Control Systems and Robotics Engineering

Reducing Uncertainties Using Robust Control

Introduction

There are many uncertainties that affect the functioning of control systems that are used in robotics.  It is for this reason that robust control is utilized to respond to these uncertainties to make sure that the functioning of the systems remains efficient and that disruptions are effectively eliminated. In robust control, the main concern of engineers is about improving safety, security, and convenience. With robust control, engineers can effectively deal with uncertainties that may mar controller design. In normal instances, robust control are made to perform optimally so long as some parameters and are found within a specific set. In the presence of bounded modeling errors, these systems can achieve robust performance.  During the years, several researches have been carried out to boost the robustness of the state-space robustness. In the past robust control was used along deterministic approaches. However, recently, there has been a fierce criticism of the approach on grounds that it is non-flexible and cannot be descriptive of uncertainties.  Ultimately, the targets and aims of robust control is to avoid disturbance. The main devices that are used include; automatic excavation and multiple manipulators. The remote control of robotics has since been significantly improved in their various uses in the environment.

Robust control happens to be a method that aims at bounding the available uncertainty instead of expressing it in a distribution manner. Following a bound of the uncertainty, it becomes possible to deliver results that are in line with the requirements of a system in all cases.  In robust control, some performance may end up being sacrificed to make sure that certain requirements of the system are met. However, this type of sacrifice is a common in cases involving robotic systems (Pothukuchi, Pothukuchi, Voulgaris & Torrellas, 2017).

Statement of Purpose

There is thus a need to research on robust control of systems as it is a chance to develop efficient control systemshelp solve the common problems that are being experienced in the robotics industry. The research will try to find out the available potential in robust control that can be manipulated to develop effective control. It is true that the available control systems are effective in the various roles where they are used but there is a need for more improvement of robust control.

There is a special concern for extreme operations that may occur in robust systems which are known to have safety implication. It is in such extremes that one may not be able to predict what happens to robust control which has a special application in this case. It is true that there have been a lot of research about robust control and through this; a various techniques have been developed. There have been a number of tools for use in the robotic industry but a number of issues to do with correctness of these tools especially when they are used to simplify system that are complex in nature. My enthusiasm with pure mathematics has been an inspiration to me and I have, once in a while been part of projects to build parts of robotics arm which was a programmable microcontroller supporting additional circuitry for driving the stepper motors for rotation. This is just one of the projects I have done. Others include a ball balancing beam. In my study days I began my research by co-authoring Blind De-convolution of blurred images with Fuzzy Size Detection of Point Spread Function which sought to find the point spread function dimension of an optical system. The kind of challenges that robust systems are marred with have inspired further research that is intended to make improvements on the current robust control method to make sure that improved processes and tools are in place as a good way to close or minimize the gap that exist between robust control theory and its varied application.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

Pothukuchi, R. P., Pothukuchi, S. Y., Voulgaris, P., & Torrellas, J. (2017, September).

Multilayer Compute Resource Management with Robust Control Theory. In Parallel Architectures and Compilation Techniques (PACT), 2017 26th International Conference on (pp. 376-376). IEEE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Considering the impact of media on all users and then the unique effects it may have on African Americans, how can media be used to positively impact African Americans, or is media more detrimental than it’s worth, and should African Americans be steered

 

 

 

 

 

Role of Media in Portraying African Americans

Institutional Affiliation:

Name:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Role of Media in Portraying African Americans

Introduction

The media plays an important role in the society, as it is the mirror through which vices can be highlighted and condemned (Tukachinsky, 2017). A successful democracy such as the US has heavily relied on media independence to highlight excesses even from a government point of view. The media, when used in the right way, can be a game changer as it gives the challenges that happen in the society. The media is a tool to having a moral society, highlighting corruption, racism, slavery and discrimination.  The way the media be it TV stations, newspapers and magazines portray African-Americans has a bearing on the living standards and social well-being of this group of people. Many researchers have appreciated the need of having media that is a true mirror of what is happening in the society (Tukachinsky, 2017). The media should be independent and one that is guided by integrity to air events of mistreatment and at times praising people for major milestones in life. The media is not supposed to work with the government of the day as vices such as corruption, racism and slavery may be hidden under the carpet. The media is able to positively impact the living standards of African Americans in US as described in the following review.

Literature Review

Media stations such as Al Jazeera, CNN and BBC have highlighted the suffering of the Africa Americans making the government of US rush and address the needs of this vulnerable group of people. Even though these media stations have been commended for a good job well done, there has been criticism on equal measure. The media can be used to impact positively to the African Americans in the US in the following ways.  African Americans living in the US get highlighted by a number of media ranging from local newspapers, television outlets and radio stations. The way the media portrays the status of the American Americans with regards to the employment and income can positively impact on the lives of this group of people (Graber & Dunaway, 2017). The country has a low unemployment rate despite enjoying a high participation rate from the large labor workforce that the country enjoys. The media is supposed to go deeper and determine the actual statistics of the number of African Americans that have been employed in European firms. The contracts of the employees, whether there are satisfaction and income earned can be used to impact the living standards. It is a general understanding that Africans Americans are not treated well by being biased in terms of income as some of them are paid low salaries and others are not even employed on the basis of their skin color (Bonilla & Rosa, 2015). The media should actively highlight such gaps and ensure that such firms that encourage racism in the employment industry are blacklisted and dealt with accordingly.  The media is supposed to pursue equality in the society and this would positively affect the lives of the African Americans.

Secondly, the way the media highlights Africans Americans involvement in justice systems and other social services is important in positively affecting the lives of the African Americans (Graber & Dunaway, 2017). In many cases that have gone to court, this group of people has been mistreated and it is the role of the media to ensure that such injustices do not prevail. The media must actively ensure that there is a rule of law and that everyone operates under the same law, such that no one feels superior. African Americans must be allowed to participate in court procedures and to enjoy the social amenities of the country without any bias (Bonilla & Rosa, 2015). The group will feel equal in terms of citizenship and the media would be a game changer for better lives. The media must also describe the educational standing of the African Americans, beliefs and the possibility of improving the lives of the African Americans (Tukachinsky, 2017). The media should educate the society on the required norms for economic development and personal satisfaction. African Americans must be encouraged to engage the media as equality demands equal opportunities for everyone. The media should be open to this group as they are most vulnerable to mistreatment as they are regarded as immigrants in the country despite having stayed in the country for a long time. The media should live within the confines of true journalism and be the real mirror of the society.

Implications of the research

In conclusion, the media plays a significant role in ensuring that the plights of the African Americans are highlighted. Those that are not focusing on societal needs should make a turnaround and start a course in ensuring the vices of the society are eliminated. Racism, bribery and corruption is the greatest enemy of economic development and all forces including the media should play a role in ensuring that this is long gone (Scharrer & Ramasubramanian, 2015). The African Americans too must rise to fight for their needs through the media. They must participate in judicial proceedings, be employed in competitive jobs and be compensated adequately for the services rendered. In the event that such fundamental needs of life are met, people will get satisfied and the standards of living will be high. It will also discourage the practice of engaging in criminal activities such as terrorism as the people will be dedicated to national development. The African Americans should actively start engaging the media on the ways to positively improve life.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

Bonilla, Y., & Rosa, J. (2015).  Ferguson: Digital protest, hashtag ethnography, and the racial       politics of social media in the United States. American Ethnologist, 42(1), 4-17.

Graber, D. A., & Dunaway, J. (2017). Mass media and American politics. Cq Press.

Hurley, R. J., Jensen, J. J., Weaver, A., & Dixon, T. (2015). Viewer ethnicity matters: Black          crime in TV News and its impact on decisions regarding public policy. Journal of Social          Issues, 71(1), 155-170.

Scharrer, E., & Ramasubramanian, S. (2015). Intervening in the media’s influence on stereotypes of race and ethnicity: The role of media literacy education. Journal of Social Issues,       71(1), 171-185.

