Why Does It Matter That Men In Ballet Are Considered Feminine?


Ballet is an artistic dance form. It is perfumed to music that is using precise and highly formalized set steps and gestures. It is usually characterized by light, graceful, fluid movements and the use of pointe shoes. The pointe shoes are one of the mandatory costumes that go with the ballet[1]. The ballet dancers are able to twist their legs in ways that most people cannot. Ballet is performed by both male and female. However, the dance is strongly related to the feminine to appoint that men who perform the dance are considered less masculine. Ballet can also mean the group of dancers regularly performs ballet. It began during the Renaissance around the year 1500 (15th century) in Italy. It was introduced when Catherine de Medici of Italy got married to the French King Henry II. She also introduced the dance in the court life in France. From the start of Ballet, it was started by women and it has been mostly performed by women. Men that perform ballet are considered feminine because the dance has been initiated by women and even some women feel that men do not have the body to play ballet.

Ballet and Gender

Since ballet was known as the game for female, men have greatly had challenges fitting in the game. Women were the first to start practicing the dance openly[2]. In the dance of the ballerina, it is the best place that it fits that what a man can do a woman can do better. In 1988, men who took part in ballet were considered as boys with pretty face and soft bodies. They were considered men who could not take part in hard task and thus resorted to sports that were left for females to showcase their body. It was clear that ballerina was considered a game for the female and that is why the male generation had a lot of critics. However, the male were not left behind as they continued to perform the dance. They took part regardless of the criticism.

In 2003, the issue of homosexuality started to become widespread. However, the act was not widely accepted as of today. Men who took part in the ballerina were considered “feminine, homosexual, wimp, spoiled, gay, dainty, fragile, weak, fluffy, woosy, prissy, artsy and sissy”[3]. Men who took part in the dance and their trainers started coming up with means to ensure that the game would be accepted by the male generation and so as to end the stigmatization. They tried to prove that the dance was as complicated as the rest of the games especially football and it was more masculine. They came up with a strategy known as “making it macho”. The strategy was meant at proving that the game was more masculine and that the men that joined the game were not weak as many people thought. Ballerina is not all about gender. It is about how much a person can twist they legs. Despite all the effort, many people still believed that the dance was a game for the female. For instance, in the 19th century, Parisan critic Jules Janin made a declaration that men were ugly creatures and they could not take part in ballet effectively[4].

However, currently or in the recent past most of the ballerina dancers are paired male and female. The current generation is trying to incorporate the both genders and prove that men can be accepted in ballet. The incorporation of male and female in a dance is as a result of macho. Regardless of the efforts that have been made, due to the origin and history of ballet, men who take part in ballet will usually be considered feminine.


Ballet and Race & Ethnicity

There is limit in diversity in people that perform ballet. Ballet is mostly performed by the whites and the people of the color are usually left out. “Russia’s elite Bolshoi Ballet has no black dancers in its company of 218;”[5] this shows that there are no people of the color that have been given the chance to practice ballerina in that company out of the 218 dancers. From the trend in the ballerina it is not wrong for one to conclude that racism still exists. Most of the companies that take part in ballet do not provide economic support to help the people of the color. Many people of the color are willing to take part in the game but due to lack of support they hardly make it. Since ballet has been associated with female, most black parents will fail to support their male children to take part in ballet. Due to the association with the feminine, male children especially of the color do not get support when it comes to ballet.

The ballet is mostly done by the Russians and some of the aborigines. However, the white Americans started to take part in the dance. Ted Shawn decided to take part in the ballet dance despite the fact that he was a man. According to Eric, parents do not take ballet serious especially the black parents and thus the child ends up not having adequate support especially male child[6].

Ballet and Popular Culture

“The image associated with ballet created through popular culture has sparked a stigma of what it means to be a dancer.” Since the introduction of ballet in Italy, the dance was done mostly by women. The art of the dance is considered a feminine thing and men that were willing to take part in the dance are considered to be more feminine and are looked down upon. Ballet is mainly for showing off and revealing the beauty. Most people like Jules Janin believe that men are not attractive to display their body. However, as the world begun to progress many men have taken part in the ballet despite the stigmatization that comes with it. Culture makes it look like more gay men are attracted to ballet that straight men[7]. Although many men are trying to make it in ballet, they fail, because of the stigmatization.

“Classical ballet is viewed as a sexual art form without any athleticism and is represented as such in popular culture.” The art of ballet is considers feminine to appoint that people do not even consider that ballerina all about the ability to twist the toe. Ballerina is not an art for female as such because not all female can make good ballets. Some men are even better than most of the female ballet. Recently ballet has been described as an art and not a sport. Ballet has joined the pop culture and is currently featuring in many movies and T.V series[8]. In most series and movies that ballet has been presented it is usually associated with the female. It is thus quite difficult to associate ballet to masculinity. The best series that has been made about ballet focused on two girls competing to win.


