Instrucational Modela & Design, Supervision & Culltrally Responsive Teaching

  1. Daily schedule
7.30-8.00 Am Parade 8.00-9.00 Am Math computation


9.00-10.00 Am Reading vocabulary


10.00 Am-10.30 Am Tea 10.30-11.30 Am Math concept and application 11.30-12.30 Pm Art


12.30-1.30 Pm Lunch Time


1.30-2.30 Pm Reading comprehension


2.30-3.30 Pm Fine Motor skills (Special education)

Figure 1: present academic and nonacademic class schedule

A1a. Visual Support

Visual support incorporated into the daily schedule of Maria include charts, pair pictures with spoken words, the model and visual cues. Visual support aims at allowing information processing take a long time and this promotes understanding. The process links both verbal and non-verbal information. From her Wechsler intelligence scale concerning dispensation of information that is the coding process and visual-spatial, the ranking is average. The Kaufman test presents her ability to comprehend and introduce the information. Presentation of words in the form of pictures supports oral communication, and this builds up the confidence and independence levels. The visual support promotes the decrease in frustrations and encourages the appropriate behavior. Maria has gross motor skills in accordance to her age. However, the delay in fine motor skills and her intellectual disability prompts the use of visual support to help her cope up with the rest of the class.

A1a.i Justification

Downs condition students learn by the use of visual arts to understand the schedule and have a chance to learn what others are learning. According to Channell, Loveall and Conners (2013) state that people who suffer from the cerebral disability struggle with understanding and interpreting lessons. The use of visual support plays a key role in the translation of information and understanding of information. The breakdown of the schedule in steps benefits her independence in tackling class work. Maria will be able to focus on a particular activity, and transition from one level to the next become becomes simpler.


A2 Choice of Activity

Mathematics offers a chance to be in touch with her peer special education teacher; this is the chance for the co-teacher to keep track of change. The inclusivity of teatime and lunchtime creates a static response to her social skills. The art class will act on improving her motor skills. Reading comprehension and vocabulary level will improve on her next Kaufman test and better her grades. The special education class is designed to improve her fine motor skills. In summary, all the activities scheduled during the class time aim at bettering her gross motor skills and improving her gross motor skills.

A2i Justification

Watson and DiCarlo (2015) express the need for a routine to students. Activities performed during the class act as stepping-stones in organizing and building up the confidence of the student. The organization of the events for Maria develops a cognitive power of processing information. The activities in her daily schedule are inclusive of developing her mind into being an intellectual individual. The expose to the different activities in class aim at improving fine motor skills and build up her social profile with the teacher and students in the school.

A3 Change in Daily Activity

The association of low motor skills by Maria results into issues such as mobility, slow reaction and in addressing issues due to speech troubles. She is also not intellectually steady this affects her intake and dispensation of information. In mind with the challenges, change from one routine to the other requires time. To ensure the effectiveness of the change in routine for Maria one can use a communication board which specifies particular activities. The board contains pictures which demonstrate the change in an activity. The teacher can use the board to prepare Maria on how to react when there is an occurrence of a change in the daily schedule. The pictures in the board express clarity and expression that symbolizes the change. The use of red color in the background of the picture implicate urgency of the action to take in case a change occurs.

A3i: Justification

In a paper by Brewer et al. (2014) support the aim of exposing the intellectually disabled children to visual cues before the change if it occurs. The signals present the beginning of an activity and the end of the event. These will help Maria avoid anxiety and promote the sovereign transition from one activity to the other. The use of the communication board will be of help to Maria when the change occurs since it will work as a reminder to help her know what to expect and what action to take when the change occurs.

B Information Datasheet Indicating need to use the Toilet

Maria primary challenge is the failure to inform the tutor when a need arises to go to the washroom. On average she changes clothes for five times according to the number of occasions she has soiled or urinated on herself. The information data sheet is to help the teacher understand Maria need to use the toilet or when she has the already performed the act. Maria wriggling in a seat or grabbling self-verbalizing indicates the need to go to the bathroom. Hiding in a corner, or wet indicates that she has already wet or soiled.