Tukachinsky, R. (2017). Media Portrayals and Effects: African Americans. Oxford Research        Encyclopedia of Communication. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190228613.013.453

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Control Systems and Robotics Engineering

Reducing Uncertainties Using Robust Control

Introduction

There are many uncertainties that affect the functioning of control systems that are used in robotics.  It is for this reason that robust control is utilized to respond to these uncertainties to make sure that the functioning of the systems remains efficient and that disruptions are effectively eliminated. In robust control, the main concern of engineers is about improving safety, security, and convenience. With robust control, engineers can effectively deal with uncertainties that may mar controller design. In normal instances, robust control are made to perform optimally so long as some parameters and are found within a specific set. In the presence of bounded modeling errors, these systems can achieve robust performance.  During the years, several researches have been carried out to boost the robustness of the state-space robustness. In the past robust control was used along deterministic approaches. However, recently, there has been a fierce criticism of the approach on grounds that it is non-flexible and cannot be descriptive of uncertainties.  Ultimately, the targets and aims of robust control is to avoid disturbance. The main devices that are used include; automatic excavation and multiple manipulators. The remote control of robotics has since been significantly improved in their various uses in the environment.

Robust control happens to be a method that aims at bounding the available uncertainty instead of expressing it in a distribution manner. Following a bound of the uncertainty, it becomes possible to deliver results that are in line with the requirements of a system in all cases.  In robust control, some performance may end up being sacrificed to make sure that certain requirements of the system are met. However, this type of sacrifice is a common in cases involving robotic systems (Pothukuchi, Pothukuchi, Voulgaris & Torrellas, 2017).

Statement of Purpose

There is thus a need to research on robust control of systems as it is a chance to develop efficient control systemshelp solve the common problems that are being experienced in the robotics industry. The research will try to find out the available potential in robust control that can be manipulated to develop effective control. It is true that the available control systems are effective in the various roles where they are used but there is a need for more improvement of robust control.

There is a special concern for extreme operations that may occur in robust systems which are known to have safety implication. It is in such extremes that one may not be able to predict what happens to robust control which has a special application in this case. It is true that there have been a lot of research about robust control and through this; a various techniques have been developed. There have been a number of tools for use in the robotic industry but a number of issues to do with correctness of these tools especially when they are used to simplify system that are complex in nature. My enthusiasm with pure mathematics has been an inspiration to me and I have, once in a while been part of projects to build parts of robotics arm which was a programmable microcontroller supporting additional circuitry for driving the stepper motors for rotation. This is just one of the projects I have done. Others include a ball balancing beam. In my study days I began my research by co-authoring Blind De-convolution of blurred images with Fuzzy Size Detection of Point Spread Function which sought to find the point spread function dimension of an optical system. The kind of challenges that robust systems are marred with have inspired further research that is intended to make improvements on the current robust control method to make sure that improved processes and tools are in place as a good way to close or minimize the gap that exist between robust control theory and its varied application.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

Pothukuchi, R. P., Pothukuchi, S. Y., Voulgaris, P., & Torrellas, J. (2017, September).

Multilayer Compute Resource Management with Robust Control Theory. In Parallel Architectures and Compilation Techniques (PACT), 2017 26th International Conference on (pp. 376-376). IEEE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Merton’s Unanticipated Consequences of Social Action

Name:

Instructor:

Course:

Date:

Merton’s Unanticipated Consequences of Social Action

Sociologists have always been interested in studying unintended consequences. Robert Merton coined the habit as the unanticipated consequences of purposive action following studies that went back several years to the advent of Adam Smith, the economist who also coined the term ‘the invisible hand’ (Mica 112). In essence, Merton’s postulation meant that people not only fail to understand or see all the consequences of their actions but also foresee consequences that do not actually happen, which is why such people have to bother to act in the first place.

A perfect example that illustrates Merton’s unanticipated consequences of social action is the creation of no-man’s lands during the Cold War. The tension of a third war was high that countries had to create or leave some portions between themselves. The average section of each country was about 250 yards and this region contained a considerable amount of barbed wire. Areas that were experiencing eminent attacks could coil up to ten belts of barbed wire, where in some places the wire could go more than a hundred feet deep and high. Essentially, the area became very well protected. For purposes of protection against eminent attacks, these areas then became natural habitats, with various species of animals and birds (Mica 121). These habitats are today protected with the reduced probability of war between states especially in Europe and Asia, which are a consequence on an unintended social action. The natural habitats are classified as a positive consequence of a social action that was perceived to have intended negative consequences.

Another example is the prohibition of alcohol trade in America in the 1920s. The aim of prohibiting the activity, both local and international alcohol trade including banning importation of alcohol was to reduce at all costs alcohol consumption, which was seen as an unproductive activity. The law saw a lot of small-scale alcohol suppliers get ejected out of the business unintentionally because of the undesired consequences that were brought about by the law. Therefore, the alcohol industry was considered illegal. However, there rose large-scale organized criminal gangs who took advantage of the popularity of alcohol and continued producing it (Zwart 284). The gangs received funds from people who were interested in the consumption of alcohol and its supply to states that were struggling to repeal the prohibition, which provided a huge illegal market. Therefore, the intended action by the government was to ban the production, distribution, sale and consumption of alcohol. As a social action, the unintended consequence was a rise in criminal activities and large-scale illegal production and distribution of alcohol.

The same case has applied to modern society in countries that have banned some drugs and stamped them as illegal. The social action of creating a ban on items or creating laws that limit some freedoms and activities has led to different unintended consequences. For instance the case of illegal drugs, cartels have emerged that are so powerful and very rich that they support political candidates so that they can have protection and continue with their illegal activities. Such instances are known as drawbacks and are more harmful to the society without proper implementation of prohibition and ban policies (Merton 898.).

In conclusion, Robert Merton’s unanticipated consequences of social action has the possibility of generating both unexpected benefits as well as unexpected drawback, which all affect the social setup differently.

Works Cited

Merton, Robert. “The Unanticipated Consequences of Purposive Social Action.” American Sociological Review (2016): 894-904. Print.

Mica, Adriana. Sociology and the Unintended: Robert Merton Revisited. New York: Peter Lang Publishers, 2012. Print.

Zwart, Frank de. “Unintended but not unanticipated consequences.” Springer Link Theory and Society (2015): 283-297. Print.

 

Evaluate five perspectives for understand eating in Australian adults.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Five Perspectives for Understanding Eating in Australian Adults

Name

Institution

 

 

 

 

 

Five Perspectives for Understanding Eating in Australian Adults

Evolutionary Perspective

History and Eating Motivation

When it comes to eating, the evolutionary perspective was founded in 1859 in Darwin’s books titled The Origin of Species and despite the fact that Charles Darwin never invented the concept; he proposed the natural selection concept that account for it. According to Westen (2002), the evolutionary theory of hunger and eating, the mammalian feeding system controls the hunger. This system evolves after a consistent and an unpredictable food supply.

Motivation towards SSS Foods

According to evolutionary theory, people evolved probably from different environments where they had eat energy-giving foods. In this case, humans were supposed to eat food that has more calories so that they can survive famine. Despite the fact that such evolution assisted human to survive in the past, it has stuck against people’s health up to date. The past behaviors are the major cause of people’s preference for SSS foods that are calorie dense.

Over the years, people have come to like some foods, for example, fast and sweet foods.   This explains how the mammalian feeding systems have evolved over the years. When sweet, salty and fatty foods are available, the consumption levels tend to increase. Through the evolutionary theory, many of the industrialized nation’s eating habits have been interfered with. Many people are eating a lot of junk and also many of them suffer from eating disorders. Like all other species, people are genetically wired to adapt to the behaviors of their ancestors.

 

Theory Strengths, Shortcoming and Recommendations

Despite being used in many instances, evolutionary theory to explain behavior, for example, eating has faced criticisms. Most of these criticisms come from the proponents of the constructivist theory. One of the methodological strengths is the fact that its test ability hypothesis has an issue. From the issue of eating as explored above, how can it be tested that human carried some of the ancestor’s ideas of eating? Because of inability to test the hypothesis, it is a great challenge for the theory to pass in empirical science. When it comes to the conceptual limitation, the evolutionary theory also has issues that include mismatch.

According to the author, human used to live in Africa Savanna. In today’s world, people are living in a totally different environment especially the Australians. During the stay at Savanna Africa, protein and fat that could be very essential were never available and this case, craving for such foods were positively selected. The theory has many assumptions and guesses that are only based on few studies. Researchers should not generalize all studies using EP assumptions.