Ballet has been known to be an activity for the women. Men that perform ballet are considered feminine because the dance has been initiated by women and even some women feel that men do not have the body to play ballet. Men that have taken part in ballet have been considered to be feminine and called names since 1988. Men have tried to come up with strategies to ensure that the ballet is considered masculine and hence the start of making it macho. Women think that men do not have what it takes to display themselves in the public like women. People of the color have not been given chance to participate in the ballet. Racism still exists in ballerina. Ballerina has depicted the lifestyle of the people in Russia, Middle East and Asia. The classic art of ballet as made it more feminine and thus promoting the stigmatization of men taking part in ballerina.






Carlos Acosta and Racism. Afrocubaweb. http://www.afrocubaweb.com/carlosacosta.htm

Anderson, Jack. Ballet and Modern Dance a Concise History. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton    Book Company Publishers, 1992.

Deng Boer. Finally, a Pop-Cultural Portrayal of Ballets as Art, Not Sport. The Atlantic.                 https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2013/03/finally-a-pop-cultural-         portrayal-of-ballet-as-art-not-sport/273675/

Fisher, Jennifer. “Make It Maverick: Rethinking the “Make It Macho” Strategy for Men in            Ballet.” Dance Chronicle 30, no. 1 (2007): 45-66.      http://www.jstor.org.librarylink.uncc.edu/stable/25598095.

Macaulay Alastair. Stereotypes in Toeshoes. New York Times 2012.                 http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/06/arts/dance/ballet-clings-to-racial-ethnic-and-          national-stereotypes.html

Risner, Doug. “Rehearsing Heterosexuality: “Unspoken” Truths in Dance Education.” Dance        Research Journal 34, no. 2 (2002): 63-78. doi:10.2307/1478460.

Underwood Eric. Ballet’s problem with non-white performers. The Guardian.                 https://www.theguardian.com/stage/2013/sep/09/ballet-problem-nonwhite-eric-  underwood


[1] Macaulay Alastair. Stereotypes in Toeshoes. New York Times 2012.

[2] Anderson, Jack. Ballet and Modern Dance a Concise History. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton Book Company Publishers, 1992.

[3] Fisher, Jennifer. “Make It Maverick: Rethinking the “Make It Macho” Strategy for Men in Ballet.” Dance Chronicle 30, no. 1 (2007): 45-66.

[4] llbh

[5] Carlos Acosta and Racism. Afrocubaweb.


[6] Underwood Eric. Ballet’s problem with non-white performers. The Guardian.

[7] Risner, Doug. “Rehearsing Heterosexuality: “Unspoken” Truths in Dance Education.” Dance Research Journal 34, no. 2 (2002): 63-78. doi:10.2307/1478460.

[8] Deng Boer. Finally, a Pop-Cultural Portrayal of Ballets as Art, Not Sport. The Atlantic.

Green Car of the Year Award

Topic: Volkswagen Green car of the year award

General Purpose: To determine the reasons that lead to rescinding of two Green Car of the Year award.

Specific Objective:

  • To examine the effect of Volkswagen smog test sensor to cheat on the pollutant diesel emission
  • To evaluate the extent to which the sensor device has affected the automobile in U.S
  • To determine the effects of smog test sensor on the Volkswagens reputation and balance sheet


  1. Winning audiences’ attention: It is everybody’s wish to drive on a car that has met the emission standards, attained higher fuel efficiency and that lower the carbon emission.
  2. Why Listen? : To gain understanding of why Volkswagens Green Car Award was rescinded and the consequences of the cheating by Volkswagen

Preview of the main points

  • Consequences of Volkswagens cheating on diesels emissions
  • Management action to mitigate the effect of computerized cheating system
  • Culpable parties and action against them.




  • In the wake of the Volkswagen two awards rescinding following the allegation that the company had intentionally conspired to improvise a device that would sense smog test and modify its system performance, there has been numerous article published on that scandal (Lawrence, 2015).
  • The company had been awarded Green Car of the Year award as the best company to advance in diesel technology as it had been able to “meet” emission standards, attained higher fuel efficiency and lowering the carbon emission. The rescinding was the first of its kind in the history of the award and therefore raised some pertinent issues.
  • The presentation also seeks to establish the motives of such unethical act by the company and measure that will be taken to those found responsible for technological system application. The liability for the company for condoning the act and how management have done in ensuring mitigation action have been taken over the act both financially and image rebuilding.




The Lawrence W. Green Paper of the Year Award. (2015). VW and Audi Returning Green Car of the Year® Awards






Informal Control

Informal Control

Agents of Informal Control

The primary agents of informal control that were most influential to me as I grew up are my family, peers, school, religion and the mass media. Chriss (20070 states that these basic agents of socialization influence an individual toward norm-conforming and away from abnormal conduct (Chriss, 2007). I leaned the rules and cultural traditions of my society through the day to day interaction with the various groups and the members thereof.  Through these agents, my character has always been shaped towards non-conforming and away from deviant behavior.

