nanoparticles. The uniform and homogenous improvement of metal nanoparticle on the diminished grapheme oxide Nano sheets can be for the most part ascribed to in situ lessening of metal salts inside the gel network.

The scatterings of GRAPHINE and S-rGO were additionally broke down utilizing SEM. Pictures were taken haphazardly from each specimen. GRAPHINE sheets were set up from regular Gt drops and had noteworthy dissolvability in water in view of their ample oxygen-containing utilitarian gatherings. When all is said in done, Gt seems, by all accounts, to be heaped up with thick cakes, while Graphine is shed into thin expansive pieces with wavy wrinkles.

The functionalized graphene Nano sheets (f-GNs) are generally wrinkled drops that are like GRAPHINE, yet for the f-GNs functionalized with long chains and polymers, the surfaces are coarse and furry and the edges of the chips are foggy. At higher fixations, the surfaces of GRAPHINE sheets have a delicate cover like morphology, which might be because of leftover H2O atoms and hydroxyl/carboxyl gatherings joined to GRAPHINE. Graphine sheets are smooth with little wrinkles at the edges and furthermore look wavy in nature. The SEM pictures of GRAPHINE tests look like straightforward and undulated silk waves. The edges of the peeled GRAPHINE sheets are folded because of the oxidation procedure, while S-rGO has a wrinkled paper-like morphology with a sheet-like structure. Because of expanded levels of oxidation, a noteworthy change was seen at the sharp edges. This distinction in morphology between the collapsed stacked structure of GRAPHINE and the collapsed structures for diminished GRAPHINE infers that the spinach leaf separate decrease process assumes a huge part in this change of GRAPHINE to graphene.

4.2 UV-visible characterization

UV-Vis assimilation estimation was recorded to describe the silver nanoparticles arranged in current test. The places of the surface Plasmon most extreme retention wavelength for silver nanoparticles were around 430nm, these ingestion maxima alluded to round (or about circular) nanoparticles with a trademark normal distance across in the vicinity of 2 and 100nm. In metal nanoparticles, for example, silver nanoparticles both the conduction band and valence band are near each other in which electron can move unreservedly. These free electrons can build surface Plasmon reverberation. Assimilation band, acquired because of aggregate swaying of silver nanoparticles electrons in reverberation with light wavelength. Hypothetically, the electric field of approaching wave actuates polarization of electrons with the regard to much conduct silver nanoparticles ionic center.

Therefore, a net charge varies happens which goes about as reestablishing power. This creates a dipolar wavering of all electrons with a similar stage. For this situation, the dipole Plasmon reverberation top is seen at 430 nm. Contrasted with the run of the mill dipole reverberation crest around 410 nm for little silver nanoparticles (20 nm), the reverberation crest Ingestion spectroscopy relates the sum and kind of brilliant vitality consumed by a material to its structure, fixation and personality. Electromagnetic radiation is generally seen as a flood of discrete bundles of vitality called photons. As per quantum mechanics, iotas and atoms can possess a restricted arrangement of vitality expresses that relate to unmistakable vitality levels. To be consumed, the vitality of the approaching radiation should precisely coordinate the distinction between two of the substance vitality levels. Since particles and atoms have for the most part one of a kind vitality arrangement (electron designs, vibrational/rotational modes), location by ingestion spectroscopy can be made particular.

Moreover, since retention is relative to the grouping of test dissect, spectroscopy can be utilized to evaluate the measure of material present in an obscure. UV-Vis spectroscopy depends on the particular assimilation of electromagnetic radiation in the 180-780 nm wavelength go. UV-Vis radiation has adequate vitality to cause advances in holding electrons (instead of nuclear internal shell or valence electrons) and along these lines, is corresponded best with the conduct of bonds and practical gatherings in the diagnostic. Utilitarian gatherings having electrons with moderately low excitation energies assimilate unequivocally in the UV-Vis district, and are called chromophores.

As indicated by the outcomes, GO/PEI hydrogels, RGO/PEI hydrogels, and RGO/PEI/Ag hydrogel demonstrate a higher warm steadiness contrasted and GO, which could be credited to the higher cross-connecting inside the systems. Indeed, the expansion of low-content PEI can enormously expand the warm solidness of hydrogels, proposing solid associations between GO sheets and PEI, even in such a water-copious hydrogel. The two mass misfortune crests at around 200 and 500 °C of the hydrogels begin from the pyrolysis of the oxygen containing useful gatherings and PEI moieties, separately. At the point when the temperature is higher than 500 °C, the characteristics of the RGO-based hydrogels are not changed, and the nature of RGO/PEI/Ag hydrogel is basically higher than RGO/PEI hydrogel.

It was accounted for that some GO composites demonstrated distinctive weight maintenance esteem at high temperature, likely because of the basic changes from the presence of carbon net-mixes get together structure in the composites. In the present case, the as-framed silver nanoparticles in the composite hydrogels upgrade the warm steadiness of materials to a specific degree. The silver particle discharge conduct from the RGO/PEI/Ag nanocomposites was additionally explored. It obviously showed that the amounts of discharged silver particle expanded strongly in beginning 6 days. From that point forward, the discharge rate of silver particle is moderately moderate, particularly following 12 days. Such discharge conduct of silver particles from RGO/PEI/Ag nanocomposite is like the reports about the Ag/a-TiO2 thin movies and other silver-containing composite frameworks. These outcomes uncover that a moderate discharge component of silver particles for the mesoporous RGO/PEI/Ag nanocomposites contrasting and that for mass grids.

4.3. Photo-induced Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy by UV Light

Raman spectroscopy gives a valuable tool to describe the carbon-based materials. Three renowned groups of graphene sheets in Raman spectra showed up, including the G band (1601 cm−1) began from the principal arrange diffusing of the E2g phonons of the sp2-hybridized carbon iotas, the D band (1351 cm−1) caused by a breathing method of κ-point phonons of A1g symmetry of the imperfections associated with the sp3-hybridized carbon bonds, for example, hydroxyl as well as epoxide bonds, and the 2D band (2692 cm−1) which is much delicate to stacking of graphene sheets. It is set up that the G and 2D groups of single-layer graphene sheets for the most part situate at 1585 and 2679 cm−1, while for multi-layer graphene sheets (counting 2– 6 layers), the places of the G and 2D groups move into lower and higher wavenumbers. Moreover, the 2D/G proportions of single-, twofold, triple-and multi-(>4) layer graphene sheets are regularly >1.6, 0.8, 0.30 and 0.07. For instance, O. Akhavan et al. accomplished great research work and revealed effectively the 2D/G proportions of the single and bilayer GO sheets in the scope of 1.53– 1.68 and 0.82– 0.89, respectively47.

In our present work, the 2D/G proportions of the GO sheets and three distinctive composite gels demonstrated the qualities in the scope of 0.12– 0.14, recommending the multilayer nature in introduce arranged graphene sheets. Likewise, because of the start of the G and D groups, the G/D crest force proportion is known as a measure of the sp2 area size of graphene sheets containing sp3 and sp2 bonds. In our present work, it was discovered that by shaping the composite gels, the D/G proportion moved from 0.97 to the scope of 1.14– 1.23, as appeared in Fig. 4C. This outcome can be ascribed to the fruitful cross-connecting of GO in the hydrogels systems and the nonappearance of the C-N bonds shaped on surface of the RGO sheets.

Since the got RGO/PEI/Ag nanocomposites were set up to apply in the photocatalytic purposes, their surface investigation and interfacial arrangement are of awesome significance. Initially, the study XPS spectra of every single lyophilized example in Fig. 5A demonstrated the trademark tops, for example, C(1s), N(1s), and O(1s). Moreover, we got the relative basic structure and ascertained the O/C proportions of every lyophilized example (GO sheet, 37.26%; GO/PEI gel, 36.08%; RGO/PEI gel, 32.84%; RGO/PEI/Ag gel, 33.46%), separately, which proposed the decrement of oxygen component from GO to RGO process. Besides, the deconvolution C(1s), Ag(3d), and O(1s) of XPS tops for the RGO/PEI/Ag nanocomposite were illustrated.

The pinnacle focused at 284.8 eV was ascribed to the C-C, C = C and C-H bonds. The other de convoluted pinnacles situated at the coupling energies of 286.7, 287.4, 288.2 and 289.2 eV were allocated to the C-OH, C-O-C, C = O, and O = C-OH oxygen-containing bonds, respectively48. Figure 5C presents the high-determination XPS range of Ag(3d) center level in the RGO/PEI/Ag gel. The Ag(3d5/2) and Ag(3d3/2) tops were found at restricting energies of 368.1 and 374.1 eV, separately. Besides, the slitting of the 3d doublet of Ag is 6.0 eV, showing the development of metallic silvers in the RGO/PEI/Ag composite49. To additionally comprehend the compound condition of the silvers, an itemized deconvolution of the Ag(3d) top was likewise performed.

The coupling vitality of Ag(3d5/2) center level for Ag, Ag2O and AgO is 368.4, 368.1 and 367.6 eV, separately. Thus, the Ag(3d5/2) crest was DE convoluted into three Gaussian segments with indistinguishable FWHM after a Shirley foundation subtraction. In light of the deconvolution examination, we found that around 60% of the silvers were in the Ag0 (metallic) state, while around 17% and 23% of them were in Ag+ and Ag2+ synthetic states. Also, the O(1s) photoelectron pinnacle of the RGO/PEI/Ag nanocomposite. This pinnacle can be DE convoluted into two Gaussian segments with indistinguishable FWHM after a Shirley foundation subtraction. The principal part at 532.0 eV can be related to the oxygen of surface OH– bound in the nanocomposite, in which the photograph era of electron-gap changes into OH· free radicals that is of advantage to photograph catalysis forms. The second DE convoluted O(1s) top at 533.0 eV was credited to the oxygen in water atoms existed in the nanostructure or adsorbed in a hurry surface. This implies the surface of RGO/PEI/Ag nanocomposite was as yet permeable, which can be leeway for surface photocatalytic forms.













Reference List

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Section Contents Page
Task 1    
1.1 Evaluate current creative and innovative management processes in an organization 3
1.2 Explain how to lead others to positively embrace innovation and change 3
Task 2    
2.1 Assessment of  the influence of vision and mission on generation of creative and innovative management processes in an organization 4
2.2 Use analytical tools to identify potential creative and innovative management ideas 6
2.3 Assess risks and benefits of creative and innovative management ideas 6
Task 3    
3.1 Produce an appropriate rationale to persuade stakeholders of an organization of the benefits of a creative and innovative management idea 7
3.2 Communicate a creative and innovative management idea to stakeholders of an organization 8
3.3 Establish key goals and priorities for implementation of a creative and innovative management idea using feedback from stakeholders                    9
Task 4    
4.1 Assess the barriers to the implementation of a creative and innovative management idea in an organization   9
4.2 Plan a strategy to overcome identified barriers to the implementation of a creative and innovative management idea in an organization 10
4.3 Explain how a strategy plan for overcoming barriers will ensure innovative change is achieved 11
4.4 Communicate a strategy plan for overcoming barriers to relevant stakeholders in an organization 12
Task 5    
References   13



Boudreau, and Lakhani, (2013) refers to creativity as a process of coming up with new ideas, and innovation as a process of improving the existing ideas in order to meet certain specifications. These specifications are driven by customer satisfaction and profit maximization. Unilever is one of the largest companies in the United Arab Emirates. The management of this organization is termed to be one of the most innovative and creative management that uses current and upcoming technology to improve on the performance of the company. It has incorporated the other employees to generate new ideas that are very much relevant in the field of processing and manufacturing of different brands. Practically, the ideas have been able to be utilized for purposes of diversified dealings in the global market.

Ashkenas, Ulrich, Jick and Kerr have distinctively outlined that for a company to be able to make huge profits and maintain its competitive advantage, then, it has to allow flexibility of its operations i.e. the management should be able to adapt in the dynamic environment of its operations. The management of Unilever is currently employing new technology into the company’s activities. It is improving on its products, such products include the new brushes ‘little brush big brush’, is the latest innovation that has been made by the management and hence, terms such as making brushing a fun. The other innovation is Flora, a product that has been improvised from flowers. These innovations in other words have created a milestone in the business environment of Unilever. In return, the profits and wealth is maximized. Thus, the company still remains a going concern that is operating at the top of the competitive environment.


Innovation is a mechanism where one undertakes to improve on the idea that has already been implemented. This is usually done to come up with different products which are subsets of the original ones. The main aim of embracing change is help the business camouflage in the competitive environment. The environment is one where other entities do not out perform its operations and dominate the market.  The innovation is brought about by changes in technology due to passage of time and new ideas that are being improvised. Technology changes drastically due to new ideas that are being introduced in the information system worldhttp://www.newsint-archive.co.uk/


The leadership of an organization is vested on the management as depicted by Cairncross, (2001). The best step that can be used by the management is to have all its employees incorporated in decision making. Drucker, (1998) Leadership will be based on the intellectual i.e. tacit knowledge of a person. The management of the company are required to use their own skills to help lead others to embrace any change that may arise in the course of business. Unilever management has considered so many tactical ways of embracing such innovations and changes amongst the other employees. The first strategy involved is combination of efforts that leads to a synergy i.e. one plus one is equivalent to three.  Involving the employees in decision making and allowing them to participate will always leave a determined effort to them. Such effort will always give them the morale of toiling hard to see that the change is incorporated. Using such a leadership style which is participative in nature will always encompass all the changes that are required.

According to Birkinshaw and Hagström, (2001) for change to be accepted by the organization i.e. the top management and the other employees, the importance must be clearly outlined. The other employees should be involved in a brainstorming exercise. The exercise has made businesses to greater to higher levels. It may be accompanied by benchmarking which includes obtaining strategic ideas from different organizations. The ideas are crucial in the sense that they help the company in developing and establishing its strategic plan (Maital, and Seshadri, 2012). In this exercise ideas are generated based on the already laid down idea. This is part of the improvement (Füller et al, 2011). Creative heads innovation in that innovation is an improvement of what has already been put in place. The exercise welcomes ideas from all employees i.e. employees are involved in decision making processes. Before change can be implemented, a well laid down structure is to be considered to make it elaborate for the process to be viable. Ideas are collected and noted for purposes of analysis and evaluation. Involving employees will prove that they are highly recognized and this creates a memorandum of association (Artto et al, 2011).


Each and every company is required by the companies Act to have a set of vision and mission statement (Chauvel, Tressols, Despres, Meschi, and Dibbiagio, 2012). The vision statement outlines the future objectives of the company whereas the mission statement outlines the reason as to why the company was formed and the purpose for its existence. The vision statement of Unilever is more practicable since it is based on the common people. The statement indicates that the company was formed mainly for the purpose of making living a common place. The vision has influenced the management of the Unilever to generate ideas that ideally positively affect the company and the general public. The vision has influenced generation of ideas, in particular creativity and innovativeness of the management. Using the statement as a framework has helped the management to develop new ideas and also improve on the existing ones. The management relates the current occurrences with the vision statement to come up with an advanced idea.

Unilever uses the mission statement to correlate its operations with those that are expected for the company. Additionally, the statement outlines what is expected for the company to come up with reasonable and improved products. The statement has influenced the process and therefore, the management is challenged to generate ideas that alter or bring into the market new products. These products will finally help the company to remain in the competitive environment. The mission statement outlines the purpose of the business, how the business is to operate and what is expected out of its operations. Mission statement is a subset of the vision statement. The statements go hand in hand. Therefore, a business existence must rely on these statements. Similarly, the mission of the business influences the creative and innovative nature of the management process. The impact can either be positive or a negative impact. It can be negative if it is only restricted to given objectives and it can be positive if no restriction is imposed (David Ford, Gadde Håkansson and Snehota, 2003).


The vision and mission may entail strategic plans for the business. This means that; Unilever has been guided by them and that is the reason as to why it has dominated the global market and gathered a huge share of the market. The processes have been influenced by these statements since they are typically set to be followed mechanically by the employees. Unilever uses different techniques to curb the attention of its employees. The statements depict the nature of the operations and the level of creativity and innovation that may be involved by the management and the employees. The vision of the company influences the creativity and innovativeness of the management. It holds on the already rigid vision that has been set by the owners that cannot be altered in one way or another. This is because it is not flexible i.e. it is not subject to alteration. If altered, it will mean that the original intention has been interfered with (Boudreau, and Lakhani, 2013). This is evident in Clegg”creativity and innovation for managers”

The resultant of applying the outlines of the statements has practically enhanced the performance of Unilever. Comparing the past performance of the company and the current, there is improvements in its profitability levels and wealth maximization.


The tool used in this case of Unilever is the SWOT analysis. It enumerates the various strengths and weaknesses that may face the company as well as the opportunities that may be available for expansion and various threats that are encountered in the course of operation.

Strength- the main strength of the company is that, it has been able to establish its operations in many countries of the world. Secondly, the company operates on basics that are very fundamental to human life. The development of new products has always increased the gap between Unilever and other companies.

Opportunity- due to generation of new ideas and improvement of the existing ones, opportunities easily arise. These opportunities include room for expansion and increasing the market share. It may require more capital being injected into the business but also there is a great potential of generating more profit.

Threats- users get challenged easily. Unilever may face challenges and a stiff competition from its competitors. A competitor here is referred to as a company that produces and operates the same commodities or substitute goods. Such competition in the long term results to one of the company being a looser in case it does not take appropriate measures of mitigation.


