Young Adult Perception and Self Esteem

Young Adult Perception and Self Esteem

 

PART A

PICO (O) question    

Will social media and body image change the perception and attitude on oneself?
 

 

 PICO (O) elements

Person/Population//Problem:  Young adults
Intervention/Interest: Social Media
Comparison/Control: Nil
Outcome: Perception
Other: Body image

 

 

  1. Identify main and alternate search terms

 

Population

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Intervention

 

 

 

 

 

Comparison

(not commonly used in actual database search strategy)

 

 

Outcome

(not commonly used in actual database search strategy)

 

 

Other

 

 

Main search term: Main search term: Main search term: Main search term: Main search term:
Young adult

 

 

Social Media

 

Nil Perception

 

Body image
Alternative search terms: Alternative search terms: Alternative search terms: Alternative search terms: Alternative search terms:
 

Adult

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Internet

Phone

Laptop

 

  View point

Approach

Opinion

Concept

 

 

 

 

  Key terms:
1  Adult
2  

Young Adult

3 1 OR 2
4 Social Media
5 Internet
6 Phone
7 Laptop
8 4 OR 5 OR 6 OR 7
9 Perception
10 View point
11 Approach
12 Opinion
13 Concept
14 9 OR 10 OR 11 OR 12 OR 13
15 Body image
16 15
17 3  AND 8 AND 14 AND 16

Limits applied to 17

 

OR = combines search terms for the same topic; expands the search to get as many potential papers as possible

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART B: Essay

Introduction

Young adults between the age of 18 and 25 spend majority of their times in the social media and other technological aspects. Most of these people are at their adolescent stage and they strive to get independence and make personal decisions, while acquiring personal identities (Yi Lin et al, 2016). They also want to get the attention or get a fit ad gain into their peer groups. They are in the highest capacity of understanding their health and biological developments and actively participate in attending to issues relating to their health and medications. This is the most productive stage in the development of human life as well as the fiscal development of a country. The social media however is depriving these young adults of their societal role of community and individual development as this aspect consumes most of their time and mind. This is attributed to the fact that young adults are the most acquainted group of the population in matters regarding the newest internet communication technologies. This is boosted by the accessibility and the widespread adoption of wireless networks and mobile internet access. This study explores the extent to which social media and other internet tools change the perception of the young people with regard to their bodies and the negative consequences on their self esteem.

The frequency at which the young adults discuss their health issues provides a better suggestion of a better way of discussing and solving the health issues that relate to them. A positive relationship has been found to exist between the individual depression and the time an individual can spent on the internet. This implies that depression could be common problem amid the young adults that mostly spent their time online. Some scholars’ research suggest that majority of the secondary school students ultimately require health guidance in addition to mental health support. However, utilizing the social media distance them from their health practitioners and they will end up utilizing the wrong information and mental health directions from the fellow peers they share the platform with.

Some studies suggest that the use of social media among young adults could lower the extent of depression attributed to the increased social support, social capital and the satisfaction of life (Topper et al., 2017). Most however contrast the stipulation and suggest rapid use of the platform is associated with degradation of the human well-being, the real life satisfaction and the support from the social societal settings. These studies define a strong correlation between the social media use and the extent of human depression, showing a direct linear relationship between the social media use the negative human perception on the mental health and body physic together with the mood deregulation. Most research results show increased depression between the college and secondary school students, though majority utilize cross sectional data which does not provide a clear directionality of the argument.

Consequently, individuals could be using the social media following continual rumination and guilt which surrounds this utility (McVey et al., 2016). This drives them due to low self-esteem and negative self-belief. They may the accessible social media since it facilitates interactions in a more controlled setting rather engaging them in a one-on-one interaction. They will find this as a remedy to their fundamental depression and anhedonia.

Other studies have linked social media with a decline in the social well-being, subjective mood and life satisfaction (Mahmoud et al, 2015). The rising consumption of passive utility rather than active communications in the social media settings is caused by the decreasing bonding, over passing the social center and escalating loneliness. This is also contributed by the subjection to more ideal illustration form other young adults who bring an impression that they are leading a more successful life. This generates a feeling of envy and the thought that one is not living a life to the standards that others are living. They feel that their peers are successful and they have been left behind. This generates a sense of inferiority and gradually developing depression, which ends up to time wastage on activities that are meaningless and less productive with regard to personal development. In the recent times, the internet addiction has been recognized by the medical practitioners as a psychiatric condition that requires immediate attention (Weinstein et al., 2015). This has been triggered by the increasing number of young adults who spent most of their time on the internet, especially the social media platforms. The medical experts associate the psychiatric condition as being closely associated with depression (Moreau et al., 2015).

During the long hours interactions with peers in the social media, young adults, especially females, share comments and messages that make them inferior since girls tend to socialize more than boys, drawing themselves into comparisons with others. Many adolescents spent a lot of their time in order to perfect their profiles to evade scrutiny from the peers as they strive to win their acceptance (Perin, 2015). They consequentially produce different persons different from whom they really are, drawing them further from understanding themselves. According to (Kvalem et al., 2014), self esteem comes from consolidating who you are, and the more one tries to spend them to generate a different identity from their own self in order to win the recognition of the peers, the harder your feelings will be with regard to self acceptance and feeling good about oneself.

Young adult females overusing the internet tend to suffer more from the low self-esteem and negative body image. For instance, according to Anderson et al. (2017), 40.1% of teenage girls in Australia between the age of 16 and 18 are not satisfied with their bodies. Most of them react to the images that they find on the social media, especially face book. They look at the images of other young girls and compare themselves with them, thus resulting to the negative feelings that their bodies are not good enough. This deprives them of their health routine, abandoning the regular body exercise as well as increased anxiety. The shame and negative perception on the individual body image to a higher extent affect girls who regularly use the internet and research indicates that most of them are subject to the low self esteem and higher degree of shame (Boulianne, 2015). Researchers have also established that there is a direct relationship between the frequency of social media use and the extent to which young girls feel ashamed of themselves.

Other factors that result in the negative perception on the body image and low self esteem is the type of products that are advertised in the social media platforms. Most of these products, for instance, cosmetics, how to lose weight and dating products, according to (Vaterlaus et al., 2015), are mostly meant to suit older women. However, the advertisements have been widely done without these bounds and this gives young ladies access to them. Upon viewing the products, they start doubting themselves thus resulting to low self esteem.

Young adults who respond positively to social media spent shorter times in the sites, checking their profiles, acknowledging their strengths rather than weaknesses. On the contrary, those responding negatively spend a lot of their time on the platform. This will give them that idea of drawing comparisons with others, subsequently generating the feelings of inferiority to the profiles, likes or pictures they observe (Yonker et al., 2015).

Conclusion

The study should be of concern to the medical practitioners as it may be critical for them to evaluate the use of the social media to identify how the young adults are using it and find ways of solving different negative perceptions with regard to their health and body development. The practitioners as well need to interact with them in the platform, since social media is the most common interaction place, note the challenges and find out an important balance to utilize in order to develop a lasting remedy from these problems. Social media also forms an important arena for health experts to analyze depression while developing important educational messages regarding the condition, which could be important in sensitizing on the maladaptive system and how it relates with depression. It is critical noting the presence of diversified interactions within the social media, for instance, the overall time spent and the prevalence of visiting the social media sites. However, most of the past researches focus on analyzing a specific interaction platform, rather than exploring the overall social media platforms. It is important analyzing the interaction between multiple platforms as this will provide finer results while improving the understanding on various social media interactions. It is also prudent assessing the relationship between these various social media sites and depression.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Anderson, E. L., Steen, E., & Stavropoulos, V. (2017). Internet use and Problematic

Internet Use: A systematic review of longitudinal research trends in adolescence and emergent adulthood. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 22(4), 430-454.

Boulianne, S. (2015). Social media use and participation: A meta-analysis of current

research.  Information, Communication & Society, 18(5), 524-538.

Kvalem, I. L., Træen, B., Lewin, B., & Štulhofer, A. (2014). Self-perceived effects of

Internet pornography use, genital appearance satisfaction, and sexual self-esteem among young Scandinavian adults. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 8(4).

Mahmoud, J. S., Staten, R., Lennie, T. A., & Hall, L. A. (2015). The relationships of

coping, negative thinking, life satisfaction, social support, and selected demographics with anxiety of young adult college students. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 28(2), 97-108.

McVey, A. J., Dolan, B. K., Willar, K. S., Pleiss, S., Karst, J. S., Casnar, C. L., … & Van

Hecke, A. V. (2016). A replication and extension of the PEERS® for young adults social skills intervention: Examining effects on social skills and social anxiety in young adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 46(12), 3739-3754.

Moreau, A., Laconi, S., Delfour, M., & Chabrol, H. (2015). Psychopathological profiles of

adolescent and young adult problematic Facebook users. Computers in Human Behavior, 44, 64-69.

Perin, A. (2015). Social media usage. Pew research center.