My family was my influential core agency of informal control. Through my mother, father, and other members of the extended family, I was prescribed rules and regulations that I had to follow. It is through this kind of environment I was socialized into the norms, values, traditions, and customs of our family and the immediate community at large. Thus, my family influenced my personality as a child and exercised control over me to bring about the desired action.

As I grew up, my friends significantly influenced a lot of things my life. I relied on them for several things such as fun, emotional comfort and support, and companionship. Through this kind of interaction, my taste for music, fun activities, clothes I wear and so many aspects of my life was influenced.

The school was another very influential agent of informal control because not only did I learn a formal curriculum, but also met a majority of my peers. Through the learning process, I gained skills that could make me productive in society. Daily interaction with peers strengthened my social interaction skills. Other than my parents being the figures of authority, my teachers also assumed this role hence becoming an essential component in shaping my character.

Human history has religion recorded as one of the active means of conformity to a system of beliefs incorporated in its teachings. Through ritual, principles of my religious belief system were thought to me thus influencing what I accept. The influence of religion was so much in that it made identify myself with a group of believers and a church.

The last most influential agent of informal control as I grew up was the mass media. With advancement in technology, the modern society has had various media through which information and entertainment are rapidly accessed. My exposure to the mass media including television shows, movies, music, internet and websites, video games, among many others influenced my views on subjects such as politics, culture, women, races, and many other beliefs and practices.

Questions Asked

At some point in life, I did ask myself and others some common questions asked by people in various circumstances. Some of these issues are like who makes the rules? Why should I listen to you? Why should I listen to so and so? Some of these questions could just come up in an attempt to seek clarification on a particular issue, or just out of either deviance or non-conformity to the set rules and regulations.

There was someone ready to answer the questions in as much at moments I wanted answers, and at other times they were just rhetorical. People from both the primary and secondary social groups answered the questions. These individuals could be my parents, peers, schoolmates and classmates, my teachers or other seniors depending on the context where the questions were posed. For example, my father could readily answer the question “Who make the rules?” if I asked it at home.

Ready answers, especially from the elders, I could receive to such questions. My elderly family members made up of my parents, uncles, and aunts, grandparents and elder siblings gave answers like, “the elders do make the rules.” They said that they are the ones who have experience and at least have the knowledge of what is right and wrong, or what is best for everybody. Questions like “why should I listen to you?” were given responses such as “because I am giving you direction for your own good” from my teachers if asked in school.

Change in Influence of Agents of Socialization

There have been no much changes in the influence of agents of socialization over time. From the beginning of the human history, socialization has been a tool people use to perform functions efficiently in their social worlds (Little, 2012). Through social groups, families, religion, peers, work and learning institutions, we are influenced to assimilate how to use material culture in our society and embrace nonmaterial culture beliefs and values.

The mass media is one of the agents of socialization whose influence has drastically grown over the years. Uzniene (2010) states that media influences personal interrelations, communication, and an individual’s perspective of oneself and the whole world (Uzniene, 2010). In time past, the role of the media was to educate, entertain and to inform. Through these basic objectives, people in different cultures and spheres of life were influenced and channeled to certain norms and beliefs. However, the content in media has become stronger and stronger impacting in most cases negative influence especially to young children (Lila, 2014).

Saldana (2013) states about the power and conformity in schools today. Schools and learning institutions at large becomes one of the primary agents of socialization because they purposely transmit a society’s culture to children (Saldana, 2013). The education systems and schooling, in particular, has experienced tremendous changes over time. Modernization and technology have improved learning processes and the way people interact in institutions. Schools, as agents of socialization, have remained to be the most stable, most influential and the most reliable agent in teaching and reinforcing conformity (Saldana, 2013).

A new agent of socialization arising from the mass media is the use of social networks. Nowadays, the primary users of social networks and the internet are children (Ibanez-Cubillas, Diaz-Martin, & Perez-Torregrosa, 2017). New communicational scenarios such as video games and virtual worlds have caught the attention of children and adolescents and in most cases has influenced the way they contact, interact and communicate with people around them. Though being a right and advanced way of making life more comfortable, the influence and risks of social networks are on the increase, and this generates concern.

Whereas the influence of some agents of socialization has grown stronger over time, for others it has declined. For example, religion has lost its much impact on society as it restructures itself. Prediction by sociologists shows a decline in religion in the past century (Cornwall, 1988) However, it has not lost its importance in a modern society which constitutes many religious perspectives from which people can choose. The influence of religion is pervasive on all other agents of socialization and thereby moderates their activities (Ekon, 2012).

Impact of Agents of Informal Control in My Later Life

Informal control and socialization are lifelong learning processes experienced through the development stages of human beings. All the agents of socialization, both in primary groups and secondary groups, influenced my behavior, character, and actions I take in one way or another. This impact created in my childhood somewhat as I was growing up has become an essential aspect of my later life.

To be in specific, my family played a key role in my emotional and physical well-being during the first few years of my early life. It is during this time that I learn my current values, views, and norms of life from the environment my family members created. My father and mother conveyed to me their political and social views about life which I still uphold. Through the input of my family and other agents of socialization such as school, I learned, among different norms, acceptable and unacceptable behaviors.