According to Amit, and Zott, (2012) a risk is an element that is perceived by an investor who undertakes to make a profit from his investments. These risks are can be termed as business risks and finance risks. Boudreau, and Lakhani, (2013) gives a definite looks on the risks and also depicts the various ways of assessing risks that may be faced by companies. Some of the risks will have positive impacts while some will not.

Unilever is a multinational company that faces risks that arise in the course of its operations. The risks that may be faced by the company will specifically be rotating around the business and finance risk. Unilever is basically faced by business risk, both diversifiable and non-diversifiable http://www.britishcouncil.org.uk/. The risks arise in particular in its areas of operations. These implies that, in countries that are faced with political clashes will always be unstable and eventually will affect the market of Unilever products. Some of these risks cannot be avoided at all costs. When such risks are experienced there is likelihood that the company may suffer losses that will lower its performance (Gassmann, Enkel, and Chesbrough, 2010).

According to Guest, (2011); the environment where the business operates always determines whether the business will be successful or not. It is in this environment where the business obtains the market for its products and services. Therefore, Unilever is faced with challenges when it operates in an environment that is not conducive. This means that it faces the risks of product rejection and hence, customers will prefer substitute goods. In the analysis made by (Kindström, 2010) the customer is the key and is always right. Due to such conditions, the management of Unilever is forced to be creative and innovative enough to generate and improve ideas that will help curb the rejection and substitution of their products. A hostile environment will always affect the performance of the company. The overall outcome will be losses.

Unilever also faces risks that are attributed to currency. The risks will be visible when the company translates the currencies from one denomination to the other. This implies that the currency that will be stronger at the time of the transaction will always prevail.

There are several benefits that Unilever extracts from creative and innovative management ideas. The company has obtained increased sales over the years. This is so because new ideas of how to improve the products and on how to diversify operations are being introduced from time to time. Increased sales simply mean an increase in the profit of the company.


A rational is basically a basis as outlined by Teece, 2012. The basis that is of use in such a scenario must incorporate the priority of the stakeholders. The priority here is the need to maximize wealth. The rationale will be based on the mentioned principle for it to be effected and to be seen as a benefit to the company (Langley, Smallman, Tsoukas, and Van de Ven, 2013).

Unilever’s management has always had a task of giving rationales that will be of persuasive nature to the stakeholders. The rationale that may be provided due to the creativity and innovative management process should reflect the greater picture of both short term and long term outcomes of the company (Langley et al, 2013). These processes are very important to any developing, multinational and companies that would prefer going global. Innovation adds a milestone to the products of the company. In this case creativity and innovation has benefited the company from all corners of its operations.

So long as creativity and innovation is of value, it will never be declined by the stakeholders. Therefore, the rationale here will reflect the benefits of such improvements. All possible outcomes must be reflected and well defined to the stakeholders (Christiansen, 2003). The possibility of further expenditure should be correlating with the outcomes; otherwise such changes may face rejection from the stakeholders.

Innovation and creativity is facilitated by the managers of Unilever by providing the employees with the requirements they may need, and allowing them to do the things that they see will bring about the change. They should support the information technology and other departments that deals` with the advancement of technology in order to look and establish new ideas and ways that help in innovation. This can only be achieved by leaders and managers that allow room for employees by motivating them and steering their efforts on creativity.


Unilever is an organization that has roots all over the world and therefore it must be very sensitive to any changes that may arise. In as much as it is a multinational company, it has some weaknesses when it comes to operations. Basing on the current products of the company, more innovative ideas need to be applied more so when it comes to packaging and branding of its products.

The idea on packaging should be viewed from the perception of waste management. A more elaborate way is to be improvised to be a solution to products that are packaged in polythene bags that are hazardous. The best innovative idea the management can communicate to the stakeholders is the idea of generating packaging ways that will not affect human beings. Through communication many objectives and companies objectives can be achieved through technologies. People especially customers point out their views and action is taken by focusing on peoples issues. Also, through communication the distribution of product in time can be taken into consideration and marketing of the product.

Considering the current changes in technology, proper technology should be adopted to ensure that the company is up to date and it does not use outdated technology. The current changes in advertising should be adopted by Unilever to ensure that they widen their market share. Various online methods should be given priority.

Besides packaging and branding, the company should diversify its operations into offering financial related products and also consultancy services. These innovations may be profit centers after their adoption.


There are some things in number 3.2 above that should be taken into consideration from the stakeholders. Companies should focus on its employees and offer them with welcoming environment that can help them market their products extensively. The outside market is very competitive and some products are left by the customers to look for better prices and of advanced technology. The prices should be of average as compared to the same product cost of other companies. The cost should be at least low to attract more customers depending on the cost of manufacture and shipping cost.

The goals and priorities due to the ongoing competition are to come up with something that is related to the advanced technology and of high quality. The cost of the product and services also matters a lot in the current situation of average prices.

The priorities should be given to the employees and have organizations that is free in doing things. These create motivation on them and focus on the work. This gives them room and ability to be creative and come up with ways that enhances creativity and innovation to come up with different ideas that avoids traffics. These objectives should be taken into considerations.


The environment in which the company operates is faced with so many challenges. These challenges are barriers to implementation of change which is based on creativity and innovation. These barriers as analyzed Clegg, (1999) by include;

  • Lack of cooperation.

In most cases when advancement is developed or a new idea is generated, there is a tendency of the employees becoming repellant. This is normally created by those that do not what to incorporate change. They will always not want to accept change. If there is no cooperation then those that will be used to implement change will be the people against the change itself.

  • Communication

The basic and important tool in a successful company is communication. For better performance and quality co-ordination, employees of a given organization must have a communication channel that clearly stimulates the desire to work. Once change is to be implemented the basic key drivers are managers who have to ensure that change is adopted (Maital, and Seshadri, 2012).


  • Employee’s resistance

it is common to any institution that wants to implement change which is as a result of creativity and innovation to have resistance from its own employees. Not all employees would recommend change. This creates a difficult environment for the business to operate in. change will be denied even if the change is to benefit the organization itself including the employees (Langley et al, 2013).

Sometimes the management itself is always afraid of change. Creative and innovative change is improvised by active management but when it comes to implementation there is a lot of resistance from fellow managers. They always feel threatened and feel like the change may befall them. This challenge always acts as a lead amongst others. It is the management that has to lead by example while others follow (Maital, and Seshadri, 2012).


The best way to overcome these strategies is by involving other employees. Creativity and innovation are company related ideas that are accompanied with change depending on the circumstance http://www.benchmarkingnetwork.com/

Knowing and understanding how an organization works is the most important step a management can make. These means that if all corners where problematic views could arise from are identified and sealed in time so that change is not rejected by other employees. The management after identifying the relevant change should communicate and involve other employees in the process of implementation. By doing these chances of hostility will be minimized to low levels and one may not find it necessary to reject change. Proper strategies should be put in place to allow the management work accordingly. Proper standards and measures should be put in place to ensure that such innovative and creative changes are implemented and not rejected (Chauvel et al, 2012).

Change is always inevitable and therefore the best way is to accept it. A plan strategy in this case of Unilever is to communicate the change to the relevant personnel. The idea should be communicated and possibly all that are involved in the operations of the company should be involved. Democracy is to be practiced for such an idea to get its way through (David Ford, Gadde, Håkansson and Snehota , 2003). This means that the change should be accepted beginning with the other employees first.

Secondly, before it faces hostility, the stakeholders should be notified of any change that may affect the operations of the company. For example, if creativity takes the course and totally a new product is to be developed, then the stakeholders should be informed and be aware of any preliminary expenses before such a product can start generating profit http://www.asa.org.uk/

The idea should be aimed at improving the performance of the company and not making the company suffer losses. This strategy will always involve the other employees so that they do not feel discriminated and hence the process of implementing the idea will be made easier.



The strategy that is used for purposes or implementation of the idea will be of importance when it comes to embracing change. As indicated before that change is inevitable, then it has to be accepted and implemented accordingly. Sometimes due to various barriers that exist internally or externally the change may not be embraced. Therefore, the management is tasked to ensure that the change is achieved http://www.bbc.co.uk/

Strategy plan put in place will depend on the activities of the organization. Proper strategy will ensure innovative change being incorporated into the operations of the business (David Ford, Gadde, Håkansson and Snehota, 2003). An effective strategy will always tend to minimize costs and maximize profit of the company. As a result the owners who are the shareholder will be satisfied since their wealth will be maximized (Gassmann, Enkel, and Chesbrough, 2010). The strategy should be implemented step by step and not once. If implemented once it means that it may face resistance from other employees. The barriers may be eradicated slowly as change is incorporated into the system. Such strategy include; proper training where intense knowledge is recommended about the innovative change.

The management should address the issue by involving the other employees i.e. it should be considered teamwork to avoid hostility. The employees should be put into groups and tasked with the responsibility of ensuring that supportive ideas will be involved.


The stakeholder is a person that has a vested interest in a company. Unilever’s stakeholders have tasked the management with running the operations of the organization. They are the people who make policies and ensure that they are implemented. A plan in this case will be of more help on how to present changes, especially involving creativity and innovation. A strategy to be adopted here should be very much open and straightforward.

First and foremost the stakeholders can be a barrier to the change itself. This implies that a clear and distinctive idea should be communicated. Once the stakeholders are aware of the change and the relevancy is communicate which is based on protecting their interest and company performance, and then a plan to overcome other barriers can also be communicated. A best strategy plan is involving all the stakeholders in the process of implementation which may involve communicating the change first and allowing opinions from other managers. The strategy will ensure no stone is left unturned. All people involved in this are given a direction on which to accept changehttp://www.findarticles.com/


Unilever has adopted this kind of strategy hence making easier the implementation process of creative and innovative change.

Communication barrier can easily be eliminated. This is possible by planning on how the other people should be informed about the change. The best way is to notify them about the importance of such a change and how it will benefit them after it is implemented.

Involving the other staff and stakeholders will encourage the spirit of cooperation. Therefore, combined efforts will always boost decision making process and its implementation thereof.






Ashkenas R, Ulrich D, Jick T and Kerr S – The Boundaryless Organization (Jossey-Bass, 2002) ISBN 078795943X

Birkinshaw J and Hagström P — The Flexible Firm (Oxford University Press, 2001) ISBN 0199248559

Cairncross F – The Death of Distance (Harvard Business School Press, 2001) ISBN 157851438X

Christensen C – Innovation and the General Manager (McGraw-Hill, 2002) ISBN 0071183809

Christiansen J A – Competitive Innovation Management: Techniques to Improve Innovation Performance (Palgrave USA, 2003) ISBN 0312230257

Clegg B – Creativity and Innovation for Managers (Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999) ISBN 0750642556

David Ford D, Gadde L E, Håkansson H and Snehota I – Managing Business Relationships (John Wiley and Sons, 2003) ISBN 0470851252

Drucker P F – Innovation and Entrepreneurship (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2007) ISBN 0750685085

Financial Times – Mastering Global Business (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 1998) ISBN 0273637061

Galbraith J R – Designing the Global Corporation (Jossey-Bass, 2000) ISBN 0787952753

Gupta A K and Westney E – Smart Globalization: Designing Global Strategies,



Amit, R. and Zott, C., 2012. Creating value through business model innovation. MIT Sloan Management Review, 53(3), p.41.

Boudreau, K.J. and Lakhani, K.R., 2013. Using the crowd as an innovation partner. Harvard business review, 91(4), pp.60-69.

Chauvel, D., Tressols, F., Despres, C., Meschi, P.X. and Dibbiagio, L., 2012. The open innovation of management & organization. Management in the knowledge economy–new managerial models for success.

Gassmann, O., Enkel, E. and Chesbrough, H., 2010. The future of open innovation. R&d Management, 40(3), pp.213-221.

 Guest, D.E., 2011. Human resource management and performance: still searching for some answers. Human resource management journal, 21(1), pp.3-13.

Kindström, D., 2010. Towards a service-based business model–Key aspects for future competitive advantage. European Management Journal, 28(6), pp.479-490.

Langley, A., Smallman, C., Tsoukas, H. and Van de Ven, A.H., 2013. Process studies of change in organization and management: Unveiling temporality, activity, and flow. Academy of Management Journal, 56(1), pp.1-13.

 Teece, D.J., 2012. Dynamic capabilities: Routines versus entrepreneurial action. Journal of Management Studies, 49(8), pp.1395-1401.















A marketing mix is a vital tool in marketing which assists the manufacturer to understand what a particular product or service can offer in the market and how the manufacturer can ensure the full potential of the product in the market (Huang, Rong and Emine 2014).


Most of the goods and services depend on the people for their manufacturing, creation, promotion, and delivery to the targeted market group. The nature of such business enterprises demands interactions between the people and the manufacturers, consumers and the service providers (Jeston and Johan 2014). This particular interaction has direct effect on the   perception of the brand to the customers because the sales agents from the manufacturing company has the capability to influence the customers conception of a particular product, this can be done through persuasion of the client on the advantages of the product or service as compared to a competitor product or service in the market.

This App is a service that will in most cases depend on the target market that is the customer and the service provider (Cavanagh 2012). The App will not have much direct contact with the consumers and the service providers, those who operate the system. But this does not mean that the consumers will not be frequently interacting with us that are not the case as we will have an all-round clock hotline that the consumer may use to reach us. Users will also be able to write us reviews, provide star ratings and comments about our services on the commentary space that we will provide on our site. Getting the views of the consumers will also enable us to gauge ourselves on either our progress or our weaknesses before taking necessary action. The App was also targeting to be more convenient for people by providing a more reliable technology system that allows for easier accessibility and uniform to everyone for a better service (Cavanagh 2012). This we will realize by employing more experts in the Information and Technology and computer engineers.

The business enterprise will use people in its advertisements and promotions. The App will be advertised by the use of human beings in the televisions and YouTube platforms, for instance, those who have asked for the services of the App and have been satisfied with the outcomes can be used in the televisions to attest to the general public about the validity and convenience of the services provided. Sales persons who walk around the different towns can also be used to influence the perception of the public about the services being provided by the app and generally on the good services offered the different service providers. People can also be used to advertise and promote this app through social media platforms as those people who are most influencing in the social media through blogs; Twitter etc. can be used as they typically tend to have a wide following. The business enterprise will also ensure that it recruits employs who share the same values of the business and have the high level of integrity and personal discipline (Jeston and Johan 2012). The employs should be well trained and acquire business code of ethics that will enable the business to realize its aims and goals and also compete favorably with its competitors.


This is a sequence of interdependent and linked tasks which are done to achieve the delivery of a good or a service to the consumer. It can also be defined as the actual procedures, set activities or tasks like planning, production or sales that will assist in accomplishing an organizational objective and goal (Scheer 2012). The process customers go through in the app list is simple, easy and fast. This is so to ensure that the consumer feels much cared for and well acquainted by the business enterprise. The services the app will offer include; gardening, babysitting, hairstyling and makeup, cleaning, personal cleaning and pet care. These services are targeted to be offered to countries that speak English language, for example, the United States and the United Kingdom before it can be extended to countries that do not speak English, this is so because it is precarious to start providing services to many nations as that would be more expensive hence high production cost being incurred by the app creators. As mentioned earlier it would be a great challenge to be consistent within a section of the world concerning validity and copyright issues (Scheer 2012).

The app creators are also mindful of the process the app would reach the consumer as the competitive pricing strategy provide effective service and security as it would bar away competitors. The app creators have not put any charges when installing the app or in-app charges; this will attract a large number of people installing the app. Again, consumers do not incur any charges for downloading the app because many consumers fear to spend money on downloading an app that they have not given a trial. It is up to a successful business to ensure its security and authenticity. Therefore, the app creators are to be aware of hackers and cyber-attacks and for this reason, they should put strict measures to ensure the security of the system to avoid their name and brand being tarnished.

There are a few steps that the user should use so as to realize maximum satisfaction by the app and the service providers. The steps are as follows;

  1. First, the user needs to have a Smartphone with an Android or an Apple operating system.
  2. The user installs or downloads the app at a charge free rate from the Apple app store or the Android Play store.
  3. The app lists jobs and services in a relaxed and creative manner then the user also lists and hires a service he or she would require.
  4. Service providers and users will be asked to verify their profiles by providing their identifications as a mandatory policy.
  5. Payments will then be made online through VISA, MasterCard, American Express, Quick-pay or the PayPal. Payments will be completed once the services have been approved by both sides to ensure that both the users and service providers are satisfied with the app and its services.


Services are intangible, and for this reason, there is need to come up with physical cues so as to assist the users and prospective users to evaluate and gauge the business(Marjanovic, Caroline and Joana 2012). These physical cues make up the marketing mix hence the app creators had invested heavily on this physical cues so as to sell and promote their business. The app creators have to put up a very convincing advert so as to lure more consumers into using the app. They have to use people in their adverts so as to influence and impact on other people about the app. The use of sales persons should be a priority in the advertisement and promotion methods because some users may require thorough convincing to start using the app. Big billboards should be erected along the highways with high human and vehicle traffic to create public awareness of the existence of the app.

