Nurse-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Disturbed Children


With the growing concern of behavioral disorders, nurses are becoming increasingly concerned about the effect of different developmental stages on the personality outcome in children. Nurses working with children often report certain kind of behaviors that may impede the process of care, in severs, cases, children end up with psychological problems that demand special psychiatrist attention. Behavioral disorder management units take care of people identified with some developmental problems, this paper will use a literature review method to discuss the application of cognitive behavioral therapy approach in management diagnosed at disturbed. To answer the research question, this study will explore theories behind behavioral development process, solution, previous research on the subject and methodologies applied by the researchers as well as research findings.

Literature Search

Behavioral development disorder is a common problem, thus, there is a large amount of research on the subject. This study will use secondary sources of data, a literature review of selected sources will be handy in the generation of data on the subject. The source used in this research generated from online databases that include EBSCOhost, PsychINFO, Education Research Complete and the CINHAL databases. Source used were selected using qualification criteria, only sources published in English and not older than 2000 were used in the research. The studies must also involve human subjects, either qualitative, quantitative or systematic review approaches used in generating data. Keywords used in the literature search include:

  1. Cognitive behavioral therapy AND personality Development
  2. Child group cognitive behavioral therapy
  3. Cognitive behavioral therapy AND disturbed children

Six articles qualified for use in the review after assessment of the sources based on the qualification criteria. Below is an annotated bibliography of the articles used in the research in terms of theoretical framework, method, analysis tools, findings, conclusion, limitation, and strengths.

Annotated Bibliography   

Martin, A., Volkmar, F., & Lewis, M. (2007). Lewis’s child and adolescent psychiatry. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

The author explores the application of Lewis’s model and child and adolescent counseling for better behavioral development. The author bases arguments on Family System Theory. The author uses a literature review method to explore the subject, the sample article used consisted of publications in personality development. The researcher integrates clinical research and realities of personality development. The author found that and skipping critical stages of interaction, improper social integration and desire for perfecting children by the parent might lead to behavioral development problems. While the study has the strength of using credible data, it does wholly depend on secondary data, thus, the research may be flowed by original source author biases. Nevertheless, the use of literature allows the researcher to gather information from different authors on the subject hence increasing the applicability of the findings.

Avny, S., & McLeod, B. (2010). Group CBT reduces child anxiety diagnoses compared with nonspecific group support. Evidence-Based Mental Health13(1), 18-18.

Avny and McLeod compared the effectiveness of group psychiatrist support to individualized support. The researcher modeled the study in accordance with Strength Based Theory concepts. The sample population consisted of 112 children between the ages of 7 and 16 diagnosed with anxiety disorder. Approaches used include group CBT and attention GSA. Intervention approaches involved cognitive restructuring, social skill training, gradual exposure, assertiveness and personal management. The outcome of the process was analyzed based pm exposure tasks. The study found that CBT at the group level is effective in reducing child anxiety compared to other counseling procedures. By using actual respondent, the study generated credible data with possibilities of deployment in actual cases; however, the study is limited in terms of generalization due to small nature of the patient population and focus on a limited cultural context. The findings can be improved by expanding the subject population and research region.

Staal, J. A. (2012). Functional analytic multisensory environmental therapy for people with dementia. International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2012.

The research is based on identifying the effects of environmental based therapy in the treatment of people with dementia. On the process, however, the same ecological therapy approaches can be used in disturbed children cases. The use of environmental methods is a powerful approach to the treatment and management of disturbed children on cognitive attributes. The research carried out to determine the effectiveness of the process. The outcome was that environmentally managed dementia treatment had an efficient treatment outcome that affected the overall treatment. The paper introduces the FAMSET method of addressing and managing dementia. Which entails the use of multisensory environmental factors such as “within session techniques, integrating behavioral interventions with emotion-oriented care.” The research proves that these approaches play an essential role in the treatment and management of the condition and similarity can be included in the treatment of disturb children.

Haugland, B. S. M., Raknes, S., Haaland, A. T., Wergeland, G. J., Bjaastad, J. F., Baste, V., … & Hoffart, A. (2017). School-based cognitive behavioral interventions for anxious youth: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 18(1), 100.

The article identities cognitive based therapy as an efficient process in managing the case of disturbances in youths and children suffering from disturbed behaviors. The process in this case is approached in the school setting to cater for the inclusion of the children into the regular daily routine but also enabling a sense of care and management of their condition. The inclusivity ensures that the children do not develop following cases of depression on top of their condition but can interact with others in the school environment while still managing their conditions. CBT in school gives the children access to readily available facilities and services for their assistance. The facilities in the institutions enable the requirements to be managed efficiently and achieve a sensible and productive condition process.

Chien, H. C., Chung, Y. C., Yeh, M. L., & Lee, J. F. (2015). Breathing exercise combined with cognitive behavioral intervention improves sleep quality and heart rate variability in major depression. Journal of clinical nursing, 24(21-22), 3206-3214.

This article approaches the discussion based on the effects that the CBT has on the victims or the patients whose conditions are being addressed using the methods. Sleep quality is identified as the primary outcome of the process. Disturbances in children health and cognitive behaviors have a negative effect on the sleep quality for the children. Based on this article, the contribution of the therapy to the sleep quality and heart health are discussed. Lack of sleep and depression are related in many cases. The effect of the behavioral intervention has a substantial effect on the impact the condition has on the family, the victims and their general health. With limited sleep especially in children, health challenges are liable to attack. The methods, however, can address these cases and effect good health.

Seng, E. K., & Baskin, S. M. Psychological Approaches to Headache.

Disturbances in children also consist of random and prevalent cases of headaches; it is essential therefore to address the heightened instances of problems in the treatment and management process. This journal article approaches the CBT through the process of treating the headaches and minimizing their contribution to the general disturbances in the children. The methods that are applied are focused on the process that can be used in addressing the headaches but the effects as described entail the process of handling the overall disturbances cases. The therapy approach enables the victim to attain a condition peaceful conditions. Progressive cases of a migraine in the children and other members of the society, in this case, affect the health and depression management in the victims. The article, therefore, approaches the condition from an angle aimed at managing the effects of the depression and in the same process enables the victim to achieve a suitable state where the disturbance is managed.

Boyle, C., Lynch, L., Lyon, A., & Williams, C. (2010). The use and feasibility of a CBT intervention. Child and Adolescent Mental Health16(3), 129-135.

The authors discuss the applicability of CBT in a different context and the possibilities achieving better feasibility. The study does not have a specific theoretical framework but borrows from a wide range of behavioral theories including Sigmund Freud’s psychodynamics and Strength-Based Theory. The sample population consisted of 280 school pupils in their second year of study subject to two life-skills lessons daily. The data were analyzed using descriptive questionnaire while qualitative data collected through teacher-pupil focused group. The study showed the 64.5% accepted to have learned something, 48.4% would recommend it to a friend. 56.3% agreed that the lessons were interesting whole 43.1% felt motivated. Content analysis of the intervention identified central themes as acceptability, change, guidance and target population showed in quantitative data. Overall, the research concluded that CBT had great potential, affordable and effective intervention for group mental intervention. The study was experimental in nature provided guiding results on the relevance of CBT application in the real world, however, the study might suffer from human factors, the judgment on impact may be influenced personalities unrelated to the context of the investigation. The lack of an approach to limit errors means that the study has limited application unless under settings.

Lundkvist-Houndoumadi, I., & Thastum, M. (2015). Anxious Children and Adolescents Non-responding to CBT: Clinical Predictors and Families’ Experiences of Therapy. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy24(1), 82-93.

The aim of the research was to identify situations in which children and youths might be unresponsive to CBT intervention. The researcher used Sigmund Freud’s psychodynamics theory in a mixed method approach to study the case. The sample population consisted of 106 youths between age 7 and 17 diagnosed with anxiety disorder. The sample was identified using clinical global impression of improvement scale in a 3-month follow up. 22.6% of the subjects did not respond to the intervention, a regression analysis showed that youths with social phobia might not respond positively to CBT intervention. Youths with a comorbid mood disorder were four times likely to be non-responsive to CBT. The data were analyzed using the interpretative phenomenological method. Two-control setup was also used to verify the data, the two groups were youths not subjected to therapy and manualized group format. The mixed method approach provided a new perspective interpretation of challenges that may lead unresponsiveness to therapy. The author suggests that some children do not gain from CBT interventions; it will be helpful in identification of cases for better intervention tools. By using an experimental approach, the researchers’ generated data that could be applied on a wider scale, however, the study has the limitation of ignoring other factors that might have led to unresponsiveness.

Sawyer, M., & Nunez, D. (2014). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Children: From Evidence to Practice. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing11(1), 65-71.

The authors note that anxiety is a common problem in children, even with the high prevalence of the problem, just a small portion of children seek medical help. The researchers posit that cognitive behavioral therapy is the first line of solution to the problem. However, feasibility, affordability and transportability problems limit the application of cognitive behavioral therapy in actual practice. The research aims to unearth the reasons behind the discrepancies in access and application of CBT in a medical setting and offer suggestions to overcome the problem. The research does not employ a specific theoretical framework, but review literature based on Strength-Based Theory. The researchers use a systematic review of research articles published between 2007 and 2012, the sources used in the research were identified through Cochrane, PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO database search. The literature used involved over an hour-long session for a period of 12 visits. Ten of all the sources identified provided sufficient data suggesting that CBT was effective for the intervention group as compared to the control group; the sources also showed that CBT was more effective than comparable therapies. However, a combination of CBT and pharmacological management proved to be more effective than when CBT was used alone, suggesting that including elements of pharmacological management within CBT could improve the outcome. The study recommended that meeting clinical demands and patient needs, it is important to address feasibility and affordability characteristics. The study concluded that CBT is an effective evidence-based approach to solving child development problems, especially about anxiety. The use of literature review approach allowed the researchers to compare findings from different authors hence coming up with a generalized conclusion, however, the use of secondary sources without error reduction approach allowed author biases to affect the study findings thus raising concerns on the applicability of the conclusion.

Nielsen, M. (2015). CBT group treatment for depression. The Cognitive Behavior Therapist8.

Nielsen explores depression as a common problem; it also outlines the application of CBT in the management of depression, it documents CBT is an effective solution to the problem. The study is experimental involving 48 participants from Specialized Treatment Unit for Depression and Anxiety at the Psychiatric Centre Copenhagen, Bispebjerg Hospital. The study involved a follow-up running over a 5-year period. The study relied on Strength-Based Theory. The patient had been diagnosed with depressive symptoms. The results were measured using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) score; relapse was measured using the rate of readmission. The study showed that CBT had was effective in reducing depressive episodes during the study period and that it was effective in reducing the readmission rates. The study documented strengthening of social skills and self-esteem from the patient feedback. By using experimental study, the study mimicked actual clinical setting thus have a good applicability in the actual scenario, the researchers also used standard tools to measure the impact of the intervention. However, the study could benefit from extensive literature review to remove environmental biases that may affect the study conclusion and improve its validity.