Influence through family, school, peers, religion and the mass media became an essential factor in influencing my current behavior. Through socialization, I have been able to learn languages, beliefs, customs, values, and norms of my society where I live. The impact and influence created have made me be able to find my place in society. Through the changes that took in my early life, I have a sound perception of myself and others. I have quickly readjusted in my later life to accommodate co-workers, colleagues and members of other groups which I belong to such as school and church as they replace some of my peers. The influence imparted by the agents of social control in my early life prepared me to take my place in society.




Chriss, J. J. (2007). Social Control: An Introduction. Cambridge: Polity Press. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=btZuF51uuHYC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=Chriss+Informal+control&ots=aTDhNuf7dB&sig=rcHyw8nuv3iB2umB4dnof9CTxeU&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Chriss%20Informal%20control&f=false

Cornwall, M. (1988). The Religion and Family: Social Science Perspectives. (D. L. Thomas, Ed.) Brigham Young University. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from https://rsc.byu.edu/archived/religion-and-family-connection-social-science-perspectives/chapter-11-influence-three

Ekon, E. E. (2012). Religion as Instrument of Socialization and Social Control. European Scientific Journal, 8(26), 136-142. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from https://eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/viewFile/574/643

Ibanez-Cubillas, P., Diaz-Martin, C., & Perez-Torregrosa, A. B. (2017, March 13). Social networks and childhood. New agents of socialization. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 237(2017), 64-69. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314781847_Social_Networks_and_Childhood_New_Agents_of_Socialization

Lila, B. (2014). The impact of Media in the Socialization Process in Albania. European Journal of Social Sciences Education and Research, 1(1), 149-156. Retrieved October 10, 2017, from http://journals.euser.org/files/articles/ejser_may_aug_14/BukurieL.pdf

Little, W. (2012). Introduction to Sociology – 1st Canadian Edition. OpenStax College,. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from https://opentextbc.ca/introductiontosociology/chapter/chapter5-socialization/

Saldana, J. (2013). Power and Conformity in Today’s Schools. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(1), 228-232. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from http://www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_3_No_1_January_2013/27.pdf

Uzniene, R. (2010). Mdia – agents of Socialization. Regional Information and Development Studies, 8(3), 231-239. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from http://journals.ku.lt/index.php/RFDS/article/viewFile/583/pdf




Race and Racism


Any definition, elaboration, and discussions of the race and racisms start by first understanding of the concepts. Racism is a belief, opinions and policies that makes other races superior than the others. Racism leads to discriminations and prejudice among individuals in the community. On the other hand, race is socially constructed, in that various groups of people of different biological traits in the society often show significance. Race, by other definition, simply means individual of the same group who share common inherited features. The most significant difference in race is color, language, and facial features.  Indeed, racism is often manifested in actions, opinions and attitudes. Racisms come in various forms. Individual or internal racism happens when one holds negative opinions and beliefs towards his or her own culture. There exists interpersonal racism that involves one discriminating individual based on their differences in race and cultures. Institutional racism involves benefiting the groups with power at the expense of others[1]. In addition, structured racism  is an institutional joint operations in which policies brings about  power inequalities that eventually leads to limited or inadequate opportunities to the less privileged. This essay evaluates the historical origins of race and how the idea of race and racism has continually changed over time.

Historical origin of the race

There are various views in which the origin of race comes, mostly the scientific perspective and the biblical views. The ideology of human race and distinct variations as argued by scientists was as a result of African slavery that took place in the 19th century. In the 17th century (after 1660), the Englishmen actually enslaved the Irish whom they forced to work in their plantations. The majority of those who worked in the plantations were Irish and Indians. In actual sense, historians’ argue that white servants and the Africans were treated the same and much indifferences were not seen. After 17th century, the demand for labor increased, forcing the colonial leaders to enslave Africans as Irishmen and the Indians provided the poor labor[2]. Africans were hardworking and immune to Old World diseases. This enhanced their activities in the colonial lands. During this era, the western political culture was marred with inequality and injustice. The Englishmen supported the idea of slave trade arguing that they were missionaries.

The enslaved Africans flooded the colonies and were large in numbers. By the end of the 18th century, the image of Africans changed. This is due to the rise of antislavery movements across U.S and Europe, forcing the proslavery Englishmen to actually change tact. Some of the tact the Englishmen used to defend the institution was that Africans were inferior due to their physical appearances. The Africans were being viewed as less important as compared to the whites[3]. With the changes, linking of the enslaved Africans and the Europeans to social political status and physical traits eventually led to the creation of a social class identity amongst the people. Proslavery leaders formed an institution that grouped all the Europeans, whether poor or rich, together. In reality, the distinct physical feature defined the social class that one was in the entire social systems.

The idea of race was brought as a result of definitions of the social traits, moral and inequality to their physical traits. By colonists proclaiming that Africans were inferior beings, they were creating separateness and inequality which defines the term race.

