Control Systems and Robotics Engineering

Reducing Uncertainties Using Robust Control

Introduction

There are many uncertainties that affect the functioning of control systems that are used in robotics.  It is for this reason that robust control is utilized to respond to these uncertainties to make sure that the functioning of the systems remains efficient and that disruptions are effectively eliminated. In robust control, the main concern of engineers is about improving safety, security, and convenience. With robust control, engineers can effectively deal with uncertainties that may mar controller design. In normal instances, robust control are made to perform optimally so long as some parameters and are found within a specific set. In the presence of bounded modeling errors, these systems can achieve robust performance.  During the years, several researches have been carried out to boost the robustness of the state-space robustness. In the past robust control was used along deterministic approaches. However, recently, there has been a fierce criticism of the approach on grounds that it is non-flexible and cannot be descriptive of uncertainties.  Ultimately, the targets and aims of robust control is to avoid disturbance. The main devices that are used include; automatic excavation and multiple manipulators. The remote control of robotics has since been significantly improved in their various uses in the environment.

Robust control happens to be a method that aims at bounding the available uncertainty instead of expressing it in a distribution manner. Following a bound of the uncertainty, it becomes possible to deliver results that are in line with the requirements of a system in all cases.  In robust control, some performance may end up being sacrificed to make sure that certain requirements of the system are met. However, this type of sacrifice is a common in cases involving robotic systems (Pothukuchi, Pothukuchi, Voulgaris & Torrellas, 2017).

Statement of Purpose

There is thus a need to research on robust control of systems as it is a chance to develop efficient control systemshelp solve the common problems that are being experienced in the robotics industry. The research will try to find out the available potential in robust control that can be manipulated to develop effective control. It is true that the available control systems are effective in the various roles where they are used but there is a need for more improvement of robust control.

There is a special concern for extreme operations that may occur in robust systems which are known to have safety implication. It is in such extremes that one may not be able to predict what happens to robust control which has a special application in this case. It is true that there have been a lot of research about robust control and through this; a various techniques have been developed. There have been a number of tools for use in the robotic industry but a number of issues to do with correctness of these tools especially when they are used to simplify system that are complex in nature. My enthusiasm with pure mathematics has been an inspiration to me and I have, once in a while been part of projects to build parts of robotics arm which was a programmable microcontroller supporting additional circuitry for driving the stepper motors for rotation. This is just one of the projects I have done. Others include a ball balancing beam. In my study days I began my research by co-authoring Blind De-convolution of blurred images with Fuzzy Size Detection of Point Spread Function which sought to find the point spread function dimension of an optical system. The kind of challenges that robust systems are marred with have inspired further research that is intended to make improvements on the current robust control method to make sure that improved processes and tools are in place as a good way to close or minimize the gap that exist between robust control theory and its varied application.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

Pothukuchi, R. P., Pothukuchi, S. Y., Voulgaris, P., & Torrellas, J. (2017, September).

Multilayer Compute Resource Management with Robust Control Theory. In Parallel Architectures and Compilation Techniques (PACT), 2017 26th International Conference on (pp. 376-376). IEEE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Considering the impact of media on all users and then the unique effects it may have on African Americans, how can media be used to positively impact African Americans, or is media more detrimental than it’s worth, and should African Americans be steered

 

 

 

 

 

Role of Media in Portraying African Americans

Institutional Affiliation:

Name:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Role of Media in Portraying African Americans

Introduction

The media plays an important role in the society, as it is the mirror through which vices can be highlighted and condemned (Tukachinsky, 2017). A successful democracy such as the US has heavily relied on media independence to highlight excesses even from a government point of view. The media, when used in the right way, can be a game changer as it gives the challenges that happen in the society. The media is a tool to having a moral society, highlighting corruption, racism, slavery and discrimination.  The way the media be it TV stations, newspapers and magazines portray African-Americans has a bearing on the living standards and social well-being of this group of people. Many researchers have appreciated the need of having media that is a true mirror of what is happening in the society (Tukachinsky, 2017). The media should be independent and one that is guided by integrity to air events of mistreatment and at times praising people for major milestones in life. The media is not supposed to work with the government of the day as vices such as corruption, racism and slavery may be hidden under the carpet. The media is able to positively impact the living standards of African Americans in US as described in the following review.

Literature Review

Media stations such as Al Jazeera, CNN and BBC have highlighted the suffering of the Africa Americans making the government of US rush and address the needs of this vulnerable group of people. Even though these media stations have been commended for a good job well done, there has been criticism on equal measure. The media can be used to impact positively to the African Americans in the US in the following ways.  African Americans living in the US get highlighted by a number of media ranging from local newspapers, television outlets and radio stations. The way the media portrays the status of the American Americans with regards to the employment and income can positively impact on the lives of this group of people (Graber & Dunaway, 2017). The country has a low unemployment rate despite enjoying a high participation rate from the large labor workforce that the country enjoys. The media is supposed to go deeper and determine the actual statistics of the number of African Americans that have been employed in European firms. The contracts of the employees, whether there are satisfaction and income earned can be used to impact the living standards. It is a general understanding that Africans Americans are not treated well by being biased in terms of income as some of them are paid low salaries and others are not even employed on the basis of their skin color (Bonilla & Rosa, 2015). The media should actively highlight such gaps and ensure that such firms that encourage racism in the employment industry are blacklisted and dealt with accordingly.  The media is supposed to pursue equality in the society and this would positively affect the lives of the African Americans.