In the evolutionary perspective eating study, Laith (2016) argues that emotions in the body regulate eating. The variables, in this case, are coordinating mechanism and hunger. The study hypothesis is that coordinating mechanism affects one’s hunger. Because of the experience, the forefathers went through, people are adapted to consume more calorie dense foods that include SSS foods.  A survey method of research was used in this case where 114 participants were used.

 

 

Psychodynamic Perspective

History and Motivation towards Eating

The psychodynamic theory by Sigmund Freud started in 1856-1939 where it tried to come up with a treatment for psychological disorders (Westen, 2002). This theory rests on 3 key premises that include people’s actions being determined by thoughts.  Secondly, the theory believes that various mental events occurs on the outside of conscious awareness. The third major premises is the fact that mental processes conflict. Using the psychodynamic theory, eating behaviors is explained by the past experiences among other motivational forces that stem from inherited instincts, biological drives. Through the instincts, people try to balance a conflict that exists between personal needs and social requirements.

Motivation towards SSS Foods

When explaining eating, this perspective argues that it is motivated by unconscious motives that are largely inaccessible to consciousness. Another assumption towards eating is the fact that people’s childhood affects their behaviors. In this case, a person may like SSS foods because they were trained that way at a young age.

Theory Strengths, Shortcoming and Recommendation

One of the conceptual strength of the theory and explanation is that two sides of the nurture/nature debate are explored. In this case, eating and eating of the SSS foods are explained as something one learn but it can also be unconscious. Freud extensively explains how motivations that includes eating results from innate drives. Despite its strengths, this explanation is flawed methodologically in that case studies that are subjective cannot generalize the results. Methodologically, the theory in Unfalsifiable in that it is challenging to prove wrong. The theory should not entirely ignore mediational processes that include thinking entirely.

Cognitive Perspective

History and Eating Motivation

This is a theory that focuses on how people perceive, process and even retrieve information.  This perspective roots in experiments that were conducted by Wundt back in the late 19th Century (Westen, 2002).  According to this theory, a person’s behavior is controlled by his/ her thought processes.  For example, a person that thinks that some type is good for him/her, he /she will be enticed to eat those foods compared to someone who has a bad outlook on such foods.

Motivation towards SSS Foods

According to social cognitive theory by Albert Bandura, one’s environment may also affect his/her eating habits. For example, a child from a family that eats SSS foods will eventually adopt the habit.  On the other hand, families that practice beneficial nutrition behaviors tend to have children who model then behavior. In this case, eating is affected by one’s cognition.

Theory Strengths, Shortcoming and Recommendation

When it comes to methodological approach, the cognitive theory has many practical applications. When it comes to the conceptual strength, this theories heavily relies on a well-studied research. Despite its strengths, this perceptive has limitations when it comes to explaining eating habits.  One of the conceptual limitations is the fact that the theory ignoresother factors that may affect the eating habits. Another limitation is the fact that the theory refers to cognitive approaches that cannot be observed directly, in this case, it tends to rely highly on inferences that may prove challenging to measure.

To effectively understand eating motivations from the cognition perspective, a person should also consider other factors that may affect the eating behavior. Some of these factors may include personal issues. When it comes to studying, measuring the thought processes may be a challenge that may only be conducted through another theory. In such a case, an eclectic approach to understanding eating comes into place.

Eating and Eating SSS Foods Study Exploration

Eating Study

In a study that was conducted by Sibilia, hunger is motivated by cognition.  The variables in this study are cognition and eating behaviors. Sibilia uses case study where 365 students were used as a sample. Self-report questionnaires were also used.  The hypothesis, in this case, is that thoughts motivate eating.

SSS Foods Explanation

When it comes to overeating especially the SSS foods, the study argues that it comes from adaptation. People learn and finally adapt to eating SSS foods.  A survey, in this case, is used where the hypothesis is that people adapt to eating certain types of food. The variable, in this case, is eating SSS foods and cognition (Sibilia, 2010).

 

 

Behaviorist Perspective of Eating

History and Eating Motivation

This theory was pioneered by John Watson and B. F. Skinner and entirely focuses on the relationship that exists between observable behaviors and stimuli from the environment. Unlike the cognitive theory that explains human behavior through cognition, the behavioral theory argues that the human behavior can be understood without examining the internal elements that include thoughts and feelings (Westen, 2002). When it comes to explaining eating, this theory argues that people learn through conditioning. In this case, people are motivated to eat as a way of fulfilling a behavior. Westen (2002) that this conditioning occurs through the interaction with the environment.

Motivations towards SSS Foods

When explaining eating of SSS foods, expose to this food may lead a person to being addicted to such foods.  The response to environmental stimuli that may include the presence of food shapes the person’s eating habits. Another way eating SSS can be explained is through rewards and punishment. Since SSS foods and eating may feel good, people get motivated to eat.  Through reinforcement and punishment, learning does occur. Eating unpleasant foods may act as a put off to eating such foods. On the other hand, eating sweet foods may act as a reinforcement towards eating those foods.

Eating and SSS Study Exploration

In a study conducted by Meule and Vogele (2013), eating in most of the Western world is a rewarding behavior. This behavior is linked to mood and emotions.  In this study, eating and motivation are the main variables. The study hypothesis is the fact that eating is a rewarding behavior. The secondary research method is used where the authors use desktop research. In this study, the omnipresence of junk foods that include SSS foods results in consuming such food even when not hungry.

Theory Strengths, Shortcoming and Recommendation

Some of the strengths of this study are that it uses methods of scientific research. These methods are not only objective and measurable but they are also observable. Additionally, the explanation of conditioning, punishment and rewards fits in explains why people are motivated to eat. Despite its conceptual and methodological advantages, the theory has its own limitations. Despite its much reliance on behavior being learned, cognitive and biological elements largely affects a behavior. In this case, other elements that may affect a behavior are neglected.  To extensively explain human behavior especially, the theory should also consider paying attention to other factors that may affect a behavior. Despite one learning eating habits, a person’s cognition may affect his/her habits and people using this theory should note that.

Eating Study

According to this study, people are conditioned to eat that acts as a fulfilling habit. A selective review when it comes to reviewing the study related materials are used. The main variables in this study are behavior and the eating disorders.

SSS eating

The rewards of good feeling that one gets from eating SSS foods conditions them towards consuming such foods more and more. The variables are conditioning and eating disorders. Eating wrong or overeating in this case is reinforced by the good feeling (reward) (Williamson, White, York-Crowe and Stewart, 2004).

Maslow Perspective

History and Eating Motivation

Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Theory was proposed by Maslow in 1943. According to the Maslow hierarchy of needs theory, eating behaviors are motivated by the need to achieve certain needs before going to the others (Westen, 2002). In this theory, the deficient of then basic needs tend to motivate people and the urge gets stronger when the needs stay for long without being met. In this case, the more a person stays without eating the more they get hungry.

According to Maslow, people’s needs motivate their behavior and in this case, the overeating that is experienced in Australia is as a result of behavior and not physical hunger. The behavior of binge eating and overeating is usually driven by other needs. Fallatah & Syed (2018) explains that eating SSS foods is as a habit or a reaction to something that is emotional or situations. For example, stress, anxiety, boredom and anger may motivate one to overeat. In this case, eating becomes a habitual reaction.

Motivations towards SSS Foods

In explaining the eating the salt, sugar, and saturated-fat (SSS) fast foods, people as a result of a behavior and not physical hunger. Issues that include stress, anxiety among other unmet needs may lead people to overeat. Food acts as a motivator for people who have other issues that include depression and social isolation (Fallatah & Syed, 2018). Maslow is one of the theories that explain human behavior in a very simple way.  Through this theory, one can identify the needs and qualitative differences that exist between them. When it comes to a conceptual limitation, the Maslow of hierarchy needs theory cannot in any way be proved empirically. There is no way the level of satisfaction that people experience can be measured accurately before they can go to the next level.

Motivations towards SSS Foods

Eating SSS foods according to this theory is not as a result of physical hunger but as a behavior. Issues that include stress, anxiety among other unmet needs may lead people to eat SSS foods that gratify the body to some extent.  In this case, SSS foods act as a motivator.

Theory Strengths, Shortcoming and Recommendation

Despite the fact that the theory can effectively be used to explain how motivates to eat come about, it is empirically challenging to prove the point. The theory lacks a scientific banking and more studies should be conducted to examine the truth of the theory.