Available at: http://assets.pewresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/14/2015/10/PI_2015-10-18_Social-Networking-Usage-2005_FINAL.pdf

Topper, M., Emmelkamp, P. M., Watkins, E., & Ehring, T. (2017). Prevention of anxiety

disorders and depression by targeting excessive worry and rumination in adolescents and young adults: a randomized controlled trial. Behaviour research and therapy, 90, 123-136.

Vaterlaus, J. M., Patten, E. V., Roche, C., & Young, J. A. (2015). # Gettinghealthy: The

perceived influence of social media on young adult health behaviors. Computers in human behavior, 45, 151-157.

Weinstein, A., Dorani, D., Elhadfi, R., Bukovza, Y., Yarmulnik, A., & Dannon, P. (2015).

Internet addiction is associated with social anxiety in young adults. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 27(1), 4-9.

Yi Lin, L., Sidani, J. E., Shensa, A., Radovic, A., Miller, E., Coldtz, J. B., … & Primack,

  1. A. (2016). Association between social media use and depression among US young adults. Depression and anxiety, 33(4), 323.

Yonker, L. M., Zan, S.,Scirica, C. V., Jethwani, K., & Kinane, T. B. (2015). “Friending”

teens: systematic review of social media in adolescent and young adult health care. Journal of medical health care, 17(1).

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Statement of reasons for wanting to enter Medicine

It is from the received care that I decided to learn more how the human body functions and extend the same level of or more care to other people. I am convinced that by providing treatment
while showing care, the recovery process would be easy irrespective of the diagnosis.
I therefore want to join a career in medicine in order to continue with my services for the community. From my experiences at the Red Cross and other hospitals, I have seen how desperate some
patients are. They place all their hope on the doctor and even verbalise it that their future would be determined by the doctor. It becomes so fulfilling to instil hope in a person who has
already lost hope. While some patients are diagnosed with illnesses that cannot be treated, they still need to enjoy their remaining years. With the experiences I have had working with the
elderly and children, I understand most of their concerns during their stay in hospitals as well as during the recovery process. These are the concerns I look forward to addressing during my
practice as a doctor.
With my calm personality and being patient, I am certain that I can deal with diverse patients including the so-called difficult patients. I am also able to work under pressure and this means
that as a doctor, I would cope with the tight schedules including being called to work at night during my off duty. It would also help me work with emergencies and also with few physicians
and large numbers of patients. My high teamwork skills would enhance collaboration with other healthcare professionals thus providing holistic care to all patients. Working in the medicine
field would therefore not only help me achieve my passionate dream but also help community members thus enlightening their future.

Shakespeare Studies

Shakespeare Studies

Anyone who argues to know English or has studied English cannot authoritatively say so without the input of Shakespeare’s English. Shakespeare’s literary studies remain the most outstanding and informative way of structuring English sentences. Despite the fact that Shakespeare did not earn a degree in college, his contribution legacy remains influential to the whole world. Today, he is the most liked and widely quoted English language writer. His dramas, sonnets and diction offer a good foundation in English structure. Therefore, this essay will argue in support of the argument that “a degree in English without Shakespeare is like an M.D. without a course in anatomy.”

It is only in Shakespeare’s work that diction is evident and it this implies that those who earn a degree in English without reading his work cannot understand the element of diction. It amounts to total fraud when one can argue to know such structural elements without in-depth knowledge of Shakespeare’s works. Shakespeare portrayed structured writing in his poetry and prose work which has helped in the standardization of English grammar and at the same time invented new English words.  He was actually among the first English writers who gave the new writing a structure to follow. Furthermore, he would use different writing styles in his plays and poetry works. These styles and diction provide people with the best way of learning English and without such knowledge, one will automatically lack structural knowledge in English styles. Moreover, Shakespeare also used words with simple meanings and with elements of great art and such contribution has left a remarkable legacy for other writers to mimic. Besides, Shakespeare employs the use of metaphors in his English work and this serves as this brings forth the metaphoric knowledge to others. An example of this metaphor is: …It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night like a rich Jewel in an Ethiope’s ear…” (Traversi, 2015).

Additionally, doing a degree without Shakespeare’s English lacks the grammar required. Shakespeare played an influential role in the standardization of English grammar. Shakespeare revived and re-emphasized the use of suffixes, an element which is important in grammar and was hardly used during his time. Therefore, anyone who studies English grammar without reading the work of Shakespeare will be blank in English structural sentences without suffixes. Furthermore, Shakespeare’s writing showcased the rules that would be used in future in the English language. Although some Shakespeare’s spelling of some English words have been changed and improved, his grammar remains remarkable update.

Shakespeare’s work also expanded the English vocabulary. It is recommendable to note that he invented thousands of words that are used today in writing and communication through expansion of suffixes as well as prefixes and making verbs from nouns and also adjectives from verbs. In this particular expansion, the English language was further shaped. He is also praised to have modernized English with different phrases that remain to be quoted until today. The new phrases of English that he coined are still used in English. One recognizable example is “Do you bite your thumb at us, sir?”. These contributions helped Shakespeare to become an influential literary symbol in English works. Besides the use of the influential diction elements in his work, his sonnets also provide influence in language because he often used similes, rhyme and iambic among others and he remains the first poetry writer to use this literary technique. In the Murder of Gonzago, an example of a simile is “the revenger ends up becoming like the criminal he seeks to punish” (Woods, 2016). Such kind of work influenced some poets who until today use these techniques. Poets like Keats always kept Shakespeare’s works next to him when writing to promote creativity.

Unlike before the works of Shakespeare, there is the use of similes as well as imagery. Shakespeare was well known for his contribution to similes and imagery. In similes and imagery, he brought the sense of using strong words to illustrate images. Besides, his simile works gave a comprehensive description of an exact moment. He was also a master of explaining many phenomena in few words. An example is “It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night like a rich Jewel in an Ethiope’s ear…” (Traversi, 2015). Even though a number of his words influenced the poets, his playful work had a remarkable impact on the English literary world. His work has enhanced understanding of the literary works that was never the case before. Using blank versus technique was one of the best techniques that Shakespeare used in his dramatic work. Shakespeare’s use of blank versus technique is evident in the poetry workshop and this has influenced some contemporary English writers such as Christopher Marlow. An example of the soliloquy is The clock struck nine when I did send the nurse, in a half an hour she promised to return” (Traversi, 2015). Similarly, he used soliloquies that also stand to influence many English speakers and writers.

Thus, today, many writers employ the use of this technique to showcase the inner conflict of different characters. Shakespeare was the first English user who seemed to follow the rules of the ancient writers in explaining his tragedies. For example, his tragedy about Romeo and Juliet influenced and continued to impact the English language in the whole world. Almost everywhere, there is mimicry of Shakespeare’s words of thought. In a nutshell, he is still the most influential writer that many people admire and has shaped English structure in great depth.

 

Without Shakespeare’s works, many people would not be in a position to construct different sentences and use phrases such as “thus with a kiss I die” (Traversi, 2015). Also, without Shakespeare’s work, the use of the famous line such as ‘to thine own self be true”, from writer Hamlet would not have been adopted. Due to these facts, it is the reason why Shakespeare continues to be remembered in the whole world. The works of Shakespeare have shed light on varied sentence structures that are used in English writing and communication.

In conclusion, the contribution of Shakespeare through the use of various structural elements like the dramas, sonnets and diction placed him at a better position to influence others on the use of English. In particular, his literary plays have been referred many times than any other writer. The importance of Shakespeare makes the illustration that “A degree in English without Shakespeare is like an M.D. without a course in anatomy, a fact. Therefore, Shakespeare has shaped the culture of speaking English and will remain as a worldwide contributor in English writing speaking and writing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Traversi, D. A. (2015). From an Approach to Shakespeare. In Romeo and Juliet (pp. 13-40). Routledge.

Woods, G. (2016). Hamlet: The play within the play.

 

 

EFFECTS OF TRIPS -PLUS ON THE JORDANIAN IPRs PROTECTION

Overview of the Enforcement of IPRs in Jordan

During the Uruguay Round motion about the provision of a common platform in which the WTO member could use to enforce the IPR of domestic firms, the TRIPS agreement was incorporated into the WTO set of protocols. Legislative reforms were carried out by the WTO members with an objective of laying out rules and regulations that comply with the International standards outlined in the TRIPS[1]. In cases where the new firms from the members, oppose the IPR protection standards that are offered to them, the situation is solved through the Dispute Settlement Understanding scheme by the offending firm and the new firm that is against.

The Dispute Settlement Understanding gives an opportunity for the two parties to develop across agreement where the offending country can be subject to retribution trade validations that fall in another agreement by WTO which is mainly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)[2].Incorporation of TRIPS into the WTO has paved a significant path from the development of standard trade which was something of no concern, in the past years. TRIPS agreement defines the various roles that the member countries need to undertake the way they need to utilize their local boundaries to protect the IPR.