Secondly, the way the media highlights Africans Americans involvement in justice systems and other social services is important in positively affecting the lives of the African Americans (Graber & Dunaway, 2017). In many cases that have gone to court, this group of people has been mistreated and it is the role of the media to ensure that such injustices do not prevail. The media must actively ensure that there is a rule of law and that everyone operates under the same law, such that no one feels superior. African Americans must be allowed to participate in court procedures and to enjoy the social amenities of the country without any bias (Bonilla & Rosa, 2015). The group will feel equal in terms of citizenship and the media would be a game changer for better lives. The media must also describe the educational standing of the African Americans, beliefs and the possibility of improving the lives of the African Americans (Tukachinsky, 2017). The media should educate the society on the required norms for economic development and personal satisfaction. African Americans must be encouraged to engage the media as equality demands equal opportunities for everyone. The media should be open to this group as they are most vulnerable to mistreatment as they are regarded as immigrants in the country despite having stayed in the country for a long time. The media should live within the confines of true journalism and be the real mirror of the society.

Implications of the research

In conclusion, the media plays a significant role in ensuring that the plights of the African Americans are highlighted. Those that are not focusing on societal needs should make a turnaround and start a course in ensuring the vices of the society are eliminated. Racism, bribery and corruption is the greatest enemy of economic development and all forces including the media should play a role in ensuring that this is long gone (Scharrer & Ramasubramanian, 2015). The African Americans too must rise to fight for their needs through the media. They must participate in judicial proceedings, be employed in competitive jobs and be compensated adequately for the services rendered. In the event that such fundamental needs of life are met, people will get satisfied and the standards of living will be high. It will also discourage the practice of engaging in criminal activities such as terrorism as the people will be dedicated to national development. The African Americans should actively start engaging the media on the ways to positively improve life.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

Bonilla, Y., & Rosa, J. (2015).  Ferguson: Digital protest, hashtag ethnography, and the racial       politics of social media in the United States. American Ethnologist, 42(1), 4-17.

Graber, D. A., & Dunaway, J. (2017). Mass media and American politics. Cq Press.

Hurley, R. J., Jensen, J. J., Weaver, A., & Dixon, T. (2015). Viewer ethnicity matters: Black          crime in TV News and its impact on decisions regarding public policy. Journal of Social          Issues, 71(1), 155-170.

Scharrer, E., & Ramasubramanian, S. (2015). Intervening in the media’s influence on stereotypes of race and ethnicity: The role of media literacy education. Journal of Social Issues,       71(1), 171-185.

Tukachinsky, R. (2017). Media Portrayals and Effects: African Americans. Oxford Research        Encyclopedia of Communication. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190228613.013.453

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Control Systems and Robotics Engineering

Reducing Uncertainties Using Robust Control

Introduction

There are many uncertainties that affect the functioning of control systems that are used in robotics.  It is for this reason that robust control is utilized to respond to these uncertainties to make sure that the functioning of the systems remains efficient and that disruptions are effectively eliminated. In robust control, the main concern of engineers is about improving safety, security, and convenience. With robust control, engineers can effectively deal with uncertainties that may mar controller design. In normal instances, robust control are made to perform optimally so long as some parameters and are found within a specific set. In the presence of bounded modeling errors, these systems can achieve robust performance.  During the years, several researches have been carried out to boost the robustness of the state-space robustness. In the past robust control was used along deterministic approaches. However, recently, there has been a fierce criticism of the approach on grounds that it is non-flexible and cannot be descriptive of uncertainties.  Ultimately, the targets and aims of robust control is to avoid disturbance. The main devices that are used include; automatic excavation and multiple manipulators. The remote control of robotics has since been significantly improved in their various uses in the environment.

Robust control happens to be a method that aims at bounding the available uncertainty instead of expressing it in a distribution manner. Following a bound of the uncertainty, it becomes possible to deliver results that are in line with the requirements of a system in all cases.  In robust control, some performance may end up being sacrificed to make sure that certain requirements of the system are met. However, this type of sacrifice is a common in cases involving robotic systems (Pothukuchi, Pothukuchi, Voulgaris & Torrellas, 2017).

Statement of Purpose

There is thus a need to research on robust control of systems as it is a chance to develop efficient control systemshelp solve the common problems that are being experienced in the robotics industry. The research will try to find out the available potential in robust control that can be manipulated to develop effective control. It is true that the available control systems are effective in the various roles where they are used but there is a need for more improvement of robust control.

