Occupational Therapy

Description of Subject

The activity entails watching a 52-year-old woman named Mary who is cooking in a kitchen. She is wearing a black skirt, a white blouse and black sandals with red stripes. In addition, she has a brown skin, brown eyes and a grey spiky hair. Moreover, she is about 5 feet tall.

Apparently, the woman belongs to a Christian family; thus she is domiciled in Montgomery, Alabama. On the other side, Mary is the only surviving daughter of her siblings. She is the mother of two daughters and one son. When she was a little girl, her mother inculcated values of independence, respect, cooperation and tolerance. She has maintained these values even in her old age. Again, she cooks everyday both lunch and supper for her children. Lately, Mary informed on her involved in a tragic road accident where she managed to survive. It was from that time that she became incapacitated. However, she has been under medication from then. On my side, I’m involved in observing her while she is in a kitchen to ensure that she responds to both treatment and life.

Description of Activity

The activity starts at 12.00 noon on 11th October, 2017 in a well-kept kitchen. Basically, the kitchen is located inside the main house. The kitchen is well painted and the light-blue color is very conspicuous. The woman immediately enters the kitchen and starts by washing dishes so as to set the rightful stage for cooking her variety delicacy namely rice and meat. The cooking activity takes exactly one and half hours. Therefore, at 1.00 pm the food is ready for serving. At such a time, the woman calls all of us, including her children to the dining lodge. She first prays for the food; an indication she is a prayerful woman. Afterwards, she washes our hands to ensure that our health is not compromised by many germs in our hands. Such an act indicates that she is very hygienic. After the hand washing processing we are all set for eating. Upon eating we realize that the food is very delicious. After finishing dining, she clears the table. Thereafter, the woman goes to relax in the sitting room after completing her kitchen chores. After relaxing, that is exactly after 2 hours, she then goes back to the kitchen to clean the utensils. After observing her it was clear to me that she is a very hardworking woman.

Apparently, Mary is responding positively and one can hardly tell that she was once paralyzed. Currently, she can bend when washing the utensils and objectively respond to the questions related to the menu of the food that she is preparing to cook. Additionally, her mental status is proven positive, and in this case, one cannot notice that she has been under treatment for four years. Such behavior evidence resilience, resolve and courage on the side of Mary. Arguably, few people would respond quickly after a severe accident. Likewise, few people would manage to undertake household chores as Mary is currently doing especially after going through such a fatal road accident.

Interpretation of effective domain

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

This theory was brought forward by a psychologist by the name Abraham Maslow in the year 1943. Notably, the theory was published in a paper called “A Theory of Human Motivation”. The theory in its content describes what Maslow regarded as essential to human condition and satisfaction. Basically, this theory is expressed in five stages. The theory is developed in a mission to track the growth and the development of human beings (American Occupational Therapy Association, 2014). Apparently, the theory explains how persons struggle to achieve their basic needs. Human beings’ experiences under different stages of life and distinct phases of the hierarchy.  Based on such reasons, human beings are bound to experience challenges and deficits along the way. Therefore, one is bound to abandon the pursuits for a higher stage in order first to satisfy the major needs. However, many human beings do not live to reach the peak of the hierarchy due to many factors like; poverty and illness. Under such circumstances, the Maslow’s theory of human needs is essential in the field of occupational therapy. This is because, the theory helps in tracking the developmental condition of a patient to gauge how he or she is responding to treatment.

In this case, Mary is the woman observed for pursuit of this purpose. Mary is aged 52 years whereby she can satisfy most of her basic needs including cooking and the ability to eat on her own without being spoon fed. Such occurrence makes the Maslow theory relevant in this situation.

The Attachment Theory

Based on its nature, the attachment theory is a psychological model that aims to explain the intricacies of both long term and short time relationships between persons. However, it is not crafted as a general and sole theory of human relations (Mandich, 2016). According to the theory, persons respond effectively within specific relationships when hurt, divorced from loved ones or injured. Moreover, the theory was authored by Mary Ainsworth and John Bowlby.

The theory is crucial in the field of Occupational therapy. It helps the occupational therapists to know whether the patient is responding positively to a specific attachment or not. In our case, Mary is responding positively to me as his trusted caregiver. She understands that Im here to help her. Therefore, she is open to me.  Additionally, she has the ability to understand the threats of fire while cooking in the Kitchen.

The Theory of Cognitive Development

Cognitive development theory was authored by Jean Piget in 1936. The theroy describes how a child creates a mental model of the environment. In his theory, Piget argued that intelligence is not a fixed trait as it is acquired. According to him, it is through the interaction with the environment that becomes knowledgeable. Mary, “my patient”, can respond positively to the phenomena. Initially she came in contact with fire and attained a minor burn, but she never repeated the mistake. She managed to learn from her relevant mistake. Therefore, she acknowledged that fire is dangerous.

John Dewey and the Theory of the Impact of Education

In his theory, John emphasized on the need for continuous education. Basically, Johns theory insists on the need to learn by doing. Again, the theory holds that reality must be experienced. Due to such reasons the theory is essential in the field of occupational therapy. In this case, Mary can practice the activities related to the kitchen. The accident had initially made her forget what she knew before, but based on the theory of impact on education she has learnt how to manage different activities.

Ivan Pavlov and the Theory of Classical Conditioning

The theory helps us to understand the human behavior. Classical conditioning is an automatic form of learning. On the other side, a human stimulus gains the capacity to trigger responses that was initially provoked by another relevant stimulus. I conditioned Mary to always go to the kitchen to cook specially at 1.00 pm, and she always responded positively without even looking at her watch.

B.F. Skinner in the year 1938 came up with the theory of operant conditioning. It means the changing of human behavior via the use of back up which is acquired through the desired response.


Human mind controls human behavior. Knowledge is essential in shaping a person’s conduct. The field of occupation is very crucial to the life of a patient. It helps a person to resume the normal human activities that before the illness occurred. Therefore, human mind is a rehabilitative stage.





















American Occupational Therapy Association. (2014). Occupational therapy practice framework:Domain and process (3rd ed.). American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 68(Suppl.1), S1-S48. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2014.682006

Mandich,M. (2016). Classic theories of human development. In A. Cronin & M. Mandich

(Eds.), Human development and performance throughout the lifespan (pp.37-58).

Boston, MA: Cengage Learning


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