Eating and SSS Food Eating Study

According to this study, motivation largely affects one’s actions.  The variables in this study are motivations and behaviors. When it comes to hunger and eating, food acts as a good motivator of eating (Fallatah and Syed, 2018). This study used literature review where many past studies were explored in depth.  When it comes to eating SSS foods, it is taken as a motivator by the body in that various personal issues for example stress can motivate a person to eat SSS foods. When eaten, a person feels good.

 

 

Conclusion

People are motivated by biological and psychosocial needs to do various activities. In this case, motivation refers to a driving force that is behind every behavior. Through this driving force, people are motivated to pursue various activities while neglecting others. Studies show that people eat to minimize or reduce the internal tensions that are met when some psychological needs are not met. Maintaining a stable internal status requires one to eat. This paper has evaluated the five perspectives that explaining eating in Australian adults that include Evolutionary perspective (EP), psychodynamic perspective (PP), behaviorist perspective (BP), cognitive perspective (CP) and Hierarchy of needs perspective (HoNP).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Al-Shawaf, L. (2016). The evolutionary psychology of hunger. NCBI Journal, 105(4), pp.591-595.

Fallatah, R & Syed, J. (2018). A critical review of Maslow hierarchy of needs theory. Journal of Employee Motivation. 19-42

Meule, A. and Vögele, C. (2013). The Psychology of Eating. Frontiers in Psychology, [online] 4(3), pp.204-215. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3635021/.

Sibilia, L. (2010).The Cognition of Hunger and Eating Behaviors. Psychological Topics, 19(2), 341-354. Available at http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=0&sid=1361c112-4566-49d9-a249-7491f66d210a%40sessionmgr102

Westen, D. (2002). Psychology: Brain, behavior, & culture. New York, NY [u.a.: Wiley.

Williamson, D., White, M., York-Crowe, E. and Stewart, T. (2004). Cognitive-Behavioral Theories of Eating Disorders. Behavior Modification, [online] 28(6), 711-738. Available at: http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=2&sid=458ef1de-0385-4571-a9dd-bf8c944b11b7%40sessionmgr4008&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=14840252&db=a9h.

 

Creative and Critical Thinking Evaluation

Creative and Critical Thinking Evaluation

According to Rawlinson (2017), critical and creative thinking involves the process of making a reasoned judgment which involves conceptualization, analyzing, synthesis and evaluation of data which could either be gathered through observation, experience or reflection. It is characterized by various factors which include dispositions, criteria, argument, reasoning, point of view and application of the criteria procedure.

K-6 evaluation program as stated by Tseng, Gardner, Yeh, (2016)

In many schools, the curriculum involved ensures that critical and creative thinking lessons are well designed and thus help in improving the level of thinking and the responses given. The lessons are structured in a model involving five stages which provides an opportunity to the students in the provision of new ideas and knowledge.

The strategies involved in this program are as follows:

First is questioning in which active learners are determined by their frequent rate of asking questions which helps in improving their productivity and learning skills. Metacognition is involved, and it questions one’s learning processes and thus helps in development, implementation, and evaluation of plans.

Secondly is the fluency, originality, and elaboration where the students are given a chance of coming up with ideas, combining them in new ways, categorizing them and applying creativity to be in a position of connecting the ideas.

Visualization follows where the students apply sensory information or knowledge which mainly helps in planning, goals setting and organization. Next is mind mapping which involves taking notes in the form of images and this eases the level of understanding.

Point of view being the next ensures that the student evaluates ideas in multiple dimensions. This is useful to the students in that it helps broaden their thinking. Next are analogies which enable the students in dealing with complicated situations.

Encapsulation follows which enables the students in synthesizing information which then leads to decision making which involves assessing and evaluation of various alternatives and expected outcomes. Lastly is the plus, minus, interesting (PMI) which gives the students an opportunity of determining whether the ideas in context have positive or negative impacts.

Experimental evaluation design

Critical and creative thinking highly advocates for a problem-based environment since it the environment that gives the learners an opportunity of coming up with new ideas in regards to the situation they are involved in.  This kind of environment calls for an instructional strategy which comprises of methods and techniques that help in enhancing creativity and critical skills.

Creative and critical thinking are correlated, and they are both applied in problem-solving. They involve three major processes which include synthesizing, articulation and imagination. The instructional strategy is used as the experimentation design, and it comprises of various stages which include analysis of the learners which involves identifying various solutions to different problems and this is because the main aim involves determining the needs for the question to come up with solutions. Next is context analysis in which the teaching involved is organized in such a way that it gives an opportunity for selecting a strategy, the method or techniques to apply. This is followed by organization of instructional objectives in which the learner is required to note down objectives which are measurable in terms of the question at hand. Then the instructional strategy is developed which involves brainstorming, problem-solving and discussions thus enhancing thought and analytical thinking skills. This is then followed by implementation and then assessment. In implementation involves delivery or application of the strategy in the curriculum while assessment involves assessment of the performance which involves multiple thinking and solution of various perspectives which encourages high order thinking skills.

Data collection involving the plan

Through stratified random sampling the use of questionnaire is then preferred method which is divided into two parts. The reason for using the questionnaire is because it helps in getting personal information especially if an open-ended questionnaire is used (Ghanizadeh, 2017). The questionnaire is meant for determining the performance of the students in terms of critical and creative thinking and it is a descriptive study since it involves determining the relationship between critical thinking and learning styles adopted b the students.

As stated earlier the questionnaire entails two parts where the first part asks information concerning the demographic environment while the other part contains general questions which are open ended due to the related benefits.

Results and conclusions involving data collection method

From the responses given in the questionnaire, we can deduce that most of the students apply the deductive reasoning skills and also students whose learning style is convergent portray better academic performance as compared to other learning styles. Other determining factors include age, gender and ethnic group. It can also be noted that there exists a negative relationship between critical thinking and divergent learning style meaning that for students with the divergent learning style have poor performance in terms of academics. Lastly, critical thinking does have a positive correlation in relation to an accommodating learning style.

 

 

References

Ghanizadeh, A. (2017). The interplay between reflective thinking, critical thinking, self-monitoring, and academic achievement in higher education. Higher Education, 74(1),  101-114.

Rawlinson, J. G. (2017). Creative thinking and brainstorming. Routledge.

Tseng, H., Gardner, T., & Yeh, H. T. (2016). Enhancing students’ self-efficacy, elaboration, and critical thinking skills in a collaborative educator preparation program. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 17(2), 15-28.

 

 

 

The Importance of Nursing Theory in Advanced Practice Nurses

The Importance of Nursing Theory in Advanced Practice Nurses

A nursing theory according to Lee (2013) is a set of definitions, propositions, concepts, and assumptions that are derived from nursing models or other subjects that assists nurses to predict, describe, explain and prescribe diseases. In nursing, there are many nursing theories that assist nurse when it comes to the practice of care. The pioneers of nursing, for example, Florence Nightingale, Nola Pender among others came up with these theories. According to Florence Nightingale, for example, nurses have an obligation to offer a safe and caring environment that supports the patient’s health (Lynch, 2015). This paper will explore Pender’s nursing theory that was invented in 1982. In this theory, Pender argued that the health promotion behaviors have a way of resulting in improved health. For example, a smoker who chooses to quit smoking and instead of smoking engages in an exercise to keep himself busy; his health is likely to change from bad to good or better. Quitting smoking and exercising are examples of health promotion behaviors that Nola Pender proposes. The main intent of this paper is to explore the health promotion theory by Nola Pender. The next part of the paper will examine the importance of nursing theories and review the health promotion model. The latter part of this paper will show how the health promotion model by Pender can be applied in the nursing practice to only assist nurses in learning the practice of care but also help the community at large.

Nola Pender health promotion theory was enacted to compliment counterparts of theory in nursing towards health protection. According to the theory, health is a positive dynamic state and not the absence of diseases. Pender argues that there are a couple of ways in which people can interact with the environment towards pursuing their health. Health promotion theory focuses on three main areas that include individual characteristics, behaviour specific cognitions and affect and the behaviour outcomes. As Pender notes, every person on the face of the earth has unique personal characteristics that affect their subsequent actions. When it comes to behaviour specific cognitions, there are a set of variables that result in motivational significance. The theory proposes that people should behave in a way that improves one’s health. Despite the fact that a person may be willing to adopt health-promoting behaviors, there are a couple of barriers to action that people face. Things that include personal struggle of certain behavior affect the implementation of behaviour. However, a person who learns about the perceived benefit is much willing to pursue the health promotion behaviour.