There is a special concern for extreme operations that may occur in robust systems which are known to have safety implication. It is in such extremes that one may not be able to predict what happens to robust control which has a special application in this case. It is true that there have been a lot of research about robust control and through this; a various techniques have been developed. There have been a number of tools for use in the robotic industry but a number of issues to do with correctness of these tools especially when they are used to simplify system that are complex in nature. My enthusiasm with pure mathematics has been an inspiration to me and I have, once in a while been part of projects to build parts of robotics arm which was a programmable microcontroller supporting additional circuitry for driving the stepper motors for rotation. This is just one of the projects I have done. Others include a ball balancing beam. In my study days I began my research by co-authoring Blind De-convolution of blurred images with Fuzzy Size Detection of Point Spread Function which sought to find the point spread function dimension of an optical system. The kind of challenges that robust systems are marred with have inspired further research that is intended to make improvements on the current robust control method to make sure that improved processes and tools are in place as a good way to close or minimize the gap that exist between robust control theory and its varied application.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

Pothukuchi, R. P., Pothukuchi, S. Y., Voulgaris, P., & Torrellas, J. (2017, September).

Multilayer Compute Resource Management with Robust Control Theory. In Parallel Architectures and Compilation Techniques (PACT), 2017 26th International Conference on (pp. 376-376). IEEE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Merton’s Unanticipated Consequences of Social Action

Name:

Instructor:

Course:

Date:

Merton’s Unanticipated Consequences of Social Action

Sociologists have always been interested in studying unintended consequences. Robert Merton coined the habit as the unanticipated consequences of purposive action following studies that went back several years to the advent of Adam Smith, the economist who also coined the term ‘the invisible hand’ (Mica 112). In essence, Merton’s postulation meant that people not only fail to understand or see all the consequences of their actions but also foresee consequences that do not actually happen, which is why such people have to bother to act in the first place.

A perfect example that illustrates Merton’s unanticipated consequences of social action is the creation of no-man’s lands during the Cold War. The tension of a third war was high that countries had to create or leave some portions between themselves. The average section of each country was about 250 yards and this region contained a considerable amount of barbed wire. Areas that were experiencing eminent attacks could coil up to ten belts of barbed wire, where in some places the wire could go more than a hundred feet deep and high. Essentially, the area became very well protected. For purposes of protection against eminent attacks, these areas then became natural habitats, with various species of animals and birds (Mica 121). These habitats are today protected with the reduced probability of war between states especially in Europe and Asia, which are a consequence on an unintended social action. The natural habitats are classified as a positive consequence of a social action that was perceived to have intended negative consequences.

Another example is the prohibition of alcohol trade in America in the 1920s. The aim of prohibiting the activity, both local and international alcohol trade including banning importation of alcohol was to reduce at all costs alcohol consumption, which was seen as an unproductive activity. The law saw a lot of small-scale alcohol suppliers get ejected out of the business unintentionally because of the undesired consequences that were brought about by the law. Therefore, the alcohol industry was considered illegal. However, there rose large-scale organized criminal gangs who took advantage of the popularity of alcohol and continued producing it (Zwart 284). The gangs received funds from people who were interested in the consumption of alcohol and its supply to states that were struggling to repeal the prohibition, which provided a huge illegal market. Therefore, the intended action by the government was to ban the production, distribution, sale and consumption of alcohol. As a social action, the unintended consequence was a rise in criminal activities and large-scale illegal production and distribution of alcohol.

The same case has applied to modern society in countries that have banned some drugs and stamped them as illegal. The social action of creating a ban on items or creating laws that limit some freedoms and activities has led to different unintended consequences. For instance the case of illegal drugs, cartels have emerged that are so powerful and very rich that they support political candidates so that they can have protection and continue with their illegal activities. Such instances are known as drawbacks and are more harmful to the society without proper implementation of prohibition and ban policies (Merton 898.).

In conclusion, Robert Merton’s unanticipated consequences of social action has the possibility of generating both unexpected benefits as well as unexpected drawback, which all affect the social setup differently.

Works Cited

Merton, Robert. “The Unanticipated Consequences of Purposive Social Action.” American Sociological Review (2016): 894-904. Print.

Mica, Adriana. Sociology and the Unintended: Robert Merton Revisited. New York: Peter Lang Publishers, 2012. Print.

Zwart, Frank de. “Unintended but not unanticipated consequences.” Springer Link Theory and Society (2015): 283-297. Print.

 

Evaluate five perspectives for understand eating in Australian adults.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Five Perspectives for Understanding Eating in Australian Adults

Name

Institution

 

 

 

 

 

Five Perspectives for Understanding Eating in Australian Adults

Evolutionary Perspective

History and Eating Motivation

When it comes to eating, the evolutionary perspective was founded in 1859 in Darwin’s books titled The Origin of Species and despite the fact that Charles Darwin never invented the concept; he proposed the natural selection concept that account for it. According to Westen (2002), the evolutionary theory of hunger and eating, the mammalian feeding system controls the hunger. This system evolves after a consistent and an unpredictable food supply.

Motivation towards SSS Foods

According to evolutionary theory, people evolved probably from different environments where they had eat energy-giving foods. In this case, humans were supposed to eat food that has more calories so that they can survive famine. Despite the fact that such evolution assisted human to survive in the past, it has stuck against people’s health up to date. The past behaviors are the major cause of people’s preference for SSS foods that are calorie dense.