Race also has its origin from Biblical perspectives. All men are the descendants of Adam and that only Noah and the sons survived the storms. In addition, all races developed from the family of Noah. There are accounts that show how the physical differences between the races, actually after the people disobeying God and deciding to build the Tower of Babel. God’s judgments saw them speak different languages that brought confusions and thus resulting to different races.

How has the idea of race and racism changed over a given period?

Indeed, the idea of race and racism has changed over the periods due to the changing dynamics. In comparison with the previous colonial era, there have been positive changes. The post-civil rights movements led to the limitation of racism. Today, the absence of common understanding of what racism means is an obstacle to eliminating the act. The understanding of racism in the early ages has drastically deteriorated[4]. The social political movement has actually rendered its demands useless. In the current era, it is very common to find positive brotherly view and expressions aimed at overcoming racism, these positive views are witnessed from the whites. Embracing one another in classes and studies has greatly limited racism.

On the other aspect, some individuals view racism as a system of power in which some believe that whites have the ultimate power. Racism has changed over time. The attitudes and practices of serotyping blacks and institutions of slavery of Jim Crow are currently non-existence[5]. In the modern world, racial projects are defined as racist if they feature social hierarchy structures. But in actual sense, the today’s generation has created a network in which Asians and Americans work together in companies and entrepreneurships. Major changes have taken place in the institutions as racial integrations of the public schools and public accommodations among others and this has led to extension of equity regardless of color. Change in the economic bloc through flow of capital and labor has also created a new meaning in race and racism. Through the creation of social programs and creation of equal opportunities, social justice has been improved. Geographically, the modern world has seen U.S dominated by blacks and Asians. Demographic growth has also seen increase in hybridity as a result of mixed racial descents.

Implications of historical processes of race and racism on diverse groups

The proslavery Englishmen considered Africans inferior to justify their institution. Thereafter, the separation brought about institutionalized racism that actually saw the whites and non-whites living in different regions[6]. Major changes were observed in the housing markets. During the creation of suburbs to the veterans of the World War II, less than 2% of the housing belonged to the non-whites. People in the red districts were not offered mortgages, thus excluding the non-whites from home ownerships. Ownership of homes was considered a form of wealth and this excluded the non-whites. Since the non-whites concentrated in one area, their schools were degraded and generally less funded leading to inequalities in the educational opportunities[7]. Education had a relationship with the economic status of individuals and this meant that those left behind received poor quality of education. Actually, the differences in the education levels have since from time seen the whites better placed in terms of developments. With the slave trade, most Africans offered labor to the Englishmen leading to the economic growth of most US states and Europe at large. Eventually, this saw the rise of both developing and developed countries. Another implication of the historical processes of race and racism is the increased in number of the Negroes in the European nations, the Negroes have adopted the general culture and speaking of the Englishmen.


Indeed, race and racism has its origin from ancients times, with the ever changing dynamics of people living within the community racism has gained other meanings. The idea of race and racism has changed over the periods due to the changing dynamics. The attitudes and practices of serotyping blacks and institutions of slavery of Jim Crow are currently non-existence. These changes have also come with various implications.











Ali, Rattansi.Racism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press; 1 edition (May 1, 2007)

Little Dread: Racism A History – Fatal Impacts in HD ep 2/3. 2014, Adapted from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Xlj29Nd6p8&feature=youtu.be





[1] Rattansi, Ali.  Racism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press; 1 edition (May 1, 2007)


[2] Little Dread: Racism A History – Fatal Impacts in HD ep 2/3. 2014, Adapted from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Xlj29Nd6p8&feature=youtu.be

[3] Rattansi, Ali.  Racism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press; 1 edition (May 1, 2007)


[4] Rattansi, Ali.  Racism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press; 1 edition (May 1, 2007)

[5] Ibid, 34

[6] Little Dread: Racism A History – Fatal Impacts in HD ep 2/3. 2014, Adapted from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Xlj29Nd6p8&feature=youtu.be

[7] Rattansi, Ali.  Racism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press; 1 edition (May 1, 2007)


Occupational Therapy

Description of Subject

The activity entails watching a 52-year-old woman named Mary who is cooking in a kitchen. She is wearing a black skirt, a white blouse and black sandals with red stripes. In addition, she has a brown skin, brown eyes and a grey spiky hair. Moreover, she is about 5 feet tall.

Apparently, the woman belongs to a Christian family; thus she is domiciled in Montgomery, Alabama. On the other side, Mary is the only surviving daughter of her siblings. She is the mother of two daughters and one son. When she was a little girl, her mother inculcated values of independence, respect, cooperation and tolerance. She has maintained these values even in her old age. Again, she cooks everyday both lunch and supper for her children. Lately, Mary informed on her involved in a tragic road accident where she managed to survive. It was from that time that she became incapacitated. However, she has been under medication from then. On my side, I’m involved in observing her while she is in a kitchen to ensure that she responds to both treatment and life.