The other two agreements in the WTO give a clean, reliable legal environment that allows universal trade and aim at minimizing the trade barriers in the member countries. The introduction of TRIPS into the WTO was substantially supported by the developing countries which were much pressured by the developed countries. The inclusion of TRIPS opened a reliable channel for the direct access to markets in the developed countries where they can market their agricultural and manufactured products[3].

According to the developed countries, intellectual property was a crucial part of their future trade systems and opposes the IPR levels that existed in their trading partners’ markets. The WTO perception by the innovating firms in these developed countries remains contentious and is seen as the migration of the WTO from an international trade marketer to an agent of majesty collection. TRIPS is of disadvantage at some point because it operates against the WTO agreements by bringing in laws that do not contribute to the global market welfare[4].

There has been a significant impact on global trade about the neoclassical theory of deal because of the profits obtained by the organization from the business. Nevertheless, the cost of protection that has been incurred in the process seems to be constant or goes up with the expansion of the geographical coverage which consequently leads to a marginal IPR protection benefit decrease[5]. To obtain maximum profits, therefore, there is need to have a moderated IPR protection geographic coverage above the level which the global benefits reduce. The disagreement that is posed by this idea is that some member countries should be excused from TRIPS agreement if its main aim is to increase the global welfare.

The TRIPS agreement works in efforts to establish and maintain unity for the IPR regulations among all its member nations. This paper is based on the objective of investigating whether TRIPS has accomplished its goals and what has been its impacts on IPRs protection in Jordan. If the effects it has on the IPR protection and other sectors in Jordan are positive, then the research will have given adequate proof that TRIPS has met its objectives[6]. If its effects cannot be seen to promote welfare, and then the effectiveness of this agreement remains questionable.

Enforcement of IPRs in Jordan

In efforts to improve the intellectual property rights, copyrights, and trademarks, Jordan implemented some laws before joining the World Trade Organizations. TRIPS laws seek for the protection of trade secrets, various plants and counter designs whereby there must be registration of copyrights, trademarks, and patents. In this case, copyrights are required to be recorded with the National library, patients with the registrar of patents and trademarks operating at the industrial ministry supply and trade. Jordan revised its patent and trademark laws in 2007 with the aim of enabling it to access the Madrid treaty concerning patent cooperation and trademarks registration.

By signing the FTA, the enforcement of IPR in Jordan was strengthened, especially in the pharmaceutical sector which entirely operates according to the new TRIPS steady patent law. Jordan has been ranked as the 47th among the 144 countries that are regarding good performance in intellectual property rights in the Middle East North Africa, according to the world report of information technology. The department of custom and public security in Jordan have established units in IPR to implement violations[7]. The Jordan Standards and Metrology Organization have defined laws that have contributed in snatching the fake products entering the market in Jordan based on its authority to safeguard the consumers from illegal products. Occasionally, the government carries out diligent streaks in examining better ways of improving protection of IPR, with the inclusion of a stricter implementation of the existing rules as well as the establishment of a stable IP organization.

In ensuring effective management of intellectual property in Jordan, it is imperative to employ several principles[8]. The first strategy is to lay out a definite policy to protect your intellectual property and the second is that the system used in IP protection in Jordan is different from that of U.S. Another principle is that it is mandatory for the rights to be recorded and registered in Jordan concerning the domestic laws. In this case, one is not protected by the Jordan IPR just because you have the U.S trademarks and copyrights registrations because it is against the country’s laws.

Nevertheless, some states have implemented the offering of protection of copyright for foreign workers which has now been made simpler by world copyright customs and contracts. Issuance of patents and trademarks is based on the first come first served strategy where the first filed trademarks or patents are invented first. It is therefore recommended that one considers registering their mark or copyright before commencing on any trade in the Jordan market.

Firms need to understand the intellectual property is a fundamental privacy right, and therefore the United States governments cannot manage to enforce rights for individuals in Jordan. Rights’ holders own the responsibility of registering, safeguarding and fighting for their rights where necessary[9]. However, companies may decide to look for advice from IP consultants, with a good understanding of the law of Jordan as well as the local attorneys. Despite the governments’ efforts to safeguard the IPR, it is impossible to make the process used if the right holders do not take the responsibility of preserving and implementing the Intellectual property rights on time.

In most countries, right holders who delay in enforcing their rights find themselves in a situation where their rights have been bleached due to reasons such as delays in the prosecution of proceedings[10]. It is advisable for both small and medium-size firms to have a comprehensive understanding of the benefits of partnerships with trade organizations and other associations which seek to protect the Intellectual property and do away with counterfeit goods.

 

The Jordan United States Free Trade Agreement (JUSFTA)

The Jordan United States Free Trade Agreement started operating in the year 2001 on 17th December and works towards progressive minimization of duties and doing away with the obstacles that hinder trade between Jordan and the U.S for the past ten years. JUSTFA provides a conducive environment for productive and profitable business practices through protection of intellectual property rights as well as the incorporation of labor and business-related practices. The US FTA in Jordan bases its operations on a set of flexible rules that allow Jordan to gradually experience developments and improvements in infrastructure, putting it at a top position in the Middle East[11].

The contract complies with eth WTO and entails responsibilities and commitments that allow access of both nations to the international business community. Moreover, it indicates the strong historical bond between the two countries whereby Jordan is presented with a chance to safeguard its payments balance while the US, on the other hand, poses opportunities for easy access to global markets, settlement of disputes and unified mechanisms of consultations.

The treaty is a direct pathway to the identification of new unique trade opportunities and recognizes the rise in the favorable market for international trade and investment in the services and manufacturing businesses. Jordan is positioned at a leading position due to its central location in the Middle East, its resources, trade contracts with the US, and good infrastructure and a wide range of investments. Jordan has a favorable site for various investments in the security, information technology, financial, engineering, tourism, manufacturing, automobile, and infrastructure sectors[12]. Jordan has a favorable position in the competition for consumer products because of the costs of manufacturing and stable industrial policies facilitated by JUSFTA up to the year 2015.

Other additional advantages in Jordan are the telecommunications, data conveyance services, and dissemination, which allow the investing firms from other nations to identify business sites In Jordan for a variety of businesses. The Free trade agreement gives ten-year duration where all duties payable on local goods and the United States should be eliminated. Jordan and the United States have secured specific trade access treaties on the four main modes of supply in the sectors that deal with services[13].

JUSFTA dictates that goods from either US or Jordan should be given special treatment as long as they abide by the 35% domestic value addition as well as providing 15% or less of the content presented by the other country to be added to the 35%. JUSFTA offers security for trademarks, copyrights, geographical indications and the safeguarding of software and pharmaceuticals[14]. Medicines and software are more susceptible to violations, and therefore they require maximum protection. Jordan has made treaties with the World Intellectual Property Organization which have been operational in April 2004 and signed the copyright law of allowing WCT in Jordan. Contracts like this none provide robust security to the TRIPS agreement and accounts for the internet invention.

                                                                 

Enforcement and Implementations of the IP provisions of JUSFTA

In efforts to limit access to the benefits of the agreement, Rules of Origin were explicitly applied to the JUSFTA to determine from what country a product is imported, primarily when

two or more states contribute to its production. Since the United States already has a Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT) with Jordan, the JUSFTA does not include an investment chapter. Since the signing of this treaty, the United States has made similar agreements with other. Countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, such as Bahrain and Morocco, as well as countries outside the MENA regions like Singapore, Australia, and Vietnam[15]. The JUSFTA’s inclusion of terms on labor and the environment became the standard language for all. Future FTAs signed with the United States. However, despite its ground-breaking nature, there

Since 1999, there has been a growing concern that the JUSFTA carries imbalances in the area of IPRs. This has resulted from the Jordanian policymakers’ lack of familiarity with that subject and a lack of internal consultation when Jordan acceded to the WTO and negotiated the JUSFTA. Moreover, the JUSFTA’s inclusion of international standards higher than those under TRIPS ushered Jordan into a new period of what is now known as the TRIPS-plus standard; that is, a level of protection for IPRs higher than that demanded or contemplated by the TRIPS agreement itself.

Additionally, the JUSFTA grants evidentiary presumption for the Owners of copyright and related rights for ownership of the copyright-related Rights, in both civil and criminal cases.  JUSFTA expands the definition of trademarks by entailing geographical indications, even though under the TRIPS trademarks and geographical indications are treated separately (Deere, 2008). Furthermore, the JUSFTA introduced several new obligations in this area, one of them being the commitment to join the treaty about the Madrid Agreement Concerning International Registration of Marks.

The second one is the requirement to give effect to articles 1 through 6 of the Joint Recommendation about the Provisions on the security of famous marks implemented by the Paris assembly concerned with the protection of industrial property and the General Assembly of WIPO[16]. Thirdly is the requirement not to need a recording of trademark licenses to determine the legality of the license or to provide any rights in a trademark. The last one is the requirement to raise the maximum criminal fine to JD 6000, which was included in paragraph 3 of the Memorandum of Understanding between Jordan and the United States.