Over the years, people have come to like some foods, for example, fast and sweet foods.   This explains how the mammalian feeding systems have evolved over the years. When sweet, salty and fatty foods are available, the consumption levels tend to increase. Through the evolutionary theory, many of the industrialized nation’s eating habits have been interfered with. Many people are eating a lot of junk and also many of them suffer from eating disorders. Like all other species, people are genetically wired to adapt to the behaviors of their ancestors.

 

Theory Strengths, Shortcoming and Recommendations

Despite being used in many instances, evolutionary theory to explain behavior, for example, eating has faced criticisms. Most of these criticisms come from the proponents of the constructivist theory. One of the methodological strengths is the fact that its test ability hypothesis has an issue. From the issue of eating as explored above, how can it be tested that human carried some of the ancestor’s ideas of eating? Because of inability to test the hypothesis, it is a great challenge for the theory to pass in empirical science. When it comes to the conceptual limitation, the evolutionary theory also has issues that include mismatch.

According to the author, human used to live in Africa Savanna. In today’s world, people are living in a totally different environment especially the Australians. During the stay at Savanna Africa, protein and fat that could be very essential were never available and this case, craving for such foods were positively selected. The theory has many assumptions and guesses that are only based on few studies. Researchers should not generalize all studies using EP assumptions.

In the evolutionary perspective eating study, Laith (2016) argues that emotions in the body regulate eating. The variables, in this case, are coordinating mechanism and hunger. The study hypothesis is that coordinating mechanism affects one’s hunger. Because of the experience, the forefathers went through, people are adapted to consume more calorie dense foods that include SSS foods.  A survey method of research was used in this case where 114 participants were used.

 

 

Psychodynamic Perspective

History and Motivation towards Eating

The psychodynamic theory by Sigmund Freud started in 1856-1939 where it tried to come up with a treatment for psychological disorders (Westen, 2002). This theory rests on 3 key premises that include people’s actions being determined by thoughts.  Secondly, the theory believes that various mental events occurs on the outside of conscious awareness. The third major premises is the fact that mental processes conflict. Using the psychodynamic theory, eating behaviors is explained by the past experiences among other motivational forces that stem from inherited instincts, biological drives. Through the instincts, people try to balance a conflict that exists between personal needs and social requirements.

Motivation towards SSS Foods

When explaining eating, this perspective argues that it is motivated by unconscious motives that are largely inaccessible to consciousness. Another assumption towards eating is the fact that people’s childhood affects their behaviors. In this case, a person may like SSS foods because they were trained that way at a young age.

Theory Strengths, Shortcoming and Recommendation

One of the conceptual strength of the theory and explanation is that two sides of the nurture/nature debate are explored. In this case, eating and eating of the SSS foods are explained as something one learn but it can also be unconscious. Freud extensively explains how motivations that includes eating results from innate drives. Despite its strengths, this explanation is flawed methodologically in that case studies that are subjective cannot generalize the results. Methodologically, the theory in Unfalsifiable in that it is challenging to prove wrong. The theory should not entirely ignore mediational processes that include thinking entirely.

Cognitive Perspective

History and Eating Motivation

This is a theory that focuses on how people perceive, process and even retrieve information.  This perspective roots in experiments that were conducted by Wundt back in the late 19th Century (Westen, 2002).  According to this theory, a person’s behavior is controlled by his/ her thought processes.  For example, a person that thinks that some type is good for him/her, he /she will be enticed to eat those foods compared to someone who has a bad outlook on such foods.

Motivation towards SSS Foods

According to social cognitive theory by Albert Bandura, one’s environment may also affect his/her eating habits. For example, a child from a family that eats SSS foods will eventually adopt the habit.  On the other hand, families that practice beneficial nutrition behaviors tend to have children who model then behavior. In this case, eating is affected by one’s cognition.

Theory Strengths, Shortcoming and Recommendation

When it comes to methodological approach, the cognitive theory has many practical applications. When it comes to the conceptual strength, this theories heavily relies on a well-studied research. Despite its strengths, this perceptive has limitations when it comes to explaining eating habits.  One of the conceptual limitations is the fact that the theory ignoresother factors that may affect the eating habits. Another limitation is the fact that the theory refers to cognitive approaches that cannot be observed directly, in this case, it tends to rely highly on inferences that may prove challenging to measure.

To effectively understand eating motivations from the cognition perspective, a person should also consider other factors that may affect the eating behavior. Some of these factors may include personal issues. When it comes to studying, measuring the thought processes may be a challenge that may only be conducted through another theory. In such a case, an eclectic approach to understanding eating comes into place.

Eating and Eating SSS Foods Study Exploration

Eating Study

In a study that was conducted by Sibilia, hunger is motivated by cognition.  The variables in this study are cognition and eating behaviors. Sibilia uses case study where 365 students were used as a sample. Self-report questionnaires were also used.  The hypothesis, in this case, is that thoughts motivate eating.

SSS Foods Explanation

When it comes to overeating especially the SSS foods, the study argues that it comes from adaptation. People learn and finally adapt to eating SSS foods.  A survey, in this case, is used where the hypothesis is that people adapt to eating certain types of food. The variable, in this case, is eating SSS foods and cognition (Sibilia, 2010).