Description of Activity

The activity starts at 12.00 noon on 11th October, 2017 in a well-kept kitchen. Basically, the kitchen is located inside the main house. The kitchen is well painted and the light-blue color is very conspicuous. The woman immediately enters the kitchen and starts by washing dishes so as to set the rightful stage for cooking her variety delicacy namely rice and meat. The cooking activity takes exactly one and half hours. Therefore, at 1.00 pm the food is ready for serving. At such a time, the woman calls all of us, including her children to the dining lodge. She first prays for the food; an indication she is a prayerful woman. Afterwards, she washes our hands to ensure that our health is not compromised by many germs in our hands. Such an act indicates that she is very hygienic. After the hand washing processing we are all set for eating. Upon eating we realize that the food is very delicious. After finishing dining, she clears the table. Thereafter, the woman goes to relax in the sitting room after completing her kitchen chores. After relaxing, that is exactly after 2 hours, she then goes back to the kitchen to clean the utensils. After observing her it was clear to me that she is a very hardworking woman.

Apparently, Mary is responding positively and one can hardly tell that she was once paralyzed. Currently, she can bend when washing the utensils and objectively respond to the questions related to the menu of the food that she is preparing to cook. Additionally, her mental status is proven positive, and in this case, one cannot notice that she has been under treatment for four years. Such behavior evidence resilience, resolve and courage on the side of Mary. Arguably, few people would respond quickly after a severe accident. Likewise, few people would manage to undertake household chores as Mary is currently doing especially after going through such a fatal road accident.

Interpretation of effective domain

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

This theory was brought forward by a psychologist by the name Abraham Maslow in the year 1943. Notably, the theory was published in a paper called “A Theory of Human Motivation”. The theory in its content describes what Maslow regarded as essential to human condition and satisfaction. Basically, this theory is expressed in five stages. The theory is developed in a mission to track the growth and the development of human beings (American Occupational Therapy Association, 2014). Apparently, the theory explains how persons struggle to achieve their basic needs. Human beings’ experiences under different stages of life and distinct phases of the hierarchy.  Based on such reasons, human beings are bound to experience challenges and deficits along the way. Therefore, one is bound to abandon the pursuits for a higher stage in order first to satisfy the major needs. However, many human beings do not live to reach the peak of the hierarchy due to many factors like; poverty and illness. Under such circumstances, the Maslow’s theory of human needs is essential in the field of occupational therapy. This is because, the theory helps in tracking the developmental condition of a patient to gauge how he or she is responding to treatment.

In this case, Mary is the woman observed for pursuit of this purpose. Mary is aged 52 years whereby she can satisfy most of her basic needs including cooking and the ability to eat on her own without being spoon fed. Such occurrence makes the Maslow theory relevant in this situation.

The Attachment Theory

Based on its nature, the attachment theory is a psychological model that aims to explain the intricacies of both long term and short time relationships between persons. However, it is not crafted as a general and sole theory of human relations (Mandich, 2016). According to the theory, persons respond effectively within specific relationships when hurt, divorced from loved ones or injured. Moreover, the theory was authored by Mary Ainsworth and John Bowlby.

The theory is crucial in the field of Occupational therapy. It helps the occupational therapists to know whether the patient is responding positively to a specific attachment or not. In our case, Mary is responding positively to me as his trusted caregiver. She understands that Im here to help her. Therefore, she is open to me.  Additionally, she has the ability to understand the threats of fire while cooking in the Kitchen.

The Theory of Cognitive Development

Cognitive development theory was authored by Jean Piget in 1936. The theroy describes how a child creates a mental model of the environment. In his theory, Piget argued that intelligence is not a fixed trait as it is acquired. According to him, it is through the interaction with the environment that becomes knowledgeable. Mary, “my patient”, can respond positively to the phenomena. Initially she came in contact with fire and attained a minor burn, but she never repeated the mistake. She managed to learn from her relevant mistake. Therefore, she acknowledged that fire is dangerous.

John Dewey and the Theory of the Impact of Education

In his theory, John emphasized on the need for continuous education. Basically, Johns theory insists on the need to learn by doing. Again, the theory holds that reality must be experienced. Due to such reasons the theory is essential in the field of occupational therapy. In this case, Mary can practice the activities related to the kitchen. The accident had initially made her forget what she knew before, but based on the theory of impact on education she has learnt how to manage different activities.

Ivan Pavlov and the Theory of Classical Conditioning

The theory helps us to understand the human behavior. Classical conditioning is an automatic form of learning. On the other side, a human stimulus gains the capacity to trigger responses that was initially provoked by another relevant stimulus. I conditioned Mary to always go to the kitchen to cook specially at 1.00 pm, and she always responded positively without even looking at her watch.

B.F. Skinner in the year 1938 came up with the theory of operant conditioning. It means the changing of human behavior via the use of back up which is acquired through the desired response.


Human mind controls human behavior. Knowledge is essential in shaping a person’s conduct. The field of occupation is very crucial to the life of a patient. It helps a person to resume the normal human activities that before the illness occurred. Therefore, human mind is a rehabilitative stage.





