In the provision of copyrights, JUSFTA has incorporated requirements which include the allowing producers and performers of phonograms to prohibit the broadcasting of their work without their authority[17]. The second one is the Giving right holders the mandate to supervise or control the importation of secured jobs regardless of whether it is authorized or pirated. The last requirement is asking the signatories to withstand technology that might be aimed at weakening the technological strategies applied by producers and performers about the exercise of their rights.

In the provision of the patent, the new patent law that was put in place in 1999 according to the obligations of TRIPS introduced new patent regulations to govern the patent filing process. Besides the duties in the TRIPS agreement, JUSFTA brought about new requirements in the patent filing, one of them being the act of, making available an extended patent term to cover for the patent holder due to curtailment of the patent for no reason due to marketing approval process. The other requirement is the making a commitment to becoming a member of the Patent Cooperation Treaty which Jordan has yet to do.

The Protection of Trademarks, Copyrights, and patents under JUSFTA

The rise has been realized in the help offered to Jordan by the U.S since the mid-1990s in efforts to strengthen the Jordanian economy and maintain economic stability as well as promote healthy relations with Israel. Jordan is focused on achieving maximum benefits from joining JUSFTA including favorable treatment on products that have been exported to the U.S market[18]. JUSFTA offers TRIPS IP law provisions which call for the need to carry out and make regulatory changes which go beyond Jordan agreement concerning WTO, WPPT, WCT access.

JUSFTA’s article number 4 deals with IP and is regarded as the greatest of the entire FTA provisions[19]. The article entails specific provisions which safeguard trademarks, copyrights, related rights, geographical indications, and patents. JUSFTA is concerned with IP enforcement in the inclusion of remedial measures, injunctions, and damages. It also has a memorandum of Understanding about the issues concerning the protection of intellectual property rights specifically regarding copyrights and patent, which is one of the things that Jordan should meet.

Further, some TRIPS-plus provisions in the JUSFTA require Jordan to make IP treaties that are not in the TRIPS agreement. FTAs signed between Arab countries and the US have been noted to contain extensive provisions dealing with various forms of IP which are not controversial from the FTA Jordan. Moreover, some go beyond JUSFTA in demand for a rise in the level of IP protection specifically regarding extending the term of copyright for 50-70 years after the author dies[20]. According to Ahmed Abdel Latif, it is not defined whether the obligations in TRIPS by the national laws develop from conscious, intentional decisions, made by policymakers and legislators. The obligations mostly extend from insufficient legislative advice which the Arab countries receive as they try to modernize their IP laws by particular bilateral donors and global organizations with interest to establish and maintain high standards of intellectual property.

Compatibility of the Current Jordanian IP law with the text of JUSFTA

The MoIT founding dates back to the 1950s. According to its law, it is in charge of regulating the industrial activity in Jordan and preparing the programs aimed at improving its competitiveness. It also takes on the responsibility for the regulation of internal and external trade through monitoring and the preparation of the studies and agreements that serve those purposes. The scope of the MoIT’s significant role in IP administration and enforcement revolves around the IPPD and the JISM.

The IPPD is responsible for supervising the registration and classification of trademarks, designs, layout designs of integrated circuits and patents. The JISM works through the border points to inspect and validate goods bearing a specific logo to assure their authenticity[21]. Nonconforming goods with counterfeit marks are confiscated and destroyed. The IPPD registers trademarks and maintains records of active ones by the requirements of the Trademark Law, which stipulates that a trademark registrar is established to carry out those duties. Similarly, the IPPD houses the registration function for patents, designs and industrial models, and layout designs of integrated circuits as mandated by those respective laws.

By being the registrar for trademarks, patents, designs and industrial models, and integrated circuits, the IPPD is responsible for managing the opposition to trademarks, copyrights, industrial design and integrated courses, as well as, handling trademark cancellation requests[22]. The small number of patents filed and granted raises questions about the feasibility for resource allocation for the development of a patent administration and enforcement system, which would require considerable resources and expertise, mainly if it includes the highly technical patent prosecution phase.

Currently, it seems that Jordan had opted not to allocate considerable resources to a patent administration and examination system, as it is relying on the WIPO and its technical integration into the network of Western world patent offices for the examination and searches of patents. For patents filed outside Jordan, a Jordanian patent award is almost automatic, which explains the surge in the number of international patent applications, as Jordan has become an easy and inexpensive patenting venue. But filing award times can vary, likely due to the dependency on foreign agencies for patent examination, as the Jordanian patent office has only four examiners[23]. The discrepancy between the number of national and international patent filings, with the latter far outstripping the former, can be the result of the weak local research and development spending.

 

Jordanian IPRs Protection

It is believed that the introduction of the minimum standards and massive Intellectual property rights enforcement through a contract of the Trade-related aspects of intellectual property (TRIPS adequately facilitated the major industrialized nations requirements of IPRs. It seems that this agreement smoothened the path for a stronger framework of IPRs. With the failure of seeking TRIPS negotiations, the United States and other developed countries almost commenced the negotiations for the inclusion of increased harmonization, stronger mechanisms of enforcement and the weakening flexibilities as well as expanded coverage.

With many unsuccessful efforts to make the IPRs in TRIPS healthy in the years after its implementation and about the Seattle Ministerial failure in 1999, these countries have changed their focus of these efforts from the multilateral platform to the regional and bilateral free trade agreements. Therefore, as the developing countries make efforts to implement their responsibilities under TRIPS, developed countries were in the process of increasing their IPRs levels through Free Trade Agreements[24]. In this section, the United States is at the top position in the promotion of higher standards of Intellectual Property Rights.

As the US uses a bilateral method to achieve substantial gains, protection, and flexibilities of the developing countries through compressing TRIPS, the view does not entirely capture the general history of Intellectual Property Rights. In focusing on the IP from a broader perspective, it is seen that TRIPS do not account for the agreement on IPRs which was thought to be. Instead, it is just a sample of a more extended process which developed countries involve in regionalism, multilateralism, and bilateralism to boost their interests and safeguard concessions from developed countries.

 

The Effect of Dispute Settlement Process

There have been recent discussions on member’s commitments regarding substantive levels of protection of intellectual property rights which fall under the local laws as well as the process of enforcing them through regional legal strategies. A vital feature in the Trips agreement is that conflicts between governments concerning the abiding by members with the obligations in TRIPS are to be subjected to the dispute settlement system of the World Trade Organizations[25].

The Trips provisions about a settlement of conflicts are recorded in part V of the TRIPS agreement under the title, ‘Dispute Prevention Settlement. ‘Dispute settlement remains a significant aspect of the WTO legal system. There are several TRIPS provisions employed by TRIPS and working strategies that relate to TRIPS concerning transparency, with an objective of preventing disputes that arise between governments[26]. Certain principles are put in place to govern the process of dispute settlement with the inclusion of the WTO jurisdiction, where specific WTO dispute settlement procedures are applied. There is an issue that remains with no solution up to date, about the application of the violation and complaints of situations to disputes settlement under TRIPS Agreement.

Agreements are made in bilateral negotiations by the Members concerned, mostly in capitals, without the inclusion of the dispute settlement procedures of the DSB[27]. Many issues have erupted as a result of reviewing the national TRIPS implementing legislation done by the TRIPS Council. However, these issues rarely get a follow up in dispute settlement proceedings. Despite the inclusion of formal dispute settlement procedures, it is recommendable to develop a mutually acceptable solution consistent with the WTO provisions; to a problem between members. In fact, the settlement rate has so far been quite high in the area of TRIPS. As of July 2011, 29 dispute settlement complaints had been initiated in the WTO in the field of TRIPS and about 23 distinct matters or specific cases. When panel reports are made, they are adopted in ten situations.

Fourteen cases have been settled bilaterally between the parties involved in the dispute; the terms of these settlements are made public and can be valuable in influencing the way others implement the Agreement. As regards the rest, consultations are still pending, or the case becomes inactive. Some of the early TRIPS cases only concerned transitional arrangements. For example, the first TRIPS complaint involved the extent to which sound recordings that had been made before the TRIPS Agreement became applicable had to be protected, two cases that were both settled)[28]. The first two panel and appellate reports were issued on two complaints concerning the so-called mailbox and exclusive marketing rights provisions in paragraphs 8 and 9 of Article 70.

 

The Effects on Access to Pharmaceuticals                                                                         

Following the establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995 and implementation of the TRIPS agreement, the United States (US) made efforts to seek higher levels of intellectual property rights on developing countries, a feature that was named up to today as TRIPS-Plus[29]. The Jordan–US Free Trade Agreement, signed contains several TRIPS rules that prohibit the poor’s access to medicines and is regarded as of many benefits to the by the Us trade representatives and government officials as well as specific pharmaceutical interests.

