Density of Aluminum and the Thickness of A thin Aluminum Sheet

Student name




Experiment number 2: Density of Aluminum and the Thickness of Thin Aluminum Sheet


The objective of this experiment is to determine the density of aluminum, show practical applications of density by calculating the thickness of a thin aluminum foil and show practical application of significant figures and laboratory skills.

Part I


Density is a property of a substance thus it can be used to identify a particular substance (Jensen 45). Density is a measure of how tightly packed particles are in matter by using the ration of mass to volume; mass and volume are related direct proportion (Mahan 20, Kalpakjian and scmid 13). Density is determined using the formula:

Where M is the mass while V is the volume

In this experiment, the masses and volumes of 3 samples of aluminum will be determined and be used to determine the density of aluminum. The density of the aluminum will be used to determine the thickness of the aluminum foil in the second part of the experiment.



3 aluminum samples

25ml graduated cylinder


Weighing boats


3 aluminum samples were obtained: 1 aluminum shot and 2 aluminum bars

The scale was zeroed

The sample was placed on the weighing scale and the mass was recorded

The volume of the bar was determined using the formula Length (L)*Width (W)*Height (H) measured using a caliper

The volume of the shot was determine using the water displacement method

The volume of the second bar was determined using the L*W*H method

The value of the density of the 3 samples was calculated using the formula:


The value of the densities was then averaged.

Data and Observations

Volume of the bars

Sample Length L (cm) Width W (cm) Height H (cm) Volume (cm3)


1 76.2 6.2 25.3 19.95275
2 5 1.2 2.5 15.00000


Volume of the Aluminum shot

67mL – 50mL = 17mL

Sample Mass (g) Volume (V) Density (g/cm3)
Aluminum bar 1 32.779 11.95275 2.74238
Aluminum bar 2 44.676 15.00000 2.97840
Aluminum shot 46.140 17.00000 2.71411


Rounded off average density = 2.8 g/cm3

Part II


In science we use both large and small numbers at the same time. The laboratory tools available are not suitable for measuring the thickness of an aluminum foil. However, the volume of a regular object can be calculated using the formula:

Taking the height (h) to be the thickness (T) of the foil, therefore:

Using the density formula we get the volume formula

The aluminum foil can be measured to get its mass and used the density obtained from part I.


Balance, centimeter ruler, 4 sheets of aluminum foil, data table and a calculator


A data table was made to include all the necessary data

A large aluminum foil was cut into 4 pieces with 900 edges

The length and width of each piece was measured and recorded

The mass of each piece was measured and recorded

Calculations were made


Sheet Number Area Volume Thickness












Works cited

Mahan, Gerald D. Many-particle physics. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.

Jensen, Frank. Introduction to computational chemistry. John wiley & sons, 2017.

Kalpakjian, Serope, and Steven R. Schmid. Manufacturing engineering and technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Pearson, 2014.


City Of Quartz”


The story of Los Angeles is mostly about cut edging – California only or visions for the future. Mike Davis explored what he called “The post-modernity bad edge” in a city that has escaped not only itself but also its consequences in imitation histories and myths. Sunshine or Noir? Is the question he asks in the first chapter of the book.The query regard the quality of life of residents of Los Angeles (L.A). His naming of the first chapter was meant to position Los Angeles (L.A) as a fiction and an architectonic space and a collection of material practices by comparing dominant groups’ boosterism with the city narratives of noir, gangster rap and the Frankfurt school (Davis, 1990, P.82).

The city set the mode of its development through its foundation as a real state capitalism creature. It promised oil, and sunny beaches as well as the romanticized “mission myth,” a picture described by the boosters but destroyed and made cynical by debunkers and the noirs respectively. Davis, (Davis, 1990. P.17) introduced us to a city covered by its waste as well as an area damaged by capitalism contradictions – social stratification, greed, overproduction, gentrification, religious revivalism, ignorance of the environment, and political chicanery. Mr Davis meant to position L.A as bright, hard and opaque. Opinions about the town can fall under two virtual subdivisions – day and night views. The night watchers usually celebrate the city’s long-term pale yellow stream of light, flowing over a lacework of streets and subways, as a symbol of accomplishment by the humanity. Historian Kevin Starr leads this school of thought in his “Material Dreams.” He showed how “boosters” or early leaders in L.A changed a desert into a world-class city with just dreams daring executions (Davis, 1990, P.25). Fortunately, Mr Davis wants the readers also to view L.A in a less flattering daylight, when those streams fade to uncover symbols of problems ranging from snarled traffic to isolated automobiles. Traffic is due to political establishment dominated by developers that have set peoples’ focus on the short-term gains while isolated cars arises from separating ethnicities and classes in a city with increasingly scarce public space (Davis, 1990, P.36)


According to Davis sunshine represented the ideas promoted by real estate developers in the early twentieth century (Davis, 1990, P.24). These boosters had an optimistic view of L.A. They made the city resemble a white new haven. The excellent working conditions, bungalows, and sunny beaches comprised the dream of a utopian society portrayed by the boosters. Davis (Davis, 1990, 26) asserts that the dream was a “romantic myth” made to entice the retired farmers, wealthy spinsters, stock speculators, Chautauqua devotees, small-town dentists, tubercular schoolteachers, and Iowa lawyers. These  group of persons transferred their small fortunes and savings to real estate in southern California. The massive wealth flow between regions created population, consumption, and income structures out of all proportion to L.A’s actual production base. L.A became the only postindustrial city in a pre-industrial stage. It seemed to have developed reversely from such a perspective (Davis, 1990, P.35)