Importance of Nursing Theory

According to Smith & Parker (2015), nursing theories provide the nurse with guidance in many ways. Theories also enhance the nurse sense of belonging and identity when it comes to helping patients. In the healthcare society, the nursing theories can be used in showing the nurse their role and responsibility in this great career. This part explores the importance of nursing theories in general. When it comes to nursing education, the nursing theories should be highly incorporated. Through this incorporation, nurses learn the concepts of care, techniques, and strategies to use, diagnosing diseases and coming up with treatment plans among many other things. For example, through Pender’s nursing theory, nurses get to understand that health is not the absence of the diseases. In this case, nurses get to learn and use the said assumptions. For example, Pender argued that individuals seek to regulate their own behaviors. In this case, nurses learn their responsibility in promoting health. They also get to learn the patient’s responsibility in their health and how they can educate the patients towards the same.

Through the nursing theories, the nurses get in a position to identify the patient’s needs, enhance effective patient-nurse communication, effectively assess the condition of the patients and effectively design techniques to assist patients. According to Smith & Parker (2015), nurses can use theories to generate new knowledge concerning various issues. The nurse theoretical that are found in the theories have compressive ideas about nursing care. In this case, Smith & Parker (2015) argue that the theories are not only imperative in the discipline but also in the profession. Apart from helping the nurses when it comes to patient’s care and knows their identity, the nursing theories are also been used to teach the other healthcare professionals on the vital role of nurses.

From the above analysis, it is evident that the nursing theories are large contributing to nursing care and practice. Through many concepts that are taught in many of these theories, it becomes easy for the nurse to care for their patients effectively. However, nursing theories are also complex where many relationships connect various concepts. In some cases, these relationships do not connect to the ultimate end point of the nursing care. Nursing profession is also different from other professionals. For example, patient’s satisfaction rules the roost in that patients are the main focus. Other elements that are different include nursing ethics.

Health Promotion Model Summary

The health promotion theory was initially introduced in 1982. However, the theory was later revised in 1996 to incorporate more concepts. In her work, Pender argues that health is not the absence of diseases (Pender, Murdaugh & Parsons, 2006). The personal factors that affect an individual’s health include psychological, biological and socio-cultural factors. The three factors are imperative to one’s health. For example, the personal biological behaviors include one’s strength, age, and aerobic capacity among others. When it comes to the psychological factors, this includes self motivation, competence, and esteem among others. The last personal factor is the socio-cultural factor that involves race, ethnicity, and acculturation among others. When it comes to the race, for example, some illnesses are prevalent in one race compared to other races. All the above factors (socio-cultural, psychological and biological) affect one’s health in one way or another.

There are four metaparadigms that include person, health, and environment and nursing profession. When it comes to person, it evaluates the individual who is the primary focus of the model. In this case, the patient is the primary focus. The environment refers to the physical, interpersonal and economic status that the person lives in. Health involves the positive high level state. When it comes to nursing, this involves the role of nursing. In this model, the nursing role includes raising awareness related to the health promoting behaviors. Others include promotion of self efficacy, controlling of the environment with the main aim of supporting positive behaviour. The last activity includes managing change barriers.

Pender’s Theory Importance to Master Program

As a Family nurse practitioner Master Nurse Student, there are many ways in which this theory can shape my practice. With aims of interconnecting theory into practice, Family nurse practitioners always try to fix evidence based knowledge into practice. As Smith & Parker (2015) note in their work, as nurse advance in their education, they get to know how various theories shape into their lives not only as nurses but also as individuals. For someone to understand the theory behind actions, it is imperative for the nurse student to explore the in-depth knowledge of this theory. Through this theory, the family nurse practitioner master students will also understand the behaviors that promote health. On the other hand, they will know how to eliminate them that don’t. In addition, the students get to understand what Pender meant when she argued that health is not the absence of diseases.

Application of the theory in Nursing Practice

According to the author of this theory, its main aim is to assists nurses when it comes to an understanding the health behavioral factors that promote peoples lifestyle (Pender, Murdaugh and Parsons, 2006). When it comes to health promotion, I will use the theory to educate my patients and society about the health promotions behaviors that they should adopt. As a Family nurse practitioner, I will walk with my patients towards behavioral change that will positively contribute to health promotion. This theory views the family nurse practitioner as a professional who works towards family centered health promotion. In this case, the professionals should always view the health conditions as a changing variable that will allow them to interpret how environmental influences affect the client’s awareness. Through the use of this theory’s philosophy, family nurse practitioners will be in a position to shape the consumer characteristics that will result in an improved quality of life and functioning.

As a family nurse practitioner, I have regularly implemented Pender’s concepts of health promotion. I was working with a lung cancer patient a few months ago. Despite the patient being at the 3rd stage of the disease, he was a chain smoker. I used the Pender’s concepts on patient education and educated the client. After few months, the patient successfully quit smoking. In January, an overweight woman approached me because of her back pain issues. After interrogating her, I realized that her weight was the main issue. I educated the woman on the importance of exercise and good eating habits. The patient adapted my recommendations and currently, her weight has significantly reduced and back pains seized.

Many people have commented on the use of the health promotion when it comes to patient education and the promotion of the health behaviors. According to sentiments that were offered by Bredow and Peterson in 2009, Pender theory has to a larger extent changed the nursing purpose from disease prevention to health promotion. Wu and Pender (2002) argue that when it comes to education and health promotion, the health promotion theory uses diagnosis, interventions and assessment that are reliable.

Conclusion

Nursing theories are imperative when it comes to nursing care. When it comes to Pender’s theory of health promotions, it has largely contributed to the nursing career. Through this theory, nurses are in a position to describe, analyze and assist patients. In addition, the nurse can use this theory with aims of trying to understand the patient’s specific needs and nurture patient-nurse communication. Unlike other nursing theories that identify nurses with their tasks, Pender’s encourages the nurse to identify themselves with what they know. Because of these unique elements, nurses are in a position to see themselves beyond the immediate task that they are given to undertake. In this case, the nurses largely focus on acquiring vast knowledge that helps them in dealing with future nursing challenges. Through this vast knowledge, nurses are in a position to offer the very best service to their patients. Pender proposes the changes of the risky behaviors to behaviors that promote health. In one of her assumptions, Pender believes that the services that the nurses give to the patients are for a lifetime. However, this assumption is research-based and it is not applicable. Despite this one assumption that is not research based, the theory has a greater role in the nursing career. From this assignment, I got to learn that nurse plays a great role in the society and with the information that they offer to the patients, the patient’s lives may be changed for good. Therefore, I believe that it is important for the nurse to study these theories earlier in advance to gain acquire information that assists in effective helping patients.

References

Lee, S. W. (2013). Overview of Nursing Theory, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences. 12(5), 58-7.

Lynch, G. (2015). Florence Nightingale’s philosophy of nursing. Maltham, Massachusetts : Brandeis University Press.

Pender, N. J., Murdaugh, C. L., & Parsons, M. A. (2006). Health promotion in nursing practice.

Peterson, S. J., & Bredow, T.S. (2009). Middle range theories: Application to nursing research (2nded.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Smith, M. C., & Parker, M. E. (2015). Nursing theories & nursing practice. Philadelphia, PA : F.A. Davis Company.

Wu, T. Y., & Pender, N. (2002). Determinants of physical activity among Taiwanese adolescents: an application of the health promotion model. Research in nursing & health, 25(1), 25-36.