Historical Review of Framework

As the name suggested, cognitive behavioral therapy emerged as an application of two components that shapes personality, this are the cognitive abilities and the expressed behavior. The theory combined emotions, family and environmental influence on personality development and the resulting behavior. The framework is a discovery by Dr. Aaron T Beck in the 1960s while working as a psychiatrist at the University of Pennsylvania. His practice allowed him to conduct research on different elements defines personality disorders. The theory integrates influences from behavioral therapy and cognition. Since its discovery, the theory has been effective in patients of all ages.

Theoretical Framework

The articles included in the study involved follow up or systematic review of the literature. The literature used focused on either application of cognitive behavioral therapy in the management of anxiety disorder, traumatized children, the feasibility of application or comparative study on the relative effect of CBT and other approaches in the treatment of developmental disorders. One of the articles is a book while five are peer-reviewed articles. Two research was a literature review and four sources were experimental studies.

The literature involves three major theories. One of the theories identified in the study Psycho Theory developed by Sigmund Feud, the application of this theory was evidenced in two studies Lundkvist-Houndoumadi & Thastum (2015) and Boyle, Lynch, Lyon & Williams (2010). The theory assess behavior based on the cognitive structure and the environmental interaction with other components that affects behavior. The baseline theory is that human personality is a factor of their id, ego, and superego. The interaction between these components creates the totality of personality. The studies reviewed focused on the application of this potential to solve personality disorders. According to the theory, experiences from the past have the potential of influencing present behaviors. (Lundkvist-Houndoumadi & Thastum, 2015) invoked the theory in attempting to rewire personality by creating new experiences while Boyle, Lynch, Lyon & Williams (2010) studied the applicability of the theory, both studies documented that CBT based on Sigmund Feud’s theory produced positive results. However, a problem with the theory as applied in the studies is that it failed to explore other components other than cognition that may influence behavior.

A second theoretical framework used by researcher is the Family Systems Theory, this was an evidenced in a study by Martin, A., Volkmar, F., & Lewis, M. (2007). The theory proposes that each member of a family is affected by the structure, organization and transactional nature of the family. In the setting, when the family exerts an inappropriate force on a child, the child might develop anxiety or depressive symptoms. However, these effects could be reverted to cognitive behavioral therapy. The design of the study revealed several case scenarios in which the theory affects behavior and possibilities of overcoming the negative outcomes. A problem with the theory is that it ignores the uniqueness of individuals and the diversity of outcome when applied to the developmental process.

The strength-based theory was also applied in the study, four studies, Nielsen (2015), Sawyer & Nunez (2014), Boyle, Lynch, Lyon & Williams (2010) and Avny & McLeod (2010) conducted experimental studies to understand the applicability of the theory in the management of personality disorders. Empowerment theory explores the process by which individual access resources such as personal skills and take control of systems such their lives. The subjective element of the theory is self-efficacy, this is the ability of one to access and regulate events in their lives. The objective component is individual’s own strength to dictates outcomes. The researcher revealed that the success of a cognitive behavioral therapy depended on how much is empowered a child to rise above their behavioral challenges. The four studies implemented social activities to help individual employ their own strength to help overcome trauma. During the intervention, children were able to explore their personality. The four studies suggested that the subjects showed remarkable progress. However, the theory did not take into consideration familiar structure that makes work to revert the progress.

Summary of the State of Science

Current research explores the different approaches to management of child development disorder, however, there is a need for future research to explore the implication of child CBT on parents. In most the studies, the researcher focused on the child and ignored the implication of the therapy approach on the parent, some theoretical frameworks used, such as family system theory, can have significant implications on the family system. The validity of this design can be improved through randomized controlled trials, the findings can also improve the applicability of the intervention. The study suggests that more nurses should be trained on care approaches for psychologically disturbed patients; this will improve the ability of nurses to deliver quality care.






Avny, S., & McLeod, B. (2010). Group CBT reduces child anxiety diagnoses compared with nonspecific group support. Evidence-Based Mental Health13(1), 18-18.

Boyle, C., Lynch, L., Lyon, A., & Williams, C. (2010). The use and feasibility of a CBT intervention. Child and Adolescent Mental Health16(3), 129-135.

Chien, H. C., Chung, Y. C., Yeh, M. L., & Lee, J. F. (2015). Breathing exercise combined with cognitive behavioural intervention improves sleep quality and heart rate variability in major depression. Journal of clinical nursing, 24(21-22), 3206-3214.

Haugland, B. S. M., Raknes, S., Haaland, A. T., Wergeland, G. J., Bjaastad, J. F., Baste, V., … & Hoffart, A. (2017). School-based cognitive behavioral interventions for anxious youth: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 18(1), 100.

Lundkvist-Houndoumadi, I., & Thastum, M. (2015). Anxious Children and Adolescents Non-responding to CBT: Clinical Predictors and Families’ Experiences of Therapy. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy24(1), 82-93.

Martin, A., Volkmar, F., & Lewis, M. (2007). Lewis’s child and adolescent psychiatry. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Nielsen, M. (2015). CBT group treatment for depression. The Cognitive Behavior Therapist8.

Sawyer, M., & Nunez, D. (2014). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Children: From Evidence to Practice. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing11(1), 65-71.

Seng, E. K., & Baskin, S. M. Psychological Approaches to Headache.

Staal, J. A. (2012). Functional analytic multisensory environmental therapy for people with dementia. International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2012.




My Bloody Life Book Review








My Bloody Life:  The Making of a Latin King Book Review

Student name

Affiliated institution









My Bloody Life (2001) is an account of Sanchez Reymundo recollecting the memories of his up growing as a Latin Kings’ member, the Chicago’s largest and violent gang. Reymundo’s main purpose for this book is based the truth of the gangs existence in our societies and their life. It also narrates the reasons why some kids join such gangs. Reymundo is one of the examples of those kids lured by adults and who get used by them to achieve their objectives in the name peer pressures. The way the family setup can contribute to the children’s quagmire and their proneness to violent actions, may be counted as the major contributor such incidents. In Sanchez’s somewhat sad story; the young boy, with no education or skills, falls foul of his parent’s violent life which turns him to be a more violent boy. In his narration, his father had passed on while a toddler barely four years. His mother, who was a teenager by then, successively lived with Puerto and United States’ men who were violent. His mother and her boyfriends extended the same violence to him by beating him often.  In this review we take a journey with Reymundo Sanchez and his life encounters in the gang. Did he get out of the gang? What are or were the contributing factors for him to join the gang?

The synopsis

In the beginning of the book we meet Reymundo Sanchez living in Puerto Rico with his mother. The mother had given birth to him at a bare age of sixteen (16). His father had passed on when he was seventy four years when Reymundo was five years old. At this age, Reymundo was sexually and constantly beaten by the relatives till he was seven years when he moved to Chicago to live with his mother and her boyfriend. Hoping against hope, his parents never treated him differently, they consistently beat him. It was at this time and age, which he started to hang out with the Latin disciples, a Chicago gang group whose friends’ older brothers belonged to.  As the situation back home continued worsening, Reymundo started finding comfort and consolation in the gang as he spent more time with the gang members. He finally gained acceptance where some of the gang leaders offered to act as father and mother figures, something he had lacked back at home.  At thirteen, he found himself in the world of alcoholism, drugs and sex. He lost his virginity to a thirty five year old lady. At this point, he finds himself entangled in the gang’s life and the Spanish lordship.

After his family relocating to Puerto Rico, it never took more than six months before he was sent back to Chicago to live with his brother who dealt with heroin. In Chicago, he was free to do anything he wished to.  He uses this opportunity to familiarize himself with the gang and he gets acquainted with the gang’s hits. At the age of 14, Reymundo had wielded a shotgun and it was the first time that he participated in his first hit. From this point, he unceasingly stems to be very violent in his gang’s endeavors, which earns a nickname Lil Loco. He indulges himself in killing and shooting people or at times being shot at. This brings him near to full membership as the gang’s full-time member. He further takes alcohol and increases his hits making him gain higher rank in the gang’s kings. He gets an opportunity to learn the Latin kings’ governing laws and the way it functions.  As time progresses, the Latin kings gang territory also expands and their activities increases in Chicago. As the territory extends, they are also becoming increasingly violent as their drug activities boom in the area. Through Reymundo’s violent persona, the gangs around start losing their loyalty and they start getting interested with drugs and money. Initially the Latin kings protected each other, but now they are more than willing to kill each other in exchange for heroin. Reymundo later gets acquainted with how the drug business is run. With his fame, most people he meets do not want to identify themselves with him as he maintains his nickname as Lil Loco. This lands him in isolation and finds himself homeless and with no friends. He wanders along the streets and sleeps along the hallways.  He becomes a disgust to anyone he meets as he goes weeks without cleaning. He later meets an old friend who is a cocaine dealer. He further takes time to learn about the cocaine business and does well in it. He becomes addicted to the drug due to its easy accessibility. He is arrested after consuming more the required and the drug almost killing him. After the Latin kings learn of his arrest, they come to get hopefully get him out of jail and out of their gang once and for all. Reymundo’s knowledge of the gang is that the only way out of it and staying alive was not through getting out of jail by them. He opted to do what he had always feared to do. He finally makes up his mind and leaves the gang and also moves out of Chicago to be far away from the gang.

The title

My Bloody Life seems to be the perfect title of the book due to its story narration. The narrator’s story is scary which one could think it was a made up story. Apart from the literal meaning of blood, the story’s unfolds the problem faced by a number of children born out of wedlock or have single parents who are illiterate and jobless. The street children fall under this category as later we shall be looking at the state’s role in safeguarding their rights of being kept out of any harm.


The settings

The setting for this raw account which is more disturbing of a Puerto Rican boy takes place in Chicago in 1980s. The boy had lost himself to violence as a result of his indulgence to the gang’s activities. In a voluble voice, the boy now, Sanchez, with operatically replete and repentantly declaims the immoral actions of early life. The setting depicts territorial graffiti and shows how the cops who are meant to guard the security and dignity of a society are the greatest racists. The place is characterized with constant unfolds of drug riots, sex and gunplay. Sanchez (which is a pseudonym), takes us back into the late 1970s and narrates his family’s arrival in Northwest side of Chicago, where he describes the beating he was receiving form his grafter stepfather. It is through this tolerance that he got used to, which made him to be ritually bound and tough to bear the mistreatments he could get from the teenaged gangsters.



The theme of violence tends to be the Sanchez’s memoir’s villain. It drives his all actions in the book. While he was in Puerto Rica, at a tender age of five, he could be beaten brutally by his aunts and cousins. His mother who was a teenage widow had left him with his aunts as she went for her honeymoon with the new husband Emilio. His last memory of Puerto Rico is of his eighteen year old cousin who had raped him and even sodomized him brutally. Later the family shifted to Chicago where the Emilio’s daughter was born. Emilio later started beating all of them including the mother and the three sisters. After the Emilio’s exit from the family, the illiterate Reymundo’s mother got married to another man, Pedro. The situation never changed, things became even worse than before. No sooner had they settled than the beating started. The situation even worsened when they moved to Puerto.  At the age of thirteen, his mother abandoned him as she sent him to the United States to stay with an uncle there.