Some of these benefits include a higher growth rate as well as improved knowledge in generic medicine and innovative research well as the process of creating partnerships with international drug manufacturers.  With the implementation of TRIPS under the World Trade Organization, TRIPS became among the most significant inventions in the effectiveness of multilateral Trade System. Although it offers a moderately high protection standard of the intellectual property rights, the United States keeps on making efforts to heighten the levels of intellectual property rights in developing countries which restrict medicine access to the poor[30]. One of such mechanisms that have been growing since the commencement of the twenty-first century is the bilateral free trade which various developing countries have adopted.

Jordan has been recognized as the first among the Arab countries to join the Free Trade Agreement. There were several rules regarding TRUST plus which were put in place by the Jordan US FTA in spite of the substantial proof which strongly shows TRIPS rules prohibit the access to cheap medicine[31]. The defined set of rules have been seen to have adverse effects for Jordan and the poor in the country The Jordan US FTA is identified among the countries where the idea of globalization has significantly changed the economic nature of the state and benefited the biomedical and pharmaceutical sectors in particular. These benefits are evident in the improved accessibility to drugs to all citizens in Jordan at affordable costs and the availability of international pharmaceutical enterprises in the country[32]. There have been claims about the ability of domestic firms in Jordan to manufacture generic drugs and involve in innovative research in efforts to improve their services to the patients.

Special 301 Report

A unique 301 report was released by the office of the United States Trade Representative in 2017 concerning the intellectual property rights and global development and recognizing the trading partners who possess criminal protection records and enforcement as well as access to the Us market. The report demands the US traders to look into the IP trade hindrances mainly on the countries that are categorized on the priority list. The report also outlines the critical administration trade points to ensure that the US fully acquire a chance to benefit from their intellectual rights all over the world. The rise in theft of intellectual property has led to weak markets and unfairness in trade practices that are harmful to the service providers, innovators and business people, both large and small scale.

There is assured commitment of the administration to use every source available of leverage to motivate other nations to establish their markets to US exports of services and goods as well as the provision of sufficient protection and enforcement of IPRs[33]. Individual elements have been pointed out in the report, one of them being placing China at the priority list regarding the coercive technology requirements, impediments required in effective enforcement of Intellectual property and strong and new Intellectual Property attention. India is also placed on the priority list due to its insufficient improvements in the framework of intellectual property. Another aspect that the report identifies is the rampant piracy and counterfeit goods cases. Trademarks experience counterfeits at both local and global levels which is a significant threat to the producers, the consumers, and the government.

There’s also a detailed focus on the adverse effects of market access of the European Union strategy towards the protection of third party markets and the geographical indications on the United States producers and traders[34]. The last element that the report focuses on is the issue concerning the improvements that have been noted in Pakistan and Spain. Pakistan on its part has established and maintained a recommendable trend in its efforts to change its way of protecting intellectual property. Spain, on the other hand, has been gradually strengthening its laws that govern criminal acts for Intellectual property violation and implied a commitment to eliminating piracy in online sites. The USTR declares that it will keep an eye on the Tajikistan and Colombia progress on their intellectual property issues.

IPR Standards and Foreign Investment Decisions

It is imperative to consider the economic incentives before determining the effects of weak or strong IPRs protection on the choices to make global investments[35]. One of the strategies applied is the Ownership Location Internalization theory which starts by recognizing corporations have ownership benefits such as local firms as liquid assets. Most of the assets employ unique technological forms and informal knowledge which the employees share among themselves, alongside particular skills of organization, quality reputation, and others. Nevertheless, despite recognizing that the benefits of ownership are vital, there are inadequate abroad investments[36]. Most companies that own liquid assets make foreign arm ‘s length trade whereby the international market must provide advantages of location to make the process of establishing a business abroad effective and profit maximizing.

The advantages of location are related to some aspects such as low input prices, high costs of transporting goods, local regulatory environments, distribution networks access and high tariffs. Another consideration is that the process must be of profit for the two parties to make their productions internal instead of selling or leasing their intellectual property rights to the domestic independent companies the foreign country. Advantages of internalization include avoiding the cost of a transaction with the potential licenses, monitoring the inputs and safeguarding the product quality.

The OLI strategy is useful in the identification of impact of IPR to the safeguarding of the firm’s choice to invest overseas. The advantages of ownership are linked to the intellectual assets to the investment in foreign trade. There is only a minor portion of the assets that can be protected by the conventional IPR systems[37]. Nevertheless, the aspect of ownership has two direct effects. On the other hand, the companies that come up with intellectual property have a high probability of engaging in foreign investments.

The Intellectual property right policy has the direct influence on the decision that is made by firms to make foreign investments through the utilization of advantages of ownership. The protection of intellectual property is also seen as an advantage of location because IPRs operate according to territories which make them different across international borders[38]. In consideration of the globalization aspect that we are in, there is the need for the governments to dedicate particular attention to their regulatory environment. IPR protection can also influence a firm’s decision to either make its intellectual assets internal or external.

 

Conclusion

It is a complicated process to try and identify the impacts of changing IPR protection and the economic effects of having robust Intellectual Property protection are still undefined. Having stronger IPR regulations and their implementation can be used in the production of reliable results. Stronger IPR strategies can indicate stronger institutions as well as support from the government from the process of guiding domestic companies towards technological advancement.

 

 

Bibliography

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Anderson, K., & Winters, L. A. The Challenge of Subsidies and Trade Barriers.

Bird, R. C. (2009). Developing nations and the compulsory license: maximizing access to essential medicines while minimizing investment side effects. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics37(2), 209-221.

Breitwieser, A. (2010). Intellectual property rights and economic growth (Doctoral dissertation, unified).

Cheng, T. K. (2012). A Developmental Approach to the Patent-Antitrust Interface. Nw. J. Int’l L. & Bus.33, 1.

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Deere, C. (2008). The implementation game: the TRIPS Agreement and the global politics of intellectual property reform in developing countries. OUP Oxford.

Di Vita, G. (2013). The TRIPs agreement and technological innovation. Journal of Policy Modeling35(6), 964-977.

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Frankel, S., & Gervais, D. (2013). Plain Packaging and the Interpretation of the TRIPS Agreement. Vand. J. Transnat’l L.46, 1149.

Kale, D., & Wield, D. (2008). Exploitative and explorative learning as a response to the TRIPS agreement in Indian pharmaceutical firms. Industry and Innovation15(1), 93-114.

Koff, A. W., Baughman, L. M., Francois, J. F., & McDaniel, C. A. (2011). Study on the Economic Impact of “TRIPS-Plus” Free Trade Agreements. International Intellectual Property Institute, Washington, DC Available at http://iipi. org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/IIPI-USPTO-TRIPS-Plus-Study-10-Aug-2011. Pdf

Li, X. (2008). The impact of higher standards in patent protection for pharmaceutical industries under the trips agreement–a comparative study of China and India. The World Economy31(10), 1367-1382.

Maskus, K. E. (2012). Private rights and public problems: the global economics of intellectual property in the 21st century. Peterson Institute.

Park, W. G. (2008). International patent protection: 1960–2005. Research Policy37(4), 761-766.

Schwartz, C., Baughman, L. M., Francois, J. F., & McDaniel, C. A. (2012). Technical Assistance for Intellectual Property Right Protection: Effects on US Exports.

Sieber-Gasser, C. (2016). Developing Countries and Preferential Services Trade (Vol. 25). Cambridge University Press.

Yang, B. (2010). An analysis of the impact of intellectual property rights on Chinese students. Liberty University.

Yu, P. K. (2009). The objectives and principles of the TRIPS agreement. Hous. L. Rev.46, 979.

[1] Koff, A. W., Baughman, L. M., Francois, J. F., & McDaniel, C. A. (2011). Study on the Economic Impact of “TRIPS-Plus” Free Trade Agreements. International Intellectual Property Institute, Washington, DC Available at http://iipi. org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/IIPI-USPTO-TRIPS-Plus-Study-10-Aug-2011. Pdf

[2] Sieber-Gasser, C. (2016). Developing Countries and Preferential Services Trade (Vol. 25). Cambridge University Press.

 

[3] Sieber-Gasser, C. (2016). Developing Countries and Preferential Services Trade (Vol. 25). Cambridge University Press.

[4] Bird, R. C. (2009). Developing nations and the compulsory license: maximizing access to essential medicines while minimizing investment side effects. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics37(2), 209-221.

[5] Kale, D., & Wield, D. (2008). Exploitative and explorative learning as a response to the TRIPS agreement in Indian pharmaceutical firms. Industry and Innovation15(1), 93-114.

[6] Schwartz, C., Baughman, L. M., Francois, J. F., & McDaniel, C. A. (2012). Technical Assistance for Intellectual Property Right Protection: Effects on US Exports.

[7] Park, W. G. (2008). International patent protection: 1960–2005. Research Policy37(4), 761-766.

[8] Park, W. G. (2008). International patent protection: 1960–2005. Research Policy37(4), 761-766.

[9] DAILY, J. E., KIEFF, F. S., & WILMARTH JR, A. E. (2014). Introduction. In Perspectives on Financing Innovation (pp. 13-16). Routledge.