Forensic Accounting

The principle offences in money laundering are the concealing offence, the arrange offence and the use of possession offence. The money laundering offenses cover all types of offences which makes them either way offence. One must not be dishonest to commit the money laundering offense. The principal defence to money laundering allegation includes making authorised disclosure and having a reasonable excuse for not making the necessary disclosure hence not dishonesty. Also, the laundry offense could have happened in another state or country outside the UK, and it was not unlawful in the original country (Alexander, 2016). A person thus commits the money laundry offense if they are in the following actions. Concealing a criminal property, disguising a criminal property, getting involved in the conversion of criminal property, transferring criminal property and when a person removes a criminal property from the UK (Alldridge, 2016).

ii)

For professionals to avoid getting involved with money laundry, they should take keen interests in the following outlined actions. They need to take a keen interest in unusual patterns of transactions and scrutinize complex or unnecessary large transactions. They need not involve themselves with the use of products which favours anonymity (Durrieu, 2013). They need to take keen interests in record keeping including customer due diligence and ensure the existence of supporting evidence for the business relationship. According to Proceeding of Crime Acts (POCA), any person is legible to commit the man laundry offence, and they must not be only businesses and individuals (Alldridge, 2016). The POCA of the 2007 regulations, purports that business must put in operation a wide range of systems to prevent any operations related to money laundering or terrorist financing. The wide range of systems includes record keeping tools, internal control, risk assessment and management, communication et cetera.

The law also proposes that businesses should set aside systems which will help them in the creation of internal environment and cultures that will make their employees aware of their responsibilities in ensuring they do not get involved with any money laundering regime. They need to identify their business partners and ensure they are legally known to help them avoid operating in any illegal businesses (Chong, and Lopez‐De‐Silanes, 2015, 108).

2.

Forensic accounting refers to the application of accounting techniques and concepts in matters of the law. Forensic accounting is important for an organization investigating fraud since they help in identifying white collar crimes such as embezzlement, fraudulent financials et cetera (Lokanan, 2014, 115). The forensic accountant would provide the primary job of analysing and submitting evidence to the court in case of any financial dispute within the firm. They assist in employee fraud investigation and offer support in Litigation (Ozili, 2015). They play an important role as expert witness and in the detection of various frauds. A forensic accountant would be important in helping solving partners dispute in the company, personal accident claims, insurance frauds and financial statement frauds and lastly, they would assist with bank loan frauds. They act as the link between the lawyers and the firm investigating fraud.

Forensic accountants also help in the determination of violation controls. They are wittier than the ordinary accountants and hence more experienced in handling frauds, and they deliver more facts and issues as well. Their wittiness in the finance sector gives them the ability to conduct thorough interviews and eliciting more information from the company under investigation (Madumere, and Onumah, 2013, 46). Also, fraud investigation is quite different from the traditional accounting problems since for fraud investigation the investigation involves more criminal matters.

3.

i)

From the case of Karim, it is obvious he could not walk because of him breaking his tibia and fibula. For Karim to successfully present the matter to court for compensation because of negligence, then he must prove several aspects when in court. They include that a duty of care was owed by the defendant and that the duty of care was breached. The actions should be such that they made them safe for some time as a consequence of the breach directly.

The Duty of Care

From the original definition of the duty of care as it is discussed in the Donoghue case, it is stated that each person owes their neighbour a duty of care. In their definition of the word neighbour, they said that a neighbour is any person that is directly affected by the act of the person making them directly reliable for such individuals getting hurt. However, it is such a wide definition of a neighbour that were it still in operation; then the courts would get overwhelmed with the number of cases they would receive. Hence, the cases of Anns v Merton London Borough Council (1977) and Caparo Industries plc v Dickman (1990) decided to include proximity and fairness in the definition of a neighbour and who might be held responsible for the abandonment of care of duty. Proximity in the context concluded that the parties involved must have been closed for one to be held responsible for the losses or damages suffered by their colleagues (Lokanan, 2014, 412). The application of the duty of care thus holds the sports centre for reliable for their failure to provide the duty of care for Karim.

The second element is the Breach of duty of care. It is evident in Karim’s case that the case of duty of care exists between the person claiming and the one defending. However, the court must determine whether defendant performed the necessary action which shows that they cared and that the court would consider such a person a reasonable person. However, if the defendant does not qualify as a reasonable person, then they would have breached the duty of care and would thus be responsible for legal charges.

The court will also have to dwell on the fact and concludes that the claimant was not the one negligent. Such a case is known as the res ipsa loquitur which translates to facts speaks for themselves. The third element that the court would consider in the Karim case is whether he suffered the loss or damage because of the breach of duty. Regarding this element all the claimant must do is to convince the court that were it not for the negligence of the defendant they would not have suffered the damage or loss. It also is known as the ‘but for’ test.

Finally, the court suggests that damage suffered must not be too remote. The defendant will only be responsible for losses which are directly related to their negligence and was not fuelled by another third party. For the case of Karim, the management of the sport’s centre was aware of the dripping water from the ceiling to the court but did not take any action, like warning the players to be cautious. Therefore, the defendant in Karim’s case is responsible for his damages for their failure to meet their duty of care. Karim would thus successfully pursue the negligence claim.

ii)

The role of a forensic accountant in Karim’s case is to assert the economic impact of the loss suffered by Karim. To equate the damage to its equivalent loss, they would investigate factors such as the losses incurred because of the damage, in case of a business owner or a professional sport’s person, what was the effect of the damage to their earnings or even profits. Some included charges also are hospital bills and medications et cetera (Warshavsky, 2013, 58). Such factors are included in the calculation of the compensation, and hence the forensic accountant’s role is to ensure their clients are fairly compensated for their suffered loss. They thus play an essential role in ensuring fare compensations in case of any losses or damage sustained.

The compensation shall cover any economic losses suffered by Karim as a result of his failure to attend to them due to his injury. It is thus the role of the forensic accountant to calculate, and factor in all the economic losses incurred and include them in his calculation of the compensation claim.

 

References

Alexander, R.C.H., 2016. Insider dealing and money laundering in the EU: law and regulation. Routledge.

Alldridge, P., 2016. What Went Wrong with Money Laundering Law? Springer.

Chong, A. and Lopez‐De‐Silanes, F., 2015. Money laundering and its regulation. Economics & Politics, 27(1), pp.78-123.

Durrieu, R., 2013. Rethinking money laundering & financing of terrorism in international law: towards a new global legal order. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

E. Lokanan, M., 2014. How senior managers perpetuate accounting fraud? Lessons for fraud examiners from an instructional case. Journal of Financial Crime, 21(4), pp.411-423.

Madumere, I. and ONUMAH, J., 2013. Forensic accounting: a relief to corporate fraud. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, 4(14), pp.43-50.

Ozili, P.K., 2015. Forensic Accounting and Fraud: A Review of Literature and Policy Implications.

Warshavsky, M.S., 2013. The Role of Forensic Accountants in Litigation Cases. The CPA Journal, 83(6), p.58.

 

Children Born out of Wedlock, Nature or Nurture?

Children Born out of Wedlock, Nature or Nurture?

Since time immemorial, the psychological realm has triggered a great debate on how the environmental and biological factors influence an individual’s behavior and physical characteristics. This has so been of significance in trying to improve the academic sector and family welfare. The bottom line of this concept is an evaluation of each of the two dimensions to determine which of them has the highest contribution to the individual. On one side lies the proponents of nurture who argue that individual traits are not innate but character and personality are cultured through time and space. On the converse are the proponents of nature who defend that behavior is biologically passed on from one generation to the other. This inquiry focuses on distinguishing between nature and nurture as well as delineating the most powerful side of this concept. In particular, the argument supports the view that nature has the greatest impact in defining individual behavior and hence, the cause of births out of wedlock.

The concept of nature is attributable to the study of peoples’ behavior. The theory borrows from biology and purports that individual character traits are generated genetically. Each behavior or character is scientifically coded in the DNA of the individual and that the individual can only display the traits once they are mature (Kellis et al., 2014). The proponents of the concept use Darwin’s arguments about the transfer of genes from the parent to the offspring through inheritance and present that people acquire their traits from their parents (Jobling, Hurles, and Tyler-Smith, 2013). In this regard, personal characteristics can be traced back to the person’s lineage. Therefore, there are deterministic genes for every character trait. For instance, there are genes for Intelligence Quotient (IQ), sexual orientation, morality, aggression, personality, and physical elements such as hair color and height. The causal factor for children born out of wedlock is thus with respect to the genetic encoding.