The business logo used for the business should be more appealing to the eye so as to attract a large number of people to look and inquire what its all about and should also send some little message about the business. The logo should be simple and clear so as to be able to send a quick message of what it stands for. Therefore it should not be complicated as it may discourage the users in interpreting what it says. The app creators have ensured easy accessibility of the app as most individuals own smartphones.  Accessibility has also been enhanced by installing and downloading the app has been lessened due to good network sites and website of the app this allows for quicker access to the service providers in case you wanted their services. The business has been able to realize this goal by employing qualified individuals and experts in the various fields, for instance, experts in Information and Technology and Business advisers.

The app creators have invested much in ensuring that the integrity and good name of the businesses upheld; in so doing it recruit employs with the high level of integrity and self-discipline. The business also goes to the extent of training employs on the business code of ethics to help the name of their business fly higher above of that of their competitors. The business has also been in the forefront in ensuring consumer satisfaction as they have put up an all-round hotline that provides customer services and assistance and support where applicable.



Works Cited

Huang, Rong, and Emine Sarigöllü. “How brand awareness relates to market outcome, brand equity, and the marketing mix.” Fashion Branding and Consumer Behaviors. Springer New York, 2014. 113-132.


Jeston, John, and Johan Nelis. Business process management. Routledge, 2014.


Scheer, August-Wilhelm. Business process engineering: reference models for industrial enterprises. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.


Marjanovic, Sonja, Caroline Fry, and Joanna Chataway. “Crowdsourcing based business models: In search of evidence for innovation 2.0.” Science and Public Policy 39.3 (2012): 318-332.


Cavanagh, Gerald F. American business values. Pearson Higher Ed, 2012.






Managing Strategic Planned Innovation and Entrepreneurship by Tourism Business in Dubai


Studies show a significant connection between the current rise educational status and stiff competition for skill-intensive positions within UK-based organizations (Burniske & Burniske, 2008). Alongside the empirical evidence is that globalization, which triggered the shift to skill-intensive economic structure- which rewards skill more than expended strength or energy, also supports the extensive use of digital gadgets and the Internet. The internet and digital media, in turn, enable real-time communication, easy storage and retrieval of information, and quick and even spontaneous regeneration or reproduction of materials in diverse areas of the globe at any time or day. Regardless, increased circulation of information and high academic expectations present a serious ethical matter- plagiarism (Costigan & George, 2013, p. 10).


Plagiarism has generated significant attention over the last two decades, with scholars exploring the diversity of practices that warrant an array of consequential institutional punishments (Burniske & Burniske, 2008).  Therefore, the definition of plagiarism has gone beyond the narrow scope of “activities that entailed copying or producing copyright published material as one’s own” to include stealing and producing expressions, ideas, thoughts, presentation, and language of the originator and displaying them as one’s work.  Plagiarism in considered both as a violation of media ethics and academic dishonesty, which attracts various forms of punishments, including expulsion, suspension, and penalties from respective institutions (Costigan & George, 2013, p. 10).

Plagiarism has adverse implications in diverse fields (including journalism, art and production, and, most importantly academia) and the development of institutional frameworks that scrutinize and punish plagiarism in specific fields is encouraged. For example, Pecorari (2013) contends that most educational and news organization have their own policy that defines and punishes plagiarism.  Nonetheless, found in Michael’s (2017) study is that plagiarism has been accorded different weight in different disciplines, resulting in differential exposure. The subsequent section describes the recent formations of plagiarism in academic integrity the UK.

Plagiarism in Poetry

The idea that few cases of plagiarism involve poetry in the UK does not imply that the majority of authors are reasoned responders to the global call to uphold integrity in arts and production.  Apple and Snakes (2015), for example, interviewed a member of a local council that tracks down plagiarism in poetry, worrying magnitude of plagiarized work in poetry on the ignorance and negligence on the part of poets. Their report announces that Ira Lightman’s Foundation, a small independent organization, had reported more than ten cases of borrowed, stolen, and copied words in the UK alone over the past three years. For example, the report presented Sheree Mack’s ‘Laventilee,’ among books that contain series of plagiarized poems in the UK. As such, evident in Iran Lightman’s argument is that extensive borrowing of material has ushered in an age of plagiarized poetry in the UK- a matter- which is, in fact, a matter of immediate concern.

The outcomes outlined above justify efforts to articulation the lack of specialized agency that majors in poetry as the major factor that allows plagiarism to go unpunished in the UK.  Park (2003, p. 487) believes that this depravity has long been used to justify the stealing ideas, phrases, and language. For example, the lack of structures that reports and punishes plagiarism nurtures a care-free attitude among poets who consider stealing a “go around come around” kind of happening that is systemically, yet problematically, integrated into the society.  Even so, evidence suggests that people are becoming increasingly aware of the ethical implications of plagiarism in the UK and that programs are underway to support specialized groups that target plagiarism in poetry (Burniske & Burniske, 2008).

Academic Integrity in the UK

Plagiarism and cheating are significant offenses and have long been regarded as indicators of academic dishonesty among academic institutions of the UK. The situation is well- is founded on the increasing number of students, professors, and teachers who have reported and punished in the country (Prasant, 2013). Much as these developments hint increased awareness among stakeholders in educational institutions in the UK, the lack of generally accepted plagiarism-check criteria has caused the majority of universities to depend on online tools, some of which are ineffective.  Among the most recent report of extreme plagiarism in UK’s higher education is in John Emle’s (2017) article, which stressed the role of internet-enabled paraphrasing sites in facilitating intentional plagiarism (copying, word-switching, and hidden sources) in schools. The case becomes even more problematic given that many institutions of higher learning depend on plagiarism identification software solutions that lack the mechanisms to detect plagiarism in paraphrased texts. Emle’s (2017) show that the majority of these tools are contracted to detect the first source of information, which undermines their credibility.

The infiltration of academic dishonesty in UK’s primary education comes out in a more recent publication with “The Guardian.” Michael’s (2017) article reported an interesting case where teachers helped children to reach academic targets. The story, for example, cited a Sats primary teacher who, burdened by the 65% target in children with expected educational performance, chose to help borderline children in their exams. It is more than compelling to agree to the fact that cheating has a strong presence among primary school teachers, and this, according to Michael (2017) is because of lack of monitoring frameworks that ensures accountability in their evaluative works.

Conclusion and Personal Opinion

Plagiarism has a broad definition based on the discipline in focus. For example, plagiarism in academia includeS all actions that constitute stealing and producing expressions, ideas, thoughts, presentation, and language of the originator, and displaying without acknowledging respective sources (Nastasi et al., 2007, p. 178). Despite the severity of attached punishments, recent reports highlight the lack of effective scrutinizing frameworks as a major factor behind UK’s accommodating attitude towards plagiarism in education and poetry  (Macdonald & Headlam, 2008). The mismatch between educational objectives and capabilities of learners has also had a share in supporting dishonesty in academia as teacher resolve to held sidelined students to attain established academic performance standards (Nastasi et al., 2007, p. 178).  There are numerous reasons for low levels of academic integrity in the UK, but these are just bit excuses in the light of the negative implications of plagiarism. As such, the lack of effective universally accepted plagiarism identification platforms and the unavailability of mechanisms that focus on specific fields should not be taken as a scapegoat to allowed violators of the ethical provision to go unpunished. Conversely, the spirit of integrity will preferably thrive on systems that allow accountability, and this should set the course for all stakeholders of academia today.







Task 2: Review Module Content in WOLF

The University of Wolverhampton provides access to a range of materials that provide rich insight into research methods. The catalog consist of materials that deal with the most important aspect of research work, right from the conception of research problems (such as in sessions 2 and 3) to the point where researchers need to make conclusions based analyzed data (e.g., sessions 8 and 9). Among the most important derivation from these materials is that researchers must have an expansive knowledge of research methods to make choices that best suit their research problem.  Worth noting is that each of the course material was highly informative. Information was also arranged in logical successions to help the gradual development of research skill, from less-sophisticated to more complex knowledge. For example, Hansman (2015) advises teachers to focus first on less technical matters such as research topic selection, research theories, and formulation of research questions (which are elaborate in preliminary sessions i.e., sessions 1 and 2) before going to the technicalities of  data collection and data analysis (as evident in latter sessions i.e., sessions 3 to session 10).

Regardless of their cumulative importance, sessions 7 to 10 useful in my research endeavors. More specifically, Session 7 exposes students to valuable information concerning research variables and OLS modeling, which are core in the ability to conduct an imperial analysis. For example, it may be deduced  from this material that elements that fall under the definition of entrepreneurship -such as leadership, production, marketing, and service (Al-Hakim & Jin, 2010)-  and innovation -such as flexibility to change and creativity (Rauch & Frese, 2007, p. 375)- are independent variables while those that fall within the definition of business development -e.g., leadership, production, marketing, and customer focus (Rauch & Frese, 2007, p. 375)- are dependable variables in  my study, which concerns exploring the significance of the entrepreneurship and innovation in ‘business development’. The session also contains details entailing linear–square regression, how to generate estimators that have preferable properties for assumed data generation process, and the use of SPSS in understanding that variables that should be used for analysis.

Unlike in session 7, session 8 was particularly useful when it comes to designing and using qualitative interviews, which is a central research instrument in my project. Among the most conspicuous contribution of this material is its success in underpinning the connection between the realist epistemology and use of qualitative interviews and researchers’ need to study reality from the perspective of participants, which is briefly explained in Hansman’s (2015) authorship. Session 8 is a valuable resource in helping students to decide which type of interview to apply based on their features, advantages, and limitations. Falling in the same category as session 8 is session 9 that introduces observation as a category of research method, and provides in-depth guidance on how to conduct and assess observations.

Session 10 was, perhaps, one of the most important materials in my study, bearing in mind its extensive exploration of details of case study research.  Session 10, like Ghauri and Grønhaug (2010), recommends the deployment of the case-study approach in studies that seek to explore the ‘why’ and ‘how’ causal relationships exist. The session also recommends case study for businesses, because it enables the use of evidence from particular organizations (such as tourism business in Dubai in my study) to study the role of innovation and entrepreneurship in the performance of all businesses.

Conclusion and Recommendation

As observed above, Wolverhampton exposes students to rich martial on research methods, and this is particularly helpful in guiding students through research, both at present and in the future. Regardless, specific sources that look into matters such as research ethics and sampling generally lack. Recommendable materials to boost students’ knowledge in these areas include:

1:  “Research Methods Handbook” by Macdonald & Headlam (2008)

This source is recommendable as it covers research methods in depth, including themes such as forms of research, sampling criteria, research tools, data collection, and research analysis. The material was selected as it elaborates variables to be considered in sampling or choosing study population, selecting applicable statistical tests and ways of analyzing data output. In the same category are sources such as “Business Research Methods” by Quinlan et al. (2015)

2: “Navigators on the Research Path” by Hansman (2015)

This source exposes readers to the ethics of research. The selection of this material is justifiable as research thrives on standard values- including as honesty, non-discrimination, respect to intellectual property, and confidentiality (to mention but a few)- which are essentials of successful research.
















AL-HAKIM, L., & JIN, C. (2010). Innovation in business and enterprise: technologies and frameworks. Hershey, PA, Business Science Reference.

APPLE AND SNAKES. 2015. YouTube. YouTube. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yy2rG_m3sHk [Accessed June 9, 2017].

BURNISKE, R. W., & BURNISKE, R. W. (2008). Literacy in the digital age. Thousand Oaks, Calif, Corwin Press. (Burniske & Burniske, 2008)

COSTIGAN, ANNE T., & GEORGE, SARAH. (n.d.). Plagiarism Avoidance for New Students: Smoothing the transition into Higher Education. 8, 8-11. http://hdl.handle.net/10454/5504. (Costigan & George, 2013, 0. 12).

ELMES, J. “Online Paraphrasing Tools ‘Facilitating Plagiarism’”. Times Higher Education (THE). N.p., 2017.A Available at https://www.timeshighereducation.com/search/type/breaking_news?search=plagiarism. (Accessed 9th June, 2017).

GHAURI, P. N., & GRØNHAUG, K. (2010). Research methods in business studies. Harlow, UK, Financial Times / Prentice-Hall.

HANSMAN, C. A. (2015). Navigators on the Research Path.

MACDONALD, S., & HEADLAM, N. (2008). Research methods handbook: introductory guide to research methods for social research. Manchester, Centre for Local Economic Strategies.

MICHAEL, R., 2017. ‘I’m teaching – and I’m cheating’: confessions of a primary Sats teacher. The Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/education/2017/jun/06/teaching-cheating-primary-school-sats-teacher-tests [Accessed June 9, 2017].

NASTASI, B., HITCHCOCK, J., SARKAR, S., BURKHOLDER, G., VERJAS, K., AND JAYASENA, A. 2007. Mixed methods in intervention research: Theory adaptation. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(2), p.164–182.

PARK, C. (2003). In Other (People’s) Words: plagiarism by university students-literature and lessons. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION. 28, 471-488. (Park, 200, p. 487)

PECORARI, D. (2013). Teaching to avoid plagiarism: how to promote good source use. Maidenhead, Berkshire, England, McGraw-Hill Education, Open University Press. http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=1336595.

PRASANT, M. 2013. Research Methodology. Virtual Academy: Research Methodology; Lecture 1 (MiniCourse) [Online]. University of California. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9IJscfF_irU [Accessed: 10th June 2016].

QUINLAN, C., BABIN, B., CARR, J., GRIFFIN, M., & ZIKMUND, W. G. (2015). Business research methods. Hampshire, Cengage Learning EMEA.

RAUCH, A. AND FRESE, M. 2007. Let’s put the person back into entrepreneurship research: A meta-analysis on the relationship between business owners’ personality traits, business creation, and success. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 16(4), p. 353–385.

Third-Party Logistics Providers

  • Introduction
    • Background to the Study

As the world of business becomes more integrated and globalized, supply chain and logistics management is becoming more important. Companies are focusing on the supply chain models and methods that increase efficiency, minimize the time taken, enhance reliability, and reduce the total costs of logistics. It is in this backdrop that the third-party logistics business has risen to be a fulcrum around which the success of intra and inter-country business thrives. The growth and development of new business models such as e-commerce create a high need for effective and efficient logistics management (Christopher, 2016). This underscores the role of 3PL companies. The 3PL company works with the shippers to manage the logistics operation department of another company. The 3PL providers usually provide one or many services that include freight and transport management, freight consolidation and distribution management.

Given the role played by the 3PL providers and increasing need for efficiency and effectiveness, it is important to look at the extent to which these companies meet the needs of their customers and the bottleneck areas that need improvement. For this reason, this study looks at the effectiveness and efficiency of the 3PL providers in the UK and Germany retail sector. Germany and UK are largest and second largest economies in Europe in terms of GDP and as such, evaluating the effectiveness of the 3PL business in these economies will provide a clear view and generalizable review of the 3PL business functionality in Europe and the developed world. As a business student, the topic on 3PL providers’ operational efficiency is important because it helps to highlight the area that is central to the development of the contemporary global aliased business.

  • Research Boundary

The research looks at the 3PL companies located I UK and Germany and no outside company was considered. The data was obtained from the top companies in UK and Germany based on annual turnover, and other reports. The analysis was carried out across all the sectors including Information technology, manufacturing industry, construction, media, travel, and telecommunication.

  • Research Objectives

The primary objectives of this research:

  • To determine the main logistics services that are outsourced from the 3PL companies’ in UK and Germany
  • Establish the key factors considered when selecting the 3PL provider
  • Identify major bottlenecks in the 3PL companies in UK and Germany
  • Evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the 3PL in the operational processes of the retail sector in UK and Germany
  • Provide recommendations on how 3PL companies can improve their effectiveness and efficiency, and reliability in the UK and Germany retail sector
    • Structure of The Dissertation

This study commences by reviewing the background of the study before presenting the review of the literature and the research methodology. Then the study presents the data analysis, discussion, and recommendations from the findings.

  • Data Analysis, Findings, and Discussion
    • Introduction

This section covers the analysis and the discussion of the analysis from secondary data. The information collected was secondary obtained from reports, journals, textbooks and online sources.

  • Findings

A study by Kanda and Deshmukh (2008) revealed that while most of the studies look at the growth, integration, and the functioning of the 3PL, there exists very limited research that deals with effectiveness of these companies. The evaluation of the literature review has revealed a gap where most of the studies look at the ways in which 3PL companies can enhance their human capital and financial performance. On the other hand, a couple of studies evaluate the supply chain management and how the 3 PL companies have tried to embrace the contemporary technology in their bid to modernize the supply chain management. This leaves a gap regarding the study on the effectiveness. According to Ballou (2007) evaluating effectiveness can be looked from the view point of the company or from the view point of the clients. He recommends using the view point of the clients because the clients are the drivers of the company performance. The current study used both the customers’ and company perspective to rate the effectiveness of the 3PL companies in UK and Germany.

In 2016, Research and Markets (2017) carried out a study to investigate the global strategic business and the role of 3PL companies in the development of global business. According to this study 48% of the participants considered 3PL providers in the UK very instrumental in the development of the businesses in the Europe. 16% considered 3PL companies to be only important for the large companies, which have highly diversified and sophisticated business. Of the participants who gave their view 69% had an ongoing contract with a 3PL company to cater for their coordination, 18% had a temporary contract where they involve 3PL companies when there is a need, and the others had used the 3PL services for between zero to five times.