[10] Yang, B. (2010). An analysis of the impact of intellectual property rights on Chinese students. Liberty University.

[11] Park, W. G. (2008). International patent protection: 1960–2005. Research Policy37(4), 761-766.

[12] Sieber-Gasser, C. (2016). Developing Countries and Preferential Services Trade (Vol. 25). Cambridge University Press.

[13] Yu, P. K. (2009). The objectives and principles of the TRIPS agreement. Hous. L. Rev.46, 979.

[14] Sieber-Gasser, C. (2016). Developing Countries and Preferential Services Trade (Vol. 25). Cambridge University Press.

[15] Deere, C. (2008). The implementation game: the TRIPS Agreement and the global politics of intellectual property reform in developing countries. OUP Oxford.

[16] Deere, C. (2008). The implementation game: the TRIPS Agreement and the global politics of intellectual property reform in developing countries. OUP Oxford.

[17] Sieber-Gasser, C. (2016). Developing Countries and Preferential Services Trade (Vol. 25). Cambridge University Press.

[18] Frankel, S., & Gervais, D. (2013). Plain Packaging and the Interpretation of the TRIPS Agreement. Vand. J. Transnat’l L.46, 1149.

[19] Schwartz, C., Baughman, L. M., Francois, J. F., & McDaniel, C. A. (2012). Technical Assistance for Intellectual Property Right Protection: Effects on US Exports.

 

[20] Schwartz, C., Baughman, L. M., Francois, J. F., & McDaniel, C. A. (2012). Technical Assistance for Intellectual Property Right Protection: Effects on US Exports.

 

[21] Kale, D., & Wield, D. (2008). Exploitative and explorative learning as a response to the TRIPS agreement in Indian pharmaceutical firms. Industry and Innovation15(1), 93-114.

[22] Cheng, T. K. (2012). A Developmental Approach to the Patent-Antitrust Interface. Nw. J. Int’l L. & Bus.33, 1.

[23] Breitwieser, A. (2010). Intellectual property rights and economic growth (Doctoral dissertation, unified).

[24] Frankel, S., & Gervais, D. (2013). Plain Packaging and the Interpretation of the TRIPS Agreement. Vand. J. Transnat’l L.46, 1149.

[25] Anderson, K., & Winters, L. A. (2008). The challenge of reducing international trade and migration barriers (No. 6760). World Bank Publications.

[26] Park, W. G. (2008). International patent protection: 1960–2005. Research Policy37(4), 761-766.

[27] Anderson, K., & Winters, L. A. The Challenge of Subsidies and Trade Barriers.

[28] Park, W. G. (2008). International patent protection: 1960–2005. Research Policy37(4), 761-766.

[29] Bird, R. C. (2009). Developing nations and the compulsory license: maximizing access to essential medicines while minimizing investment side effects. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics37(2), 209-221.

[30] El‐Said, H., & El‐Said, M. (2007). TRIPS‐Plus implications for access to medicines in developing countries: lessons from Jordan–United States Free Trade Agreement. The Journal of world intellectual property, 10(6), 438-475.

[31] Bird, R. C. (2009). Developing nations and the compulsory license: maximizing access to essential medicines while minimizing investment side effects. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics37(2), 209-221.

[32] Li, X. (2008). The impact of higher standards in patent protection for pharmaceutical industries under the trips agreement–a comparative study of China and India. The World Economy31(10), 1367-1382.

[33] Breitwieser, A. (2010). Intellectual property rights and economic growth (Doctoral dissertation, unified).

[34] Breitwieser, A. (2010). Intellectual property rights and economic growth (Doctoral dissertation, unified).

[35] Koff, A. W., Baughman, L. M., Francois, J. F., & McDaniel, C. A. (2011). Study on the Economic Impact of “TRIPS-Plus” Free Trade Agreements. International Intellectual Property Institute, Washington, DC Available at http://iipi. org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/IIPI-USPTO-TRIPS-Plus-Study-10-Aug-2011. Pdf

[36] Yang, B. (2010). An analysis of the impact of intellectual property rights on Chinese students. Liberty University.

[37] Di Vita, G. (2013). The TRIPs agreement and technological innovation. Journal of Policy Modeling35(6), 964-977.

[38] Maskus, K. E. (2012). Private rights and public problems: the global economics of intellectual property in the 21st century. Peterson Institute.

Suicide and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is an ailment characterized by extreme tiredness that cannot be related to any underlying mental cause. Often, the fatigue gets worse after mental or physical activity. CFS is also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis or ME (Brues, 2013). Often there is contention about the two terms; however, many scientists refer to is as CFS/ME. People suffering from this ailment often suffer a wide range of symptoms. They vary from headaches, sore throat, dizziness, heart palpitations, sleep problems, muscle and joint pain and problems with concentration. The cause of this disease is unknown. However, several causes have been theorized to cause it.  These include hormonal imbalance, mental health problems, low immune system, bacteria infection such as pneumonia and viral infections (Sandoiu, 2017). Additionally, genes also seem to be a critical cause as well.

Recent studies published in the Lancet medical journal indicate that there is a correlation between the disease and incidence of suicide. Suicide is a common phenomenon when dealing with mental health issues, which is a potential cause of chronic fatigue syndrome. The findings show that persons suffering from CFS are six times more probable to commit suicide than those who did not have the disease. This number is significant.  The study, which was conducted over a seven-year period with more than 2000 participants, led to these findings (Kupar, 2016). However, many scientists claim that the data here is merely statistical and does not indicate whether the suicide is as a result of the disease itself or other ailments that come as a result of the condition. Nonetheless, it is undeniable that there is a correlation between the disease and incidence of suicide among its patients (Kupar, 2016). This report seeks to explore the causes of suicide in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and possible remedies that can significantly reduce the number of people who use this channel to alleviate their suffering.

The decision to take one’s life is never an easy one. It comes from feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness from not being able to enjoy the pleasures of life as one is supposed to. It is difficult for the general population to understand the ongoing thoughts and processes in the mind of a suicidal person before they get to take their lives (Fisher, 2015). This lack of understanding does not take away the fact that these people indeed suffer the grave indignity of finding a way to escape from the pain and obscurity engulfing their lives by seeking out death as the ultimate solution.

According to McManimen (2016), persons with chronic fatigue syndrome have an elevated risk of suicide compared with the general population. Moreover, they have an earlier mortality as compared to patients with terminal diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. This study analyzed the death of 56 ME patients. The resultant data indicated that while the average age for suicide in America was 47.4, those with ME had an average of 41.3. Of all the patients in the study, a significant 26.8 percent died from suicide. These findings indicate that indeed this ailment elevates the risk for suicide. Moreover, it was found that the risk of suicide was higher in male patients than in females. The difference between the two genders mirrors the general population (McManimen, 2016).

Collinge (2018) states two critical areas that result in emotional turmoil in patients offering from chronic fatigue syndrome.  One, the patient has to adjust and make significant life changes as they adjust to living with the disease. The inability to be active and sometimes confined to one location for a long period can be deliberating. One may have to adjust to having a caretaker and this takes away some of the independence that one has.  Secondly, the disease has a somato-psychic effect on the body. As the disease progresses, it affects the neurological system and alters that balance of chemicals in the body.  A study by the Georgetown University School of Medicine in 2016 examined the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with CFS and compared them to healthy controls. The study indicated that patients with CFS showed 12 diminished miRNAs after 24 hours of exercise (Sandoiu, 2017). This element is responsible for regulating protein production in the body. This reduction could explain the lethargy in chronic fatigue syndrome patients. This study therefore concluded that this malaise is not a neurological disorder but a distinct illness. Another study also showed that CFS could be caused by deficits in white matter in the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus or OFOF. The volumes of the white matter deteriorated at an abnormal rate (Sham, 2016).

One of the major downsides of having CFS is the ability not to engage in activities in a more interactive and active manner (Brues, 2013). Due to symptoms such as pain and the fatigue, patients often find themselves confined to wheelchairs, bed and even their homes for long durations. The person may feel frustrated, as they are not able to go about on their activities as they did before the illness. Resultantly, one may encounter thoughts of hopelessness and anger, which may cause them to resent living. The lack of energy and enthusiasm may shatter the patient causing him to become depressed and suffer from mood disorders.

Janssens (2015) conducted a study to determine the prevalence rate of psychiatric disorders between individuals suffering from irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. The study had 94516 participants.  The studies indicated that people suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome had higher incidences of mood and anxiety disorders as compared to their counterparts who had other illnesses that were part of the investigation.  However, they had a lower incidence of major depressive disorder.  The presence of mood disorders indicates a risk of suicidal ideation. According to Nierenberg (2001), mood disorders such as bipolar and unipolar major depression cause persons to suffer an unacceptable risk of death by completed suicide. The position of this study is supported by findings by Isometsa (2014) that hold the position that, about a half to two-thirds of all persons who commit suicide suffer from mood disorders that are under treated, undiagnosed or ineffectively managed. By CFS resulting or having co-occurring mental illness problems, it provides credence to reports that support the link between it and suicide.