Besides, the debunkers did an excellent job depicting what L.A was to the middle working class residents. Street transport lockouts and violent metal trade strikes were used to deconstruct unions. The city realized a glimpse of a happy working class when immigrants from Europe arrived. The violence and brutality of the upper class had sent the average working class to a state of desperation. Also, debunkers looked at L.A’s culture or its absence. According to (Davis, 1990, P.34),   Alfred Doeblin viewed Hollywood as more of a murderous area desolate of houses. The residents hardly mentioned or discussed the eighteen-fifties and sixties genocide of natives. The southern California sunshine blinded all different cultures, and the residents could not see or understand the poor conditions unless the experienced such conditions for themselves.


The noirs portray a cynical scene in that; they turned everything advertised by the boosters to a sinister equivalent (Davis, 1990, 36). Davis points out clearly that the dystopian revulsion that fueled L.A’s growth became a traditional approach during the Depression due to its anchorage on middle class’s despair whose savings sunk in oil speculations and real estate. He offers a dark and oppressive life picture in a tough, hardhearted L.A where the elite crushes the poor, public space fortresses, whites exploit other races, police abuse the residents, and pollution, urban decay, and traffic conquer all (Davis, 1990, 44). Noir could change anything from positive to negative. Davis starts the discourse on noirs by quoting Louis Adamic who says that L.A looks nice from mount Hollywood but is a jungle. He sees the city as a dangerous place comprising of old dying populace, wild and poisonous plants as well as fake science and decadent religious cults (Davis, 1990, 17).  Besides, beginning in 1934, a succession of novels repainted LA’s image from a golden land of fresh start and opportunity to a deracinated urban hell. The marathon dance hall in Horace McCoy’s book became a virtual death camp for the souls lost during the Depression. In the nineteen thirty-six Double Indemnity and the nineteen forty-one Mildred Pierce evoked poisoned bungalows. Also, the climate especially the Santa Ana winds inspired by “earthquake weather” was increasingly eerie with some individual suggesting that there were ladies in the lakes. In Didion (1936), a debate on rattlesnakes’ ability to swim confirms the negativity in many L.A residents.

L.A came to define its history via the noir imagery (Davis, 1990, 36). Noir emphasized on economic self-interest rather than psychology meaning a possible subdivision of the city to between the idle or lazy rich and the productive middle classes. Also, there was subversion or alteration of gender roles in noir that presented women as dangerous, scheming, and sexually promiscuous.

Relationship between Sunshine and Noirs

Both of the two competing poles are real forces in the capitalist structure of L.A.  They have forced the city to play two roles in advanced capitalism – utopia and dystopia – leading to race and class warfare as well as a confrontation between international and national forces by both the powerless and powerful. Consequently, the two roles subject the city to two competing mythographies – its heaven and its hell (Davis, 1990, P.19).

The dark side of southern California is its existence in a peculiar tension between the built environment and the underlying elemental landscape. Earthquakes, fires, and floods depict the tenuous life in southern California. McPhee (1988) asserts that it is not clear which side loses concerning L.A and the mountains. The city’s inhabitants must adapt to weather changes and rains that lead to debris flow causing havoc in the city. Frequent debris flows causes havoc in the city. Also, whenever the Santa Ana winds blow, physicians here about nausea, allergies, headaches, nervousness and depression. According to Didion, (1968) L.A is a disrupted world because Santa Ana represents disruption. The unpredictability and violence of influence the quality of life in L.A and that every person in the city should accentuate its unreliability and impermanence (Garcia, 2010).

Much of the city’s early developments came from population and capital flows from the Midwest – a structure of the Southern California boom promoted by savings of the middle class – ensured a circle of bankruptcy and crisis for small developers, small businesspeople and retired farmers. (Davis, 1990, 29) offers a dark and oppressive life picture in a tough, hardhearted L.A where the elite crushes the poor, public space fortresses, whites exploit other races, police abuse the residents, and pollution, urban decay, and traffic conquer all.

There were less urbanity and more hardship in L.A that the ruling elites packaged into false hope. The relocation of early natives to Mexico was a romantic myth whereby workers enjoyed healthy working relationships with their “benevolent” employers. The tale attracted people worldwide to the city. Nonetheless, L.A was the perfect location for the wealthy minority. It provided the sunshine, the Spanish architecture, and the ocean. What else could the elites want? But, for those individuals without money or resources, the city was a murderous land without houses (Davis, 1990, 47).

In conclusion, the multiple facets of L.A lack perfect cut, clarity and color. McWilliams (19446) sees L.A as a gigantic improvisation – a city that has imported virtually everything, from people to architecture.  The climate, diversity, economic zest, and scenery made L.A to be the fastest growing city worldwide. However, a dark past underlies the tony residential enclaves.









Davis, M. (1990). City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles.  Verso Books.

Didion, J. (1968). Los Angeles Notebook. Slouching Towards Bethlehem, 220.