Some of the bottlenecks that were identified by the participants in the study include decreased profit margins, less lead time, upfront efforts, and cost of implementing solutions, increased emphasis on requirements and regulations, process automation, keeping track of shipping data, overcoming talent shortage and corroboration. Workplace planning is the other major factor that acts as the Bottleneck in the 3PL business. The chart below shows that top drivers of the workplace planning in the 3PL business around the world (Langley et al., 2015).

Factors cited as the key driver of 3PL growth in UK and Germany include increased awareness about the company, increasing e-commerce (where there is demand for distribution and supplier), relaxed regulations, economic integration between the European countries, favorable government policies, and developing collaboration with international companies such as Amazon (Infiniti Research Limited, 2014). A study by Langley et al., (2015) reveal that the major primary drivers of 3PL success of the last five years include ability to innovate and having the right people in the leadership. The efficinece of these factors is given in the chart below (Langley et al., 2015):

The chart shows that 62% of the participants considered competent leadership and human resources as the primary driver of 3PL success and only 16% believed having the right infrastructure as the key drover for success. In a study by Langley et al., (2014) 57% of the participants suggested that there are no major differences between the UK and the Germany 3PL companies. Most of the major 3PL companies have operations in the two countries and use the same distribution network, warehouses, and management accounting platforms. However, 18.6% of participants believed that Germany 3PL companies (mainly the small one) rely more on technology to gain market understanding than the UK based 3PL company, while the similar participants believe that the UK 3PL companies rate high in terms of reliability, timeliness, and customer satisfaction than the Germany-based 3PL companies.

When giving the recommendation for the 3PL companies that the customer should select the major factors that are considered are timeliness, reliability, and reputation. In a study by ReportBuyer (2017) 63% of the participants considered the ability of the 3PL company to deliver the required products on time, or ensuring that the lead time is minimized as the key determinant of the quality of services. On the other hand, 11% of the participants considered reliability as the major issue they can use to recommend a 3PL company. When it comes to customer satisfied the main factors considered are understanding the needs of the customer, seeking for the feedback of the client after the goods are delivered to sought services is carried out and constantly updating the customer on the progress of their contractual obligation. Interestingly, not participants from the UK considered public relation and ability to communicate well with the clients as critical to the customer satisfaction while in Germany, most participants cited the ability of the company to do the service as required as the main determinant of the customer satisfaction. In this study, 61% of the participants admitted to having ever been frustrated and felt dissatisfied with the service of the 3PL company. The reason for the dissatisfaction ranged between miscommunication, the unreliability of the services, wrong delivery, and poor updating and tracking of the gods that were in transit.

Research and Markets (2017) carried out the study to investigate the logistics outsourcing in this study 37.2% of the participants said they would give timeliness priority when it comes to selecting the 3PL company and only 2% do not consider this as the priority. On the other hand, 63% of the participants would give technology higher priority while only 9% would give it a lower priority. When it comes to customer satisfaction 78% of the participants would give it the highest priority while none of the participants would give lower priority when it comes selecting the 3PL company. These ratings indicate that technology, time, and customer satisfaction are given priority by most of the participants when deciding on the best 3PL company. In another study majority of the participants (48%) consider timeliness and reliability most important for the effectiveness of a 3PL company while only 10% consider cost as the factor. 8.2% of the participants cited annual turnover of the company as the important factor for a 3PL company and the top three factors considered significant by 3PL clients are timeliness and reliability, standards of performance, technology, and logistics resources.

In Germany, the participants would give more priority to technology when it comes to convincing priority to the 3PL company while in the UK customer satisfaction was cited as the major issue. While this helps to depict the major social and cultural difference between the Germans and the Britons it can be used by the 3PL companies as the key marketing tool and the tool to enhance their competitive advantage in the market (Infiniti Research Limited 2014). According to Langley et al., (2015) the UK and Germany 3PL companies are rated as good in many aspects. This is supported by a study by Lierow, Sarrat and Janssen (2017) who found out that 53% of participants believe that they are good regarding timeliness, 48% concerning having demonstrated values, 71% in terms of reliability, 64% in terms of constant message giving, and 31% is terms of customer satisfaction. The 3PL companies perform poorly regarding customer satisfaction where 13% of the participants rated the 3PL companies in UK and Germany as good regarding customer satisfaction 28% rated it as bad, and 17% were indifferent in this rating. Only less than 47% rated the company is as good in term of effectiveness. This means that the UK and Germany 3PL companies are rated below average in terms of customer satisfactions. In response to the direct question on the effectiveness of the 3PL companies in UK and Germany 51.3% of the participants rated them as effective, 31% as most effective, and 16% as ineffective.

  • Discussion

Timeliness emerged as the critical factor when it comes to rating the effectiveness of the 3PL companies in UK and Germany. This commensurate with the findings by Zacharia et al., (2011) and Joong-Kun Cho, Ozment and Sink (2008) who carried out a study of the critical factors that drive the 3PL business. They found out that the clients are very concerned about time, and effective communication. Their studies recommended the 3PL companies to adopt modern technology that will help them to ensure they have offered timely services and have adopted effective communication with their clients. Sahay and Mohan (2006) noted that, when it comes to supply chain management, time is of essence because some retail goods are perishable. When the 3PL company is outsourced it should ensure that it has satisfied the clients of its client.

The study found out that 3PL companies in UK and Germany 3PL are effective in terms of timeliness and reliability. This contrasts with the findings by Liu and Lai (2016) who revealed that in 2013, only 24% of the participants claimed that the 3PL companies are effective. However, his study only focused on the UK based 3PL companies. Rajesh, Pugazhendhi, and Ganesh (2013) noted that the 3PL business is driven by effectiveness and reliability, and the fact that the 3PL companies are growing in the market means that they are embracing effectiveness in their operation. In a study by Wong, and Karia (2010), 65% of the participants claimed that the top 10 3PL companies are very reliable and they have invested heavily in getting the feedback from the clients on how they can improve their operations. This is supported by Jayaram and Tan (2010) who carried out a study on the online presence of most of the 3PL companies in UK and revealed that most of the major 3PL companies in UK use social media. Websites and other online platforms to get the opinion of their clients’ market themselves and address the concerns of the clients.

According to Chen and Bouvain (2009), there is a major difference between the way in which companies do business in Germany and UK. This stems from the cultural differences between the two countries. In this study, it was found out that, while the participants in Germany prefer technology to customer satisfaction (mainly gauged in effective communication) customers in the UK prefer customer satisfaction than technology when they are rating the 3PL companies. This is supported by Pilz (2009) who claims that most of the companies in Germany have invested heavily in technology. The efficiency in Germany is measured mainly in terms of how well the company has adopted the modern technology such as goods, tracking technology and communication technology with the clients. On the other hand, customers in UK value companies that have implementing solid communication system with their customers.

The study has revealed that the top three bottleneck issues facing the 3PL companies in UK and Germany include increased emphasis on requirements and regulations, process automation and keeping track of shipping data. According to Prajogo and Sohal (2013) the most, important technology that has engaged in the logistics business for both the 3PL and 4PL is the data tracking technology. Other bottleneck factors that have been revealed to cause challenges for the 3PL companies in UK and Germany include decreased profit margins, less lead time, upfront efforts, and cost of implementing solutions. This is supported by the study carried out by Gao (2013). In this study, 60% of the participants felt that the 3PL companies are experiencing decreased profit margins and the same percentage felt that 3PL companies have less lead time that they can use to set up new customers. On addition to this, the study found out that, 50% of the 3PL companies are facing the challenge of upfront effort and the cost of implementing the solutions and some of the emphasis on regulations has weakened the 3PL functions.

The growth drivers for the 3PL companies in UK and Germany have been found to include increased awareness about the companies, increasing e-commerce business and economic integration between the European economies. The seven largest 3PL companies in the world are all from Europe. In 2016 these companies combined earned more than $42 billion which is higher earnings than the total of all the top 25 countries combined. The top company is UK based Excel company which generated $8.3 billion, and the second one is Kuehne & Nagel which is based in Switzerland and Schenker based in Germany is the third one (Foster and Armstrong, 2016). The European economic zone has created relaxed rules for the 3PL companies which is critical to their growth and development. Some of the services that the 3PL companies provide integrated services across the European nationals and abroad include carrier management, air freight management, merge in transit, duty drawback, cargo insurance, security systems and control, transportation network optimization and planning and consolidation (Nigel Wright, 2017).

  • Conclusions, Limitations, and Recommendations
    • Conclusion

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and the efficiency of the 3PL companies in the UK and Germany. 3PL business has been in existence for a very long time where the companies outsource logistic from the outside company. Over the years the growth in 3PL has been hindered by the inability of these companies to make money. In the value-added warehouse distribution, the clients of the 3PL companies traditional have wanted to pay on open book arrangement involving open cost plus, which kept the margin low. Other models of 3PL businesses have also faced challenges making money. To enhance their effectiveness in making money UK and Germany based 3PL are adopting new strategies that include accepting online payment and collaborating with e-commerce business. The companies have also expanded the logistics services that they offer to the company to include incoterm control, internet supply chain visibility, freight bill payment and duty drawback.

The second objective was to establish the key factors considered when the company is selecting the 3PL provider. The study has found out that the major factors are considered when the company is selecting 3PL providers include customer satisfaction, technology, timeliness, and reliability. Timeliness especially for the providers of value-added warehouse distribution is important because clients require their goods on time and for the freight and transportation services, the clients require the company to transport and deliver its products according to the set timeline. In terms of technology, the 3PL companies are required to have modern technology such as cargo tracking technology, integrated communication technology, and transportation network optimization and planning technology.

The third objective was to identify the major bottlenecks in the UK and Germany 3PL business. Some of the major bottlenecks that have been found include decreased profit margins, less lead time, upfront efforts, and cost of implementing solutions, increased emphasis on requirements and regulations, process automation, keeping track of shipping data, overcoming talent shortage and corroboration. The 3PL companies have over the years been experiencing reducing margin, especially in the UK following economic uncertainties that affect most of their clients. The 3PL business in UK and Germany has been found to be effective in some aspects such as timeliness and reliability, but they are ineffective terms of customer satisfaction. The efficiency in timeliness and technology systems from the use of the latest technology in warehousing freight management and cargo tracking. On the other hand, the study has revealed that the 3PL companies have not invested much in the development of communication technology that will help them to improve their customer satisfaction.

  • Recommendations and Implications

It would be recommendable that the management of 3PL companies to adopt cost efficiency minimization strategies. Management of the logistics is labor intensive and requires integration of various systems, people, equipment, vehicles, and other elements. Given that there is a reducing margin among the 3PL companies, it would be recommendable for the management to adopt cost management strategies such as the use of modern technology in warehousing (which reduces the number of employees) and adopting system efficiency to eliminate all the bottlenecks. On addition to this, it would be recommendable for the UK and Germany based 3PL companies to invest in getting the feedback of the clients and working on them. This will help to improve the system, give clients sense of ownership in the business, and facilitates margin growth.

It is recommendable that the 3PL business fully automates their systems. Because automation plays a critical role in ensuring some of the changes facing the 3PL businesses in UK and Germany, it is projected that technology solutions are going to major greater contribution in the 3PL business. The study shows that the providers of logistics services will search for solutions that will help to improve their customer visibility and ease customer related communication as well as the communication with other stakeholders such as the suppliers. On addition to this, it is recommendable that the management of the 3PL company adopts the warehousing operations automation and assistance in managing their labor. As such the management of the 3PL companies should incorporate labor management, communication, and process automation solutions in the next five years to align themselves with the changes in the global logistics environment.

It would be recommendable that the future studies carry the survey of the UK and Germany based retail sector 3PL business from the participant business viewpoint. This study has used the analysis of the secondary data. It would be recommendable for the future studies to evaluate the effectiveness of the 3PL companies by interviewing the top management of the 3PL companies. This is because survey would help to understand the processes and the systems that are employed by the 3PL company to enhance the quality of its services. Integrating the management view will help the study to get a holistic view of the entire 3PL business and its effectiveness.

Limitations and Delimitations of the Research

Even though this study was prepared carefully and attained its objectives, there are some shortcomings and limitations. First, given the limitation of the time, the study evaluated a very small level of secondary data. The research has only considered the companies that operate in UK and Germany. Within these countries still, the sample data was not taken from all the industries which are more than 100. Therefore, the generalization of the results to all the companies and 3PL customers is limited in this aspect. This study should have integrated the response of many participants not only from the major companies. This means that the study is limited in representing some companies such as the small companies that outsource the services of the 3PL companies. This is because of the functioning, factors they consider and their business level and models that they look for other factors when evaluating the effectiveness of the 3PL company.

The delimitations of this study include methodological and procedures that were not used, the population that was not studied, the literature that was not reviewed and the things that were not done. In this study, the statistical methodology was not used even though it provides more reliable and generalizable findings. This is because only the secondary data was used in evaluating the phenomena and grouping of the findings was considered sufficient and where there was weak evidence primary data was not used to supplement this. The study did not study the population that is outside the UK and Germany. This is because the study focused mainly on these countries which form the major economic blocks in Europe. The study did not use all the literature because the literature selection only used the information that was considered primarily concerned with the problem of the study.



Refrences List

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Chen, S. and Bouvain, P., 2009. Is corporate responsibility converging? A comparison of corporate responsibility reporting in the USA, UK, Australia, and Germany. Journal of Business Ethics87, pp.299-317.

Christopher, M., 2016. Logistics and supply chain management. Pearson UK.

Foster, T.A. and Armstrong, R., 2016. top 25 third-party logistics providers extend their global reach. Global Logistics and Supply Chain Strategies.

Gao, S., 2013. A study of value creation through the use of 3PL and 4PL partners within the white goods manufacturing industry of China’s domestic market: a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Logistics and Supply Chain Management at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand Doctoral dissertation, Massey University.

Infiniti Research Limited 2014. Third Party Logistics (3PL) Market in Europe 2014-2018. Online< https://www.technavio.com/report/third-party-logistics-3pl-market-in-europe-2014-2018&gt;

Jayaram, J. and Tan, K.C., 2010. Supply chain integration with third-party logistics providers. International Journal of Production Economics1252, pp.262-271.

Joong-Kun Cho, J., Ozment, J., and Sink, H. 2008. Logistics capability, logistics outsourcing and firm performance in an e-commerce market. International journal of physical distribution and logistics management385, 336-359.

Kanda, A. and Deshmukh, S.G., 2008. Supply chain coordination: perspectives, empirical studies and research directions. International journal of production Economics1152, pp.316-335.

Langley C.J., Albright D., Shanton W., Sherry S., Blanchard D., Casey K., and Deming A., (2015). 2015 third-party logistics study. Online< https://www.fr.capgemini-consulting.com/resource-file-access/resource/pdf/2015_3pl_study.pdf&gt;

Langley C.J., Albright D., Shanton W., Sherry S., Blanchard D., Casey K., and Deming A., (2014). 2014 third-party logistics study. Online< https://www.capgemini.com/resource-file-access/resource/pdf/3pl_study_report_web_version.pdf&gt;

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Lierow M., Sarrat M., and Janssen S., 2017. Delivery Logistics For European E-Commerce. Wyman Oliver.

Liu, C.L. and Lai, P.Y., 2016. Impact of external integration capabilities of third-party logistics providers on their financial performance. The International Journal of Logistics Management272, pp.263-283.

Nigel Wright 2017. Third Party Logistics (3PL) On The Rise To Meet Customer Demands. Online< http://fi.nigelwright.com/news-insights/news/third-party-logistics-3pl-on-the-rise-to-meet-customer-demands/&gt;

Pilz, M., 2009. Initial vocational training from a company perspective: A comparison of British and German in-house training cultures. Vocations and Learning21, pp.57-74.

Prajogo, D. and Sohal, A., 2013. Supply chain professionals: A study of competencies, use of technologies, and future challenges. International Journal of Operations and Production Management3311/12, pp.1532-1554.

Rajesh, R., Pugazhendhi, S. and Ganesh, K., 2013. A study on third-party logistics in India. International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management71, pp.1-23.

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Sahay, B.S. and Mohan, R., 2006. 3PL practices: an Indian perspective. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management369, pp.666-689.

Sekaran, U. and Bougie, R. 2016. Research methods for business: a skill-building approach. Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley and Sons

Third Party Logistics (3PL) Market – Global Strategic Business Report 2017

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Zacharia, Z. G., Sanders, N. R., and Nix, N. W. 2011. The Emerging Role of the Third‐Party Logistics Provider 3PL as an Orchestrator. Journal of Business Logistics321, 40-54.


Position and speed control of a 1-dof torsional Mechanical system

Position and speed control of a 1-dof torsional Mechanical system


A system with a single degree of freedom has a motion that is defined by a single independent function or a coordinate. Using single degree of freedom systems, more complex systems can be easily modelled (Rao, 2016). There are various systems that can be modeled as a single degree of freedom systems. This study focuses on the determination of the position and control of a 1-Degree of Freedom Torsional Mechanical System. Basically, a torsional mechanical system is a system experiencing torsional oscillations. A system experiencing torsional oscillations is characterized by vibration of a shaft along the rotation axis.

All machines having a rotary motion have encounter torsional oscillations. The torsional oscillation is experienced during the continuous operation of the machinery, starting and shutting down the material.

The figure below shows a model of a  simple one degree of freedom torsional plant.

In the above figure, J represents the torsional moment of inertia of a rotating disk, T is the torque produced by the motor, C is the viscous friction, and  is the angle of rotation of the disk.