While with gang, Reymundo chronologically describes the brutal killings he witnessed. He describes how they senselessly killed, the sexual abuses they inflicted on women, the inter-ethnic hatreds they had among themselves and the way the community silently accommodated promiscuous drug-users hence ensuring the gangs sustained itself in business.

Despite that he amassed what he had never had in his early and tender age, the possession and privileges he was receiving could be acceptable bearing in mind that they were the fruits of violence.


Reymundo uses a perspective style in narrating his story in a past tense, first person narrative. This gives the reader Reymundo’s maturity of how he tells the anecdotes of his personal life in the kings. He sounds like person who is in jail. he further sounds like a person who has actually gained some emotional distance depicting that he has gotten enough time to enable him see thing clearer with some light. Currently, he can acknowledge and recognize the sense and completely accept the feeling he had while he was with the gang. These feelings, he reckons were fueled by the drugs the gang introduced him to. From his story, he acknowledges the gang’s recklessness and unwillingness to die for each other, even if the situation called upon for their attention. His current resentment is on the gang old member’s self-interest of earning enormous amount of money in the expense of the younger members. Through this perspective, he opts that education is the only key out of his quagmire.

The book’s relevance and timing

Classical theories (ratcoski, & Kratcoski, 1990) allege that people are presented with free will to choose criminal behavior. In most cases, as the classical theories further allege, crime is committed with people who are guided by greed and personal need. In our book, My Bloody Life, we are able to say that to some extent Reymundo was lured by some unavoidable circumstances to choose, though unknowingly to commit crime. In some occasions he has been used, while he thinks that it was a privilege, by drug barons to carry out their activities.

We understand that every individual has a right to be counseled and invoke privilege against self-incrimination (in re Gault, 1967). Even the juveniles have their rights which they can waive. However a few have the knowledge of their rights and who show comprehension of their constitutional rights. Reymundo is one of those who never knew their rights. They only grabbed what was available and reachable at their convenience. The legal rights of juvenile require being more vigilant in undertaking their roles of attending to the needs of such cases, for instance Reymundo, who fell in the trap of universal animosity. Basing on the classical theories, where one has free will of doing evil or good, Reymundo’s last alternative of getting out of Chicago can be interpreted that that he had a choice and ability of doing what was good. If it were not for the arrest he got, he could have continued committing crimes.


To sum, Reymundo’s turning away from school as he tries to escape from his childhood abuse, lands him in drugs, alcohol and sex. He is later abandoned by his mother to fend for himself at the age of fourteen. His Latin king’s gang became his only hope and where he sought refuge. The gang and the members became his world, brothers and sisters. However, his violent ambitions end up costing him his friends, freedom and almost taking his life. This book is a powerful odyssey showing the ranks of the drug mafia. In this occasion, the only dangerous people remain to be the members of one’s clan and not the rival gangs. It is no ironical that in one moment they promise you that they die protecting you and the next minute they are the once ordering your assassination.  The book is relevant and timely since, with the improved technology, many young men are accessing to guns and are using these in committing crimes. The drug abuse rates are increasing in the face of technology. The streets have become increasingly insecure with daily news of gunshot and killings. A larger number of the juveniles have been used, either knowingly or unknowingly. The writers final decisions and option that the only way out of his dilemmas is through education, makes this book more relevant and timely. He recounts his mother’s illiteracy and the number of times she got married to violent husbands. Finally, juvenile rights have got to be communicated well so that they will be able to comprehend their rights well. This is to ensure that they do not follow the path Reymundo Sanchez took.












Gold, S. D. (1995). In re Gault (1967): Juvenile justice. New York: Twenty-First Century Books.

Kratcoski, P. C., & Kratcoski, L. D. (1990). Juvenile delinquency.

Sanchez, Reymundo (2001). My Bloody Life: The Making of a Latin King. Tantor Media Inc.


Country Conditions Monitoring – Libya


Rights Watch


Libya has a population of about 6.5 million people with immigrants making up 12% of the population. The country is experiencing a political crisis. The current political crisis in Libya is attributable to three authorities are competing for legitimacy. Clashes between armed groups have displaced hundreds of thousands of people and disrupted access to basic amenities. The forces have committed gross humanitarian crimes that include torture, unlawful killings, arbitrary detention, disappearances and displacement of people. Migrants and asylum seekers are often sexually assaulted, tortured and forced into slavery. The Rights Watch is involved in general monitoring of human rights conditions and developments that affect human rights conditions in the country. Therefore, this report examines recent events regarding human rights conditions in Libya.

Killings of civilians

In late October, an unidentified aircraft stroked several locations in eastern city of Derna where it killed 16 civilians and wounded 4 children. The human rights watch was involved in recovering the bodies of the victims. The victims are said to hail from the same extended family. None of the warring parties accepted responsibility with the Libyan national Army forces (LNA) blaming terrorists. In the past, the LNA has conducted airstrikes in the city to oust the extremist armed group Islamic state. Therefore, it is likely that either of the warring parties is responsible for the attack.

The international humanitarian law applies to all parties in a conflict. It provides that all attacks must be directed at military targets. Therefore, the warring parties have a responsibility to exclude civilian locations in their targets.




We will call the NGO “Rights Watch,” a fictitious international human rights

organization not unlike Amnesty International or Human Rights Watch. It will be

important to draft your monitoring reports with the public eye in mind and any typos

will be heavily penalized. Please imagine that these reports are placed on the

website twice per year.


You are therefore free to cover developments going back into

July 2017, but you should not be reporting on events prior to that because those

events, in theory, would have been covered by Rights Watch’s first report of 2017.

Note, however, that historical events (atrocities during a civil war five years ago) can

become newsworthy again if there is a recent news development (e.g., the

establishment of a war crimes tribunal to examine the atrocities committed during the

civil war).


You should use endnotes for your sources in your monitoring reports so that I can

see that you are drawing on a wide variety of sources. While the actual text of your

report should not exceed two pages, endnotes on a third page will not count.

Effect of Administrative Creativity on Academic Performance Among Teaching Staff at the University of Dammam

The impact of effective leadership on the performance of teaching staff at the University of Dammam










Name of Student

Name of Instructor

Institutional Affiliation















Date of Submission



Cover page. 1



1.1.       Background. 1

1.1.1.        Leadership styles. 3 Transformational Leadership Style. 3 Servant Leadership. 4 Laissez-Faire Leadership. 4 Transactional Leadership. 4 Democratic Leadership. 5 Autocratic Leadership Style. 5 Situational Leadership. 5

1.1.2. Overview of the University of Dammam.. 6

1.2. Problem Statement and Significance of the Study. 7

1.3. Conceptual Framework. 8

1.4. Purpose of the study. 10

1.5. Research questions and hypothesis. 10

1.6. Rationale for Methodology. 12

1.7. Definition of terms. 12

1.8. Summary and Organization of the Remainder of the Study. 12

Reference. 14








Robinson, Lloyd and Rowe (2008) noted that there is existence of exceptional international interest in regard to the inquiry into how a range of students’ outcomes are influenced by educational leaders. A leader is defined by Sethuraman and Suresh (2014) as an individual shouldering the responsibility of influencing at least one follower and providing them with directions for attainment of set objectives. Major roles played by leaders are creating and focusing on a vision, setting up a team to achieve high performance, sustaining the motivation of the team, ensuring that a good rapport with relevant people is maintained so that all players remain informed about the necessary information and finally striving to ensure minimized attrition through employees’ satisfaction (Du, Swaen, Lindgreen & Sen, 2013).

It has been and it continues to be the desire of many policy makers across the globe to cut low the disparities that have persisted in achievement of education between numerous ethnic and social groups and their conviction that a pivotal role in doing so is played by school leaders (Robinson, Lloyd and Rowe, 2008). Universities through provision of quality education and equipping leaners has been identified as one of the key driver of economies over the world. These organizations are tasked with the responsibility of managing knowledge where such knowledge is produced and managed through technical practices and human activities to create a link between individuals serving in different administrative sections and levels (Naser Al Shobaki & Amuna, 2016).

In pursuit of ensuring high performance standards, it has become increasingly important for higher institutions of learning worldwide to reflect on the rationale of effective leadership models that assist individual staff members as well as their departments and the entire institution to adapt to highly dynamic academic environment (Floyd and Fung, 2017). Some of the key pressing question that have been evoked by the desire to achieve focus on leadership include: “Do teacher make a difference? Can leaders enhance the quality of teaching and learning in schools?” (H. Heck and Hallinger, 2014 p.653). These questions have been the center of interest for policymakers, researchers and school practitioners for nearly more than a half a century as governments have been in search of highly systematic plans to achieve advanced quality of education.

Education quality has been argued to respond positively to good leadership. In order to improve quality of leadership, researchers, educators and policymakers have shifted focus to leadership preparation so as to comprehend ways in which preparation programs are important (Orphanos and Orr, 2014). The focus of leadership on university teaching staff has been attributed to the numerous roles played by such class of expertise. These members of staff have popularly been noted to spend the greater part of their time imparting knowledge to students in addition to providing them with daily face to face academic contact.

However, a substantial number of academic staff particularly those serving in older universities argue that their role is primarily to carry out research. More so, these staffs are expected to contribute towards communal activities through roles like directors or governors of charities. Roles of these academicians have broadened to include generation of revenue to universities through research and offering of consultancies services to external organizations. They also contribute to their respective disciplines through attending conferences, and involvement in review of publications (Schulz, 2013). The effectiveness of these group is noted to be affected by leadership styles. This therefore begs for a somewhat in-depth discussion on leadership types and that is what the paper turns to.


1.1.1.      Leadership styles

Several leadership styles are noted to exist; for example, Choudhary, Akhtar and Zaheer (2013) points out two of these namely transformational and servant leadership. To the two, Yahaya and Ebrahim (2016) adds laissez-faire and transactional leadership styles. The list is extended further by Vann, Coleman and Simpson (2014) with the inclusion of democratic, autocratic and situational leadership styles. Transformational Leadership Style

These style is referred to as an ethical leadership approach which entails capability of leaders to promote intellectual inspiration (Choudhary et al., 2013). According to Burns (1978 as cited in Yahaya & Ebrahim, 2016), transformational leadership is a process and not a specific behavior. Burn argue further that transformational leadership is portrayed by those who plead for higher standard and moral values as well as empowering subordinates to produce thoughtful and essential change. Transformational leaders are noted to attain their desired results through their personal charm, charism, passion and clear vision. Their disciples perceive themselves as valued and empowered individuals to strive for better performance (Vann et al., 2014).

It is further assumed by transformational leadership that institutions are in need and therefore require transformation; innovation are often granted preference over status quo and followers long to create personal and close relationship with their leaders (Vann et al., 2014). This style of leadership has three main components namely: idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration.