Garcia, M. (2010). A World of Its Own: Race, Labor, and Citrus in the Making of Greater Los Angeles, 1900-1970. UNC Press Books.

McPhee, J. A. (1988). The control of nature: Los Angeles against the mountains. New Yorker Magazine, Incorporated.

McWilliams, C. (1946). Southern California: An island on the land. Gibbs Smith.



Effectiveness and Importance of Regulatory Policies in Hazard Mitigation

Emergency management and preparedness is a crucial aspect that provides the required assistance after a calamity occurs but to some people, it may be unnecessary hence oppose it in later phases of its life cycle. The emergency regulatory policies provide the advantage to relay regulations that control the emergency management plans. The regulatory laws assist in evading plans and actions that may arouse opposition from a certain party or maybe oppress some other people(Wallace, Michael, Webber, & Lawrence, 2011). The stakeholders (citizens and business people) are the primary consideration while a state organ drafts an emergency regulation policy. Before settling on a conclusion pertaining a bill, the emergency managers of the state have to actively involve the citizens, entrepreneurs and other stakeholders of the laws agree with the rules.

Between regulatory and distributive policies, the latter has proven to the most effective as it features land use and construction codes control as well as the cost associated with the control. While distributive policy favors a particular population of individuals in disaster management, the regulatory policy mostly highlights the natural resource conservation and without favoring any population and that is the reason it faces opposition from the people who could have benefited in the absence of the policy. The regulatory policy considers all parties involved regardless of their socioeconomic status and hence the reason it faces opposition (FEMA, 2014).

The regulatory policy also proves to be the most efficient as it highly considers the natural resources and their benefit in disaster management and recovery. Exploitation of natural resources such as islands and forests may lead to the occurrence of natural calamities such as hurricanes and floods.          The regulatory policy chips in to ensure there is the protection of such natural resources to prevent and occurrence of future disasters. While businesspeople may want to exploit such resources (land, forest, islands, and water banks) for economic purposes, the policy prohibits them from such activities (Wallace, Michael, Webber, & Lawrence, 2011).

As portrayed by FEMA (2014), my opinion concerning the implementation and use of regulatory policy perseveres among other policies ever drafted such as distributive policy. The policy strictly adheres to rights and laws; it protects the natural resources and gives equal treatment to all individuals regardless of their social class or economic status. The policy is a good thing as it aims at curbing and reducing long term effects in hazard mitigation rather than the short term. Considering that all human beings and other natural resources are considered and taken into consideration concerning hazard aversion, prevention and disaster recovery, the regulatory policy stands out to be one among the best policies made for hazard mitigation.



With the consideration of all parties that are involved regardless of socioeconomic status, the regulatory policy works to the benefits of the general public and also natural conservation. Although faced with a lot of opposition, the policy ensures equality among all individual without favoring a particular set. Natural resources play a crucial role in prevention, preparedness, and recovery from disasters that face residents of a certain jurisdiction. Departmental agencies then have to plot plans that are in liaison with the legal issues stipulated in regulatory policies to govern their activities and prevent exploitation and oppression of the residents in the community setting (FEMA, 2014). It is then clear that among all the policies in operation concerning disaster management and prevention, regulatory policy stands to be a good policy and assures equality on all aspects associated with hazard mitigation.

Discussion question: How can technology be incorporated in hazard mitigation and regulatory policy implementation?




FEMA. (2014, May 21). chapter 2: emergency management stakeholders. Retrieved from

Wallace, Michael, Webber, & Lawrence. (2011). the disaster recоverу handbook (2011 ed., pp. 101-121). Retrieved from


National Cinema in Australia

Topic: what is Australian national cinema?

The conversation around the contributions of Non-Anglo Australian film spectrum is undoubtedly and admittedly enthralling and fascinating. The debate casts into spotlight fundamental issues that have a net bearing on the perceptions that shape the national identity (Sarwal et al., 2009). The discussion is woven around the racial inclinations of certain characters in the 90s as well as the roles assigned to them in those particular movies. More importantly, a question is thrown around on the motivations of producers of such films and whether the racial identities of characters had any significant role to play in the producer’s decisions to assign them such roles. At the heart of these endeavors is a noble effort to promote and exalt the place occupied by diversity in cultures in the Australian film arena (Goldsmith, 2011).

There are competing and conflicting narratives and positions, however. There are those that are inclined to the school of thought that in fact the roles assigned to characters of Non- Anglo Australian culture constitute bias and contempt for these cultures. That role assigned to actors from cultures such as the Aboriginal People are packaged to promote White nationalism and superiority.

General Understanding of the Cinema

There are popular sentiments that there has been an increasing diversity in the Australian film industry in the last two and a half decades (Khoo, 2011). That today people from the different ethnic composition are increasingly getting involved in film work in Australia. This notion is true but what is also factual is that there must have been some incidences that, some breakthroughs in the film industry that has made it possible for different cultures to participate. The filming of movies by producers from cultures outside the Anglo-Australian bracket, for example, The Heart Break Kid as well as featuring of actors from non-Anglo-Australian Cultural formations was one such crucial event (Acquilia, 2015). That this set the stage for other players to throw their hand in the ring of the film industry with their work increasingly featuring themes outside Anglo-Australian culture.