There are similarities between rotational mechanical systems and the linear mechanical systems. In rotational mechanical systems, torque is used instead of the force in the linear mechanical system and angular displacement is used in place of translational displacement in linear mechanical systems (Dorf & Bishop, 2016).

Using a free body diagram on the rotating disk and applying the newton’s second law of motion, the following differential equation is determined.

In the above equation, J is the torque, J is the disk moment of inertia, T(t) torque due to the motor and c is the coefficient of viscous friction.

Assuming that the initial conditions are equal to zero and applying Laplace transform to the above equation, the following Laplace transform is produced.

The above Laplace transform is vital in the analysis and evaluation of the characteristics of a rotating mechanical system in terms of torsional response.

This laboratory project is aimed at investigating the control and dynamic properties of a 1 degree of freedom torsional mechanical system. The system consists of an electric motor attached on a rotating disk such that it (electric motor) creates inertial load as it rotates. The transient dynamics of the system and strategies for feedback control aimed at enabling displacement of the attached disk at prescribed angle are studied. The experiment entails the use of ECP (Educational Control Products) Model 205 torsional disk apparatus.

Experimental Procedure

The Open-Loop System’s Analysis

The ECP M205 system was set up as recommended in the manual. Afterward, two mass cylinders of 500g each were secured on the attached disk for the primary reason of matching the cylinder edges to the disk. Subsequently, the configuration file, default.cfg, was downloaded from the setting menu. The file menu of the Utility-Download controller was used to download the control personality file, M205-v33.pmc.

Secondly, the trajectory step input was executed before plotting the system dynamic output. In this case, the command menu was entered then trajectory selected in the box. While still in the same box, Selections were chosen to help in setting the dwell time at 4,000ms and control effort at 0.25V. Here, the number of repetition were equal to one. Again, in the command menu, the Execute was selected by checking the extended sample data box. The real-time controller was then waited to help in the data upload.

In step three, data was plotted by entering the plotting menu and choosing the setup plot. Things that were keenly looked at in this new Window include command position, encoder 1, and the encoder 1 velocity. After this exercise, the plot data button was pressed to see the Window of the plot with the system’s open-loop step response.

In the final step, the raw data were exported by entering the data menu and then choosing the Export Raw Data. Here, a path was selected for to saving the text file. The file that was saved had the recently acquired data in a format appropriate to edit, review, or export to other scientific/ engineering packages such as MATLAB.

Position Control

This position control experiment involved securing two mass cylinders each of 500 grams on the attached disk. The activity aimed at matching the edges of the cylinder to the disk. No attachment was made on the damper or the dash-pot in this ECP M205 system set up.

Next, the controller was configured and implemented. This procedure involved going to the menu of setup and then setting up the control algorithm. In the new window, Type was selected as continuous time. Again, the control algorithm was selected to help explore PI by the use of a velocity feedback. The setup algorithm button was pressed and different values for Kd = 0, Kp = 0.01, and Ki = 0 were set appropriately. The setup control algorithm window was then closed by pushing the OK button. The OK button was pushed after implementing the algorithm.

The step input trajectory was executed, and the dynamic output plotted. At this point, the command menu was entered and trajectory selected. Still in this box, Selections was selected and then Setup pushed. In the window of step trajectory of the configuration, closed loop was ensured that it remained checked. The process led to the setting of the dwelling time at 4,000ms, step size at 240 degrees, and the number of repetitions equal to one. The window was later exited by just pressing the OK button. The following step was to go to the command menu. Here, Executive was selected and at the same time checking the box of the normal sample data. Furthermore, the Run button was pressed to help in the execution of the trajectory.

The real-time controller was given enough time to upload the data. The data were later used to generate the curve. This procedure involved entering the plotting menu and then choosing setup of the plot. Once in the new window, the commanded position and the encoder 1 were ensured for plotting (left axis). At this juncture, the plot data button was pressed with the main reason of seeing the plot window by the use of the system’s closed-loop step response.

Additionally, the data was exported. The data menu was entered, and the export raw data chosen. A path was selected and the text file with the data saved. The currently acquired data were contained in the saved file. Most importantly, these files were in the format suitable for editing and reviewing.

The final step here involved evaluating Step response. Immediately, steps two and six were repeated by the using three different values of Kp. Since values greater than 0.08 results in the instability of the closed-loop system, they were not inputted in the system.

Proportional Feedback Procedure

The ECP M205 system was set up according to the recommendations in the manual. Further, each of the two mass cylinders of 500 grams each was secured on the disk that was attached for matching the edges of the cylinder and the disk. In this step, no attachments were made on either the damper or the dash-pot.

The controller was configured and implemented according to the given instructions. The control algorithm was started in a new window. In this new window, Type was selected for continuous time. The control algorithm was also selected for the production of the forward path. The button of the setup algorithm was pressed. The values, r1 = 0.004, r0 = 1, and s1 (Kp) = 0.01 were setup in the control algorithm. The main reason for carrying out these activities was to ensure that all the coefficients such as si and ri are equal to 0. The setup control algorithm window was closed by pushing the OK button.

Eventually, a ramp input trajectory was executed, and the dynamic output plotted. Now that the system was on, the command menu was entered before selecting the trajectory. In this box, the velocity was set at 90 degrees per second, the distance at 360 degrees, the number of repetitions to be one, and the dwell time to be 1,000. The OK button was then pressed to exit the window. Straightaway, the run button was pressed to help execute the trajectory. Here, the real-time controller contributed to upload the data.

Without delay, the data were plotted by entering the plotting menu and choosing the setup plot. In this case, a path was chosen and the text file saved. Finally, evaluation was done by repeating steps two to six for the following values of s1 (Kp) = 0.05, 0.03, and 0.07.

Results Discussion and Analysis

In the first study, the open loop system properties were investigated. The 1 Degree of freedom Torsional system is as shown in the diagram below.

The 1 DOF System is characterized by dynamic system response to unit input for. In the above setup, the hardware gain is 14.928 i.e. the figure below shows the plot with open loop step response for the first experiment.

On the plot, it can be seen that the angular velocity profile increases and then decreases. On assumption that the velocity profile intervals are almost linear, then acceleration (Bothe acceleration and deceleration) is a constant. The acceleration can be determined from the velocity difference and the time interval (Sinha, 2014).

The plot further shows that the system’s initial response is characterized by peak time, rise time, maximum overshoot and delay time. To set the time to steady, the values can be calculated using the following equation.

Since the system is characterized by free response, the oscillations are in decreasing magnitude and eventually, the system gets to rest. Since the applied toque is constant, the final resting position is determined by the system’s applied force (Silva, 2006). The time constant in the above system can be calculated using the following equation.

The gain value is obtained using the equation

It can also be seen from the above graph that the system approaches the steady state position in an exponential curve.

The determination of the time constant  was by plotting a tangent line at the peak point i.e. where  using the obtained values, the viscous damping coefficient was determined. The value of the moment of inertia and the obtained viscous dumping coefficient was used in the rest of the experiment since other factors remained constant throughout the experiment.

Position Control

The position control experiment was aimed at investigating the servo system mechanism for controlling the position. The carrying out of the experiment will enable the dynamic characteristic determination for a servomechanism’s position control. In this part of the experiment, two control strategies are used i.e. using the proportional feedback only and using the proportional and derivative (PD).

Proportional Control

The proportional control experiment investigates the behavior if the proportional gain KP in a position control closed loop system. The plant with the positional controller is as shown in the figure below




Closed Loop Step response



Kp = 0.03

Kp = 0.04


According the graphs presented in the graphs above, it can be seen that varying the value of Kp causes the system to behave differently. The graphs indicates that as the value of Kp increases, the stability of the system decreases. This is concluded from the unstable behaviors of the system as the value of Kp Increases.

According to the results provides above, it can be seen that an increase in gain results to a decrease in error. The decrease in error is also associated with an increase in oscillations within the system. At the pure proportional control, there is no steady state error. The steady state error re-occurs at small values of the integral gain.


The above results indicate that the experimental process was affected by various errors. Despite their errors, the results suggest that the integral gain reduces the steady state error within the system.




Dorf, R., & Bishop, R. (2016). Modern Control Systems. New York: Pearson Education.

Rao, S. (2016). Mechanical Vibrations. London: Prentice Hall.

Silva, C. d. (2006). Vibration: Fundamentals and Practice. New Yorl: CRC Press.

Sinha, A. (2014). Vibration of Mechanical Systems. New York: Cambridge University Press.




Problems in my Community as discussed in the Town Meeting

A community is a group of people who share the same interests, circumstances, traditions and cultures. The classification of communities is based on what the community’s common interest is, for example, a community can come up due to performing a common action. I live in an urban-based community. We experience different problems but mainly urban sprawl and decline. In urban communities, there are high rates of population growth, and in turn, more houses are being built. This causes a problem in the fact that citizens leave old, rusty houses for the flashy suburbs, this causes the problem of an increased number of slums which are these poor conditioned houses with poor sanitation. Poverty rates in cities due to unemployment increase the number of people in such slums and therefore increase their sizes. The movement of citizens to suburbs which are placed in central towns reduces the size (“Urban Problems and Solutions”).

Urban sprawl can be described as urbanization. It is the movement of citizens to central cities abandoning the country sides and hence giving room for the government to build houses for citizens who desire the low-density areas. This causes a decline in the development of farming in such areas. This also causes an overcrowded city due to lack of room for expansion then the need to abolish important buildings such as schools for expansion of the city. The urban sprawl is mainly due to reasons such as low land rates in low-density areas. This is due to urbanization and the increase in population in urban communities as compared to these suburban communities. The provision of electricity and roads in suburban communities has made such areas available to live in hence the need for the development of housing. The rise in the standards of living has also increased the urban sprawl with many citizens escaping to the cheaper lifestyle of the low-density areas. The provision of lower tax rates by the government has encouraged the movement of people beyond the urban boundaries to these low populated areas.

This sprawl of citizens into the suburban areas has some side effects. Spreading beyond the jurisdiction of the urban community increases the country’s general public expenditure. This is because if the need to maintain the provision of the roads provided there and electricity, therefore, increasing the amount of tax every individual gives. Since the residents of these low populated areas leave further from the city, they tend to use their cars and more, and for this reason, they increase the amount of traffic in urban areas. This causes the problem of air pollution through the emission of dangerous gases by vehicles which in turn deplete the ozone layer. The luxury of cars also increases the levels of health issues causing an increase in the number of obese individuals with health complications such as high blood pressure. As compared to the urban areas where the neighbors are close, suburban areas have poor socialization skills as every individual leaves alone far apart from their neighbors.

In the United States of America, there’s increased urban decline, and this is due to the rapid increase of population especially one that occurred in the year 1995 to 2000 where there was a 120 million growth margin. Cities were developing at different rates, however, and therefore this can explain the differences in urban decline in a single city. We can use an example of Detroit whose urban areas experienced rapid urban decay while its suburban areas remained the same. The growth in urban decay in Detroit is higher than that of New York and Philadelphia as explained by statistics. Urban Decay has been a great risk in the economic development of cities and countries as a whole. In slow economic cities, residents move in search for greener pastures abandoning their houses. The urban decay is as a result of the urban sprawl.

The solutions are based on two grounds engagement and inclusion of citizens. The absolute solution for this problem is the re-invention, revival, and repair of the abandoned cities through proper urban planning.  Citizens of abandoned cities can opt for conversion of largely abandoned areas as residential apartments and small shops as opposed to things like malls, and this can be made possible with the help of the government which should ensure proper rebuilding. The government could also work with its residents to restore a sense of community. This is for residents of suburban areas. They can incorporate policies that provide neighbor boundaries and valuable qualities to ensure the restoration of a community spirit for its residents.











Works Cited

  1. Urban Problems and Solutions”. Geography @ Finn Valley College. N.p., 2017. Web. 3 June 2017.

Wendy Bacon’s Case Study

Wendy Bacon’s Case Study

Wendy Bacon was a journalist cum political activist who scooped several awards regarding the Australian journalism prizes. She was born in 1946 in Melbourne city where she studied and attained his journalism degree (Bacon, & Coleman, 1975). In the early 1980’s, Wendy was involved in a case that has been used as an example by the Australian Journalism fraternity. She was denied admittance to legal exercise by the court during her era.

The journalist was involved in a series of activist causes between 1970 and 1981 due to the nature of her job and passion. Her demonstrations were directed to tackle several social issues including a repeal of the existing pornography laws, contrasting with the Whitlam labour government, and land grabbing. In addition, her demonstration rose public awareness of illegal practices such as export of uranium and torture of the female prisoners. Her practice saw her being convicted for ten times. She applied for an admission to practice but was denied by the New South Wales Court of Appeal because of dishonesty. However, there was no record of violence or corruption by the journalist (Parker, & Evans, 2013).

In 2016, police arrested the controversial journalist while she was leading a demonstration against the construction of the Sydney’s WestConnex road in Newtown. The project involves the destruction of peoples’ houses and property despite its expensive budget of 17 billion dollars. Bacon was leading a demonstration to protect the households and parks that have to pave the way for the construction of the road. The activist was taken to Newton police cells (Meade, 016).

Her arrest was pushed by the Law enforcement (Powers and Responsibilities) Act 2002 (NSW). This Act provides various powers that relate to the detention of an individual in Australia. In section 99, the law outlines the different situation under which a police officer can arrest a citizen without a warrant. Police can arrest a person without a warrant if the person is committing, has just committed, or had committed any offence illustrated in any statutory instrument. However, the Act provides that a police officer should not arrest any citizen if he has no reasonable grounds to defend that it is sensible to detain an individual[i].

A police officer is free to arrest without a warrant when he is trying to achieve the following procedures. To ensure that the person has appeared before the court regarding a particular offence. Prevention of continuation or repetition of a crime. To prevent the loss of already existing evidence of a particular case. To prevent pestering, or fabrication of proof regarding the offence and finally to preserve the safety and welfare of the person (Law Enforcement Act 2002).

The Act also outlines the procedure that should follow after a person has been arrested. Article 4 of the Law enforcement Act provides that a police officer have a responsibility to take the detainee to an authorized officer so that the person can face the law. The police officer has to take him or her in a reasonable manner free from torture and by the law. The time taken before the law offender appears before the authorized officer should be reasonably practical (Law Enforcement Act 2002).

Professor Wendy Bacon was arrested after the workers who were undertaking the project called for the police to come and end the demonstration. She was practicing her democratic right while she was detained. The police according to the Law enforcement Act 2002 should have a reasonable reason to arrest her because they were not protecting any evidence[ii]. They were against the law if they arrested without a robust reason to believe that Wendy was committing, had committed, or was about to commit a crime.

They functioned within the provisions of these Act when they escorted the activist to the police station to face the law. However, if the police did not have the warrant to arrest her, and did not feel that he is committing or about to commit an offence, it was wrong and without the law to confiscate her. However, the police might have been pushed to arrest her to appear in court regarding an offence. Item 3 of Act provides that ‘[a] police officer must not arrest a person for the purpose of taking proceedings for an offence against the person unless the police officer suspects on reasonable grounds  that it is necessary to arrest the person to achieve one or more  purposes: to ensure the appearance of the person before court in respect of the offence (Law Enforcement Act 2002)’[iii]. This offence might have been committed before the date of arrest. From the records, the journalist contains no pending criminal case file, and I think arresting the journalist was without the prescriptions of the law.

Further, under the section 200 of the Law enforcement Act 2002, the police officers are limited not to exercise their powers including arresting on the various groups of people. These groups include an industrial dispute, a good demonstration, a procession, or an organized assembly. Professor Wendy was among legitimate protesters who put no threat to the lives and properties of citizens. This puts the police on the wrong if they attempt to arrest any peaceful demonstrator who is protected by law.

Despite peaceful protesters being protected by law, in Australia, they are considered disordered and problematic. The Australian has recognized protesting Law as a vital right and freedom (Blackshield & Williams, 2002). The police should protect everyone who is practicing his right or freedom as long as he or she is not infringing on the other peoples right. The peaceful demonstration was to be protected by the police and not the police seeking to arrest the protestor. The High Court outlined that the activities of the protestors are capable of constituting political communication in the Duck shooting protests (Joyce, 2015).

Section 87MA of the Law enforcement (Powers and Responsibilities) Act 2002 provides the power and the relevant procedure of police to disperse groups. Police officers have a mandate to disintegrate groups that they think can be harmful to the lives and properties of the citizens. However, their communication should be precise that the group should separate to maintain order. The citizen has an obligation to comply or obey the instructions given if the provisions Law Enforcement Act 2002 allow them.

In this case, the police officers did not communicate accordingly. After the construction company had contacted them, they came and mishandled the congregation. Some people who were detained suffered from the brutality of the police that saw them nurse minor and major injuries[iv]. Professor Wendy Bacon suffered an arm twist courtesy of the rough policemen. Police officers should not look at any point exercise the roles of the judiciary (Hunjan, 2016).

The court is assigned granted with powers to differentiate between a lawbreaker and an innocent man. Police should not punish the citizens even if they are on the wrong side of the law[v]. High Court of Australia (1909) defined judicial power as the power that any legal institution has to determine between the disputes of its subjects (Czarnota, 2017). This power is not granted to police, and so they should not punish or mistreat the lawbreakers before judgment.