Idealized influence relates to charisma and to the leader’s ability to act as role models to their subordinates. This should create a scenario where the follower would wish to ape their leaders. Inspirational motivation occurs when leaders arouses eagerness among subordinates for group work and make utterances that build their self-assurance in the capability to discharge assignments successfully and achieve goals of the group. Intellectual stimulation leadership stimulates subordinates to contest their own beliefs and thinking in order to enhance creativity in problem solving and assume active role in decision making. Individualized consideration permits leaders to establish a solid relationship among themselves (Vann et al., 2014). Servant Leadership

This is the desire by those in leadership position to guide, offer hope, motivate as well as provide an experience of care through a quality relationship established with the subordinates and followers (Choudhary et al., 2013). It is further noted by McCann, Graves and (Cox 2014) that servant leadership is pivoted on fundamental values of care and service for others and puts focus on principles of trust, being grateful to others and empowerment. Laissez-Faire Leadership

This styles implies lack of effective leadership. It describes leadership which disregards problems, fails to follow up, avoids decision making and refrains from intervening (Yahaya & Ebrahim, 2016). Leaders demonstrating this style of leadership are often indecisive and shy away from assuming leadership responsibilities. Their roles in affairs of the group are passive and make no initiative for interaction with members of the group (Yahaya & Ebrahim, 2016). Transactional Leadership

This type of leadership is characterized by individuals linking with others with the purpose of having exchange of valued political, psychological or economical things (Yahaya & Ebrahim, 2016).  Leaders who employ this style of leadership make use of a quid-pro-quo tactic to lead others. These leaders are more of task oriented with much concern on managing followers so as to achieve results but not change (Vann et al., 2014). Democratic Leadership

Leaders pursuing this style seek input and advice from their disciples. These leaders listen to ideas of their followers, engage them and give equal treatment to individuals and their ideas. This consequently motivates the followers. In this leadership, organization hierarchy is needless. The method paints leaders and followers as equal and thus a greater motivational level for followers. This approach is assumed to be considerate, consultative and participative, democratic, concerned with people, employee oriented and conscious of maintaining good relations at work. The style is also supportive and skewed towards enabling group decision making. The style however suffers from its incapability to respond favorably to cases of emergency whenever quick and decisive leadership is appropriate (Vann et al., 2014). Autocratic Leadership Style

This style of leadership is embraced by leaders who solely concentrate decision making to themselves. More so, such leaders rely upon their own personal discernment. It is in the belief of these leaders that a conspicuous boundary should exist between them and their followers if effective management is to be attained. This style is characterized by strong hierarchy and followers are aware who shoulders the entire task of decision making. The style is premised on the doctrine of “it is better to be feared than love, if one cannot be both” (Vann et al., 2014). Situational Leadership

This is perhaps one of the most flexible style of leadership since it does not restrict itself to a single leadership method but leaders vary such methods based on the prevailing situation and groups. This method may be devoid of in-depth study received by all other approaches but its applicability in the real world situation is perhaps the most rampant (Vann et al., 2014).

1.1.2. Overview of the University of Dammam

Dammam University is located in Saudi Arabia. This institution runs various faculties such as that of medicine, faculty of Basic medical sciences, faculty of Public Health, Faculty of Arts among many others. The recent history of the campus indicates that there has been a new take based on established methodology of learning English based on innate learning processes and the intensive use of the internet and smartphones. The approach used is premised on using the innate language-learning skills of the learner’s first language with the added difference that the learner is older and more experienced with language acquisition because of their first language learning experience and experiences accumulated over time. This shows that there is need of strategizing effective leadership approaches that will enable the teaching staffs to be on toes and guarantee the students proper teaching methods and enhanced understandings.

Leadership, in whichever model it embraces, has a central goal that ensures smooth running of the organization and maintain the school improvement. The managerial strategy is the personal support provided by the heads and also the construction of the appropriate environment for accomplishing personal and organizational goals which should largely factor in the quality of teaching; the most influential factor in students’ achievement. What might not be defined is that there must be conscious attempts to influence the behavior of other teaching staffs within the group and there must be the willingness of subordinates to act. Teachers’ performance in some Universities in Saudi Arabia are evidenced to be poor and this has been related to the poor head teacher’s leadership style as noted by Goetsch and Davis (2014).

Most studies have focused on organizational level where researchers investigated manners in which universities have adjusted to the dynamic political and social conditions or to variations in the university’s structure and leadership. What remains less clear is the effect of these changes on the academic manpower. Universities are often staff intensive and how effective they are is largely influenced by academic staff (Schulz, 2013). This study therefore focused on the impact of effective leadership on the performance of teaching staff at the University of Dammam. The study done so by revolving around the effects of strategies that have been outlined by the management body regarding teaching processes and efficient understandings.

1.2. Problem Statement and Significance of the Study

There is a worldwide desire to keep low the disparity in achievement of education between various social and ethnic divide. It is further noted that a fundamental role in doing so is played by heads of school (Robinson, Lloyd and Rowe, 2008). It is worth emphasizing that universities play significant roles in economic growth across the globe through knowledge management. The management is thus tasked with the responsibility of coordination of human activities between those serving in different levels (Naser Al Shobaki & Amuna, 2016). This implicitly implies that the management shoulders the responsibility of ensuring proper functioning of the universities and the quality of the service it offers including the students’ outcome.

Goetsch and Davis (2014) noted poor performance by teachers in some universities in Saudi Arabia and associated it with improper leadership style.  University of Dammam is one of the universities in Saudi Arabia. As aforementioned, this university offers a range of faculty programs and has been recently noted to be intensifying its use of internet and smartphones as well as innate learning process. These changes are perceived to have influence on the performance of University of Dammam. In addition to the just mentioned technological shift, effectiveness of leadership style employed by those holding leadership positions is paramount in influencing performance of any organization. As earlier discussed, these leadership styles include: transformational leadership, servant leadership, laissez-faire, transactional leadership, democratic, autocratic and situational leadership styles. Each of this styles has been noted to have varying tenets (Vann et al., 2014).

Despite the preceding revelations, most studies have focused on organizational level where researchers investigated manners in which universities have adjusted to the dynamic political and social conditions or to variations in the university’s structure and leadership. What remains less clear is the effect of these changes on the academic manpower (Schulz, 2013). Motivated by this and as earlier outlined, this study deviated from such study norms and focused on how effective leadership impacts on the performance of teaching staff using the case of University of Dammam in Saudi Arabia as a representative university.

It is in the belief of the researcher that findings of this study is immensely beneficial to the leadership of Dammam University and beyond. In particular, the study assists those holding leadership position to understand best leadership practices that involve managing and harnessing human (people) as well as other non-human resources so as to attain goals and objectives of their respective organizations. The study also reveals what it takes to achieve maximum performance through effective leadership as pointed out by Naser et al. (2016). In addition, the findings of this study adds to the existing body of knowledge pertaining leadership issues especially in learning institutions.

1.3. Conceptual Framework

According to Imenda (2014), the conceptual framework as applied in typically qualitative study, is the soul of every research project. The study was guided by the theoretical socialization framework governing the process through which staff members of the University of Dammam develop a sense of self-professionalism with characteristic values, attitudes, knowledge and skills governing their behavior in a myriad of professional and extraprofessional situations within the university. The research was conducted within the setup of the University of Dammam and it exposed lack of focus on instructions by leaders with poor leadership skills.

Qualitative methodology was utilized to explore the impact of effective leadership on teaching staff at the University of Dammam. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic identification and narration in which different values were used to establish statistical association. The framework upon which this study was conducted relied on the guidelines proposed by Maxwell (2004) which require consideration of the key concepts, assumptions, expectations and beliefs in support of the interrelationship between variables.

The exogenous variables were leadership styles using different leadership traits to classify particular style in use by different individuals in leadership positions. Such factors used for classification into different leadership styles were also extended to shed light on the most relevant style as per the prevailing conditions. On the other hand, performance of teaching staff was the endogenous variable under investigation. It should also be stressed that the study was conducted in a framework within which it was assumed that leadership style such as transformational leadership, servant leadership, laissez-faire, transactional leadership, democratic, autocratic and situational leadership styles affect performance of institutions. Based on the reviewed literature and other existing theoretical backing, it was further hypothesized that the more the leadership style considered the participation of the followers (teaching staff), the higher the impact felt in championing for higher performance.



 1.4. Purpose of the study

Based on the existing literature, continuous and intensive socio-economic changes have created the need for restructuring educational practices as well as the structure of the schools. New technologies have been introduced with the aim of improving educational outcomes in addition to achieving adaption to new technology. In the University of Dammam for example, there has been incorporation of intensive internet and smartphone use in its operation. This study was therefore conducted with the aim of identifying the best technological method to be used in the institution. Such methods include the intensive use of the internet, use of smartphones analysis by the university students and writing using digital rubrics. This was done through exploration of different leadership styles and their effectiveness in influencing performance of the academic staff members.

1.5. Research questions and hypothesis

In the current world, expectations of school principals regarding performance have risen to levels never experienced before. Principals are not just seen as educational leaders, knowledgeable about teaching and learning; they are also expected to know how to work with data, make funding decisions, engage with their wider community, support students with a range of special needs, and navigate a complex operational environment. With increased local decision making and authority, principals who are based on government schools are often called upon to implement new reforms involving change, financial and people management skills. University of Dammam is an example of institution’s environment as well as leadership which is an essential attribute of management in today’s world. In this line, managers are keen on bringing resources together, developing strategies, organizing and controlling activities so as to achieve set objectives. Based on this, the study was conducted to examine how effective leadership impacts on the performance of academic staff in University of Dammam. To achieve its objective, this qualitative study was guided by the following research questions and hypotheses.

R1: How does leadership style impact on the effectiveness and proficiency of management?

H1: Effective leadership style has positive impact on the effectiveness and proficiency of management

H0: Effective leadership style has negative impact on the effectiveness and proficiency of management

R2: How does a leader create a sustainable performance based on the effective management of resources?

H2: A leader create a sustainable performance based on the effective management of resources

H0: A leader does not create a sustainable performance based on the effective management of resources

R3: Basing the focus on the teaching staff at the University of Dammam, how does the leadership effectiveness impact their performance?

H3: Leadership effectiveness impact the performance of teaching staff at the University of Dammam positively.

H0: Leadership effectiveness impact the performance of teaching staff at the University of Dammam negatively

 1.6. Rationale for Methodology

This research employed a qualitative cross sectional research design where both survey research and phenomenological research approaches were employed to investigate the topic. Qualitative research was preferred because of its merits which include: phenomena are examined to in-depth, information used is subjective, variables in this design do not necessarily need to be rigidly defined, complex questions that could not be examined using quantitative designs is possible under qualitative research. Moreover, it deals with value-laden question as well as necessitating exploration of new research areas (McCusker & Gunaydin, 2015).

Relevant data was collected from research sampling units (teaching staff) selected from the population which comprised academic staff of University of Dammam. Such data was concerned with the proxies of effective leadership such as leadership style used and the performance of teaching staff so that the effect of the former on the latter is examined. Qualitative data was analyzed using identifications and narrations.

1.7. Definition of terms

Power: which can be seen as the ability to control people or things within an individual working area will imply that people with power have the authority to influence the actions of others.