One of the major problems that have been for long associated with CFS is the lack of understanding and stigma associated with the disease. Some of its critics argue that persons who are suffering from the diseases have been afflicted by shirkers syndrome. This is a condition whereby one claims to be ill to avoid working or taking part in physical activity. Those who do not understand the condition, may often tell persons with CFS that they are faking it or having an imaginary disease. Not only does this disparage the severity of the disease, but it also causes more turmoil and frustration in the patient. The resulting stigma and condemnation may lead the patient to suicide especially if they do not have a strong social support system.

There is a glaring lack of support for persons with CFS. One of the major reasons is that despite there being advances in science that has increased the knowledge pool about the disease, often these patients get misdiagnosed. The symptoms of the disease largely mimic other conditions such as lupus, Lyme disease, multiple sclerosis and mononucleosis among others (Kupar, 2016). Given that the treatment and management of these ailments is characteristically different from that of chronic fatigue syndrome, many patients may not have effective treatment that increases their frustration with the illness. On the other hand, unlike these other ailments, some medical bodies are yet to recognize CFS in their programs. In Australia, for instance, the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) still fails to affirm this malaise as part of its recognized conditions. Some argue that this failure is a result of lack of concession by doctors that CFS is a real disease (Sandoiu, 2017). The NDIS claims that chronic fatigue syndrome patients are insufficiently incapacitated and thus do not qualify for support. Such procedures greatly disenfranchise those who have this condition. Furthermore, they have little access to financial, medical and social support which is critical in making people with the disease live better and with dignity.

Due to the nature of chronic fatigue syndrome, patients often encounter social isolation. Because they have low energy and are lethargic, patients might not be in a position to engage in lengthy social interactions (Fisher, 2015). As such, they will be isolated from society, which may have negative implications of the mental heath of individuals.  Socializing satisfies the human need to be part of a society and something bigger than themselves.  It is a fundamental need according to the hierarchy of needs. The lack of it is likely to cause mental illness, negative thoughts and sleep problems (Fisher, 2015). These three outcomes are at the heart of chronic fatigue syndrome. Reducing interactions with others in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome may cause loneliness and result in suicidal thoughts and actions.

Again, CFS causes sleep problems. Patients often site sleep disorders ranging from excessive sleep, inability to stay asleep, insomnia, non-refreshing sleep, narcolepsy and sleep apnea.  Sleep is an important part of the body functions. Not only does it allow the body to rest and rejuvenate but it is also critical in maintaining the brain chemistry and hormonal balance of the body (Brues, 2013).  When a person has little or excess sleep over a long time, they may become irritable, sensitive to pain and moody. The lack of sleep may cause hallucinations and result in psychotic episodes for these patients further worsening their conditions. When one does not have enough sleep, they lack energy to perform everyday duties. For patients with chronic fatigue syndrome this may create self-defeating cycle. These sleep disruptions are also common in suicidal individuals. The Diagnostic Statistic Manual or DSM instructs doctors to ask patients about their sleeping patterns (Fisher, 2015). Personal with mood disorders have sleep problems and this is a risk for suicide. The lack of sleep inhibits the process or neurogenesis, which is critical in specific brain regions that deal with cognitive abilities and regulation of emotions. Both these functions are severely impaired in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome and may predispose the patient to depression and suicide. Often sleep problems precipitate depression and then suicide. For a CFS patient, their condition and predisposition to mood and cognitive disorders may push their transition through these stages at a much faster rate than healthy people may.

Additionally, chronic fatigue syndrome is known to be accompanied by chronic pain. Pain is often a result of swollen lymph nodes and muscles. This discomfort impairs the ability of the patient to move or perform tasks in the manner in which they were previously accustomed. In extreme cases, the person may become immobile. Pain often causes people to seek out suicide as a relief particularly if they have an incurable malaise such as chronic fatigue syndrome (Brues, 2013). The constant pain restricts them to certain activities and medications. Dealing with physical pain may drive one to depression as a result of frustration and distress (Fisher, 2015). Moreover, symptoms such as problem with sleeping patterns that is associated with chronic fatigue syndrome causes people to become more sensitive to pain since the body does not rest and it is not able to repair or heal inflamed parts of the body that cause the pain. This constant pain leads to suicidal deaths especially if medication is ineffective.

It is critical to create awareness on the relationship between suicide and chronic fatigue syndrome. Active denial is disenfranchising millions of deserving patients who require support to manage the disease. The prevalence of suicide among patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome is worrying and requires more consideration among the medical community. Consequently, it is imperative to accept that chronic fatigue syndrome is an actual disease that affects millions of people around the world (Sandoiu, 2017). It is essential to create support systems that allow these ailing individuals to receive support and empathy as they adjust to their ailments. Social support is a critical part of preventing suicidal ideation and death. Sufferers of CFS can become socially isolated and this may cause loneliness and negative thoughts. They may be unwilling to engage with others at a time when they need social support the most.

Due to evidence that dictates there is a link between CFS and mood disorders, it is essential to offer psychological counselling and cognitive behavioral therapy as tools to facilitate these ailing individuals react better in their circumstances (Brues, 2013). It is essential to offer those techniques and healthy coping mechanisms that will enable them to become more productive and efficient in their lives.  It is important that patients be informed that even though they do not have a cure for the disease, how they think about it can improve their outcomes and help them lead more fulfilling lives. This change in thought may drastically reduce their likelihood to commit suicide. On the other hand, those around chronic fatigue syndrome patients need to be keen on the behavioral changes of the patient. They must note any suicidal behaviors and take on medical help at the earliest stage. The patient, again, must be in a position to self evaluate and identify any mood or change in sleeping patterns that may worsen their depression or create suicidal thoughts.

In conclusion, it is clear that chronic fatigue syndrome and suicide are intricately linked. This link can be traced down to the chemicals changes in the brain as well as the emotional turmoil that results from having to adjust to the disease.  CFS increases incidence of suicide by six fold. This number is significant but with effective management can be reduced. On the other hand, co-occurring diseases such as mood disorders are likely to cause patients to have suicidal tendencies particularly if they have bipolar, depression or personality disorders. As such, these conditions need effective treatment to reduce incidences of suicide. Moreover, effectiveness in managing any illness begins with the ability to recognize the severity or the problem. Unfortunately, CFS has for long been seen as an imaginary ailment and this discourages many people from seeking and accessing the help that they need. The stigma attached to this ailment has the ability to increase hopelessness and social exclusion of patients causing a rise in suicide. With more evidence on the realism of this condition, this could tilt the scales in favor of patients and help them get the support they need to avoid seeking suicide as a potential solution to their suffering.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Brues, M. (2013, 01 15). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: How Does It Affect Sleep? Retrieved from The Huffington Post : https://www.huffingtonpost.com/dr-michael-j-breus/chronic-fatigue-sleep_b_2441869.html

Fisher, T. (2015, 10 21). The Disturbing Relationship Between Sleep, Depression and Suicide . Retrieved from Van Winkles : https://vanwinkles.com/the-confusing-relationship-between-insomnia-depression-and-suicide

Isometsä, E. (2014). Suicidal behaviour in mood disorders—who, when, and why?. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 59(3), 120-130.

Janssens, K., Zijlema, W., Joustra, M., & Rosmalen, J. (2015). Mood and anxiety disorders in chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome. Results from LifeLines. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 78(6), 604.

Jylhä, P., Rosenström, T., Mantere, O., Suominen, K., Melartin, T., Vuorilehto, M., … & Isometsä, E. T. (2016). Personality disorders and suicide attempts in unipolar and bipolar mood disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, 190, 632-639.

Kapur, N., & Webb, R. (2016). Suicide risk in people with chronic fatigue syndrome. The Lancet, 387(10028), 1596-1597.

McManimen, S. L., Devendorf, A. R., Brown, A. A., Moore, B. C., Moore, J. H., & Jason, L. A. (2016). Mortality in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome. Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior, 4(4), 195-207.

Nierenberg, A. A., Gray, S. M., & Grandin, L. D. (2001). Mood disorders and suicide. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 11(2), 213-219.

Sandoiu, A. (2017, 11 13). Chronic fatigue syndrome: Changes in brain chemistry found. Retrieved from Medical News Today: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/320051.php

Shan, Z. Y., Kwiatek, R., Burnet, R., Del Fante, P., Staines, D. R., Marshall‐Gradisnik, S. M., & Barnden, L. R. (2016). Progressive brain changes in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: A longitudinal MRI study. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 44(5), 1301-1311.