Secondly, increasing phenomenon of multi-cultural films has gone a long way in shaping people’s perception, comprehension, and acceptability as well as opinions about emerging cultures concerning race or sexual orientation. This is explained by the trend where players create story lines and assign characters’ roles that bring about issues about these salient issues in the Australian society today. For example, same sex marriages, marginalization along gender and other such ethnic considerations have been sufficiently canvassed in some productions. This is depicted by the wide success and acclamation given to a film like Heads On. In the film, issues spoken to elicited a positive reaction from the audience who identified with the themes highlighted therein. Such is the extent to which cultural diversity consciousness has been cultivated and enriched through cinematography.

In the same accord, these movies have showcased critical aspects of cultural integration. They showcase the struggles that peoples from across the cultural divide put up with to reconcile the cultural divides. A good example is to be found in the movie Heads on where characters canvass and expose perceptions and attitudes from across the cultures. For instance, the actor in the film, Ari is forced to deny his Greek roots due to intimidation and phobia by an individual insensitive to homosexuality (Acquilia, 2001). He becomes susceptible to this intimidation at first but then can overcome it after being challenged and encouraged by a person who shares his cultural identity, a Greek-Australian. All these experiences play a pivotal role in shaping a multicultural national identity.

Thirdly, for cultural diversity to take root, it must be augmented and anchored on a strong policy orientation and framework. It is observed that increased activity centered on multiculturalism in the cinematography space was to a considerable extent supported by an enabling policy framework. For example, the Multiculturalism Policy encouraged an increase in the proportion of cinematography work with multi-cultural inclinations, settings, and themes (Acquilia, 2001). This also set the stage for this practice to take root and scale greater heights while bringing new experiences (Pinto, 2015) to the industry and the Australian citizenry at large.

Contending Views

As initially pointed out, there are contending views as to whether the film industry has contributed to building a national identity predicated on multiculturalism (Goldsmith, 20110. One such outstanding view rests in the discussions that characters and roles assigned to actors from non Anglo-Australian culture are choreographed to promote white nationalism fantasy. Here examples are given which show that Anglo-Australian characters as bequeathed roles that depict them as superior. Those actors outside Anglo-Australianculture play roles that are designed to bring out Anglo-Australians as superior and the others less superior. It is this designing that those who subscribe to this school of thought find as a deliberate effort to continue promoting the fantasy of white culture (Khoo, 2011). A mode damning allegation from this school of thought is to be found in Hague’s criticism where he accuses white multiculturalists as riding on the roles by actors from other cultural formations as tools for their national will. He avers that these characters contrary to other opinions are indeed objectified. And that this in no way promotes the expansion of Australian national identity through film.

Second, despite the multiculturalism policy to promote cross-cultural films, the number of a film works not targeting Anglo-Australian themes does not meet the proportions envisaged in the policy. Movies with multicultural dimensions are of less popular genres such as allegories. These genres impact on re-orienting the national identity is put into question. (Sarwal et al., 2009).

Third, is acknowledged that movies with multicultural orientation do not attract necessary resources that can support such works. This is a challenge as it impacts directly to the number of works produced by the industry. The net effect is that there will be far less contribution of multicultural works in the national identity discourse (Acquilia, 2001).

From the discussions here above, the film Lucky Miles in a way mirrors some sentiments propounded. To begin with, from the scene where the Asians were looking for refugee status in Australia, the woman operating a bar in the desert welcomes them and seems to have given them the impression that she identifies with their challenges and she was ready to help them. However, she goes on to tell on them to the police showcasing the inherent suspicions she has for the same due to their identities. It also shows the daunting task of reconciling the diverse cultures in the Australian Film Industry.




Aquilia, P. (2001). Wog drama and ‘white multiculturalists’: The role of non Anglo‐Australian film and television drama in shaping a national identity. Journal of Australian Studies25(67), 103-108.

Goldsmith, B. (2010). Outward-looking Australian cinema. Studies in Australasian Cinema4(3), 199-214.

Khoo, O. (2011). Australian cinema up in the air: Post-national identities and Peter Duncan’s Unfinished Sky. Continuum25(4), 547-558.

Pinto, S. (2015). Unsettling the revival: Australian historical film as national critique. The fiction of history, 118-129.

Sarwal, A., & Sarwal, R. (Eds.). (2009). Creative nation: Australian cinema and cultural studies reader. SSS Publications.



Macro Level Services

Macro Level Services

Macro-level services in the society entail the establishment of the social interventions with positive implications in the community, federal State as well as at the national level vital in solving co-occurring disorders (Netting et al., 2016). These services are essential in treating clients diagnosed co-occurring disorders based on political landscape, norms, expectations policies, legislation amongst other service offerings.

In a political landscape, the federal government has invested much to address co-occurring disorders by allocating funds and facilitating training of officers at the Justice Criminal levels. This is not only done in one State, as it covers every region making it a global practice. In this context, a client must be examined by the trained staff to verify their release warranty. Nonetheless, the society dominated by residents has established norms and expectations which a client released have to adhere to for survival. For instance, ethical decision-making process on drug abuse helps rehabilitate the client in their attempt to meet the societal expectations. The federal government has policies and legislation on co-occurring disorders that are used to coordinate activities in bodies such as Center for Substance Abuse Treatment to assist the affected individuals in the society. These features are critical in addressing the client’s health as well as a mental state upon release.