American Occupational Therapy Association. (2014). Occupational therapy practice framework:Domain and process (3rd ed.). American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 68(Suppl.1), S1-S48. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2014.682006

Mandich,M. (2016). Classic theories of human development. In A. Cronin & M. Mandich

(Eds.), Human development and performance throughout the lifespan (pp.37-58).

Boston, MA: Cengage Learning


English Vocabulary Elements

Question 1

  1. The word childhood has an irregular plural which is childhoods while as the nouns spokespeople andex-wives and verbs spoonfed and unwound have all irregular plurals and past tenses respectively.
  2. The words sabre-tooth, lowlifes and grandstanded show that the hypothesis is false and the reason as to why this is so is because the morphological constituents of these words can stand to have a meaning by themselves. For instance, in the word grandstanded, its present tense is grandstand which is formed from the words grand and stand which can have meanings by their own. Same case applies to lowlife formed from low and life and sabre-tooth which is a combination of sabre and
  • The notion of the exocentric compounds have heads and the meaning of the whole is not the subtype of the meaning of the head is challenged as shown in the example of the word loudmouth whereby the word mouthdetermines the whole category of the compound as a whole.


Question 2

  1. The word element sacr is spelled and pronounced as secr in the word consecrate because both word elements mean the same as in
  2. It would be difficult to find a word in which the word element sacr spelled as sicr because in most cases, sicr is used in initialization hence rarely used as a word element. Sacr as a word element has its own meaning (holy) unlike sicr which does not, this makes it rare to find a word which the word element is spelled as sicr.(Denning, kessler & Leben, 2017)

Question 3

Goldendoodle (noun).The Oxford dictionary gives the meaning of the word as “A dog that is a cross-breed of a golden retriever and a poodle.”It can be used in a sentence as follows: ‘the children will soon be moving with their goldendoodle or some other puppy’. The morphological constituents of this word are golden and doodle. Doodle being derived from poodle which means dog.Goldendoodle was formed by compounding golden and doodle.‘Golden’ was a word that was used to replace the word ‘gilden’ from the ancient English ‘gyldan’ used in the Latin. It is among the few nouns that form an adjective.

The Oxford dictionary shows that ‘doodle’ means to scrawl aimlessly. Used in 1935 from dialectal doodle, dudle meaning to fritter away time or associated with dawdle. It was used as a noun in the 1620’s to refer to simple people in America.The word goldendoodle was used in the United States of America for the first time in the 1990’s. It was a few years after Wally Conron coined the name “Labradoodle” for its cousin. In reference to the answer of the above question, the meaning of the word goldendoodle does not mean what it is supposed to mean given its etymology.

Doodle is one of the constituents of the word goldendoolde and comes from the minor morphological process called blending as discussed which shows that it is possible to create new words such as this one from thin air.Doodle has been used in the formation of the word goldendoodle through blending the names of the breeds used to come up with the goldendoodle breed of the dog.The names are Golden retriever and poodle to form goldendoodle

Under the origin heading of the goldendoodle in the oxford English dictionary, it gives an explanation that the word goldendoodle was used in the twenty first century and the word was formed through blending golden and labradoodle. I agree with the process used to form that wordthe “labra” part of the word labradoodle is removed and replaced with “golden” to form goldendoodle.













Goldendoodle. (1989 ). In Oxford English dictionary online (2nd ed. ) , Retrieved from http://www.oup.com



GRADING SHEET for Assignment 1

Name: ___________________________

Student number: ____________________________

Question 1a

Is the answer correct?

0 No. 0.5 Close. 1 Yes.

Question 1b

Is the answer correct?

0 No. 0.5 Close. 1 Yes.

Question 1c

Content: Does the answer make reference to material that you’ve learned in the course?

0 Not at all.

0.5 Somewhat.

1 Yes, with evidence of mastery of the material.

Logical argumentation: Does the conclusion follow logically from the premises?

0 Not at all.

0.5 It seems like there’s a step missing…

1 Yes.

Fluidity/Mechanics: Is the response written clearly, with few grammatical mistakes?

0 The response is very hard to understand.

0.5 The response is not too hard to understand, but the prose is awkward and/or contains several


1 The response is clear and relatively free of errors.

Question 2a

Is the answer correct?

0 No. 0.5 Close. 1 Yes.

Question 2b

Content: Does the answer make reference to material that you’ve learned in the course?

0 Not at all.

0.5 Somewhat.

1 Yes, with evidence of mastery of the material.

Logical argumentation: Does the conclusion follow logically from the premises?

0 Not at all.

0.5 It seems like there’s a step missing…

1 Yes.

Fluidity/Mechanics: Is the response written clearly, with few grammatical mistakes?

0 The response is very hard to understand.

0.5 The response is not too hard to understand, but the prose is awkward and/or contains several


1 The response is clear and relatively free of errors.

Question 3

Completeness: Does the answer include everything that it was supposed to include?