1.8. Summary and Organization of the Remainder of the Study

Chapter one has introduced the paper. The chapter gave an outline of the background to the research topic where the importance of university education was mentioned, types of leadership styles discussed as well as the coverage on the brief overview of the University of Dammam in order to justify the study area. The chapter also discussed the problem statement and significance of the study, conceptual framework, and purpose of the study, research questions and hypothesis, rationale for methodology and definition of terms. The reminder of the paper is organized as follows: chapter two reviews literature, chapter three discusses the methodology used in the study while chapter four presents the data analysis and results. Chapter five discusses the findings as well as concluding the paper.
























Choudhary, A. I., Akhtar, S. A., & Zaheer, A. (2013). Impact of transformational and servant leadership on organizational performance: A comparative analysis. Journal of Business Ethics116(2), 433-440.

Du, S., Swaen, V., Lindgreen, A., & Sen, S. (2013). The roles of leadership styles in corporate social responsibility. Journal of business ethics114(1), 155-169.

Floyd, A., & Fung, D. (2017). Focusing the kaleidoscope: exploring distributed leadership in an English university. Studies in Higher Education42(8), 1488-1503.

Goetsch, D. L., & Davis, S. B. (2014). Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

  1. Heck, R., & Hallinger, P. (2014). Modeling the longitudinal effects of school leadership on teaching and learning. Journal of Educational Administration52(5), 653-681.

Imenda, S. (2014). Is there a conceptual difference between theoretical and conceptual frameworks? Journal of Social Science, 38(2), 185-195.

McCann, J. T., Graves, D., & Cox, L. (2014). Servant leadership, employee satisfaction, and organizational performance in rural community hospitals. International journal of Business and management9(10), 28-38

McCusker, K., & Gunaydin, S. (2015). Research using qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods and choice based on the research. Perfusion30(7), 537-542.

Naser, S. S. A., Al Shobaki, M. J., & Amuna, Y. M. A. (2016). Knowledge Management Maturity in Universities and its Impact on Performance Excellence” Comparative study”.Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research,  3(4), 4-14.

Orphanos, S., & Orr, M. T. (2014). Learning leadership matters: The influence of innovative school leadership preparation on teachers’ experiences and outcomes. Educational Management Administration & Leadership42(5), 680-700.

Robinson, V. M., Lloyd, C. A., & Rowe, K. J. (2008). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types. Educational administration quarterly44(5), 635-674.

Schulz, J. (2013). The impact of role conflict, role ambiguity and organizational climate on the job satisfaction of academic staff in research-intensive universities in the UK. Higher Education Research & Development32(3), 464-478.

Sethuraman, K., & Suresh, J. (2014). Effective leadership styles. International Business Research7(9), 165.

Vann, B. A., Coleman, A. N., & Simpson, J. A. (2014). Development of the Vannsimpco leadership survey: a delineation of hybrid leadership styles. Swiss Business School Journal of Applied Business Research3, 28-38.

Yahaya, R., & Ebrahim, F. (2016). Leadership styles and organizational commitment: literature review. Journal of Management Development35(2), 190-216.

Instrucational Modela & Design, Supervision & Culltrally Responsive Teaching

  1. Daily schedule
7.30-8.00 Am Parade 8.00-9.00 Am Math computation


9.00-10.00 Am Reading vocabulary


10.00 Am-10.30 Am Tea 10.30-11.30 Am Math concept and application 11.30-12.30 Pm Art


12.30-1.30 Pm Lunch Time


1.30-2.30 Pm Reading comprehension


2.30-3.30 Pm Fine Motor skills (Special education)

Figure 1: present academic and nonacademic class schedule

A1a. Visual Support

Visual support incorporated into the daily schedule of Maria include charts, pair pictures with spoken words, the model and visual cues. Visual support aims at allowing information processing take a long time and this promotes understanding. The process links both verbal and non-verbal information. From her Wechsler intelligence scale concerning dispensation of information that is the coding process and visual-spatial, the ranking is average. The Kaufman test presents her ability to comprehend and introduce the information. Presentation of words in the form of pictures supports oral communication, and this builds up the confidence and independence levels. The visual support promotes the decrease in frustrations and encourages the appropriate behavior. Maria has gross motor skills in accordance to her age. However, the delay in fine motor skills and her intellectual disability prompts the use of visual support to help her cope up with the rest of the class.

A1a.i Justification

Downs condition students learn by the use of visual arts to understand the schedule and have a chance to learn what others are learning. According to Channell, Loveall and Conners (2013) state that people who suffer from the cerebral disability struggle with understanding and interpreting lessons. The use of visual support plays a key role in the translation of information and understanding of information. The breakdown of the schedule in steps benefits her independence in tackling class work. Maria will be able to focus on a particular activity, and transition from one level to the next become becomes simpler.


A2 Choice of Activity

Mathematics offers a chance to be in touch with her peer special education teacher; this is the chance for the co-teacher to keep track of change. The inclusivity of teatime and lunchtime creates a static response to her social skills. The art class will act on improving her motor skills. Reading comprehension and vocabulary level will improve on her next Kaufman test and better her grades. The special education class is designed to improve her fine motor skills. In summary, all the activities scheduled during the class time aim at bettering her gross motor skills and improving her gross motor skills.

A2i Justification

Watson and DiCarlo (2015) express the need for a routine to students. Activities performed during the class act as stepping-stones in organizing and building up the confidence of the student. The organization of the events for Maria develops a cognitive power of processing information. The activities in her daily schedule are inclusive of developing her mind into being an intellectual individual. The expose to the different activities in class aim at improving fine motor skills and build up her social profile with the teacher and students in the school.

A3 Change in Daily Activity

The association of low motor skills by Maria results into issues such as mobility, slow reaction and in addressing issues due to speech troubles. She is also not intellectually steady this affects her intake and dispensation of information. In mind with the challenges, change from one routine to the other requires time. To ensure the effectiveness of the change in routine for Maria one can use a communication board which specifies particular activities. The board contains pictures which demonstrate the change in an activity. The teacher can use the board to prepare Maria on how to react when there is an occurrence of a change in the daily schedule. The pictures in the board express clarity and expression that symbolizes the change. The use of red color in the background of the picture implicate urgency of the action to take in case a change occurs.

A3i: Justification

In a paper by Brewer et al. (2014) support the aim of exposing the intellectually disabled children to visual cues before the change if it occurs. The signals present the beginning of an activity and the end of the event. These will help Maria avoid anxiety and promote the sovereign transition from one activity to the other. The use of the communication board will be of help to Maria when the change occurs since it will work as a reminder to help her know what to expect and what action to take when the change occurs.

B Information Datasheet Indicating need to use the Toilet

Maria primary challenge is the failure to inform the tutor when a need arises to go to the washroom. On average she changes clothes for five times according to the number of occasions she has soiled or urinated on herself. The information data sheet is to help the teacher understand Maria need to use the toilet or when she has the already performed the act. Maria wriggling in a seat or grabbling self-verbalizing indicates the need to go to the bathroom. Hiding in a corner, or wet indicates that she has already wet or soiled.

  + Or – for the occurrence of the behavior


Hour Wiggling in seat grabbing self Verbalizing hiding in a corner Wet or dry

W   D

7.30-8.00 Am


+ +            – + +       _
8.00-9.00 Am +        _   +       –      –
9.00-10.00 Am      –         –         –       –
10.00 Am-10.30 Am +       –   +        –           –
10.30-11.30 Am      – + +      –     –
11.30-12.30 Pm       – +          – +       _
12.30-1.30 Pm +        – –      – + +
1.30-2.30 Pm        – +       –      –   –
2.30-3.30 Pm        –      –  + + +

Figure 2: presents toilet usage Datasheet

Bi: Justification

In a paper by Clarke, Embury and Bauer (2014) indicate the need for the teachers to identify the times of the day when incontinence is likely to occur. The datasheet helps the teacher understand when the need arises and when she is likely to wet or soil herself. The datasheet also gives an avenue to the tutor on the way to handle Maria if she has already soiled herself to prevent soaking other clothing and furniture. The data will help to avoid anxiety and stressful situation for Maria.

C: Role of Parent and Teacher in Independent Toilet Use

The parents act positively in the management of the need to understand toilet use, by taking her to the doctor for examination and results in proof that she has no problem. The teachers also play a part regarding appointing a paraprofessional to manage and monitor her toilet needs. The paraprofessional withdrawal is to avoid over-dependence by Maria and to cut short on the budget in the district. The actions taken by the teacher and the parents aim at helping Maria become independent in toilet use. The chart below will help parents and teachers share a common goal since they will all be focusing in the same direction of helping Maria become independent in toilet use.

Family needs
Social and emotional understanding

Figure 3 Areas of need for Maria that parents and teachers can address for to ensure consistency in toilet use

Ci: Justification

Shahzad (2015) describe the role of the society in providing positive development and productivity of the child with intellectual disability. The community surrounding Maria is the parents and the teachers who have different roles in helping the child be productive. Children with the same condition such as Maria, the caregivers act in unison to help the child become better versions of themselves. One of the roles of the teachers and the parents is to help the child understand how and the need to use the toilet. When the parents and the teacher share a common goal, it will assist in solving Maria’s problem of becoming independent in bathroom use.

D: Age Appropriate form

The figure 3: illustrates the proper use of the toilet.


D1: Self-Monitor in Toilet use

The challenge Maria faces is the way to use the bathroom. These justify the fact that she goes to the bathroom and fails to use it instead wets and soils herself. To implement the utilization of the visual form of toilet use, Maria carries with her a dry erase marker to tick after each event performed. These will come in handy to help her go through the whole process without skipping a stage.

D2 Justification

Watson, Gable, and Morin (2016) propose the use of grouping information into small groups to reduce the burden and of overloading the memory. They recommend the use of visual information as an example of assembling information. These will play a significant role when it comes to recalling the activities Maria is to perform in the toilet. The visual outline breaks down the steps Maria is to follow from start to completion.




Brewer, A. T., Strickland-Cohen, K., Dotson, W., & Williams, D. C. (2014). Advance notice for transition-related problem behavior: Practice guidelines. Behavior analysis in practice, 7(2), 117-125.

Channell, M. M., Loveall, S. J., & Conners, F. A. (2013). Strengths and weaknesses in reading skills of youth with intellectual disabilities. Research in developmental disabilities, 34(2), 776-787.

Clarke, L. S., Embury, D. C., & Bauer, A. (2014). Incontinence Issues among Students with Disabilities: Recommendations for Teachers. TEACHING Exceptional Children46(3), 6-17.

Francis, K., Mannion, A., & Leader, G. (2017). The Assessment and Treatment of Toileting Difficulties in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Other Developmental Disabilities. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1-15.

Shahzad, S. (2015). JOURNEY OF A WORKING MOM AND HER SON WITH DOWN SYNDROME. Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad, 27(2), 501-506.

Watson MRS, Gable RA, Morin LL (2016) The Role of Executive Functions in Classroom Instruction of Students with Learning Disabilities. Int J Sch Cog Psychol 3: 167. doi:10.4172/2469-9837.1000167

Watson, K. J., & DiCarlo, C. F. (2016). Increasing completion of classroom routines through the use of picture activity schedules. Early Childhood Education Journal, 44(2), 89-96.