Inadequate collaboration and lack of relevant resources are amongst the main factors that might negatively affect the service offerings necessary to support the client. Therefore, treating this client in a macro level service perspective entails the integration of several policies that demand resources due to co-occurring disorders. For instance, the demographics medical as well as health educative approaches are critical in finding appropriate ways of solving the mental incapabilities affecting this client (Netting et al., 2016).

Some of the examples of local, national and global level policies for a client with the co-occurring disorder as well as criminal background include ensuring such individual does a routine screening in a criminal justice setting. Locally, there are standards set as well as facilities used to ensure the relevant course of action regarding the incarcerated criminals. Heath records are maintained at national levels for effectiveness in screening by the agencies involved in the assessment process. Globally, staffs responsible for co-occurring disorders are trained on specific issues to investigate when faced with such clients.


















Netting, F. E., Kettner, P. M., McMurtry, S. L., & Thomas, M. L. (2016). Social work macro practice. Pearson.







Total Compensation Package









Total Compensation Package






Total Compensation Package

After conducting the hiring and recruiting process, organizations often come up with an employee compensation and benefits package. The same case applies here at Tesla Motors where we provide comprehensive employee benefits package with an aim of attracting and retaining employees. Moreover, we develop an employee compensation and benefits package, which is a separate entity from the salary package as a standard measure because it is an expected part of the total compensation package and the employees are usually aware of it once they get hired by the organization.

As an organization that engages highly in production and assembly of cars, motor products and spare parts, employees enjoy the economies of scale due to the large size of the firm. The organization gives extensive benefits package to both the junior and the senior employees. The employee compensation and benefits package was developed at the time the organization was growing and is adjusted as the labor market changes as well as the prevailing market production conditions. The aim is to create an equilibrium where Tesla Motors benefits from the employees and in offering the packages as well the employees enjoy by getting the benefits. Therefore, as a human resource department secretary, the employee compensation and benefits package has to be in line with the budget of the organization, its goals and objectives as well as the employees agreement in the work contracts (Sims, 2016).

Health insurance package

This is the most fundamental benefits package that employees want and at the same time need. Due to the nature of physical work that most employees engage in while in Tesla Motors, health insurance packages offer a selection of choice in which the employee can choose an individual health insurance, which is free or a family health insurance, which comes at a subsidized cost.

Paid time off from work

We understand the intensity and demand of work input at Tesla Motors, which is why we allow employees to go for holiday or vacation twice a year. Additionally, there is no comprehensive employee package that would be complete without the employee getting paid time off from work (Harrison, 2012). The days are varied and account up to 60 fays. It is the choice of the employee to select on how to utilize the off days as they are paid for.

Other benefits under this package include paid sick days, paid holidays, bereavement leave, paid vacation days as well as paid personal days.

Short-term disability insurance benefits

The nature of work at the assembly and production plants at Tesla Motors is understood to be risky despite the fact that organization has worked to surpass the labor requirements in ensuring a safe working environment for the employees. However, upon the occurrence of an accident that leads to a short-term disability, the organization ensures there is insurance that provides the employee with a percentage of income even if they are unable to work, due to a disabling injury or a form of sickness (Williams, 2014).

Long-term disability insurance benefits

The long-term disability insurance (LTD) plan and policy under Tesla Motors ensures that an employee who get sick or injured in the line of duty gets compensation for a period of up to two and a half years. Additionally, the organization approximates that due to the nature of work, one out ten employees is bound to get long-term injuries in a period of three years.




Harrison, R. (2012). Employee Development. New York : Orient BlackSwan Publishers .

Sims, R. (2016). Human Resource Management: Contemporary Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities. New York : Information Age Publishers.

Williams, R. (2014). Managing Employee Performance: Design and Implementation in Organizations. New York : Cengage Learning.


Descriptive essay (memory)








Descriptive essay (memory)












Descriptive essay (memory)

Memories in life primary serve the role to entertain, teach and reflect our past. Not very often do people have memories to talk about their day-by-day encounters, unless something unusual or an extraordinary event occurs. I can be deemed memorable and one of the remarkable events in an individual’s life. This occurrence I do term as the most important life event I have ever experienced in my life, did not even happen to myself. Instead, this event happened to my little brother, Elijah. The primary reasons as to why I have to write about his life is because of some of the things he has experienced as well as the actions he has done in the past that did have tremendous effect on my life and the entire family. Elijah’s life use to be filed with drugs, lies, laziness and stealing. My family had never enjoyed any single moment with Elijah present in the compound.

The entire story begun at one point with my younger brother, innocent, self-conscious, and very shy boy did not could not find it very comfortable to fit well in our family. He was 16 of age, chubby with very limited number of friends from within out locality of residence. At one point, Elijah’s real friend and classmate John introduced him to a 20 year old boy by the name Clara. Elijah and Clara did hit it quite very well from the beginning and started making visits on a regular basis. The two went out on a day, had fun without anybody in the family knowing about where Elijah had gone.