The IQ variance in children can be explained using the concept of nature through genes and hereditary. The evidence is available in studies that have compared adopted children and their counterparts. Tucker-Drob, Briley, and Harden (2013) argue that children born out of wedlock show a zero correlation in IQ when compared to the other siblings. Similarly, studies depict that siblings born of same parents portray a significant correlation in IQ suggesting that the intellectual abilities of the children were hereditarily transmitted from the parents. However, this does not mean that inheritance of traits occurs in equal measure among the siblings. Such children differ in intellectual ability since some genes are recessive (Tucker-Drob, Briley, and Harden, 2013). Research on twins has cemented the concept of nature. Studies show that if either fraternal or identical twins are brought up in different families or environments they will indicate an IQ high correlation as opposed to the children born out of wedlock. Comparatively, employing the concept of nature helps examine the probability of children being born out of wedlock if they depict the above features. Nurture proves less significance with respect to the IQ in these children.

Studies on adopted and twin children have been applied in analyzing inheritable traits in personality and have shaped the debate in nature versus nurture context. This entails the study of personality traits such as cognitive, emotional issues, and routine behaviors. Twins and especially the monozygotic duplets epitomize highly similar personality that extends to adulthood while adoptive children show some degree of similarity that disappears in adulthood. This suggests that socialization influences personality to a certain extent but the impact is not strong enough to cross into adulthood. In this regard, nature takes its course at the time of the maturation of the gene coding that particular trait (Tucker-Drob et. al., 2013). The behavior of children born out of wedlock deviates from family expectations as they enter into adulthood. Archontaki et al. (2013) argue that the comparison between monozygotic and dizygotic twins shows that personality traits are highly similar between monozygotic twins suggesting that it is so since the same fertilization occurred, hence acquiring similar genes.

A well-known area of contend between proponents of nature and its constraints is the process of language acquisition. The nativists’ theoretical proposition proposes that there is the innate Language Acquisition Device (LAD) that capacitates children to learn languages (Graham and Fisher, 2013). This explains why some people are born speechless. The theory suggests that such people lack the language acquisition device and it becomes difficult for them to learn and produce a language. Research has proven this theory through the study of different families raising speech-impaired children. There is evidence that parents who can learn and speak are capable of producing a speech-impaired child (Graham and Fisher, 2013). This suggests that such children lack a certain genetic trait necessary to learn how to speak. Similarly, research has shown that members of a family possess similar speech trait and that differences may only occur due to spouses engaging in affairs out of the wedlock. This insinuates that the child inherits the genes for LAD from either the father or the mother’s recessive genes.

Psychologists have since the 19th Century wondered if the abstract concepts of morality, sexual orientation, and homosexuality are inherited or learned. This led to an anonymous research across cultures to explain the concept. Genetics and hereditary materials play a key role in shaping human personality. Studies from siblings suggest that morality among siblings born within the wedlock tends to be similar due to the family restrictions but this similarity begins to disappear as children approach adulthood (Sherlock et al., 2016). Study on adoptive children and those born out of wedlock provide fundamental evidence for the contributions of nature in shaping the cooperative structures of the society. The personality developmental change in children born outside matrimonial circles affirms the impact of nature as a cause of this behavior among married couples.

The genetic sense in morality has also provided insightful explanations on the concept of sexual orientation. That is, explanation on the individual, personal, and social identities based on the emotional and the sexual attraction for either sex or both. The main challenge revolves around the effect of hormones, genes, and the neurological systems of human beings. Research on the American population reveals that sexuality and homosexuality are attached to the genetics (Blackwood, 2013). Cross-cultural studies indicate that gays and lesbians cut across all cultures. This confirms that nature influences the occurrence at a higher notch than nurture as homosexuality would vary across cultures. Relatively, the issue of children born outside marriages occurs in the same sense across all cultures. Therefore, this explains that nature controls the significant portion of behavioral characters.

The nativist approach in hereditary and genetics has provided evidence to prove that nature has a great influence on individuals’ behavior and personality. However, recent research indicates that nature and nurture interact to produce the holistic person. This has led to a reflection on the influence that nurture has on nature and hence leading to a new shift in the discussion of the concept. Consequently, some scholars argue that nature and nurture are inseparable since each portion impacts on the other to determine an individual’s behavior (Coll, Bearer, and Lerner, 2014). The concept of nurture as it relates to how an individual socializes in the family and school indicates that children brought up in poor families or marginalized societies do not fully explore their capabilities and talents. This explains why twins brought up in different areas portray a significance difference in their success in particular fields like music and sports. The success of children living in the more privileged areas relates to the exposure that these children get from the family and school. This, therefore, delineates that nurture plays a role in the mentoring of the talent as well as revealing an individual’s capabilities.

In conclusion, the concept of nature is the major cause of the children born outside the wedlock since genes have a higher influence in profiling a persons’ behavior and personalities. Every behavior and personality trait is coded in the chromosomes. These traits move from the parent to the children through reproduction. Research has proven that similar characteristics between the parent and the child are as a result of the genetic inheritance that determines the physical traits such the skin complexion, hair color, and height. The concept of nature on abstract concepts such as sexuality and aggression describes an attachment of genetic codes on the DNA. This paper has unveiled that nature plays the most significant role in shaping behavior while nurture intervenes only when these particular genes are immature to express themselves. Children born out of wedlock differ with other siblings. However, family restrictions and teachings accompanied by school instructions can determine how such children develop. This ascertains the impact of the interrelationship of nature and nurture in determining behavior. The former is innate and acquired at birth while the latter is a consequence of socialization. Nevertheless, the society creates an interactive environment of the two from which a person develops their personalities and behavior.

References

Archontaki, D., Lewis, G. J., & Bates, T. C. (2013). Genetic influences on psychological wellbeing: A nationally representative twin study. Journal of Personality81(2), 221-230.

Blackwood, E. (2013). The many faces of homosexuality: Anthropological approaches to homosexual behavior. Routledge.

Coll, C. G., Bearer, E. L., & Lerner, R. M. (Eds.). (2014). Nature and nurture: The complex interplay of genetic and environmental influences on human behavior and development. Psychology Press.

Graham, S. A., & Fisher, S. E. (2013).Decoding the genetics of speech and language. Current opinion in neurobiology23(1), 43-51.

Jobling, M., Hurles, M., & Tyler-Smith, C. (2013). Human evolutionary genetics: origins, peoples & disease. Garland Science.

Kellis, M., Wold, B., Snyder, M. P., Bernstein, B. E., Kundaje, A., Marinov, G. K., & Dunham, I. (2014). Defining functional DNA elements in the human genome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences111(17), 6131-6138.

Sherlock, J. M., Zietsch, B. P., Tybur, J. M., & Jern, P. (2016).The quantitative genetics of disgust sensitivity. Emotion16(1), 43.

Tucker-Drob, E. M., Briley, D. A., & Harden, K. P. (2013). Genetic and environmental influences on cognition across development and context. Current directions in psychological science22(5), 349-355.

Personal Reflection

Personal Reflection

On my first day, I received a call and was asked to appear for a mention at Fairfield local Court, I rushed to the court. I was anxious and nervous but tried my best not to show it to the client. It was my first ever court appearance. Following that I appeared several times but each time my confidence increased and started to handle the stress and anxiety well. One remarkable story from my placement, on my third day I was asked to appear at Burwood local court for a mention, the client was charged with Sexual assault and was bail for other domestic violence related charges, the Officer in charge assured us that Police will not be opposing bail.

I arrived to court with the client and sough a ‘balance of Brief’ Order and was granted. When we existed the court the client was arrested on a further charge namely ‘breaching an AVO’. I contacted my supervisor seek instructions, my response shook me to the nerve and made me questions the ethics of some lawyers and in particular whether lawyers actually abide by the duty to the client rule. She advised me to leave the client and not attend police station with him because this is a new matter and he has not paid us for it. Nonetheless my placement exceeded my expectations by far as every day would be different since people get sued for criminal activity every day.

I remember I worked together with my supervisor and other students under placement on variety of felonies including homicides, robberies, rapes and assaults. I helped in all stages from the pre-trial preparation to the trial which assisted me to gain numerous skills needed to become a defendant lawyer. On different occasions, my supervisor would make me go through jail tapes to ensure that the clients who were being defended never made any self-incriminating statements about themselves or their co-defendants (Champion, 2005). I would also perform a similar task with witness and surveillance videos with an intent of finding discrepancies or anything that my supervisor or a prosecuting attorney might have missed during review of the materials. My supervisor would also make me go through charging document, lab tests and police reports and ensure that I give him feedback in form of a well written report on the loop holes that would help build up a strong defense.