 

 

Behaviorist Perspective of Eating

History and Eating Motivation

This theory was pioneered by John Watson and B. F. Skinner and entirely focuses on the relationship that exists between observable behaviors and stimuli from the environment. Unlike the cognitive theory that explains human behavior through cognition, the behavioral theory argues that the human behavior can be understood without examining the internal elements that include thoughts and feelings (Westen, 2002). When it comes to explaining eating, this theory argues that people learn through conditioning. In this case, people are motivated to eat as a way of fulfilling a behavior. Westen (2002) that this conditioning occurs through the interaction with the environment.

Motivations towards SSS Foods

When explaining eating of SSS foods, expose to this food may lead a person to being addicted to such foods.  The response to environmental stimuli that may include the presence of food shapes the person’s eating habits. Another way eating SSS can be explained is through rewards and punishment. Since SSS foods and eating may feel good, people get motivated to eat.  Through reinforcement and punishment, learning does occur. Eating unpleasant foods may act as a put off to eating such foods. On the other hand, eating sweet foods may act as a reinforcement towards eating those foods.

Eating and SSS Study Exploration

In a study conducted by Meule and Vogele (2013), eating in most of the Western world is a rewarding behavior. This behavior is linked to mood and emotions.  In this study, eating and motivation are the main variables. The study hypothesis is the fact that eating is a rewarding behavior. The secondary research method is used where the authors use desktop research. In this study, the omnipresence of junk foods that include SSS foods results in consuming such food even when not hungry.

Theory Strengths, Shortcoming and Recommendation

Some of the strengths of this study are that it uses methods of scientific research. These methods are not only objective and measurable but they are also observable. Additionally, the explanation of conditioning, punishment and rewards fits in explains why people are motivated to eat. Despite its conceptual and methodological advantages, the theory has its own limitations. Despite its much reliance on behavior being learned, cognitive and biological elements largely affects a behavior. In this case, other elements that may affect a behavior are neglected.  To extensively explain human behavior especially, the theory should also consider paying attention to other factors that may affect a behavior. Despite one learning eating habits, a person’s cognition may affect his/her habits and people using this theory should note that.

Eating Study

According to this study, people are conditioned to eat that acts as a fulfilling habit. A selective review when it comes to reviewing the study related materials are used. The main variables in this study are behavior and the eating disorders.

SSS eating

The rewards of good feeling that one gets from eating SSS foods conditions them towards consuming such foods more and more. The variables are conditioning and eating disorders. Eating wrong or overeating in this case is reinforced by the good feeling (reward) (Williamson, White, York-Crowe and Stewart, 2004).

Maslow Perspective

History and Eating Motivation

Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Theory was proposed by Maslow in 1943. According to the Maslow hierarchy of needs theory, eating behaviors are motivated by the need to achieve certain needs before going to the others (Westen, 2002). In this theory, the deficient of then basic needs tend to motivate people and the urge gets stronger when the needs stay for long without being met. In this case, the more a person stays without eating the more they get hungry.

According to Maslow, people’s needs motivate their behavior and in this case, the overeating that is experienced in Australia is as a result of behavior and not physical hunger. The behavior of binge eating and overeating is usually driven by other needs. Fallatah & Syed (2018) explains that eating SSS foods is as a habit or a reaction to something that is emotional or situations. For example, stress, anxiety, boredom and anger may motivate one to overeat. In this case, eating becomes a habitual reaction.

Motivations towards SSS Foods

In explaining the eating the salt, sugar, and saturated-fat (SSS) fast foods, people as a result of a behavior and not physical hunger. Issues that include stress, anxiety among other unmet needs may lead people to overeat. Food acts as a motivator for people who have other issues that include depression and social isolation (Fallatah & Syed, 2018). Maslow is one of the theories that explain human behavior in a very simple way.  Through this theory, one can identify the needs and qualitative differences that exist between them. When it comes to a conceptual limitation, the Maslow of hierarchy needs theory cannot in any way be proved empirically. There is no way the level of satisfaction that people experience can be measured accurately before they can go to the next level.

Motivations towards SSS Foods

Eating SSS foods according to this theory is not as a result of physical hunger but as a behavior. Issues that include stress, anxiety among other unmet needs may lead people to eat SSS foods that gratify the body to some extent.  In this case, SSS foods act as a motivator.

Theory Strengths, Shortcoming and Recommendation

Despite the fact that the theory can effectively be used to explain how motivates to eat come about, it is empirically challenging to prove the point. The theory lacks a scientific banking and more studies should be conducted to examine the truth of the theory.

Eating and SSS Food Eating Study

According to this study, motivation largely affects one’s actions.  The variables in this study are motivations and behaviors. When it comes to hunger and eating, food acts as a good motivator of eating (Fallatah and Syed, 2018). This study used literature review where many past studies were explored in depth.  When it comes to eating SSS foods, it is taken as a motivator by the body in that various personal issues for example stress can motivate a person to eat SSS foods. When eaten, a person feels good.