Police officers are human beings and can break the law in the process of maintaining law and order. However, the law provides what an officer should do while handling rioters. Serious offences such as sexual harassment can have severe consequences for the offender. In the year 2006, London was the most affected city of police misconduct that saw several police officers being jailed. Integrity is a fundamental trait for a successful police career (Barker, 2006).[vi]

In 1986, Indian police officers used to kill children in their line of duty. Under age children who were violating The Child Labour Act, 1986 of the Indian Constitution were the most affected class of citizens. When they tried to demonstrate, police officers fired live bullets to some of them. Anyone has a right to express according to the Constitution. Police officers should seize using excessive force and power to the protesting citizens (Police abuse and killings of street children in India, 1996).

Although the police tried to justify their actions using the Law enforcement (Powers and Responsibilities) Act, this article proves beyond any doubt that they acted within the law. Professor Wendy and her followers had a right to protest peacefully. This Act protects Protestants under section 87MA. Further, they subject the demonstrators to torture and mishandling. In addition, there was no reasonable reason why Wendy was to be arrested without a pending criminal record. The government should take a legal action for these police officers.


Bacon, Wendy & Peter Coleman Censorship South Yarra, Vic: (Heinemann Educational Australia, 1975)

Barker, Thomas Police ethics, Crisis in law enforcement (Springfield, Ill 2006) 29 2-3

Blackshield, Tony & George Williams, Australian Constitutional Law and Theory (2002)

Czarnota, Kasia, ‘70616 Australian Constitutional Law-Judicial Power’(2017) Eugene Schofield-Georgeson Australia

Hunjan, Raveen and Antoinette Lattouf, ‘Journalist hits out at police after being detained at WestConnex protest’ (2016) ABC News  Retrieved 13 August 2017, from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-10-22/69yo-westconnex-protester-jailed-for-7-hours/7957398

Joyce Daniel, ‘Is there a right to protest in Australia?’ (2015) Retrieved 13 August 2017, from http://www.law.unsw.edu.au/news/2016/02/there-right-protest-australia

Law Enforcement (Powers and responsibilities) Act 2002 (NSW), s 200 retrieved from https://www.legislation.nsw.gov.au/inforce/72fa1264-4283-cf9b-8764-8768140bfc14/2002-103.pdf

Meade, Amanda, ‘Journalist and activist Wendy Bacon arrested at WestConnex protest’ (2016) The Guardian Retrieved 13 August 2017, from https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2016/oct/21/journalist-and-activist-wendy-bacon-arrested-at-westconnex-protest

Parker, Christine & Adrian, Evans, Inside lawyers’ ethics (Cambridge University Press 2013) 68 1-2

Police abuse and killings of street children in India, New York (1996

[i] A police officer should have material facts to defend his or her action before arresting a person. He should restrain from arresting an individual if he cannot explain why the individual is against the law.

[ii] See Law Enforcement (Powers and Responsibilities) Act 2002 (NSW) 82 [1]-[4].

[iii] The police officers, in this case, did not have a reason to make the activist appear before a court of law while they were arresting Professor Wendy.

[iv] Section 231 of the Law Enforcement (Powers and Responsibilities) Act 2002 (NSW) specifies the amount of force that can be used by the police officers while arresting a lawbreaker. However, this does not amount to brutality. See Law Enforcement (Powers and Responsibilities) Act 2002 148 [2]

[v] It is the work of the judiciary to sentence lawbreakers and police should not torture offenders as a sign of punishment.

[vi] See Barker, Thomas, Police ethics: Crisis in law enforcement (2006) Springfield 29 [2].


Assessment 1: Critical Reflection Essay

Elder abuse in care facilities is one of the challenges in the management and care of the seniors. When abuse happens in residential care facility it becomes difficult to detect as very cases are ever reported. Abuse does not mean physical rather emotional and also emission in providing them with all their needs. Surveys in Australia show that abuse in rampant in Australian nursing care facility for the elderly. Example, 20 to 50% of all residents in nursing homes are malnourished meaning their nutritional needs are not met. Therefore, the elderly in nursing homes are one of the most vulnerable groups and there is need for more investigation into vice. The paper provides an overview of elderly abuse in Australia and recommendations for change.

            The Aged Care Complaints Commissioner brought to light an event of one elderly man at a Gold Coast hospital who succumbed to pressure wounds after the hospital failed to treat him appropriately. According to Lewis (2016), the 88-year-old man, Mr. Selir, had developed gangrene leading to the wounds on his feet and back.  Mr. Selir had moved to the facility after suffering a stroke and had minor wounds. However, later on, his condition had deteriorated during his stay in the Goal Coast facility. The staff was reluctant about the issue and they declined to call an ambulance after being requested by Mrs. Selir, his daughter in law. Mrs. Selir later filed a case to the Australian Law Reform Commission, on elder abuse in the facility.

According to Boyd and Sheen (2014), safety in health care in every facility has to enhance communication among all involved members, patients, cares and community at large. The nursing staff and personnel have completely neglected their obligations as nurses and thus violated the safety and quality standards guideline. Such poor treatments leading to pressure injuries made me feel dissatisfied and frustrated as I saw the nurses might be lacking proper training due to poor management.

The positive/negative aspects outcomes for the event are viewed through the creation of insight to the relevant authority to develop programs that would help in the prevention of elder abuse. This is for the betterment of the patients when the event creates awareness to the government on maltreatments in the various hospitals. Additionally, it is beneficial to nurses as it makes them aware of the existing guidelines of the Australia Law Reform Commission. In the present case, it was evident that the staff members and most management figures hardly knew about relevant policies and set laws. Mr. Barnier rejected Mrs. Selir’s definition of elder abuse claiming that there was no such abuse in Mr. Selir’s treatment. It was then that the Aged and Disability Advocacy Australia support group made it clear that elder abuse is neglecting to offer the necessary care and not necessarily deliberate harm infliction as Mr. Barnier had asserted.

A reflective practitioner learning transpired from this event. This assists nurses to have the knowledge on what to bring to their roles and obligations. Thus, they are empowered to make intelligent decisions in their care process. Nurses and other healthcare practitioners use reflective skills to appraise their experience through practice. As DiFrancesco (2011) contends, experiential learning focuses on the breadth of its reach that involves work integrated learning programs. This would assist in the cooperation of the nurses, patients and their family members through communication.

There was a lack of basic and empirical standards that would assist me in the interpretation of the literature for the event in Australia. This affected my learning through the social constraints, based on the fact that, the event is prevalent in Australia. Social interactions facilitate the shifting of ideas to conceptualization, therefore stimulating the environment in which peers and supervisors provide regular feedback to various events. As a result, consensus literature hindered the learning, whereby there was a lack of reflectors as evidence for the experience that would open up to the learning opportunities. Boyd and Sheen (2014) contend that facilitators and supervisors affect the contextual factors and thus creating a safe environment that encourages self-regulation in nursing professions.

The validity of the reflection learning may pose a threat to the validity of the event’s assessment. Additionally, lack of motivation impacted the reflection learning. According to Spiers et al. (2014), motivation is a mediator of education/learning and achievement in the nursing practice. This will cause an impact in the nursing practice as the perceived importance of the professional practice tends to determine the effort and time to be dedicated to the nursing practice. Expectations of positive returns in the learning process calls for a critical and profound reflection.

The first step in the action plan will involve identification the need for learning. This helps in the improvement of awareness as well as the capability in developing the appropriate levels of professional standards. Next will be on setting of goals, which will involve a clear definition and outline of the goals, potential risks and objectives in the nursing practice. Planned actions step will include a discussion of good time keeping and the implications of the duties assigned. Discussion of the significance of confidentiality and the impacts of any medical policy violation will be integrated. The next step will ensure that all resources are available to facilitate in the achievement of goals and objectives. For instance, adequate linking with supervisors, the policy manuals, multidisciplinary team and the code of conduct for all student nurses.

Identification of new knowledge to facilitate and enact an action plan requires the learning of the strategies of transferring knowledge. This helps in prevention of pressure injuries through quality assurance. The existence of a gap between the knowledge one has and the action to be taken leads to an incorrect treatment process and under-usage effective treatments. I, therefore, put more emphasis on putting new knowledge into action. This involves the exchange and synthesis of knowledge and the application of the research results into evidence-based learning alongside practice setting. New knowledge is crucial for the encouragement of more uptake research and evidence-based technologies in nursing practice (Pearson, Jordan & Munn, 2012).

In conclusion, the event at Gold Coast Hospital showed a poor management in the risk assessment in the prevention of pressure injuries. I felt frustrated and dissatisfied with the services in the event. An action plan would enhance in the development of my learning. New knowledge in nursing would be enhanced through conducting of research and enhancing communication. There is a need for a clear legal framework that identifies types of abuse and sets penalties. At the same time, it is critical train nursing staff on forms of abuse.



Boyd, L., & Sheen, J. (2014). The national safety and quality health service standards requirements for orientation and induction within Australian Healthcare: A review of the literature. Asia Pacific journal of health management9(3), 31-37.

DiFrancesco, P. (2011). The role of situated learning in experiential education: An ethnographic study of the knowledge-construction process of pharmacy students during their clinical rotations. The University of Massachusetts Boston.

Lewis, D. (2016, September 27). Man dies in hospital after nursing home staff fail to properly treat wounds.ABC News. Retrieved 31 July 2017, from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-09-27/man-dies-after-nursing-home-staff-fail-to-properly-treat-wounds/7877820

Pearson, A., Jordan, Z., & Munn, Z. (2012). Translational science and evidence-based healthcare: a clarification and reconceptualization of how knowledge is generated and used in healthcare. Nursing research and practice2012.

Spiers, J. A., Williams, B., Gibson, B., Kabotoff, W., McIlwraith, D., Sculley, A., & Richard, E. (2014). Graduate nurses’ learning trajectories and experiences of Problem Based Learning: A focused ethnography study.International Journal of Nursing Studies51(11), 1462-1471.


Accountings and Finance.

Accounting and finance advisor with a four experience, with an accounting degree and passion towards customer service. The wells Fargo company requires an expert to handle finance and accounting customer query. I am ready to help customers with financial decisions information by collecting, analyzing, investigating, and reporting financial data.

Financial advisor with a minimum of 8 years’ experience and has a master’s degree. Must be able to handle deadline-oriented, managing profitability and accounting, audit, SFAS rules, possess financial skills and good in analyzing information. Be passionate about customer’s service and must be honesty and provide accountability.

Accounts Payable Manager currently practicing with over five years working experience. Required by Fed Ex to ensure timely and accurate processing of non-payroll disbursements to individuals, partnerships and other entities. Must be hardworking, shroud and past experience in community voluntary work with a renowned organization like the Red Cross.

Accounts receivable clerk to assist in preparing for documentation and responses for legal inquiries, litigation, and court appearance. Hold a High school diploma or GED. At least a years’ experience in a role related to the duties and errands mentioned.

Administrative Support.

The YU Company requires an administrative support for companywide operations, assist Accounts Payable, assist in purchasing for the office and specific clients, and manage the filing system. Must have a college degree or equivalent, at least three years’ experience in secretarial field, office management or equivalent. Proficient in MS Word, Outlook, Power Point and Excel. Should be ready to work under close supervision.

JD Item TX is for individuals who can perform daily office jobs such as answering calls, sending faxes, and organizing files. Applicant can organize office daily to ensure smooth operations daily. No experienced is required but applicants must have basic communication and computer knowledge.

Kelly services in partnership with Buffalo‘s leading financial institutions requires multiple document review and compliant associates. Previous loan closing experience, efficient analytical aptitude, compliance experience and multi-tasking capabilities are strongly recommended.


Receptionist for a high tech manufacturing company in Chamblee, GA. Exceptional verbal and written command of the English language. No previous experience but has good computer skills, communication skills, team player attitude and possibly lives in close proximity to the area.


Urban planner required to work in Cleveland must be residing or lives in close proximity to the area. 7 years’ experience and be acquitted with modern technology used in architecture. Must have exceptional computer skills, acknowledges environmental conservation and have some legal training background.

Landscape Architect with a degree in architecture and backgrounds in forestry or agriculture. Seeking to bring ecofriendly decorations and green landscapes. Should be creative and resourceful enough to make an urban area have a rural feel. Should have 4 years working experience and possess team skills.

Extreme Architect for the San Antonia Builders. Must have three year working experience. Must have good educational backgrounds in metrology to compliment the architecture degree. Must be creative to design and supervisor buildings that withstand natural calamities and extreme weather conditions like earthquakes or floods.

Architecture photography for The New York Times Magazine. Must have interests in historical architecture and ready to travel around the nation. Must possess a degree in architecture and have previous working experience of three years or more.

Art, Fashion and Design.

Advertising and promotions manager position at SellIt.com. Have a degree in Art and design, have great marketing and budgeting skills. Previous work experience as a sales agent is necessary plus has good computer knowledge. Should portray team skills and creativity to come with catchy slogans and sale banners.

Fashion Designer to design new clothing and accessories for the Next Level Clothing. The designer needs a minimum of four years working experience and must have mastery of computer skills. Minimum level of education is degree in art and design, merchandising and marketing diplomas or equivalent are recommended.

Art director for the Chicago times newspaper. Have a degree in art and design, work experience of five or more years. Should efficient acutance with the following platforms Adobe Photoshop, Adobe InDesign and Graphic Design. Must have great computer, command of English language, can perform editing tasks and communication skills.

Multimedia artist and animator to work for The Breel High School annual choir video album. Should be working and having three years’ experience in creating animation as and special effects for the product release. Minimum college degree in fields related to art and design and should have exemplary computer skills.

Banking and Financial Services.

Credit and loans officer with three years working experience in banks, credit unions, loan offices and other lending facilities. A degree in a related field plus exceptional mathematics skills. Should have good command of English and be able to communicate in both written and verbal means excellently.

Managing director who can work from Monday to Friday but should also is available for weekends if necessary. Four years working experience plus a degree greater or equivalent in a related field. Critical thinking, leadership abilities and strong communication skills are recommended.

Company sectary with working experience of five years and must have worked in bank before. A degree in sectary related course and show impeccable time manage management, team work, analytical thinking, knowledge of the finance industry and efficient problem solving skills.

Bank manager with 2 years previous working experience. Ethical, good people management skills, business acumen and strong communication in verbal as well as written from. An exceptional, team player, team leader and can work without any form of supervision.

Beauty and Spa.

Saloon receptionist with previous hairdressing reception experience. Be able to work full time for five days a week. A great team player with good leadership and motivational skills. Great people skills and exemplary telephone management backed with IT knowledge with numeracy skills.

Passionate, enthusiastic and professional spar therapist living within close proximity to The Spa, Florida. Working experience is valuable but not necessary as training is available. Good people skills with exceptional customer relations and communication skills are necessary. Prudent and efficient with in labor hours.

An NVQ Level 2 or 3 qualified therapist with one year experience in massage. Confident in all aspects of conducting treatments to a very high standards and capable of meeting client specification. Good people skills and communication is essential. Preferably living in close [proximity to Le Spa, Florida.

Spa Senior at the Luxury Spa who prides themselves on a priority of customer satisfaction while visiting the facility. NVQ Level 3 equivalent is necessary together with previous salon or spa experience. Must be excellent and experienced in all treatments.


Accountant with two years working in management accounting and having good grades. Posses an associate degree for accounting although a bachelor’s degree is advisable. I addition must CPA certification, Certified Management Account certification. Must be ethical, honesty and accountable at all times.

Financial advisor with financial expertise and strive to help other people. Working experience of three years. A bachelor’s degree or any other associate degree with the field. Must be hard working, ethical, and chartable and previously or frequently participates in voluntary work.

A CPA certified Financial Manager with three year working experience. A bachelor’s degree in finance, accounting, economics or business administration. Good leadership, team and communication skills. Exceptional management skills, IT knowledge and command of the English language. Upward mobility, stress handling and flexibility are relevant qualities.

An actuary professional with a bachelor’s degree in actuarial science or related field. Majors in mathematics, statistics or actuarial sciences are helpful. A leader with the ability to work well with others anytime. All rounded team player that can lead or work with or without supervision.


Childcare Management- Center Director In Training with BA in child related field with minimum one year programmatic experience or AS in child related field with 12 semester hours in ECE and one year programmatic experience or a CDA with two years of programmatic experience and one year staff supervisory experience.

Childcare assistant director with a passion for child care especially in education. Marketing skill and capabilities to turn the company profitable.2 -3 years of child care experience or related field. Previous management experience preferred. CDA or Associates degree in Early Childhood Education preferred and must be 21 years of age or older.

Caring, nurturing, Passionate and hardworking teacher to impact the young lives of pre-school age children. Be at least 21 years or more. Have 1 year experience working in a licensed childcare facility. A CDA or Coursework or a degree in early childhood development and early childhood education. Must have impeccable references and provide credits that satisfy state set requirements for education.

Childcare director that is armed with legal knowledge to ensure that the undertakings of the school are in accordance with company and state licensing standards. IT knowledge and leadership skills are essential. Hold and associate degree. One year working managerial or supervisory experience. Childcare experience of over four years and references must be impeccable and credible.

Community and Public Service.

An enthusiastic, dedicated candidate for Clinical Mental Health Supervisor role. Hold a Master’s Degree in Social Work, Counseling, Psychology or other associate fields. Have at least 5 years of work experience in a social work setting. Independent licensure as an LISW or LPCC required.