My supervisor used to insist much on the importance of having research and general investigation skills. I realized that one has to spend numerous hours researching and investigating information for the clients. This means that a lawyer has to be able to know the way to research accurately within a small span of time and dig up lots of information relevant to a trial. The source has to be credible as the court easily dismisses the information if the confidence of source authority is doubted by the bench. Earning a trust from the client and making the client to believe in ones skills and ability is a paramount in criminal defense as I realized that clients may withhold a lot of information. My instructor always advised me to focus on creating the best first impression whenever I met a client for the first time as it creates confidence.

An open and collaborative communication as I noted is essential in obtaining criminal and personal history and ascertain the individual’s state of mind or mental capacity, establish crime timeline as well as relationship between the victim and the crime committed. In all the cases that our office was assigned to by the firm, the supervisor used to lead us in conducting an independent investigations to verify facts of the cases and gather new evidences which included interviewing witnesses to establish their credibility. In addition we also used to visit the scene of crimes and explore any inconsistence in evidence of the state.

Team working was the other skill that I learned during my placement period. I realized that when dealing with a lawsuit especially of a high profile crime, working together as a team of lawyers is crucial. I remember at the firm we would emulate a real court of law with our supervisor taking the role of a judge while an available lawyer would be a prosecuting attorney and we the student would form a panel of defense. Our supervisor used to group us into two and give us different cases that the firm was dealing with. During such events we would learn ways to present opening statements in a court, interview a client or witness and make closing remarks.

In addition, we would share ideas about ongoing cases after our instructor go through all the reports availed to him by the students on loopholes to pursue when defending a client (Champion, 2005). As the supervisor presented all the statements made by each individual, we would critically evaluate it as well as analyse the collected facts of the case to create a strong theory of defense that encapsulates the clients version of story and answer any doubts and questions the prosecuting attorney is likely to raise at the trial.

The other skill I learned is negotiations especially in a case of plea bargaining. I remember a case of a client who had been arrested of assault on his girlfriend and for threatening the woman with a knife. I remember when I accompanied my supervisor together with the client to the prosecuting attorneys officer, the prosecutor offered to give the individual a two years jail term and an additional time spent on probation in exchange of a plea guilty. Our client based on the advice of my supervisor rejected the offer and expressed the desire to exercise his rights to trial. Of course, the prosecutor stated he would grant us his wish but noted some of the serious charges that carried possibility of a life time imprisonment.

Based on my understanding, I used to think that actions were illegal as it is aimed at denying a defendant his or her rights to a due process. It was on this case I realized that the allow specifically allows prosecutors to inflict more severe penalties on individuals who go on trial so long as the incarceration is within the legislative guidelines. My supervisor requested the prosecutor to give the defense more time for consulting before accepting or rejecting the deal which was granted. As we moved out of the office and our client was taken to the holding cell by the police, my supervisor advised me to never get scared of the terms given by a prosecutor when plea bargaining.

I learned that before accepting any plea bargaining agreements is good to evaluate the case and the charges that prosecutor intends to file. The supervisor told me that in some instances the other parties might be bluffing. Although according to Brandy rule bluffing is illegal as it is a violation of a due process in some instances excluding some information might not affect the decision of the court in case the plea deal is appealed (Champion, 2005). For instance the law does not need an individual to know all the relevant circumstances in spite of misapprehension forms under which a defendant may labour. While the prosecutor must provide all information determining the factual evidence of the accused during a plea bargain, he or she does not need to provide impeachment evidence that the person may raise at a trail.

I learned that whenever the deal negotiated by a prosecutor sounds too good to be true in that it us almost so charitable, as a defense attorney one requires to rethink. According to my supervisor, I need as a good lawyer in need to ask myself, “ why is the prosecutor willing to be so charitable by letting a case he or she thinks is worth a life imprisonment or several years in jail be thrown away after the client pleads guilty and gets a two years jail time only?” Perhaps such can be a sign that the prosecutor has no intension of taking the case to trial since the proof is weaker and he or she is likely to lose the lawsuit.

I noted that dealing with prosecutors is a hard task and require much of critical thinking, research and negotiation skills. By failing to do a thorough research and looking to possibilities available can lead to avoidable imprisonment of a client in both cases. I remember when we went back to the office we re-examined the evidence and witnesses statement again to ensure that we understand the magnitude of the case well. I also accompanied my supervisor to inquire more information about the client and the event as it happened from the neighbours of our client. Upon gathering all evidence we realized that the what the prosecutor had was not enough to convict our client to such a lengthy period and in fact if we went to trial we would have gotten a better deal to our client that why the attorney offered.

When we went back to the prosecutor’s office my supervisor presented all the case facts and argued that we were ready to go for trial if not offered a better deal. The prosecutor lowered the sentence to one year and community service which was a better deal to our client. I relearned that I needed to improve my negotiation skills as if it were me, the client could have been convicted for the two years as I would have assumed it to be a better deal than going on trial and face a possible life imprisonment.

In theory I learned from course work critical thinking skills but I never new how in particular it applies. Exercising careful judgement and judicious evaluation was one of the things one of my lecturers has insisted since I joined law school. As a lawyer one must learn how to question and analyse what the individual feel, read, think and hear. My supervisor showed me practically that the first impressions are often wrong and they often change when a more thoughtful analysis is done. Another thing that I learned pertaining critical thinking is deductive reasoning which was always stated in many classes by several professors in college. For instance, by questioning why the prosecutor was giving us such a generous deal given that he thought the case was easy to win and get a life imprisonment, my supervisor was able to negotiate a better deal for my client by determining that the attorney had no intent to take case to trial.

During my placement period I learnt that being a lawyer requires a lot of passion as one has to sweat for even small stuff. To practice law effectively one require an absolute command of the cases and legislation details as well as a wider view of how distinct areas interlock and their aim of achievement. The several times I went to court allowed me to learn that each problem question require one to apply the law to very specific and at times outright preposterous pattern of facts in explaining the reason why a piece of legislation is applicable in certain way to a given scenario. Without a massive knowledge of the law, it can be difficult for a criminal defense lawyer to determine the appropriate course to follow when presented with case facts and witness statements.

My resilience and self-confidence assisted me in gaining the attention and skills that I hoped for during my placement period from my supervisor. Many are times that we skipped lunch with my colleagues as we tried to understand cases as they were presented to us by our instructor. The supervisor used to put pressure on us which was a great skill he wanted to develop in us since as a lawyer one is faced with lots of workload in office and stress since a lawsuit might be headed in another way that was not foreseen. I remember one of the most stressing lawsuit that was being handled by the firm when I was there involving an individual who was wrongly accused of vandalism. Based on the case facts, the defendant vandalized properties belonging to his employer after being fired.

Evidence presented included a recording threatening the employer but there was now video record but there were three witnesses. Based on confession made by the victim, he actually did threaten the employer out of anger but he never carried out the act and insisted on being framed. The man was black and given the racial profiling issue, prosecutor and investigators conducted an incomplete investigation. However, at some point the case seemed to go in favour of the prosecutor when the witnesses identified the accused as the culprit based on the height and clothes he had worn that day. My supervisor mounted a lot of pressure in us to go through the case facts and confessions as well as evidence all over again to determine inconsistence. That day I remember we worked until eight in the evening and had to carry the workload at home. Such experience reminds me what it means to become a lawyer in a society.

Over the three months I worked at the firm, I also learnt the importance of staying inquisitive and keeping an open mind since there is always something new to learn every day. Law as a profession has a lot to learn both theoretically and from experience for one to improve. One has to be ready to accept tasks that a person may deem trifling as there is no small or insignificant one. Hard work and being focused is important as client’s life or fate is dependent on ones skills to convince the bench or a prosecutor. Although at some point I questioned the ethics of some lawyers on whether they abide to client rule, I learned basic practical skills from my supervisor including how to communicate during a court proceeding or plea bargaining. I also established that I need to improve my critical thinking skills and avoid assumptions without questioning. Am faster to conclude things without questioning them and that could affect my judgment and negotiation skills.

Reference

Champion, D. J. (2005). The American dictionary of criminal justice: Key terms and major court cases. Scarecrow Press.