Behavioral Management and Intervention





Behavioral Management and Intervention













Part A

Digging in the trash is a behavior that Bonnie exhibits as a result of her condition: Prader-Willis. The antecedent or trigger of Bonnie’s behavior is the sight of garbage cans when Bonnie is walking in the hallway. Bonnie picks garbage cans when no adult person is watching her(Case Study: Bonnie, 2017).

When it comes to the function of Bonnie’s behavior, his aim is to get access to garbage cans. Bonnie throws items from garbage cans searching for food. If she cannot get the cans from the garbage, she sits down and screams. On the other hand, if she finds garbage cans, she eats the food in it quickly before an adult sees her. The most notable consequence of Bonnie’s behavior is that, when she walks to the hall and finds no food, she returns to the special education classroom (Case Study: Bonnie, 2017).Again, if she gains access to garbage foods, she continues with the behavior of taking more food from garbage cans.

Part B

One recommendable replacement behavior that can work well for Bonnie is engaging in a physical exercise program. Based on the case study, Bonnie has been described as a child who likes digging the trash than engaging in physical exercise. Thus, this behavior can be replaced with a coordinated physical exercise program, such as supervised bicycle riding sessions that lastfor one hour a day. According to Kray (2006), physical exercise can be an effective tool for preventing the development of obesity among Prader-Willi patients. In addition to management of symptoms of obesity, physical exercise also reduces muscle tone and anxiety associated with the disease and improves strength and energy and strength levels (Whittington, et al. 2004).

In order for the physical exercise to replace Bonnie’s behavior, it should be accompanied by appropriate incentives or positive reinforcements. This includes giving gift to the Bonnie whenever a physical activity task or session is completed successfully. Without appropriate incentives, people with Prader-Willi will be inclined against participating in physical activity. As noted in Bonnie’s case, low muscle tone can contribute to poor strength and coordination (Case Study: Bonnie, 2017). For Bonnie, successful completion of tasks will befacilitated through positive reinforcements.

The two instructional strategies to teach physical activities to Bonnie are art classes and special education classes(Whittington, et al. 2004). Art classes would be beneficial to Bonnie because she has great interest in painting and drawing. During the art classes, Bonnie’s art teacher would use drawings and paintings to communicate to Bonnie about the benefits of engaging in physical activities. On the other hand, Bonnie’s physical inactivity problems can be addressed in classrooms with special education resources.In this case, the special education program should have a special focus on physical education, such as mandatory hours of outdoor activities each day.

Among the recommendations and modifications that should be incorporated in Bonnie’s behavioral intervention plan (BIP) include effort to tap on the patient’s strengths (Whittington, et al. 2004). As it appears in the case study, Bonnie is good in art and she likes cleaning the house and washing tables(Case Study: Bonnie, 2017). Thus, successful replacement of physical inactivity would occur when physical activity programs are disseminated during art classes. At home, house cleaning assignments would help Bonnie to become a progressively active individual(Stauder, Brinkman& Curfs, 2002).

Part C

In order to access Bonnie’s progress, structured interviews would be used to generate data about her progress.The functional behavior assessment information would be provided by her parents, school psychologist, social worker, and special education teacher.This assessment would document the rate at which Bonnie has exhibited both the target and replacement behavior (Jauregi, et al., 2007). The assessment would determine the duration, frequency, and intensity of the replacement behaviors. Positive progress would be said to occur if the frequency of the replacement behavior, as well as its intensity and duration per day, improves (Whitaker,Walker, & McNally, 2004).

Part D

The people who would be involved in the implementation of behavioral intervention plan are the parents, social worker, the school psychologist, and the special education teacher (Dykens, 2002). First, the social worker would work with the parents at home to assess the extent at which the desired behavior (physical activity) has occurredat home. The teacher will also implement the instructional strategies and positive interventions and document the findings on weekly basis. The school psychologist, on the other hand, would access and document how Bonnie would be responding to different forms of incentives. When areas for modification are identified, the special education teacher would modify the instructional strategies for more optimal outcomes. At the end of each week, the special education teacher will compile all the information from the psychologist, the social worker, and the parent for the purpose of progress reporting.



Case Study: Bonnie (2017).  Western Governors University WGU Case Studies in Special Education,

Dykens, E. M. (2002). Are jigsaw puzzle skills “‘spared” in persons with Prader-Willi syndrome? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 343-352.

Jauregi, J., Arias, C., Vegas, O., Alén, F., Martinez, S. & Copet, P. et al. (2007).A neuropsychological assessment of frontal cognitive functions in Prader-Willi syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 51, 350-365.

Kray, J. (2006). Task-set switching under cue-based versus memory-based switching conditions in younger and older adults. Brain Research, 11, 83-92.

Stauder, J.E.A., Brinkman, M.J.R. & Curfs, L.M.G. (2002). Multi-modal P3 deflation of event-related brain activity in Prader–Willi syndrome. Neuroscience Letters, 327, 99-102.

Trestman, R. L & Metzner, A. F. (2015). Oxford Textbook of Correctional Psychiatry: Oxford University Press

Whitaker, S., Walker, T. & McNally, C. (2004). The use of time base lag sequential analysis to look at the relationship between environmental events and challenging behaviour in people with learning disabilities. Behavioral and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 32, 67-76.

Whittington, J., Holland, A., Webb, T., Butler, J. & Clarke, D. et al. (2004).Academic underachievement by people with Prader-Willi syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 48, 188-200

Instructional Models & Design, Supervision & Culturally Responsive Teaching




















Original instructions.

Student Prerequisite Skills/Connections to Previous Learning:

We have been studying how we can tell if something we read or watch (online, in newspapers, or on TV) is true or not. What are some of the things we learned that can help us decide if something is true (e.g., credibility of source, corroboration with other sources, accuracy of facts, analysis of conclusions, purpose of the writer, conflicts of interest)?


Revised instruction element.

The study has been about the effect of what is read online, TVs or newspapers have on each of one of us. In groups of three, let’s discuss the fallacy or truth to this aspect. Each group to select an individual to present their findings.Furthermore, another individual to answer any questions the class may have for that particular group.Michael’sstrength lies in socializing, listening and participation. Starting with discussion will give him a chance to be part of the class. This will also help him avoid losing focus during reading lessons (Waltaka 2012) as well as help the teachers understand him better. The chance to participate will also ensure everyone in the class is in a cheery mood, and eager to learn. Furthermore, the adverts present things the children associate with every day. This will thus be more of a familiarity than a strange action.


Original activity

Next, working in your small groups, take another political ad (select these from the samples that the students brought in so that each group has a different ad) and grade its truthfulness using the KSTP Channel 5 eye witness news criteria.

Revised activity

  • Independent student practice
  • Next working in a combination of two previous groups, each group to get a different political advert.
  • Student one to start theread around strategy especially concerning difficult words in the ad.
  • Student one is to read the advert before doing it as a group
  • Each group to be in possession of a dictionary and glossary for writing down difficult phrases and words with definitions.
  • Another student to be in charge of word definition using the electronic dictionary.
  • Using the survey, question, read, recite and review strategy, go through the political add again, each student to go through them.
  • Using the internet, research the ad emphasizing and identifying whether the different parts of the ad are true or false.
  • Use any given software to identify the target audience and the relationship to the words used.


Based on Michael’s short term goals, his proficiency is in self-monitoring to asses whatever is written. As it is normal for human beings to do what they know best (Mihael&Daniel 2011), Michael is no exception. He will use technology as a way of confirming punctuation of whatever he has written. Furthermore, he will proof-read the work just to be sure of whatever he is doing. To add on, his use of technology will help in organizinghis thoughts. This will enable him have a good flow of information. The details in his work will be understood hence a 95% accuracy display. Helping Michael understand the essence of presentation in communication theory (Tang &Soocheny 2014) will help in closing the gap between verbal and writing abilities. Furthermore, the delegation process among the students will enhance teamwork. Each individual learning to see the next person as an ally instead of a competitor. Teamwork in class is bound to be reflected in the field hence students enjoying both lessons and experiences too.



Based on the EIP about Michael, his strengths need little nudging to grow. The focus therefore should be on his weaknesses which revolve around writing and verbal abilities. To make up for, inclusion of music and participation would go a long way in ensuring participation (Courtade 2013). Furthermore, breaking the complex instruction will help Michael muster reading better. The shortage of school teachers able to teach special education (Jones et al. 2013) should not be used as an excuse for discourse, instead, helping Michael grasp his strengths and mold his weakness should be the lesson plan’s focus.




Student Assessment/Rubrics:

  • Observation of student’s participation in whole-class discussion and small-group application.


  • Summative evaluation; written product: editorial will be evaluated using the following criteria:


– 50 points for content (e.g., shows understanding on how images and words are used in political ads to influence voters, presents well organized thoughts on how truthfulness can be evaluated, and has a reader-friendly flow of ideas)

– 30 points for critical thinking (e.g., at least three pieces of supporting evidence and a logical progression for conclusions regarding how truthful political ads are)

– 10 points for language mechanics (e.g., neatness, spelling, grammar)

– 10 points for creativity (e.g., uniqueness of presentation or ideas and is engaging to read)



Based on Michael, observation should also include his out of class activities. Integrating the out of class personality with the in class personality will go a long way in ensuring a better person. This utilizes the aspect of professional and relaxing settings. A combination of both

-20 points for vocabulary used. Vocabularies are mainly focused on increasing a student’s word power. With time, the advantages are limitless.

-30 points on reading. This exercise is focused on helping students concentrate while becoming confident in aspects of public speaking.

-40 points in written content. Reading and writing is focused on helping the students relate to whatever they are doing. Combining the two is geared towards ensuring they gain a lot.

-10 on auditory abilities. Using different mediums include teachers reading aloud, to media like radio or phones, the ability to hear and comprehend is enhanced.

The above assessment is based on his weakness. The focus is not to only aim at enhancing his strengths, but also ensure he catches up to other students as well. Focusing on strengths and weaknesses (Brookhart 2017) helps a teacher bring the best out of the student, and in this case, Michael.



General and special teachers are meeting on a daily basis to discuss how they can help Michael and other special students have a better life in the school. The meetings are extended into the evening using emails and phone calls. The dedication to see the improvement of the children’s well-being is the motivation.


The challenge focused on is the interaction with other students. Special students integrating with others is bound to improve their position in the school. The target is to make the environment accommodating enough for them before focusing on personal targets.


The strategy is a collaboration one. Each teacher contributes to the students’ performance. Furthermore, results can be gained from other students too. Maximum advantages are gained from this combination (Lewis et al. 2017). Joint planning is thus a strategy reached upon by everyone involved.


The implementation process allows space to each teacher. The day is divided into different sessions allowing each teacher to attend to the students. Furthermore, the sessions allow little confusion among the students.











Courtade, G. R., Lingo, A. S., & Whitney, T. (2013). Using Story-based Lessons to Increase Academic Engaged Time in General Education Classes for Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability and Autism. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 32(4), 3-14.

Jones, N. D., Youngs, P., & Frank, K. A. (2013). The Role of School-Based Colleagues in Shaping the Commitment of Novice Special and General Education Teachers. Exceptional Children, 79(3), 365-383.