Consultant Pharmacist for the Wisconsin Veterans Home at Union Grove. Shall facilitate consultation as per the medical care practitioners on aspects of the provision of pharmacy services to the home.  A Bachelors, Masters, or Doctoral degree in Pharmacy from an institution of pharmacy accredited by the American Council on Pharmaceutical Education (ACPE). Have working experience of at least 5 years.

Clinical Social Worker at Goodfellow AFB. Possess a Master of Social Work (M.S.W.) degree from an institution of social work completely accredited by the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE). Hold a recent, unrestricted clinical license to practice social work in any of the 50 states. Must be actively practicing for 2 years or more with in the last five years.

A passionate and ethical Medical Social Worker with a Bachelor’s degree or higher from a CSWE-accredited social work institution. Minimum of 3 years clinical experience, HMO or Managed Care setting recommended. Knowledgeable of clinical standards of care and Medicaid/Medicare contracts and benefit systems is preferred.

Computers and Technology.

An expert web designer with passionate about highlighting details and custom web specification. Should hold a bachelor’s degree in a bachelor’s degree in a computer-associate field such as computer science or information technology. Creative and innovative to capture trending social memes and hash tags in the draft web designs.

Computer support specialist with high levels of competency, technical acumen and customer service skills. Requires a postsecondary degree or certification or bachelor’s degree in computer science or in associate fields. Be ethical, time conscious, keen listener, obedient and flexible to customer requests.

Computer network architects who is creative and has great marketing skills. Needs at least a bachelor’s degree in computer science, information systems or an associate field, such as engineering. Two years working experience with in the last five years is crucial. Attaining an undergraduate degree in a computer-related major, however, is preferable.

Creative, passionate and ethical IT managers with a bachelor’s degree in computer or information science inclusive of coursework in computer programming, software development and mathematics. IT managers with complimentary graduate degree like Master of Business Administration are preferable. 5-10 years working experience is necessary.


Reliable, hardworking and punctual Grinder that can keep the working area tidy daily. Needs to show commitment and passion for the professional roles. At least possess a one year experience in the field with a certified Grade 12. Have good communication skills and great team relations. Plastics experience is preferential.

Disciplined and ethical site manager that can manage and run a multi-million low cost housing project. Good leadership and management skills capable of mentoring and managing junior staff on site. Minimum of 10 years relevant working experience. Must have impeccable references from previous employers.

A hardworking efficient and reputable Paint setter in Nevada. Must possess a Matric or equivalent and qualify as an artisan.  Two years’ experience as a paint setter from the construction industry with good understanding of the paint processes and systems. Computer literacy, communication skills and the ability to work independently or within a team environment.

Dynamic and reputable candidate with Construction Science degrees teach building technology, cost estimating, and construction safety, management and procedures. 3 years of experience is essential. Exemplary budgeting skills, excellent IT and math skills, organizational and planning skills. Have exceptional leadership and team work skills

Customer Services.

Technical Support Representative exemplary possessing technical skills, product-specific software, application or hardware skills, and the ability to troubleshoot, solve problems. In additional to good communication and team work participation. 3 years or more working experience and college degree, certification or training in an associate field.

Passionate, committed, ethical and hardworking Customer Service Representative with three years’ experience. Customer service representatives that can interact with customers to process orders, provide information about an organization’s products and services, and resolve issues. Knowledge of emerging trends and great command of English.

An ideal Communications representative with educational experiences, is highly detail oriented, capable of multi-task and work independently in addition to thrive in a team, is able to work within deadlines and has great customer service and communication skills, with an emphasis in exceptional communication skills.

Our client’s management team search is focused on customer care associates who are dedicated to consistently driving high standards and achieving customer service excellence. Candidates should be skillful in building relationships, and have a single-minded focus on delivering quality. Should previous working experiences of at least two years.


Friendly, patient-oriented dental hygienist to establish relationships and offer quality life time care to patients in Memphis, Tennessee. Must is passionate about comprehensive care and a goal oriented individual who is motivated to be a leader for the dental hygiene profession and our patients. Possess a State of Tennessee license, have active CPR certification, and 2 or more years of working and preferential Dentrix background.

General Dentist with 5 to 10 years of working experience. With evidential history of active practice within the last six years. Have good people skills and Build valuable relations with patients and get involved with the greater society while offering high class dental care. Have valid licenses to practice in the State of Virginia with no board reprimands or matters, have a lawful DEA permit, and professional liability policy.

Sociable, patient-centered professional assistant dentist and provide dental assistance in duties such as chair side procedures, x-rays photography, operatory wash-ups and sterilizing equipment.  Should in close proximity to work Full Time at our Richmond, VA office. 3 or more years of working experience.  Active CPR Certificate and Radiology Certificate and Dentrix mastery are necessary.

Dental Partners has an opening for a full-time Human Resource Associate to join our crew.  The ideal candidate will have one or more years of experience HR tasks and related activities. Associates or Bachelor’s degree in Human Resources, Business Management or related field an posses Excellent working knowledge of MS Office. Have the ability to communicate within all levels of the organization be professional, friendly and team relation skills.

Education and Training.

Competent E-Learning Developer with a higher education qualification like a foundation degree, HND or a bachelor’s degree. Education qualification in computing, multimedia design, teaching and educational technology is recommended. Creativity, excellent communication skills and detail centered individuals.

Ethical school matron with English, math and science backgrounds. Must have experience working with children and credentials in childcare and first aid. Disclosure and Barring Services clearance is necessary. Have excellent communication and listening skills. Bear the ability to deal with emergencies calmly and organizational skills. IT skills for record keeping and report writing.

A 12 year experienced and passionate Music teacher with exceptional musical skills. Possessing relevant postgraduate qualifications and teaching experience to be a music teacher in a music college or conservatoire. Good communication, with a patient and encouraging attitude towards the learning process.

A 12 year veteran education welfare officer. Previous experience working with children or young people. Bachelor’s degree in social work and with great public service. Ability to use IT to analyses data and write clear and detailed reports. Excellent listening and communication skills with detail-centered accuracy in handling clients.


10 years’ experience in mechanical engineering with previous working experience with in the last five years. Possess a bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering and diploma in IT management. Passionate, ethical and dedicated worker capable of working full weekdays all year round. Expert communication, leadership and team skills.

An expert manufacturing engineer with a bachelor’s degree and diploma in IT management. Expertise and skillful in planning design, set up, modifying, optimize and monitor manufacturing process economically. Five years’ experience across many engineering firms.

An innovative passionate electrical engineer with a master’s degree. Three years’ experience. Passionate and determine to improve the robotics, computer networks, wireless communications, or medical imaging sectors. Hardworking leader or compassionate team player.

Detailed centered skillful civil engineering with 10 years’ experience in the field. Possess a bachelor’s degree and an IT degree. Ethical and safety oriented individual capable of delivering innovative, creative and hardworking to provide customer satisfaction. Capable team player or leader.

Entertainment and Media.

News anchors with previous on TV experience for five years. Holds a bachelor degree in mass communication and an associate computer certification. Passionate hardworking and committed to service delivery. Boasts of great command of English both written and spoken form.

Detailed oriented and passionate sports reporter with a three years previous working experience. Currently working for ESPN. Well-travelled and acquitted to all genres of sports popular around the country. Complementary diploma in physical education and availability all year long. Relishes the chance of long distance travel just to cover a story.

Social media ads manager with IT managerial skills. Posses over 100,000 followers on integral Up to date with current online culture, memes, gifs and hashtags. Dedicated, detail centered, innovative and hardworking individual.

Content writer for blogs and online updates. Possess a diploma in IT, a degree in mass media and communication. Exemplary writing and typing skills with great knowledge of Microsoft Word and Excel. Up-to-date with emerging online trends and culture capable of meeting strict deadlines.

Environmental Jobs.

An eco-sympathetic landscaper that can creatively and innovatively create a rural feel in an urban center. Detail-oriented, skillful and passionate about vegetative decoration for any home setting. Previous working experience of over five years. Compliments with an IT management degree and CPA certification.

Environmental activist that will help your company reach new heights in sensitizing the nation on global warming. Chaired many global warming forums and seminars. Bachelor’s degree in environmental management and an IT management degree. Previous working experience of 3 years with reputable environmental bodies.

Twelve years of working experience as an Environmental conservation officer. Posses relevant degree subjects that include environmental, life and urban, and land use studies. Exemplary history in math, biology and related subjects. Good administrative and IT skills. Communicate effectively through talks and Microsoft PowerPoint presentations.

A toxicologist, capable of looking at the impact of toxic materials and radiation on the environment and in human and animal health. 12 years previous working experience. Offering an organized and methodical approach to work. Excellent problem-solving skills. Great team working skills to work collaboratively in multidisciplinary teams.

Estate Agents.

Property Sales and Leasing Consultant with determination to succeed. Ambitious and self-motivated sales professional. Innovative, positive and with a strong work ethic. An excellent team player who can lead or be part of a team. Excellent verbal and written communication skills. Sales or customer service experience of over five years.

A letting agent with excellent spoken and written communication skills. A degree in sales management and IT skills. Possess excellent negotiation, sales and marketing skills. The ability to build good working relationships with a wide range of people. Capable of working work under pressure and exemplary organizational skills.

5 years of practice as mortgage adviser. A degree in real estate management. Excellent communication and listening skills. Capable to explain complex information clearly and simply. Has the confidence to work with numbers and explain them to clients. Posses IT skills. With excellent customer service skills, the drive and motivation to meet targets.

Relevant degree estate management with 3 years working experience as a General Practice surveyor. Excellent STEM skills (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math). Excellent negotiating, analytical and sales skills. Have great commercial awareness. Capable of negotiating deals for buying, selling and renting property.

Fitness and Recreation.

Certified grounds keeper with a combination of training and experience equivalent to completion of high school or possession of GED certificate. One year experience in preparation of athletic fields in various stadiums around the country. Two years working experience. Possess a landscaping background with a love for the environment.

12 years of experience as a Park and recreations officer. Familiar with planning and implementing recreation programs in fitness, athletics and aquatics. Experienced in making presentations to various audience levels from general public to high level executives. Experienced in assessing fitness, athletics and aquatics programs using performance measures and making adjustments to programs as needed.

Gym coordinator with pas experience of over five years in more than three top class gyms. Passionate, hardworking and committed to the cause of fitness. Possess interpersonal skills and good communication skills that can easily appeal to the client. Up-to-date with all the relevant and emerging technologies in the fitness sector.

Experienced working with various age groups. Experienced implementing programs in sports, fitness, and educational programming. Former tennis and badminton player. Good communication skills and command of the English both written and spoken.3 years’ experience working as a recreation assistant. Possess great organizational and coordination skills.

Food and beverage sector.

A detail centered chef who can prepare meals, oversee kitchen staff and manage quality standards. Capable of innovatively generating new recipes. 3 years working experience. Good command of English language and can be part of or lead a team effectively.

Diet advisor with background in human health and three years’ experience. Good personal skills and a motivational speaker. 3 years working experience. Passionate about fitness and healthy sustainable living. Bachelor’s degree in food science. Knowledge in IT management.

Food scientist capable of creating new food or beverages items. Able to improve new food processing procedures or inspect processing companies. Impeccable IT skills. Four years of working experience. Good team player.

Capable waiter with three years’ experience. Bi lingual can speak French and English fluently. Passionate, hardworking and worker for long hours without rest or tire. Diploma in food science with a wide scope of knowledge on wine.

Funeral Services.

Morgue attendant with three years working experience. Time conscious, dedicated and capable of keeping the morgue clean at all times. Can work as part of a team effective. Good communication and lingual skills. Well-travelled, knowledgeable and respectable to all cultures including the funeral rituals.

An experienced truck driver searching for new opportunities to earn from my impeccable driving. Previous working experience for one year as morgue attendant. Time efficient and always dedicated to meeting deadlines. Can work all week long and on night shifts as well.

Receptions for funeral home with previous working experience in the same field. Secretarial training excelling in Micro Soft Word, Excel and IT skills. Can do all sectorial office duties including maintaining office tidiness. Good command of spoken and written English with effective communication skills.

Mortician with three years’ experience. Capable of carrying out crematory services and direct burial proceeding. Open-minded with effective communication skills. Sensitive, knowledgeable and respectable to all cultures and religion.


State attorney with previous ten year experience in law practice. Ethical committed and hardworking. Good command of English both spoken and written. Can work in part of the state. Culturally diverse and multilingual can speak English along with Spanish.

High school in a public institution. Previous teaching experience in the public sector for five years and private for three years. Understanding and can work well with any age group comfortably. Effective communication skills. Holds a bachelor’s degree in literature and certificates of voluntary public service.

A lawyer with 12 years’ experience. With tremendous mastery of the constitution and good ethics. Previously working with an NGO body that aims at peace. Good communication skills, excellent in negotiations and persuasions. Passionate about NGO and government coordination.

Agricultural business advisor too many company over the last five years. Bachelor’s degree in Agribusiness management with great IT skills. Good team leader and can exceptionally well in a team as well. Effective communication skill and great business instincts and negotiation skills.


General Dentist with 10 years of working experience. With evidential history of active practice within the last six years. Have good communication skills and build valuable relations with patients and get involved with the greater society while offering high class dental care. Have valid licenses to practice in the State of Virginia with no board reprimands or matters, have a lawful DEA permit, and professional liability policy.

Passionate, dedicated and hardworking general doctor with 10 years previous working experience with a degree in medicine. Have great communication skills and build valuable relations with patients and get involved with the greater society while offering high class dental care.

Lab assistant with 10 years’ experience.  Flexible and transformational leader capable of working self-sufficiently, creating effective presentations, and developing opportunities that further establish organizational goals. Ethical and team spirited to work with other professionals.

Dynamic and caring nursing professional with a proven record of generating and building relationships, with rehabilitating drug addicts. Skilled in participating and creating cross-functional teams, demonstrating great communication skills, and making critical decisions during challenges. Adaptable and transformational leader with an ability to work individually and with in a team.

Human Resources.

Human resource consultant specializing in a variety of fields, including benefits, employee incentives and rewards programs and company culture.  With a bachelor’s degree in associate coarse. 5 years working experience.

International Human Resources Professional who can travel, speak multiple languages and are adept at engaging successfully with a wide variety of different people who adhere to different customs. With a bachelor’s degree in associate coarse. 5 years working experience. Great personal and communication skills.

Training & Development Manager passionate about impacting the lives of other young employees. Training and development managers help employees to better their skill sets and careers. Great communication skills and adaptable leadership skills. With 20 year working experience.

An innovative human resource manager with ten year experience. With great decision making, interpersonal skills, leadership skills, organizational skills, and communication skills. Hardworking and motivational professional. Ability to work with a team as the leader or part of it effectively. Multilingual, fluent in English Spanish and French.

Humanities and Liberal Arts.

Community educator with previous five years working experience. A dedicated and committed worker in any related field. Great interpersonal skills and knowledgeable of all religions. Open minded and cultural sensitive to all aspects of traditions and rituals. An exceptional team player either as a leader or a member.

Geography high school teacher for the last twenty years. Adept in the field of geography with a bachelor’s degree specialization in the field. Creative, innovation, inspirational and motivational with the ability to work with all age groups or any gage group combination. Exemplary IT skills and well adept with computer imagery especially maps.

School subject advisor with a degree background in religious studies. Exemplary IT skills and adept typing experience. Previous work as a motivational speaker for many high schools around the region. Great interpersonal skills, good communication skills and possess the ability to reach the students at a personal level.

A patriotic history teacher who prides himself on mastery of the nation’s history. Passionate about inspiring the spirit of patriotism in others through history. Previous work experience as a teacher in college for over 20 years. Exceptional communication skills. Availability and ability to work for long hours all week.

Installation and Maintenance.

Installation and maintenance manager for the last 5 years. Great networking ability with many previous clients all over the Miami region. Bachelors in computer science and great IT skills. Mastery of the English language and exceptional communication skills. A wonderful team player and can work as either the leader or a member of the team.

Installation and maintenance agent with background in sales and marketing. Possess a bachelor’s degree in sales and marketing as well in ICT. Previous working experience of 5 years in a decoder installation team. Ability to work with in a team as member. Great interpersonal and good communication skills.

Appliance maintenance agent. Five years’ experience working as an appliance at the Fix It Group. A bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering. Passionate about customer service and consumer satisfaction all the time. Hardworking and committed to deliver the promise of the company.

An intense, creative and ethical software engineer. Capable of handling up-to-date and new software’s with ease. A bachelor’ degree in software engineering and exceptional sales skills. Ability to interact with customers personally through great interpersonal skills and deft lingual skills.


13+ years of brooking Insurance policies to clients all around the country. Sales skills and exemplary persuasion skill. Major experience lies in strategizing and leading cross-functional teams to bring about fundamental change and improvement in strategy, process, and profitability both as a leader and expert consultant

An insurance lawyer with extreme experience and passion 15 years in the making. Specializes in delivering quality and valid legal advice to any person taking up any kind of insurance. Hardworking, resourceful and experienced law practitioner with persistence in representing the interest of the insurance client.

Pin point judgment of character and the ability to decode people’s statements and expose truth. Over 15 years of investigating insurance claims of varying nature. An expert in human physiology. Posing great interpersonal skills with good communication skills and command of the English language.