My mother then later developed a subconscious felling that John knew where Elijah had gone. She tried to inquire about it but with no productive response which in reality was not the true story at all. During that time, I had gone to visit my aunt Jane. A week went by, still enjoying the stay with my aunt as I was free from the daily duties and instruction that I did routinely get from my parents. Since that day I fought my brother Elijah, it had not taken that long and so took a day extra for things to cool down at home. Upon my return, I expected a warm welcome with a lot of greeting from dining door, instead, to realize that my parents and younger sister Mitchel were headed to the car.  Full of curiosity, I proceeded directly to inquire from my mother what the whole story was all about and she immediately replied “Three hours ago Elijah confessed that for the past year, he has been doing heroin.” In deed my heart sunk. At first, I never took the sentence serious. He was taken to a rehab under monitor of my parents. On the same note, I went to my room, cried the rest of the day, just wondering that Elijah my beloved brother was under serious drug influence.

To my surprise, it did not take long before Elijah and my parents were back into the compound. The surprising report was that psychologists at the rehab has actually turned down my parents’ option to take Elijah into a rehab, claiming that he was aged above 18 and would easily sign himself off as a legal adult whenever he felt like. This arguments by the rehab therefore demanded that Elijah would face his withdrawal from home where he could develop focus on eliminating addiction to heroin (Miller, 2017). Now, I never had any idea or had any encounter with an individual facing drug withdrawal. Despite having not experienced it, I knew it was one of the most painful and frightening experiences one could ever boast off. The instruction was that Elijah had to be kept under custody in my parents’ room and be given at any point no chance to leave sight. The entire experience was devastating, I happened to be one who empathized with Elijah however. Despite the fact that he was at one point my enemy, my opinion was that he should have had a better treatment even though.  The events occurred in a chain series that would think everything was under plan. All the occurrences within that very day still remain fresh in my memory that one could think the event happened yesterday.

This day’s events and all activities remain fresh in my mind as if they did happen yesterday. It appears to remain one of the fresh memories following the fact that a good day full expectation, a day termed as “Mothers’ Day” turned out from what was expected to shower happiness, everything turns directly in the contrary.  Based on my experience with a home family as a case study of what and how drug withdrawal is conducted, I would recommend to those who have never witnessed what happens in rehabs to forget about imagining being taken into a rehab. It is embarrassing, painful and with no glory a place of thugs.













Miller Leah (2017). Long Term Rehab programs. Retrieved on 16th Sept, 2017 from




Human behavior turns out to be an essential concept continuously under studies by various academic disciplines such as Anthropology, Economics, Psychiatry, Psychology, Social work, and Sociology. Behavior in the context of studies describes the manner in which an individual interacts and responds to stimuli from the external environment. Behavior, on the other hand, defines continuous systems of actions about every day and new things. different individuals pose different behavioral characteristics based on the surrounding environment and reacting factors. Additionally, human studies reveal that the behavior of an individual mainly gets affected by presences alongside perceptions of ideas and thoughts. Thinking in literal terms defines the processes of generating ideas and solutions mentally by reasoning. According to studies and researches on human conduct, the thoughts of a person widely affect the behavior in the form of behavior (Tripathi, 2014).

Similarly, the aspect of input equals output connects substantially to the human dimension of thoughts and behavior. For instance, the thoughts of a person directly affect his or her behavior. Therefore, weird ideas result in bizarre conduct in an individual following research results based on human studies. About thoughts, perception equally adds to the general behavior of a person based on the fact that visual perception stimulates different responses in a person that in turn changes a particular channel of conduct (Tripathi, 2014). Obsession relates more to the idea of thoughts based on a universal concept that both involve mental operations. Nevertheless, obsession refers to the state of mind involved in thoughts in ways not typical. Obsession in an individual result from increased thoughts about something or somebody in a way out of the ordinary. The concept of obsession determines the general conduct of an individual based on a different perception of ideas and thoughts. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) defines a longer-lasting condition in which an individual experiences repetitive thoughts and behavior like obsession with an exception that the individual feels the urge to repeat continuously.

The idea of Obsessives-Compulsive Disorder points to the fact that uncontrollably recurring thoughts and behavior experienced result primarily from thoughts and perception of different ideas. However, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in many cases it controlled and ultimately put to a stop under special conditions of medication and therapy operations designed to relax and ease tension. Following research reports the obsessive results of thoughts and conduct occur under stress and tension (Hyman & Pedrick, 2012). Several drugs have been prescribed with attempts to control different cases of independent thoughts and behavior. The drug Topiramate turns out to be an anti-epilepsy medicine that was initially taken for approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use with phentermine for weight control purposes. Nevertheless, the drug was used for the treatment of headaches and Seizers.