 

 

Conclusion

People are motivated by biological and psychosocial needs to do various activities. In this case, motivation refers to a driving force that is behind every behavior. Through this driving force, people are motivated to pursue various activities while neglecting others. Studies show that people eat to minimize or reduce the internal tensions that are met when some psychological needs are not met. Maintaining a stable internal status requires one to eat. This paper has evaluated the five perspectives that explaining eating in Australian adults that include Evolutionary perspective (EP), psychodynamic perspective (PP), behaviorist perspective (BP), cognitive perspective (CP) and Hierarchy of needs perspective (HoNP).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Al-Shawaf, L. (2016). The evolutionary psychology of hunger. NCBI Journal, 105(4), pp.591-595.

Fallatah, R & Syed, J. (2018). A critical review of Maslow hierarchy of needs theory. Journal of Employee Motivation. 19-42

Meule, A. and Vögele, C. (2013). The Psychology of Eating. Frontiers in Psychology, [online] 4(3), pp.204-215. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3635021/.

Sibilia, L. (2010).The Cognition of Hunger and Eating Behaviors. Psychological Topics, 19(2), 341-354. Available at http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=0&sid=1361c112-4566-49d9-a249-7491f66d210a%40sessionmgr102

Westen, D. (2002). Psychology: Brain, behavior, & culture. New York, NY [u.a.: Wiley.

Williamson, D., White, M., York-Crowe, E. and Stewart, T. (2004). Cognitive-Behavioral Theories of Eating Disorders. Behavior Modification, [online] 28(6), 711-738. Available at: http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=2&sid=458ef1de-0385-4571-a9dd-bf8c944b11b7%40sessionmgr4008&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=14840252&db=a9h.

 

Creative and Critical Thinking Evaluation

Creative and Critical Thinking Evaluation

According to Rawlinson (2017), critical and creative thinking involves the process of making a reasoned judgment which involves conceptualization, analyzing, synthesis and evaluation of data which could either be gathered through observation, experience or reflection. It is characterized by various factors which include dispositions, criteria, argument, reasoning, point of view and application of the criteria procedure.

K-6 evaluation program as stated by Tseng, Gardner, Yeh, (2016)

In many schools, the curriculum involved ensures that critical and creative thinking lessons are well designed and thus help in improving the level of thinking and the responses given. The lessons are structured in a model involving five stages which provides an opportunity to the students in the provision of new ideas and knowledge.

The strategies involved in this program are as follows:

First is questioning in which active learners are determined by their frequent rate of asking questions which helps in improving their productivity and learning skills. Metacognition is involved, and it questions one’s learning processes and thus helps in development, implementation, and evaluation of plans.

Secondly is the fluency, originality, and elaboration where the students are given a chance of coming up with ideas, combining them in new ways, categorizing them and applying creativity to be in a position of connecting the ideas.

Visualization follows where the students apply sensory information or knowledge which mainly helps in planning, goals setting and organization. Next is mind mapping which involves taking notes in the form of images and this eases the level of understanding.

Point of view being the next ensures that the student evaluates ideas in multiple dimensions. This is useful to the students in that it helps broaden their thinking. Next are analogies which enable the students in dealing with complicated situations.

Encapsulation follows which enables the students in synthesizing information which then leads to decision making which involves assessing and evaluation of various alternatives and expected outcomes. Lastly is the plus, minus, interesting (PMI) which gives the students an opportunity of determining whether the ideas in context have positive or negative impacts.

Experimental evaluation design

Critical and creative thinking highly advocates for a problem-based environment since it the environment that gives the learners an opportunity of coming up with new ideas in regards to the situation they are involved in.  This kind of environment calls for an instructional strategy which comprises of methods and techniques that help in enhancing creativity and critical skills.

Creative and critical thinking are correlated, and they are both applied in problem-solving. They involve three major processes which include synthesizing, articulation and imagination. The instructional strategy is used as the experimentation design, and it comprises of various stages which include analysis of the learners which involves identifying various solutions to different problems and this is because the main aim involves determining the needs for the question to come up with solutions. Next is context analysis in which the teaching involved is organized in such a way that it gives an opportunity for selecting a strategy, the method or techniques to apply. This is followed by organization of instructional objectives in which the learner is required to note down objectives which are measurable in terms of the question at hand. Then the instructional strategy is developed which involves brainstorming, problem-solving and discussions thus enhancing thought and analytical thinking skills. This is then followed by implementation and then assessment. In implementation involves delivery or application of the strategy in the curriculum while assessment involves assessment of the performance which involves multiple thinking and solution of various perspectives which encourages high order thinking skills.

Data collection involving the plan

Through stratified random sampling the use of questionnaire is then preferred method which is divided into two parts. The reason for using the questionnaire is because it helps in getting personal information especially if an open-ended questionnaire is used (Ghanizadeh, 2017). The questionnaire is meant for determining the performance of the students in terms of critical and creative thinking and it is a descriptive study since it involves determining the relationship between critical thinking and learning styles adopted b the students.

As stated earlier the questionnaire entails two parts where the first part asks information concerning the demographic environment while the other part contains general questions which are open ended due to the related benefits.