Receptionist at insurance for the last five years. Great IT skills, deft in Word, Microsoft Excel, can perform any secretarial activities. Hardworking, resource passionate and detail oriented ethical individual. Previous working experience in an insurance company.


A seasoned lawyer with 20 years’ experience and exceptional record in court cases. Offers exceptional expertise, mastery and interpretation of the constitution. Ability to think critically and come up with ethical solutions to any legal complication. Create ability to utilize the English in spoken or written from.

A veteran lawyer of over thirty years’ experience. A seasoned law practitioner working previously as a lawyer and a judge. Offers exceptional experience in advising on legal options and consultancy to any legal complication. Deft in English with great interpersonal and communication team.

A former office receptionist working as a court clerk for over five years. With great IT skills, deft in Word, Microsoft Excel, can perform any secretarial activities. Hardworking, resource passionate and detail-centered morally individual. Previous working experience in an insurance company.

Law intern who can work as an assistant. With a bachelor’s degree in law and possess wonderful IT skills. Expertise in interrogation with excellent communication and interpersonal skills. Deft command of the English language both spoken and written. Can work well with others in a team.


Friendly and approachable Librarian that can assist students with homework and research questions. Have great IT skills and very familiar with online education. Compassionate and can work with seniors and non-English speaking persons. Specialist in Literature. Great organizational and filling skills to maintain the records for the online catalog.

Competent with one year’s experience in pages responsible for putting returned books and other items in their proper places on the shelves. Intern experience and organization skills with accountability for keeping items in the right order. Capable of working part-time with minimal wage.

Library Managers efficiently able to operate departments or other functional areas. Disciples an can conduct employee evaluations, training, and managing budgets. Five years’ experience. Great interpersonal and communication skills.

Dedicated and passionate Lab Assistant that can perform clerical duties and tend to checkout desks is near the entrance. Ethical and can collect fines and fees accountably. Hard work with multitasking and organization skills. Specialization in interpersonal communication relations.


11 years’ experience in agribusiness management possesses a bachelor’s degree in Agribusiness management. Great IT skill and CPA certified. Great team player and work as either a leader or part of the team. Good command of the English language and excels in verbal and written communication.

Hardworking, detail-oriented and ethical business administrator for over five years. Passionate and able to deliver high quality services. Possess a bachelor degree in management and administration with impeccable IT Skill. Posse great interpersonal skills with command of English.

A risk a manager with years working experience. A bachelor’s degree in economics with great IT skills. Specializes in IT aspect of risk management. Compassionate, passionate and ethical worker. Can work well with colleagues. Possess great problem solving skills along with critical thinking.

Product manager with two years working experience. Knowledgeable about company product’s users and industry. Decisive, visionary and resource to support company and personal choices with research. Flexible, adaptable and can in-depth with different business functions. A great collaborator, leader and diplomat.

Manufacturing and Production

Productions supervisor with post-secondary vocational training. One-year certificate with three-year diploma from a college with technical programs. 2 years previous working experience. An expert worker with the ability to work within a team as a leader or followers.

Production foreman in many sites for over five years. Prime physical condition and is capable of lifting up to 30 pounds. Ability to work in a fast paced environment and can sustain high amounts of pressure. Has reliable transportation and is ready to travel long distance just to get the work done.

Over four years experienced worker with high ethics. I am willing to submit to criminal background check and drug screen. I have a High School diploma. Previous working experience in production and mechanical positions. Flexible and can perform a variety tasks in this field.
An industrial engineer with Bachelors of Science Degree in Engineering. Possess exemplary skills in IT and communication. More than two years relevant work experience working as an industrial, manufacturing and process engineer. The ideal candidate will have experience in an Industrial Engineering role in more than two companies around the nation.


Marketing, Advertising and PR

Advertising account executive with three years’ experience. A bachelor’s degree in sales and marketing with good IT skills. Excellent communication and interpersonal skills. An active attitude, with the ability to use initiative. Possess excellent organizational skills. Can work under pressure and assimilate large quantities of information quickly, detail-oriented, flexible thinking and effective team working skills.

Media planer with a degree in mass media and communication. Great command of the English in both written or spoken. Strong analytical and organizational skills. Capable of working under pressure. Skills to work with IT resources. Possess good interpersonal, negotiation and communication skills, for communicating with colleagues, clients and media stakeholders.

A self-motivated advertising copywriter with great imagination, innovative and passionate about the job with over three years working experience. Great ability to write good, clear copy in an array of styles with accurate spelling and grammar. Good analytical and organizational skill. A good team player with effective communication and interpersonal skills.

5+ years advertising and art director with a degree in graphic design. High levels of motivation and perseverance with a strong confidence in my ideas, with the skills express them. Excellent organizational and analytical skills with the ability to multi-task frequently. Team player and can work as part of a team or the leader.

Natural Resources and Agriculture.

Passionate, dedicated, committed game warden with five years experience. Compassionate about animals and the environment with multiple certificates in votary conservation works. A seasoned professional who can work as a leader or part of a team. Excellent communication skills with impeccable interpersonal skills.

Fives in forest management with good IT skills. Area of Specialization in genetic research and disease control. 5+ years working with the Forest department. The environment was passionate with decisive and critical thinking to solve problems.

A committed dedicated and experienced wildlife management. A compassionate animal lover who is passionate about animal life preservation and environmental conservation. Holds a degree in wildlife management and has impeccable IT skills. Great command of the English language with excellent communication skills.

Agribusiness manager with over five years experience. A certified CPA accountant plus excellent IT skills. Passionate, hardworking and committed worker. Creative and innovative in the agriculture field. Excellent interpersonal skills with a relatable character to enhance communication.


A master’s degree, such as a master of science in nursing. 5+ working experience in hospitals, health departments, clinics, private practices, and homes. Compassionate and can handle other duties like offering family planning advice. Midwife with more than 100 successful deliveries.

Experienced in critical care, and accomplishment of a two-year anesthesia education program. Possess certification from the National Board for Certification and Recertification of Nurse Anesthetists. 5+ years working experience. Preferably works best assisting a dentist.

Detail-oriented, passionate and committed worker. With exceptional organizational and analytical skills. Excellent communication and interpersonal skills. Master’s degree in health informatics. Two years of experience as an RN and over 2,000 hours of service in informatics for certification.

Pediatric Endocrinology nurse with two years of nursing experience. Ready to learn and relishes the chance of working as an intern for the first six months. Passionate and compassionate about taking care of the children. Hardworking and committed to the job.

Performing Arts.

An actor with five years experience. Motivational and inspiration team leader can work well with other. Excellent command of the English language both spoken and written. Exceptional acting skills with fluency and flawless movement. Capable of performing own stats.

Community arts worker with five years working experience of scouting artists and actors. Adept with a broad range of knowledge from the art world. Specialist in motivating and inspiring the young artist to meet their potential. Great communication and interpersonal skills.

Music therapist with a broad range of music taste. Exceptional taste in music and can find music that goes well with the theme. Capable of playing a variety of musical instrument with great specialties in playing the piano. Can double as a voice actor.

A passionate career dancer with 3+ dancing experience.  Committed dedicated and hard working. Excellent in team work and work exceptionally well in a geography dance routine. Creative and innovative capabilities of coming with new choreography work.

Personal Services.

Renowned manicurists and pedicurist with three years’ experience. Seasoned artist with great eye for details. Creative innovative and ethical worker. Good communication skills and can easily work in a team. Capable of working for long hours with zeal and intensity. Great interpersonal skills with relatable attitude.

Well-travelled and flexible professional who can work as a barber or hairdressers. Three years working experience performing services for many saloons and beauty parlors around the city. Good communication skills, excellent listener and relatable personality.

Fitness and health oriented personal trainer. Great communication skills with excellent interpersonal skills. Friendly and easy to relate to personality. Excellent in motivational and inspirational skills with patience to encourage clients. Five years working as a gym assistant at a local gym in the region.

Well, trained, experienced and caring child career. Ethical and trustworthy to care of a child. Can double as a private teacher. Excellent communication and great interpersonal skills. Previously worked as a pediatrician for over five years.


Clinical pharmacists that can work with physicians and other health care workers to ensure that medications contribute to maximum improvement of patient’s health. Accountable, responsible and caring for the patient. 5+ years of experience plus a degree in pharmacy.

Pharmacists faculty interested in training the next generation of youths. Passionate about the pharmacy profession. Good communication skills, interpersonal skill and can work as well as relate with all age groups. Armed with great IT skills. Committed and energetic with 10 years of experience.

Nuclear pharmacists that can compound radiopharmaceutical for medical procedures. Armed with a Doctor of Pharmacy degree and willingness to learn under a mentor. Great communication and interpersonal, can work well with other as either a leader or part of the team. 2+ years of working experience.

Hospital pharmacists with five of experience advising health care professionals and patients on practices of safe and efficient use of medications. Great communication and interpersonal skill. Easily relatable and friendly personality. Possess a degree in pharmacy.


A clinical psychologist with Health and Care Professions Council registration. 5+ years working for various hospitals around the country. An empathetic and people-centered professional. Can tolerate high levels of stress and work under pressure.  Creative, critical thinking with the ability to respond to difficult situations.

5+ years working as counseling psychologist in hospital. Previous voluntary community service in the field. Great interpersonal skills and professionalism. Excellent communication skills relatable personality and work with any group. Open-minded, sensitive and courageous to tackle emotional issues of all sorts with clients.

Occupational psychologist with five years working experience for top companies. Possess a degree in psychology with great IT skills. Excellent communication and interpersonal skills. Motivational, ethical and can inspire trust. Great interrogation skills. Open minded thinker with excellent problem solving skills.

A passionate sports fan with a degree in psychology. Five years of experience working with all sorts of athletes especially retired ones. Great problem solving and decision makes skills.  Has excellent communication and interpersonal skills. Excellent listening and reflection skills. Patient with the ability to motivate and inspire others.


A trust worthy, experienced and ethical buyers and purchasing agent. Excellent judgment and can assist in evaluating salespersons, discussing prices, ordering, and organizing delivery schedules. Great communication and people skills with a relatable attitude, capable of working with any age group.

A certified CPA accountant with five years’ experience. Ethical. Responsible and accountable. Great communication skills and interpersonal skills. Excellent IT skills plus previous experience as a customer care service consultant. Excellent organizational and communication skills. Knowledge of emerging trends and great command of English

A department manager who can be responsible for any section of a retail store. Previous three years working experience as a manager in a grocery shop. Passionate and ethical individual with relatable character. Great people-skills and excellent negotiation skills.

Two years’ experience of working as an IT coordinator for various retailers. Retail IT Coordinators that can provide operations and user support for your company. Capable of handling a wide range of hardware, software, mobile, messaging, and server support. Possess a degree in computer science, up-to-date with emerging social media trends.


Performance-driven individual who understands the importance of customer service. 5 years’ Experience in the sales industry, including proof of achieving sales goals. Excellent communication, analytical, organization, time management and interpersonal skills. Possess a high school diploma. Ready to work as retail sales representative.

5+ experience of working as a sales assistant in a supermarket. Excellent communication and interpersonal skills. Impeccable organizational and analytical skills. Has ability to work in a fast paced environment and can handle large amounts of pressure. Great understanding of retail sales, retail marketing and visual merchandising.

Sales consultant with a bachelor’s degree in sales and marketing. Two years of sales, retail and marketing experience. Exemplary leadership skills and is an ideal team player. Comfortable with different lines of products. Good communication and interpersonal skills. Great IT skills and knowledgeable of the emerging trends on the retail sector.

Ethical, persuasive with 4 years’ experience in automotive sales working for various car dealerships around the country. Excellent verbal and written communication skills. Wonderful negotiation and presentation skills. Tidy and have a professional appearance. Great IT skills with proficiency in MS Office, computer software and internet proficiency.


Chemist with a masters degree in chemistry. Specializes in research and is an adept researcher with vast skills and research techniques. Excellent interpersonal skills with effective communication skills. Can work as a team player as either a member or player.

Conservationist whose passionate about protecting the natural resource and environment. Previous working experience with the environmental department of five years. Excellent communication and inter personal skills. Can coordinate a team and best works with a team.

Five years were exeperince working as a biochemist with a bachelor’s degree in biochemistry. Excellent analytical and organizational skills. Proficient in IT and is familiar with all the latest computer software. Exceptional research skills and can work as a team leader, teampalyer or individual comfortably.

Passionate, committed ethical and hard-working Environmental scientist with a  bachelor’s degree in environmental science with three years’ experience. An expert that can interact with customers to process orders provide information about the environment and services and resolve issues. Knowledge of emerging trends and excellent command of English.

Skilled traders.

Skillful, passionate, innovative and detailed oriented carpenter with over five years experience. Possess certification in fire protection and site inspection certifications. An excellent team player with effective communication skills. A very good negotiator with the power of persuasion. Specializes in remodeling or restoration jobs.

Commercial driver armed with excellent practical skills, technical expertize, and industry-recognized credentials. Relishes the opportunity to pursue an adventurous and exciting career path on offer. Committed hardworking and passionate the job. Excellent personal and communication skills. Can work well under pressure to meet strict deadlines.

A passionate professional with the firm belief on customer satisfaction who can work with large mobile machinery. Affectionate and friendly and cares about greatly contributing to making the way others live possible. Has five years experience working heavy duty machines and vehicles with previous experience in road construction.

A skillful professional equipped with the practical expertize that is necessary for working with electricity efficiently.Five years experience as an electrician specializing in planning layouts, design, and installation of electrical systems with consideration to safety and code compliance. A degree in electrical engineering with expert level IT skills.

Social Science.

Open minded, committed and hard-working economist. With a master’s degree in economics. Also, has strong math and analytical skills. Has strong computer and technology skills with excellent knowledge of current software. Prioritizes tasks and pays close attention to details.

15+ years of auditing experience for many top companies. Ethical, accountable and responsible professional. Passionate about the truth and impartial about favoring any group of people. Excellent management skills, communication skills with great inter personal skills.

A dedicated economics teacher with five years experience possesses a degree in economics. Excellent IT skills with experience working a sa high school teacher. Is highly detail oriented, capable of multitasking and work independently, also, to thrive in a team

Well traveled with previous 4+ years working as a foreign service officer. Possess interpersonal skills and excellent communication skills that can easily appeal to the client. Up-to-date with all the relevant and emerging technologies in the travels and foreign affairs sector.


Sports Marketer with over 50 successful negotiations with sponsors. Excellent communication skills and command of the English both written and spoken.3 years’ experience working as a marketer. Possess excellent organizational and coordination skills. Familiar with many sports.

Passionate, dedicated and hard-working sports doctor with ten years previous working experience with a degree in medicine. A diehard football and is familiar with many games. Have excellent communication skills and build valuable relations with clients and get involved with the wider society while offering high-class dental care.

Fitness and health-oriented personal trainer. Great communication skills with excellent interpersonal skills. Friendly and easy to relate to personality. Good in motivational and inspirational skills with patience to encourage clients. Five years working as a gym assistant at a local gym in the region.

A great match official with leadership and communication, to supervise play and address conflicts as they arise. Five years of officiating soccer games and can work both as the center and sideline official. Excellent principles of group dynamics and group interaction. Knowledgeable of emergency procedures and accident site management. Ability to work well with a panel of people from all ages.

Telecommunications and Wireless.

Telecommunications engineers with bachelor’s degrees in electronics engineering. Fives years working experience with a major electronics company.  Possess high analytical, innovative and methodical problem solvers. Brilliant concentration and math skills. Specialist in IT and is familiar with all current computer software.

Telecommunications professional whose primary focus is on line installation, maintenance, and repair. Possess a high school diploma with extensive on-the-job training. 2+ years working as the personal assistant at a facility company. Possess interpersonal skills and excellent communication skills that can easily appeal to the client.

Telecommunications sales agent with five years’ experience. Possess a sales and marketing bachelor’s degree and is knowledgeable of sports products. A trust worthy, experienced and ethical buyers and purchasing agent. Excellent judgment and can assist in evaluating potential clients.

Marketing specialists with a bachelor’s degree in sales and marketing. Two years of sales, retail, and marketing experience. Model leadership skills and is an ideal team player. Comfortable with different lines of products. Excellent communication and interpersonal skills. Great IT expertise and knowledgeable of the emerging trends in the retail sector.

Textiles and Clothing.

Marketing specialists with a bachelor’s degree in sales and marketing. Three years of sales, retail, and marketing experience. Model leadership skills and is an ideal team player. Comfortable with different lines of fashion products. Excellent communication and interpersonal skills. Great IT expertise and knowledgeable of the emerging trends in the retail sector.

Advertising and promotions manager with tones of interest in fashion. Have a degree in Art and design, have great marketing and budgeting skills. Previous work experience as a sales agent fashion store has good computer knowledge. Excellent team skills and creativity to come with catchy slogans and sale banners.

Passionate and creative fashion designer. Four years working experience and with mastery of computer skills. Possess a bachelor’s degree in art and design, merchandising and marketing diplomas. Great command of English language, can multi task and has exceptional communication skills.

A passionate fashion lover with a bachelor’s degree in chemist. Five years of working as a color technologist. Technical skills to use computer systems. Able to plan, organize and work in a team, mostly if supervising technicians. Flexible and can adapt to the needs of customers or business specification. Excellent consideration to details when analyzing and developing dyes and pigments.