Mihaela, C., & Daniel, M. (2011). Comparative Analysis between the Objective and the Subjective Quality of Life Approach — Strengths and Weaknesses. Annals of the University Of Oradea, Economic Science Series, 20(2), 55-61.

Tang, L., & Jang, S. (2014). Information value and destination image: Investigating the moderating role of processing fluency. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 23(7), 790-814.

Walatka, T. (2012). Hub-and-Spoke Student Blogging and Advantages for Classroom Discussion. Teaching Theology & Religion, 15(4), 372-383

Brookhart, S. M. (2017). How to Give Effective Feedback to Your Students. ASCD.

Lewis, R. B., Wheeler, J. J., & Carter, S. L. (2017). Teaching students with special needs in general education classrooms. Pearson.




Garlic Mustard Plant





Garlic Mustard Plant

Garlic mustard plant scientifically called Alliaria petiolata which is its Latin name, is a biennial flowering plant. It is of the Mustard family Brassicaceae. Its other name is jack-by-the-hedge. Garlic Mustard is originally from Europe, spread to other regions like central and western Asia, British Isles and many other parts of the world including northwest Africa, countries like Morocco and Liberia. It is assumed as an invasive weed in many areas (Chabot et al. p87). In its first years of growth, the plant forms round shaped clumps with wrinkled leaves. When the leaves and the clumps are crushed, they produce a smell of garlic.  In the second year of flowering, mostly in spring, the plant produces white cross shaped dense clusters. The stems elongate when flowering to forma spike shape. This paper aims at critically analyzing the Garlic Mustard plant, its features, cultivation, uses, life cycle and how to do away with it.

Distinguishing features

The flowers of wild edible the Garlic Mustard plant normally appears between May and June. The plant has a nutritional value in that it can be helpful in weight, lowering cholesterol, heart cancer and many other health related issues (Eastman p132). The basic features of this plant include kidney shaped or broad heart shaped leaves. The flowers are coarse, petite and with rounded teeth, mostly producing the smell of garlic or onion. The pods are slender containing seeds.


The flowers of Garlic Mustard plant are easy to identify. The flowers from the outside have sepals which are usually green in color. It has four petals arranged in the shape of a cross. The stamens are six in number, two short and two tall. Usually the flowers appear in clusters each measuring one centimeters across. The flowers might appear at any given time through the growing season in the second year of the plant’s life.


Normally, the leaves of Garlic Mustard plant grow up to seven centimeters forming a heart shape with rounded irregular teeth. Their leaves are usually hairy or sometimes hairless but vary in degrees.


It is common in North America growing along fences, swamps, roadsides, wooded areas, and railway embankments and generally exploits the disturbed areas. Open disturbed forests are a common place to find these plants.

Edible parts

Almost all the parts of this plant are edible, the leaves, flowers, seeds and roots. The seeds are edible throughout the seasons but during hot weather conditions the seeds get bitter. Flowers can be made into salad (Kallas p34). The roots are only useful when there are no flower stalks present that is during late fall and early spring. The roots taste juicy assuming the taste of horseradish. The seeds are collected and eaten during fall.

Cultivation and uses

Garlic Mustard is one of the oldest species to be discovered to be essential in cooking in some parts of Europe. The leaves of the plant are chopped and used in flavoring sauces and salads the fruits and flowers can be included in these flavorings too. Actually the flowers and the fruits are best used for flavoring when young. They provide a blended mild flavor of mustard and garlic (Kallas p45). In France, the seeds of Garlic Mustard are used directly to season food. Medicinally, the plant is used as a disinfectant. It has healing properties and can be applied on open wounds.

The plant has varied wildlife benefits. In Europe, the plant serves as a primary food for seven fungi species and sixty nine insect herbivores. The natural enemies of the plant include butterflies, weevils, moths and leaf beetles. The white small flowers have an unpleasant aroma which normally attract hoverflies and midges though the flowers are able pollinate themselves. Caterpillars of the Anthocharis cardamines butterfly feeds on its seed pods mostly in June. The plant as it exists in North America, offers no significant wildlife benefits due to its toxic nature.

Life cycle

Garlic Mustard plant is one of the most destructive invasive plant species today according to Indiana Native Plant and Wildflower Society. In Indiana, the plant is found invading lawns, woodlands and shady areas. It is a self-fertile plant which cannot be eradicated easily once it is established in a given area. It normally spreads rapidly and is capable of replacing g other desired plant species within a short period of time. This is due to the fact that each plant is capable of producing thousands of seeds which are spread to other places by man, wildlife, water or any other available means.

Being a biennial plant, this means that Garlic Mustard plant completes its life cycle within a two year period. The plants’ seedlings germinate during spring to form low cluster of leaves shaped into a heart or basal rosettes by midsummer. The rosettes stay green so as to photosynthesize during the extremely cold seasons. This gives them an added competitive advantage against other desirable native plants in the area. For the better part of the first year of growth, the play will stay in the rosette form regardless of the time of its germination.

All Garlic Mustard plants survive through winter and proceed to the second year of growth producing more flowers. The average Garlic Mustard plant is capable of producing about five hundred viable seeds which practically germinate in well-lit and shady habitats. During the periods of spring, the Garlic Mustard plant will shoot straight up into a tall, slender plant with clusters of small flowers with four petals each (Salem par. 6). It should be noted that the plant only flowers in the second year of its growth life. This explains the misleading fact that during some periods they are less numerous. The fact is that they are there just waiting to complete their life cycles.


Garlic Mustard plant is difficult to eradicate as long as it has established in an area and takes quite a while. The first step is to familiarize with the plant, its flowers and the habitats where it is common. The plant should be monitoredregularly and be removed before the seeds set. Vigilance is important in the control of this plant because it can sprout at a time when you thought you had eradicated it. The primary goal in the control efforts is to make sure the seeds do not development and the existing seed banks are depleted completely. The task is demanding and can take a period of upto five years in a confined area.

One method of controlling this plant is cutting the plants at stem level then pulling them from the soil just before the seeds set. This however can be applicable in smaller areas. It is not logical to apply in larger patches because it is labor intensive. When pulling the Garlic Mustard plant form the soil, caution should be taken to make sure that the taproot is completely out of the soil (Harrington, p234). If this is not done, the plant might sprout again. The cut stems should be collected, bagged, dried then burned or can be buried deep in the ground where they can never sprout again.

The use of herbicides and controlled burns is another approach towards controlling the invasive Garlic Mustard plant. These approaches are applicable in larger patches due to the lower labor costs associated with them. Though effective, the controlled burns and the use of herbicides have various disadvantages. An example, fires which are too cool or too hot cannot be effective in controlling the plant. Too cool fires may not impact on the plant removal since it will not burn the plant completely and might in turn translate to the increase of the plants’ presence. Too hot fires will interfere with the soil layer and the overall soil structures.

Herbicides on the other hand are toxic to the soil and again have negative impacts on other plant species and animals as well. If the directions for use of the herbicide are not followed keenly, serious damages to the environment might be realized. The use of herbicides in the control of Garlic Mustard plant are best appropriate during spring and fall when most plants are actively growing.


Works cited

Harrington, Cynthia A. An Appetite for Restoration: Control of the Invasive Plant Garlic Mustard (alliaria Petiolata) Through Harvest for Human Consumption. , 2002. Print.

Garlic Mustard (alliaria Petiolata). Salem, Or.: ODA Plant Division, Noxious Weed Control, 2010. Internet resource.

Kallas, John. Edible Wild Plants. Gibbs Smith, 2010. Internet resource.

Eastman, John. The Book of Field and Roadside: Open-country Weeds, Trees, and Wildflowers of Eastern North America. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2003. Print.

Chabot, John F, and Jeannette Julich. Foreign Invaders: Non-native Species and Their Effect on North America’s Ecosystems. St. Catharines, Ont: Full Blast Productions, 2008. Print.


Racial Discrimination

Racial discrimination has been a big challenge facing America. As a result, Morrison aims at annihilating and eliminating those discredit actions due to color difference. It could be better if they were distinguished using culture rather than the skin color. Black people are restricted from accessing certain activities which increases their suffering. Therefore, the author finds it hard to address those opportunities which are discriminate the black people (Morrison, 2014). In most case, the author tries to narrate out sympathy over a black man. The manipulation of black people into slavery has increased the gap between the white and the black. In this case, the white man has the assumption that no black person who has certain behaviors that they prefer. This problem could be erased if people could pay a lot of attention in code rather than the color. Therefore, the color is only determined by God (Morrison, 2014).











Morrison, T. (2014). The origin of Others. New Yolk: Harvard University Press.


Occupational Safety and Disaster Management in Construction Sector


In most developing countries and emerging markets like Malaysia, there has been increased cases of construction industry accidents and related occupational hazards (Ismail et al., 2009; Siew, 2015). Often, inadequate implementation of Occupational Safety and Disaster Management (OSDM) measures has been cited as the primary cause of high accident rates in Malaysia (Sambasivan & Soon, 2007). The current proposal seeks to explore and reveal the primary aspects of OSDM commonly overlooked by managers and discern how key construction stakeholders perceive the issue of OSDM. The data collected from the construction sector will be analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test, Shapiro-Wilk test, and Cronbach’s coefficient alpha. The objective of the proposal is to examine whether OSDM training is adequately promoted by the management, in addition to how safety procedures are embedded into daily work schedules through active worker participation. Also, the study will assess stakeholder perception about three key issues of interest, including OSDM training, safety procedures, and policies, and management commitment to implement OSDM in the construction industry. Though the current study pertains to Malaysian construction industry, the findings and recommendations are intended to be generalized for other nations with similar work environments.

The research problem

According to Alkilani in collaboration with other researchers (2013), the construction industry despite being one of the most significant sectors of the global economy, it has often performed dismally in terms of granting safety and health to its employees (Abdul & Muhd, 2008; Ibrahim et al., 2010). The current research is important in addressing the increasing problem of construction sector accidents and injuries (Ali & Rahmat, 2010). The study seeks to understand if the documented incidents result from poor OSDM implementation or due to management laxity (Hamid et al., 2008). By exploring the key areas of concern, it will be possible to point out areas where construction managers should place more emphasis to ensure appropriate OSDM for construction industry employees (Chong & Low, 2014)

Purpose of the study

This study seeks to examine OSDM aspects that are often overlooked in Malaysian construction sector and distinguish the variations in the discernments of major construction shareholders.

The objectives of the study

The current study has three key objectives;

  • To investigate the current OSDM practices in the Malaysian construction.
  • To analyze the key stakeholders’ perceptions concerning OSDM (Stakeholders in this context include contractors, consultants, and clients.)
  • To make recommendations for improving OSDM performance by managers in the construction industry.

Research question(s)

  • What is the approach taken by construction industry in the modern work place concerning OSDM?
  • Is there adequate promotion of OSDM protocol in employees’ contract documents by management?
  • Is there enough awareness of OSDM safety by workers
  • How do stakeholders perceive the OSDM factors of safety procedures and policies, OSDM training, and management’s commitment to OSDM implementation?