Bupropion equally turns out to be a particular drug for the treatment of depression and similar seasonal disorders with depression features. The drug in many cases gets prescribed to patients with depression and in need of attention to restoring healthy thinking and behavior. Buspirone is a drug specially designed for anxiety purposes. The drug targets chemicals in the brain imbalanced in people with anxiety. The drug, therefore, aids patients reduce anxiety and resume normal conditions of conduct and thoughts. Paroxetine is a drug with identical properties as Bupropion in the essence that both are designed for treatment of depression. The drug appears in a group of drugs known as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs). Paroxetine aids in the restoration of unbalanced chemicals in the brains of people with depression and anxiety as well as similar disorders. Aripiprazole is a drug sold in many cases under brand name Abilify; the drug specializes in the treatment of atypical antipsychotic. Additionally, it is a recommendation and is primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Also, the drug is used for the treatment of strange ailments such as anxiety and depressions. Risperidone turns out to be an antipsychotic drug. The drug specializes in changing the effect of chemicals in the brain that would otherwise cause odd conducts and thoughts. Risperidone is often used in the treatment of schizophrenia in older people and children at least 13 years. Additionally, the drug is used to treat symptoms of manic depression in older people and children of at least ten years (Kemp et al., 2014). Based on the medication and drug administration outline the appropriate diagnosis would be Depression and anxiety as well as thoughts of paranoid. The diagnosis, however, rules out OCD Paranoid schizophrenia based on the fact that Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is a known psychiatric condition that primarily make changes in the behaviors of the affected patients.

The diagnosis, on the other hand, gets closer to Schizoaffective disorder whereby Schizoaffective disorder turns out to be a mental disorder in which an individual experiences a combination of schizophrenia symptoms based on hallucinations, delusions, and symptoms such as mania. Nevertheless, given the symptoms of the parent who is 38 years old, the best recommendations for mental and behavior restoration would be therapy services and proper medical administration based on symptoms shown. Therapy refers to a remediation solution to a physical problem especially illness or mental and other disorders. Therapy takes place under health recommendations following diagnosis operations. There are many strategies put into place to restore different physical health problems. Following the ailment of the 38-year-old parent, relaxations programs such as yoga and counseling would be appropriate based on the fact that the client needs to relax the mind and let free corrupt thoughts that induce anxiety and depression as having been diagnosed.



















Hyman, B. M., & Pedrick, C. (2012). Anxiety disorders. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books.

Kemp, A. H., Brunoni, A. R., Santos, I. S., Nunes, M. A., Dantas, E. M., Carvalho de Figueiredo, R., … & Thayer, J. F. (2014). Effects of depression, anxiety, comorbidity, and antidepressants on resting-state heart rate and its variability: an ELSA-Brasil cohort baseline study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 171(12), 1328-1334.

Tripathi, K. D. (2013). Essentials of medical pharmacology. New Delhi:  J






Objectives/ Learning Targets



Lesson Summary: The use of utensils in eating


Primary learning target: The lesson aims to teach the importance of using utensils in dining and how to go about this process.


Secondary learning target: The lesson also aims to teach the corresponding tools for every step in dining/eating.




Instructional Strategies 1.      Visual Aids (Video clips that demonstrate etiquettes in eating

2.      Live demonstration

3.      Student Performance and Role-playing


Skills and/or


List all standards and/or competencies used for this lesson here.  Use Extended Learning Standards if appropriate or Early Learning Standards if apporpriate  Links to Bloom’s Taxonomy and Adapted Bloom’s Taxonomy if appropriate


At the end of the lesson, the student must be able to:

1.      Identify the different utensils used in dining (cognitive objective);

2.      Show appreciation in using these utensils in exercises to be given (Affective objective) and

3.      Demonstrate the use of these utensils (psycho-motor objective).


Academic Language & Vocabulary

 Basic words like the following:

1.      Spoon

2.      Fork

3.      Plates

4.      Breakfast

5.      Lunch

6.      Dinner


Tools and Resources


1.      Samples Plates

2.      Sample Food

3.      Spoon

4.      Fork

5.      Cups

Prior Student Knowledge and Interests Sharing of Personal and Culturally Diverse Eating Habits and Practices

Sharing of Each One’s Favorite Food and Unique Ways of Eating them



How will you assess student learning for this specific lesson?

(Pre- Assessment Formative assessing and Post Assessment)

Data collection and documentation of data collection.




For the pre-assessment, the question and answer portion could suffice. The coach will see if the students already have a prior knowledge of the utensils, i.e. if she knows how they are called and what their uses are. For the purpose of identifying the students’ prior knowledge and also gauging student profile, the following questions can be asked:

1.      What do you usually prior to eating?

2.      How the utensils are usually arranged in the table for eating?

3.      What is usually done after eating?




Rationale Including Knowledge of Students and

Before & After the Lesson




Following the assessment of students profile and identifying learning objectives that need to be met, more specific objectives need to be outlines. Here are suggested objectives, but to which teacher can add more:


1.      There is the need to improve the students’ motor skills, particularly their ability to control and manipulate utensils so as to help themselves while eating.

(This is significant simply because eating is one of the more fundamental activities essential to human life, i.e. in sustaining human functions.)

2.       Preliminary social skills should be done between teacher and students.

(This can facilitate the conduct of the lessons and the students’ learning. Since there is a long-term goal appended to this initial lesson, the activities of demonstrating ability to use utensils will be done repeatedly until the students are able to show mastery in doing such and until the goals are met.