  + Or – for the occurrence of the behavior


Hour Wiggling in seat grabbing self Verbalizing hiding in a corner Wet or dry

W   D

7.30-8.00 Am


+ +            – + +       _
8.00-9.00 Am +        _   +       –      –
9.00-10.00 Am      –         –         –       –
10.00 Am-10.30 Am +       –   +        –           –
10.30-11.30 Am      – + +      –     –
11.30-12.30 Pm       – +          – +       _
12.30-1.30 Pm +        – –      – + +
1.30-2.30 Pm        – +       –      –   –
2.30-3.30 Pm        –      –  + + +

Figure 2: presents toilet usage Datasheet

Bi: Justification

In a paper by Clarke, Embury and Bauer (2014) indicate the need for the teachers to identify the times of the day when incontinence is likely to occur. The datasheet helps the teacher understand when the need arises and when she is likely to wet or soil herself. The datasheet also gives an avenue to the tutor on the way to handle Maria if she has already soiled herself to prevent soaking other clothing and furniture. The data will help to avoid anxiety and stressful situation for Maria.

C: Role of Parent and Teacher in Independent Toilet Use

The parents act positively in the management of the need to understand toilet use, by taking her to the doctor for examination and results in proof that she has no problem. The teachers also play a part regarding appointing a paraprofessional to manage and monitor her toilet needs. The paraprofessional withdrawal is to avoid over-dependence by Maria and to cut short on the budget in the district. The actions taken by the teacher and the parents aim at helping Maria become independent in toilet use. The chart below will help parents and teachers share a common goal since they will all be focusing in the same direction of helping Maria become independent in toilet use.

Family needs
Social and emotional understanding

Figure 3 Areas of need for Maria that parents and teachers can address for to ensure consistency in toilet use

Ci: Justification

Shahzad (2015) describe the role of the society in providing positive development and productivity of the child with intellectual disability. The community surrounding Maria is the parents and the teachers who have different roles in helping the child be productive. Children with the same condition such as Maria, the caregivers act in unison to help the child become better versions of themselves. One of the roles of the teachers and the parents is to help the child understand how and the need to use the toilet. When the parents and the teacher share a common goal, it will assist in solving Maria’s problem of becoming independent in bathroom use.

D: Age Appropriate form

The figure 3: illustrates the proper use of the toilet.


D1: Self-Monitor in Toilet use

The challenge Maria faces is the way to use the bathroom. These justify the fact that she goes to the bathroom and fails to use it instead wets and soils herself. To implement the utilization of the visual form of toilet use, Maria carries with her a dry erase marker to tick after each event performed. These will come in handy to help her go through the whole process without skipping a stage.

D2 Justification

Watson, Gable, and Morin (2016) propose the use of grouping information into small groups to reduce the burden and of overloading the memory. They recommend the use of visual information as an example of assembling information. These will play a significant role when it comes to recalling the activities Maria is to perform in the toilet. The visual outline breaks down the steps Maria is to follow from start to completion.




Brewer, A. T., Strickland-Cohen, K., Dotson, W., & Williams, D. C. (2014). Advance notice for transition-related problem behavior: Practice guidelines. Behavior analysis in practice, 7(2), 117-125.

Channell, M. M., Loveall, S. J., & Conners, F. A. (2013). Strengths and weaknesses in reading skills of youth with intellectual disabilities. Research in developmental disabilities, 34(2), 776-787.

Clarke, L. S., Embury, D. C., & Bauer, A. (2014). Incontinence Issues among Students with Disabilities: Recommendations for Teachers. TEACHING Exceptional Children46(3), 6-17.

Francis, K., Mannion, A., & Leader, G. (2017). The Assessment and Treatment of Toileting Difficulties in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Other Developmental Disabilities. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1-15.

Shahzad, S. (2015). JOURNEY OF A WORKING MOM AND HER SON WITH DOWN SYNDROME. Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad, 27(2), 501-506.

Watson MRS, Gable RA, Morin LL (2016) The Role of Executive Functions in Classroom Instruction of Students with Learning Disabilities. Int J Sch Cog Psychol 3: 167. doi:10.4172/2469-9837.1000167

Watson, K. J., & DiCarlo, C. F. (2016). Increasing completion of classroom routines through the use of picture activity schedules. Early Childhood Education Journal, 44(2), 89-96.

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