Literature Review

The construction industry couples as a significant sector for both economic growth and OSDM concerns on the workers (Pereira Gomes et al., 2016; Nussbaum, 2011). Of all the global labor force, the construction industry contributes to 11% of all workplace injuries and about 20% of mortality cases (Zhao, 2014). Damages and their interconnected accidents caused to workers, property, and equipment largely impact the overall productivity (Ulubeyli et al., 2015). Most of the accidents occur as a result of varied human behavior, ever-shifting site conditions (Abdul et al., 2004), and unsafe work procedures (Sousa et al., 2014). Moreover, technological developments have also contributed to the perilous working environment (Pereira Gomes et al., 2016).

In Malaysia, most business and management strategies do not fully integrate the OSDM regulations while some sectors of the construction industries rely mostly on labor than technology (Hassan et al., 2009; Bakri et al., 2007). Despite being popular, unsafe OSDM conditions are still evident in different construction areas resulting in low productivity, time delays, and cost overruns (Rahmam, 2015). The majority of the hurdles to OSDM utilization include non-cooperation from employees (Sousa et al., 2014), management disinterest, inadequate knowledge about OSDM management procedures, and lack of a monitoring personnel to inspect on-site operations (Abdullah & Chai, 2011).

Even though regulatory bodies exist, the safety clauses are not commonly incorporated into contract documents or rigorously enforced. Besides, accident statistics are not often maintained in the construction sector (Lingard et al., 2015). As such, there is a need to develop and enforce OSDM standards more rigorously to reduce the increasing number of occupation accidents and health hazards in the construction sector (Goh et al., 2015). The first approach to meet this objective is through determining the common shortcomings of the existing OSDM guidelines using key pointers of site investigations and safety procedures. The objective of the current proposal is to undertake an in-depth examination of the existing OSDM practices by collecting views from stakeholders, and then using the findings to recommend suitable measures that can be used to improve OSDM implementation in the Malaysian construction industry.

Proposed Methodology

This study will use a quantitative research approach to answer the formulated research questions. Survey questionnaire will be used to collect stakeholder’s opinion concerning OSDM practice in Malaysian construction industry.

Research design

             Being an effective tool to solicit people’s opinions (Li, 2013), a questionnaire survey will be a reliable tool to collect the required information. A comprehensive literature study will be undertaking to design the questionnaire aimed at assessing the existing OSDM practices in the construction sector. Primarily, the questionnaire will be extracted from three past literature studies, namely Health and Safety Executive (1997), Choudhry, Fang, and Lingard (2009), and Choudhry and Masood (2011). The same questionnaires have previously been applied to the Hong Kong construction industry by Hon et al. (2013) and Choudhry et al. (2009). Most of the questions have been largely adopted from the 1997 UK health and Safety Executives, which is a 70 safety item survey tool (Norizam & Malek, 2013). Data sources

An estimated 10 companies and 40 construction sites will be the main data sources mainly from five towns in Malaysia, namely Puchong, Klang, Banting, Kajang, and Rawang. More emphasis will be assigned to obtaining responses from the construction of tunnels, flyovers, bridges, and high-rise buildings where higher safety standards are often required.

Data collection techniques

The designed questionnaire will be distributed to key construction sectors, both private and public. The primary data sources from these sectors include clients, consultants, subcontractors, and contractors. Also, experts and other professionals like safety officers, frontline workers, safety inspectors, foremen/supervisors, field engineers, and managers will be used to provide additional insights. Respondents will be asked to rate the level of performance across every OSDM systems at their workplace.

Issues of reliability and validity

Reliability denotes consistency in the measurement of data and the possibility of getting similar results if the same measure is duplicated in other studies (Lingard et al., 2012). Validity indicates if the question or score can measure specific aspects it is designed/intended to measure (Lingard et al., 2015). To enhance and ascertain reliability and validity of the designed questionnaire, it will be pilot tested before being used to collect data. Pilot testing will ensure that the questionnaire is modified through either deletion or addition of some important OSDM practices. Data reliability and validation will also be undertaken using Cronbach’s coefficient alpha, which is the most reliable measure of internal consistency. The value will be measured at 0.915 value that will be high compared to the allowed 0.7 value (Mahmoudi et al., 2014), meaning that the data obtained will be of excellent internal reliability and consistent for further analysis.

Definitions of key terms, concepts and variables

Kruskal-Wallis test (One-Way ANOVA)-A non-parametric method used to test if samples originate from the same distribution.

Stakeholders-Employees, employers, managers, consultants, clients, constructors, subcontractors, and suppliers.

Performance indices: safety audits, medical examination of workers, priority to implement OSDM, Insurance cover, provision of OSDM training, organizational charts displayed at work areas, refresher OSDM training, the presence of work pressure on workers and safety priority, and regular examination of safety rules and procedures.

OSDM factors: Worker involvement; safety in contract documents; safety rules, policies, and procedures; safety meetings; housekeeping; crane and hoist operations; accident investigation and reporting; use of personnel protective equipment.

OSDM Practices: Management commitment to training; regular OSDM inspections; Good communication; Management Acts; Company has an OSDM policy; Site Emergency Plan; First Aid Facility; Field engineer; supervisors encourage hazard reporting; No work pressure.

Data analysis and interpretation

For all OSDM factors, performance indices and the related OSDM practices will be calculated using Minitab Statistics Tool version 17 or IBM’s SPSS statistics tool version 23, to identify appropriate and neglected safety standards. The value of Cronbach’s coefficient alpha will be used in evaluating the internal reliability or consistency of the questionnaire data, while the Shapiro‒Wilk normality tests will be undertaken to examine whether there is normality in data distribution. The differences and consistencies of key stakeholders will be explored using Kruskal-Wallis test. In the current study, the level of significance of statistical analysis will be set at 0.05.

Ethical considerations

The data that will be collected will be kept confidential through the use of coding to ensure the integrity of the participants is maintained. Besides, informed consent will be sought from the participants through the signing of consent forms before data collection can commence. All data will be collected voluntarily, and participants have the right not to respond to any questions. Debriefing will be conducted to cross-check the collected information, and afterwards, subjects will be informed about the study intention. No counseling will be needed as the study will not subject participants to any physical, emotional, or psychological trauma/pain.

Pre-test or pilot study

The practicality and validity of the questionnaire will be pilot tested through 10 specialists from industry, learning institutions, and government sectors like the Civil Engineering Body and National Highway Authority. The document will be distributed to academics, contractors, consultants, and clients. The modified questionnaire will take into account important demographic factors to collect, OSDM factors, OSDM practices and critical questions related to the effective OSDM management. Critical questions will also be taken into account, including post-accident response and OSDM compliance. A five-point scale will be used to assess the level of compliance and performance, where 1 will be the lowest and 5 the highest in terms of performance levels. The modified questionnaire from pilot study will then be used in the final research proposal



Abdul, H. A., Wan, Y. W., & Singh, B. (2004). Hazards at construction sites. Proceedings of the 5th Asia Pacific Structural Engineering and Construction Conference. Johor Bahru, Malaysia: APSEC 2003.

Abdul, R. A., & Muhd, Z. A. (2008). Causes of Accidents at Construction Sites. Malaysian Journal of Civil Engineering, 20(2), 242 – 25.

Abdullah, D., & Chai, G. (2011). An analysis of accident statistics in Malaysian construction sector. 2010 International Conference on E-Business, Management and Economics. IPEDR, 3(14), 1-13.

Ali, A., & Rahmat, I. (2010). The performance measurement of construction projects managed by ISO-certified contractors in Malaysia. J Retail Leisure Property, 9, 25-35.

Antonio, R., Isabel, O., Gabriel, P., & Angel, U. (2013). A proposal for improving safety in construction projects by strengthening coordinators’ competencies in health and safety issues. Safety Science, 54, 92-103.

Bakri, A., Mohd, Z., Misnan, M., & Mohammed, A. (2007). Occupational safety and health (OSH) management systems: towards development of safety and health culture. Paper presented at: 6th Asia Pacific Structural Engineering and Construction Conference. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Chong, H., & Low, T. (2014). Accidents in Malaysian construction industry: statistical data and court cases. Int J Occup Safety Ergonom, 20, 503-513.

Goh, P. T., Abdullah, M. A., Misnan, M., Jaafar, M., & Lee, Y. M. (2015). A Review on the Effectiveness of Safety Training Methods for Malaysia Construction Industry. Jurnal Teknologi, 74(2), 56-71.

Hamid, A., Majid, M., & Singh, B. (2008). Causes of accidents at construction sites. Malaysian J Civ Eng, 20, 242-259 .

Hassan, A., Nor, A., Chew, A., & Chandrakantan, S. (2009). Management practice in safety culture and its influence on workplace injury: An industrial study in Malaysia. Disaster Prevention and Management, 18(5), 470 – 477.

Ibrahim, A., Roy, M., Ahmed, Z., & Imtiaz, G. (2010). An investigation of the status of the Malaysian construction industry. Benchmarking Int J, 17, 294-308.

Ismail, F., Hashim, A., Ismail, R., & Abdul, M. M. (2009). The operationalisation of safety culture for the Malaysian construction organisations. Int J Bus Manag, 4, 226-237.

Li, Z. (2013). Construction Safety in China: Issues associated with working on wooden boards.        J Community Med Health Educ, 5(2), 13-45.

Lingard, H., Cooke, T., & Blismas, N. (2012). Designing for construction workers’        occupational health and safety: a case study of socio-material complexity. Construction            Management and Economics, 30(5), 367-382.

Lingard, H., Peihua, Z. R., Blismas, N., Wakefield, R., & Kleiner, B. (2015). Are we on the    same page? Exploring construction professionals’ mental models of occupational health          and safety. Construction Management and Economics, 33(1), 73-84.

Mahmoudi, S., Ghasemi, F., Mohammadfam, I., & Soleimani, E. (2014). Framework for         Continuous Assessment and Improvement of Occupational Health and Safety Issues        in Construction Companies. Safety and Health at Work, 5(3), 125-130.

Norizam, A., & Malek, M. (2013). Developing Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for   Effective Construction Management in Malaysia Industry. Asian Social Science,            9(9).

Nussbaum, M. (2011). Health & Safety in Construction. The Open Occupational Health & Safety Journal, 3(1), 8-9.

Pereira Gomes, H., Arezes, P., & De Vasconcellos, L. (2016). A qualitative analysis on occupational health and safety conditions at small construction projects in the Brazilian construction sector. DYNA, 83(196), 39-47.

Rahmam, A. R. (2015). Managing Safety at Work Issues in Construction Works in Malaysia: A Proposal for Legislative Reform. Modern Applied Science, 9(13), 108.

Sambasivan, M., & Soon, Y. (2007). Causes and effects of delays in Malaysian construction industry. Int J Proj Manag, 25, 517-526.

Siew, R. (2015). Health and safety communication strategy in a Malaysian construction company: a case study. International Journal of Construction Management, 310-320.

Sousa, V., Almeida, N., & Dias, L. (2014). Risk-based management of occupational safety and health in the construction industry – Part 1. Background knowledge, 66, 75-86.

Ulubeyli, S., Arslan, V., & Kivrak, S. (2015). A semiotic analysis of cartoons about occupational health and safety issues in the construction workplace. Construction Management and Economics, 33(5-6), 467-483.