Results and conclusions involving data collection method

From the responses given in the questionnaire, we can deduce that most of the students apply the deductive reasoning skills and also students whose learning style is convergent portray better academic performance as compared to other learning styles. Other determining factors include age, gender and ethnic group. It can also be noted that there exists a negative relationship between critical thinking and divergent learning style meaning that for students with the divergent learning style have poor performance in terms of academics. Lastly, critical thinking does have a positive correlation in relation to an accommodating learning style.

 

 

References

Ghanizadeh, A. (2017). The interplay between reflective thinking, critical thinking, self-monitoring, and academic achievement in higher education. Higher Education, 74(1),  101-114.

Rawlinson, J. G. (2017). Creative thinking and brainstorming. Routledge.

Tseng, H., Gardner, T., & Yeh, H. T. (2016). Enhancing students’ self-efficacy, elaboration, and critical thinking skills in a collaborative educator preparation program. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 17(2), 15-28.

 

 

 

The Importance of Nursing Theory in Advanced Practice Nurses

The Importance of Nursing Theory in Advanced Practice Nurses

A nursing theory according to Lee (2013) is a set of definitions, propositions, concepts, and assumptions that are derived from nursing models or other subjects that assists nurses to predict, describe, explain and prescribe diseases. In nursing, there are many nursing theories that assist nurse when it comes to the practice of care. The pioneers of nursing, for example, Florence Nightingale, Nola Pender among others came up with these theories. According to Florence Nightingale, for example, nurses have an obligation to offer a safe and caring environment that supports the patient’s health (Lynch, 2015). This paper will explore Pender’s nursing theory that was invented in 1982. In this theory, Pender argued that the health promotion behaviors have a way of resulting in improved health. For example, a smoker who chooses to quit smoking and instead of smoking engages in an exercise to keep himself busy; his health is likely to change from bad to good or better. Quitting smoking and exercising are examples of health promotion behaviors that Nola Pender proposes. The main intent of this paper is to explore the health promotion theory by Nola Pender. The next part of the paper will examine the importance of nursing theories and review the health promotion model. The latter part of this paper will show how the health promotion model by Pender can be applied in the nursing practice to only assist nurses in learning the practice of care but also help the community at large.

Nola Pender health promotion theory was enacted to compliment counterparts of theory in nursing towards health protection. According to the theory, health is a positive dynamic state and not the absence of diseases. Pender argues that there are a couple of ways in which people can interact with the environment towards pursuing their health. Health promotion theory focuses on three main areas that include individual characteristics, behaviour specific cognitions and affect and the behaviour outcomes. As Pender notes, every person on the face of the earth has unique personal characteristics that affect their subsequent actions. When it comes to behaviour specific cognitions, there are a set of variables that result in motivational significance. The theory proposes that people should behave in a way that improves one’s health. Despite the fact that a person may be willing to adopt health-promoting behaviors, there are a couple of barriers to action that people face. Things that include personal struggle of certain behavior affect the implementation of behaviour. However, a person who learns about the perceived benefit is much willing to pursue the health promotion behaviour.

Importance of Nursing Theory

According to Smith & Parker (2015), nursing theories provide the nurse with guidance in many ways. Theories also enhance the nurse sense of belonging and identity when it comes to helping patients. In the healthcare society, the nursing theories can be used in showing the nurse their role and responsibility in this great career. This part explores the importance of nursing theories in general. When it comes to nursing education, the nursing theories should be highly incorporated. Through this incorporation, nurses learn the concepts of care, techniques, and strategies to use, diagnosing diseases and coming up with treatment plans among many other things. For example, through Pender’s nursing theory, nurses get to understand that health is not the absence of the diseases. In this case, nurses get to learn and use the said assumptions. For example, Pender argued that individuals seek to regulate their own behaviors. In this case, nurses learn their responsibility in promoting health. They also get to learn the patient’s responsibility in their health and how they can educate the patients towards the same.

Through the nursing theories, the nurses get in a position to identify the patient’s needs, enhance effective patient-nurse communication, effectively assess the condition of the patients and effectively design techniques to assist patients. According to Smith & Parker (2015), nurses can use theories to generate new knowledge concerning various issues. The nurse theoretical that are found in the theories have compressive ideas about nursing care. In this case, Smith & Parker (2015) argue that the theories are not only imperative in the discipline but also in the profession. Apart from helping the nurses when it comes to patient’s care and knows their identity, the nursing theories are also been used to teach the other healthcare professionals on the vital role of nurses.

From the above analysis, it is evident that the nursing theories are large contributing to nursing care and practice. Through many concepts that are taught in many of these theories, it becomes easy for the nurse to care for their patients effectively. However, nursing theories are also complex where many relationships connect various concepts. In some cases, these relationships do not connect to the ultimate end point of the nursing care. Nursing profession is also different from other professionals. For example, patient’s satisfaction rules the roost in that patients are the main focus. Other elements that are different include nursing ethics.

Health Promotion Model Summary

The health promotion theory was initially introduced in 1982. However, the theory was later revised in 1996 to incorporate more concepts. In her work, Pender argues that health is not the absence of diseases (Pender, Murdaugh & Parsons, 2006). The personal factors that affect an individual’s health include psychological, biological and socio-cultural factors. The three factors are imperative to one’s health. For example, the personal biological behaviors include one’s strength, age, and aerobic capacity among others. When it comes to the psychological factors, this includes self motivation, competence, and esteem among others. The last personal factor is the socio-cultural factor that involves race, ethnicity, and acculturation among others. When it comes to the race, for example, some illnesses are prevalent in one race compared to other races. All the above factors (socio-cultural, psychological and biological) affect one’s health in one way or another.