0 Much is missing.

1 Almost everything is included.

2 Everything is included.

Content: Does the answer make reference to material that the student has been exposed to in the


0 Not at all.

1 Somewhat, but it is clear that much of the material has been misunderstood.

2 Yes, but there is room for more reference to course material.

3 Yes, with consistent evidence of mastery of the material throughout.

Logical argumentation: Do the conclusions follow logically from the premises?

0 Very few of the arguments are backed up by evidence.

1 There are some well-constructed arguments, but much of what is said is not backed up by


2 The argumentation is generally solid, though there are spots where the conclusion doesn’t seem

to follow from the premises.

3 The argumentation is consistently sound throughout.

Fluidity: Is the answer structured in a reasonable way, and do the sentences and paragraphs flowinto

each other naturally? Has the student kept track of the main goal of this question—that is, toidentify

what is odd about the word goldendoodle, and to attempt to explain how this oddity may have come to


0 The response is not organized in a clear manner at all.

1 The response is organized in a somewhat clear way, but either with awkward transitions

between sentences/paragraphs, or with no transitions at all.

2 The response is organized in a sensible manner, and the transitions are generally not awkward,

but the response wanders from the main question at times.

3 The response is organized in a sensible manner, the transitions are generally smooth, and the

response is related back to the main question at key points.


0 The response is consistently hard to understand.

0.5 Many passages are hard to understand, though there are moments of clarity as well.

1 Grammar and spelling errors are numerous, but generally do not impede understanding.

2 The document is relatively polished throughout.



Vocabulary Elements Assignment

Question one

According to Denning et al., (2007) the word child does not form the head of the word childhood thus take a regular plural. In the word spokespeople, people forms the head of the word thus take ‘’an irregular inflectional morphology”

In words such as sabre-tooth and lowlifes and grandstanded are endocentric compounds thus would take a regular inflectional morphology.

According to lecture three, words such as Bluetooth and red head falls under exocentric compounds with the subtype deviating from the head. This is according to Denning et al., (2007) “the compounds are not hypernym of the components.” The two words support the basis the lecture three statements that “the meaning of the whole is not a subtype of the meaning of the head”

Question two

According to Denning et al., (2007) the word consecrate takes doublet format thus the Latin morphs applied.

Differentiating words based of their formation is key towards identifying when to apply different morphs. The word uses the truncation rule in its formation. The two lexical categories make it essential to change the pronunciation of the word thus deviating from the Latin morphs and taking a new format (Denning, 2007). The word being a doublet results from an extension of a morpheme.

Question three 

According to the Old English Dictionary ‘’Goldendoodle is an inbreed between a golden retriever and a poodle” the word is a blend between golden and poodle in this sense the second lexeme category takes the form doodle to indicate a new bread thus the formation of the word Goldendoodle to mean a new breed of dog. The word creates a new meaning given the change of the word poodle to doodle. In this sense, the two lexemes create a different meaning different from what the whole word literally means. While forming the word Goldendoodle, the second form of blending takes effect and the second lexeme category ensures the ‘’p’’ is replaced by a ‘’d’’ but –oodle remains intact. The word doodle becomes the suffix with an aim of creating a compound that relates to a specific geographical feature. I disagree with the morphological process according to the OED. In this case, Goldendoodle is a doublet derived from a blend between two lexemes to create a new word.



Denning, K., Brett, K. & Leben, W. (2007). English Vocabulary Elements (2nd ed). New York: Oxford university press.

Goldendoodle. (1989 ) . In Oxford English dictionary online ( 2nd ed. ) , Retrieved from http://www.oup.com


Student Response

Student Response

The mentioning of the thirteen years of experience fits in the introduction as it provides the needed background information. What is captivating about the reflection is the reference to the advanced practice nurses, who are used as a yardstick in guiding nursing principles and behavior. Another captivating aspect is the mentioning of the licensed practice, which legitimizes you as a nursing practitioner that can be relied upon by the health docket to carry out health responsibilities. There is also an aspect of open mindedness by considering to work with other options that includes programs that were affordable to you and had flexible schedules. The mentioning of the programs depicts a strong preference for the best choice that works, which is essentially what is needed in nursing and creating a successful career in understanding mental illness and conditions.

The mentioning of the primary goal alongside other goals shows the level of focus and interest in understanding addiction and mental illness. The indication and clarification of the mental illnesses and conditions as well as addictions show the level of understanding on the dynamic and relative nature of the subject matter, which is why the stated goals will be easy to accomplish. The mentioning of the treatment processes and procedures are in tandem with the primary goals, indicating a great intention to achieve the goal and become successful in understanding mental illness and addictions. As a phenomenon, there should be more focus on researches rather than learning from the processes. The expressions of personal feelings shows the level of enthusiasm, which shows the urge to achieve the set goals. Additionally, by promising to enhance the communication skills illustrates the willingness to understand the entire treatment process and effectively bring and communicate the needed change.




Ellis, P. (2015). Evidence-based Practice in Nursing. New York : Learning Matters.

Stein-Parbury, J. (2012). Patient and Person: Interpersonal Skills in Nursing. New York : Elsevier Health Sciences .