In this assessment plan, a general outline of learning objectives and the corresponding activities designed to achieve them is sketched. All of the types of learning objectives (cognitive, affective and psycho-motor) are included in this plan. This is done to align with principles of holistic learning which is the intended type of classroom and learning setting for the students. Activities are also specified to target such objectives. For instance, the cognitive and affective dimensions can be answered for by the sharing part of the lesson. Cognitive capacities will also be touched upon the short quiz that will kick off the lesson. Meanwhile, the students’ demonstration of techniques will correspond to their psych-motor skills. Feedback can be gathered by observing the students’ practicum and making them reflect on their own engagement with the activities and participation in the lessons. Aside from this, the class profile can be organized by reviewing students’ data and designing activities (in this case, the personal sharing of cultural expectations and backgrounds) in order to collect further information. This information is vital in ensuring that the plan for the lesson squares with the composition of the students.





Necrotizing Enter colitis in Neonates

Necrotizing enterocolitis is a serious disease which occurs after the death of intestinal tissue after damage. When the intestinal tissue is damaged, the intestines become inflamed. Only the inner lining of the intestines is affected but eventually the impact is felt throughout the entire thickness of the intestines.

Necrotizing enterocolitis is mostly common in premature infants. It is important to note the common symptoms experienced on the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis. Some of the symptoms include bloating, blood stained stools, swollen abdomen and loose stools.  If these symptoms are noted, it is very vital to call a pediatrician right away. Necrotizing enterocolitis can be life threatening if it remains untreated in neonates.

In many cases, necrotizing enterocolitis forms a hole in the intestinal walls. When the hole is formed, the bacteria found inside the intestines leaks out to the abdomen causing a spread out infection. In such a scenario, it is considered an emergency.

As indicated earlier, necrotizing enterocolitis can develop in neonates mostly two weeks from birth. Premature infants are more prone to necrotizing enterocolitis and most of them weigh three pounds five ounces. Necrotizing enterocolitis progresses very fast and treatment is very key if a neonate shows any symptoms. Treating necrotizing enterocolitis can be done using antibiotics, surgery or intravenous fluids and once treated, neonates respond quite well without any complications.

While the major symptoms of necrotizing enterocolitis include swollen or bloated abdomen, blood in stools, poor feeding, diarrhea and vomiting, a neonate might experience disrupted breathing, lethargy and fever.

The cause of necrotizing enterocolitis is unknown. It is however believed that during delivery, there might be lack of oxygen which is a contributing factor. When the oxygen supply or blood flow is reduced to the intestine, it might be weakened. When the intestines are weakened, they become vulnerable to invasion by bacteria from food that enters the intestines. Invasion of bacteria causes damage to the tissues of the intestines hence developing an infection or necrotizing enterocolitis.

If a neonate has too many red blood cells or any other gastrointestinal condition, they are more likely to have necrotizing enterocolitis. Neonates born prematurely are prone to infection because their organs are underdeveloped hence have difficulties with digestion, immunity and blood as well as oxygen circulation. The one of the risk factors of the disease in infants is the difference between the times when they are born. If a baby is born after thirty five of gestation, their chances of getting NEC is lower than those born before thirty five weeks. Prenatal factors such as reperfusion injury can result to a cascade of inflammation which can damage the vasculate and intestinal mucosa in the intestines. Drug use and problems related to placental flow of blood may cause growth restricted newborn. If the placenta is unhealthy, the quality and quantity of nutrition supplied to the fetus leading to a compromise in metabolism. Intrapartum risk factors like cardiac arrest and prolapsed of the umbilical cord can lead to NEC in neonates. Maternal infections during the Intrapartum period are a major risk factor.

Necrotizing enterocolitis is usually suspected but needs imaging for diagnosis. The disease is mostly diagnosed by radiography and the signs tell which stage the disease is at. At the third stage, that is when metabolic and respiratory acidosis is noted.

Treatment of necrotizing enterocolitis is mainly supportive care. The pediatrician can recommend stopping of breast feeding. The neonate can then be administered intravenously. Antibiotics help fight the infection. In case of a swollen abdomen or if the neonate is experiencing difficulties in breathing, it can be given breathing assistance by receiving extra oxygen. The neonate can be provided with bowel rest by terminating feeding. Also, gastric decompression with intermittent suction and correcting electrolyte abnormalities acts as treatment to necrotizing enterocolitis. Parental nutrition and antibiotic therapy treats the disease.  Monitoring of the progress is done using x-rays of the abdomen which should take place every six hours. Surgery is the only option when all medical treatments fail. The surgery resects the part of the intestine that is dead.

It is good to give thought to controlling or preventing necrotizing enterocolitis when a child is born prematurely. Feeding a neonate or preterm babies using human milk is a prevention measure with very many short term and long term benefits.

To sum up, necrotizing enterocolitis is a serious disease and can claim the life of an infant. However, if the disease is treated, most babies recover fully. In few cases, the bowel of an infant become damaged and narrow leading to blockage of the intestines. If this scenario occurs, absorption of nutrients becomes difficult.  Poor absorption is more likely to happen in babies whose intestines or rather part of their intestines has been removed.





AlFaleh, K., & Anabrees, J. (2014). Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. EvidenceBased Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal, 9(3), 584-671.

Bizzarro, M. J., Ehrenkranz, R. A., & Gallagher, P. G. (2014). Concurrent bloodstream infections in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis. The Journal of pediatrics, 164(1), 61-66.

Pammi, M., & Haque, K. N. (2015). Pentoxifylline for treatment of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates. The Cochrane Library.