There are four metaparadigms that include person, health, and environment and nursing profession. When it comes to person, it evaluates the individual who is the primary focus of the model. In this case, the patient is the primary focus. The environment refers to the physical, interpersonal and economic status that the person lives in. Health involves the positive high level state. When it comes to nursing, this involves the role of nursing. In this model, the nursing role includes raising awareness related to the health promoting behaviors. Others include promotion of self efficacy, controlling of the environment with the main aim of supporting positive behaviour. The last activity includes managing change barriers.

Pender’s Theory Importance to Master Program

As a Family nurse practitioner Master Nurse Student, there are many ways in which this theory can shape my practice. With aims of interconnecting theory into practice, Family nurse practitioners always try to fix evidence based knowledge into practice. As Smith & Parker (2015) note in their work, as nurse advance in their education, they get to know how various theories shape into their lives not only as nurses but also as individuals. For someone to understand the theory behind actions, it is imperative for the nurse student to explore the in-depth knowledge of this theory. Through this theory, the family nurse practitioner master students will also understand the behaviors that promote health. On the other hand, they will know how to eliminate them that don’t. In addition, the students get to understand what Pender meant when she argued that health is not the absence of diseases.

Application of the theory in Nursing Practice

According to the author of this theory, its main aim is to assists nurses when it comes to an understanding the health behavioral factors that promote peoples lifestyle (Pender, Murdaugh and Parsons, 2006). When it comes to health promotion, I will use the theory to educate my patients and society about the health promotions behaviors that they should adopt. As a Family nurse practitioner, I will walk with my patients towards behavioral change that will positively contribute to health promotion. This theory views the family nurse practitioner as a professional who works towards family centered health promotion. In this case, the professionals should always view the health conditions as a changing variable that will allow them to interpret how environmental influences affect the client’s awareness. Through the use of this theory’s philosophy, family nurse practitioners will be in a position to shape the consumer characteristics that will result in an improved quality of life and functioning.

As a family nurse practitioner, I have regularly implemented Pender’s concepts of health promotion. I was working with a lung cancer patient a few months ago. Despite the patient being at the 3rd stage of the disease, he was a chain smoker. I used the Pender’s concepts on patient education and educated the client. After few months, the patient successfully quit smoking. In January, an overweight woman approached me because of her back pain issues. After interrogating her, I realized that her weight was the main issue. I educated the woman on the importance of exercise and good eating habits. The patient adapted my recommendations and currently, her weight has significantly reduced and back pains seized.

Many people have commented on the use of the health promotion when it comes to patient education and the promotion of the health behaviors. According to sentiments that were offered by Bredow and Peterson in 2009, Pender theory has to a larger extent changed the nursing purpose from disease prevention to health promotion. Wu and Pender (2002) argue that when it comes to education and health promotion, the health promotion theory uses diagnosis, interventions and assessment that are reliable.

Conclusion

Nursing theories are imperative when it comes to nursing care. When it comes to Pender’s theory of health promotions, it has largely contributed to the nursing career. Through this theory, nurses are in a position to describe, analyze and assist patients. In addition, the nurse can use this theory with aims of trying to understand the patient’s specific needs and nurture patient-nurse communication. Unlike other nursing theories that identify nurses with their tasks, Pender’s encourages the nurse to identify themselves with what they know. Because of these unique elements, nurses are in a position to see themselves beyond the immediate task that they are given to undertake. In this case, the nurses largely focus on acquiring vast knowledge that helps them in dealing with future nursing challenges. Through this vast knowledge, nurses are in a position to offer the very best service to their patients. Pender proposes the changes of the risky behaviors to behaviors that promote health. In one of her assumptions, Pender believes that the services that the nurses give to the patients are for a lifetime. However, this assumption is research-based and it is not applicable. Despite this one assumption that is not research based, the theory has a greater role in the nursing career. From this assignment, I got to learn that nurse plays a great role in the society and with the information that they offer to the patients, the patient’s lives may be changed for good. Therefore, I believe that it is important for the nurse to study these theories earlier in advance to gain acquire information that assists in effective helping patients.

References

Lee, S. W. (2013). Overview of Nursing Theory, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences. 12(5), 58-7.

Lynch, G. (2015). Florence Nightingale’s philosophy of nursing. Maltham, Massachusetts : Brandeis University Press.

Pender, N. J., Murdaugh, C. L., & Parsons, M. A. (2006). Health promotion in nursing practice.

Peterson, S. J., & Bredow, T.S. (2009). Middle range theories: Application to nursing research (2nded.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Smith, M. C., & Parker, M. E. (2015). Nursing theories & nursing practice. Philadelphia, PA : F.A. Davis Company.

Wu, T. Y., & Pender, N. (2002). Determinants of physical activity among Taiwanese adolescents: an application of the health promotion model. Research in nursing & health, 25(1), 25-36.