The History of Slavery and Its Impact on Contemporary Hip-Hop Music

Introduction

Music is a dynamic topic that runs across different area, from genre, origin, instruments, etc. For contemporary American music, for example, different genres come to mind such as hip-hop, jazz, rock and blues For the Latina, salsa, samba and compa and for the Caribbean, it is genres such as mentor and reggae. Music is a form of art that acts as a symbol for culture, identity and above all it signifies the stories and the history that is behind the expression of different feelings depending on the creator’s state of mind (Washington, 2018). Music is an art form that has been found to be effective in soothing the mind, promoting unity in people who identify with the same culture and creating and preserving history. The use of music dates as far back as the Stone Age period when man used different forms of art as a form of recreation. More specifically, American music dates as far back as the discovery of language with genres such as jazz and blues being developed. One of the most common genres of American music, hip hop, is associated mostly with the African American community with most of the best hip hop artists being black. Hip hop music is specifically associated with slave trade which was the major cause of the migration and settlement of black people in America. This settlement resulted in the development of a new genre of music, (hip hop) that has grown to become one of the most popular music genres in the world. Slavery can therefore be termed as a factor that has had a profound impact on contemporary hip-hop music.

 

 

 

 

 

History of hip hop music

American hip hop has grown to become one of the most famous music genres in the 21st century. Hip hop is identified with the common phrase rap, which dates back to the 14th and 15th century in Britain where it was used to refer to a strike or a hit. Rap was later introduced to America a few centuries later with a slight modification to imply that someone was speaking or having a conversation in the black community slang. Rapping is the main aspect of hip hop and its roots are said to have been in Africa “griots” where hand-made instruments used by story tellers were used during social events to increase the flow of their stories (Naison, 2008). This aspect of speaking while playing instruments was the root to rapping and the first form of hip hop ever depicted.

During the trans-Atlantic slave trade period, Africans made music even in the most difficult circumstances. A ship captain, Theodore Cannot, during the 1800, described how the Africa slaves were always engaging in music. The Africans would unite in making African music and playing improvised instruments such as tin kettles (Sundquist, 2006). Although slaves were from different communities in Africa, and did not share in culture and language, they united in their African hymns. To the slave traders, it was hard to understand how Africans could communicate in different languages through their music. It gave the Africans a sense of unity and enabled them to identify with each other.

During the period of the slave trade, many Africans were transported from their home continent to different continents, with the largest numbers being taken to America. The African slaves, who came to America, brought with them their culture of music and griots which they used as a coping mechanism during these times of pain, hunger and mistreatment. Through the slave trade, African music, culture and language was integrated with the American culture resulting to modification of various aspects of life such as music (Sundquist, 2006). As a result, a new language, African American Slang was established and a different genre of music, hip hop, created. Africans used the call to answer singing method while working in the American fields, and by so doing, developed their music genre.

Slavery made it possible for African slaves to create their own music and identify with it. Hip hop music has been identified as the genre with the closest relation to traditional slave narratives. Just like the Slave narratives, hip hop is more than the lyrics, for any individual songs. In slavery, Africans had very little freedom, if any, to be involved in any other activities other than those stipulated by their masters. The role of a slave was to ensure that they carried out all the duties delegated to them and show complete commitment and respect to their American masters. Their lack of freedom was not only in their physical involvement but extended to their right to speech and freedom of expression. Under these circumstances, their slavery narratives were not supposed to have any direct implication that they were undergoing any neglect or mistreatment or unlawful punishments from their masters (Sundquist, 2006). Most of their narratives were in coded metaphors and symbolism, and in most cases, in languages that the Americans had very little or no understanding of. Slaves used their own jargon to share information and the same was done in the composition of these narratives. Modern hip hop, in the same way, identifies with slavery narratives on the grounds that most of the lyrics in the songs have coded messages and unique slang language that can only be understood by people who identify with the music genre. For example, one of the most common phrases in hip hop today include “nigga” and “bitch” (Coleman et a., 2016). In the hip hop music industry, these are words that can be used to express different emotion, both of love and anger, depending on the context they are used. However, a person with little understanding of the hip hop language will view these two words with the traditional meanings which are deemed offensive and inappropriate in the community especially when used to refer to a person.

Understanding of slavery narratives and hip hop are both based on culture. Slaves would in some cases exchange sentiments of their songs and narratives to oppose the real meaning of their lyrics. When singing about oppression or the unfair conditions of their slavery, slaves would use tunes that implied that they were singing songs of joy (Sundquist, 2006). This made sure that only the slaves identified with their true emotions since they all share deep cultural backgrounds and had a good understanding of the situation they were facing. Hip hop uses the same strategy in passing its message. Hip hop, just like most of the 20th and 21st centuries music genres, it identifies with loud beats and controversial words. This is often met with a lot of controversy and since most of the words used are deemed inappropriate by the society, people often fail to decipher the real emotions that are attributed to the music.

The reason behind slavery music, poetry and narrative was to help the slaves in freely expressing their opinion in ways that was unique and exclusive to their society. It paved way for African slaves to identify with each other, and create their own history that was not based on the American culture. Through African slaves, the African-American community was created, a new language (slang) established and it eventually contributed to the development of a new community, the black American people in the American continents. Looking at a different perspective, slavery made it possible for Africans to live in different continents worldwide but slavery songs made it possible for the slaves to work through the struggles of slavery and made it possible for a the African-American community, which identifies significantly with the existence of hip hop,

Hip hop and rap music is often used as a media for expression of feelings and situations, and for the African-American community, rap in the 1970’s was one of the ways that was most effective in fighting against color and race discrimination. Music based on slave trade was used as a symbol of the oppression that slaves used to undergo, and as African –American music continued to grow in the music industry, it transitioned to how their ancestors and prior generations had fought to rise above slave trade into an independent community that identified with its own culture (Bradley, 2016). The trend continued to grow as black Americans continued to identify with each other as a community. The allegiance that existed during the slavery era continued manifesting itself through the black American culture and music.

Slavery narratives and songs represented the fight and endurance that slaves had portrayed while hip hop today represents a culture of power and money, especially for the black community. The slavery era represented an era of communism which was manifested in the way that different communities identified with each other. Currently, the society is a representation of capitalism more than communism. However, much the society has changed in terms of communism and capitalism, the African American music still represents consistency. It portrays the fight of the saves, the settlement into a new land with different believes and culture, their fight to be given their specific rights and eventually it portrays the eventual success of their events (Brooten & Hazelton, 2010). Their music, represents their different transitions, growth and change through different eras in history and creates unique representation of the African American history (Emdin, 2010).

Hip hop, just like slavery music represents the struggle of the African –American community. One of the most famous hip hop artists, Rick Ross, sang a song, “Hustling”, which focuses on the act of obtaining money often in crafty ways. For slaves, the reason why it was difficult for them to free themselves was because they lacked the resources to do so and they were identified as a minority group due to their skin-color. In the United States, today, many decades after the end of the slave trade, the African-American people still represent the highest number of unemployed people in the country. Songs like “hustling” represent the reality of the African-American community in the world today, who after decades of struggle to gain independence and earn full rights as citizens, are still treated like minorities with very little rights.

Slavery lessened the importance for education for the slaves, and the effect of this is still felt in the choice of occupation for African- Americans. The indirect implications of slavery included that the role of colored people was to make money for white people (Riley, 2018). While white people had privileges such as going to school, choosing a career and getting families of their desire, black people were expected to work, had no right to education and only had the privilege to marry people of color. The perception that black people’s role in the society was to work and make money was slowly implanted into the African culture and eventually it became their identity. As a result, the black community focused to careers such as music (hip hop and rap) that required very little or no education. African –Americans are identified with music and dance in the society today while white people are identified with office jobs and educational professions. Tyga, a hip hop artist once snag that he “made college money, without college” he was a “post traumatic slave”. These lyrics were in collaboration with the famous theory by Dr. Joy DeGruy Leary who identified the hip hop community with post-traumatic stress disorder that in this case made them Post traumatic slaves. The diminished focus on education for the African-American generation made it possible for most of the youth to focus on art such as music as a source of income as opposed to their learning related occupations (Dwyer, 2012). In America today, most of the richest black people are hip hop musicians and the hip hop dream continues to be common for most young back people. Slavery made the black people to believe that they were better in working and earning money than they were at other things (Riley, 2018). In the process of earning their living in the society, most black people end up joining the music industry, and identifying with the hip hop industry.

Slavery created Black English, an African American vernacular English language that identified with the African American people. It represented the unity that was developed in the African people who were from different but who had gone through similar circumstances. This Black English is enhanced and spread through hip hop, which teaches language that is unique and specific as an African American expression (Emdin, 2010). It continues an African American cultural language that would have been forgotten with the end of slave trade. Hip hop and slavery promote the development of a unique black culture and preserve the history of the black American community in America.

Slave trade is associated with a vast number of negative and positive impacts. Among the most common positive impact of slavery, music continues to be one of the effects that has surpassed different historical eras and has developed to fit into the different cultural economic and political conditions while still maintaining its relevance. Hip hop continues to identify, not only with different historical events, but also with the African American language and culture. The African people engagement in music contributed to the development of black music and its incorporation into the amerce culture.  Slavery made it possible for the black community to identify with each other through music and consequently contributed to the development of hip hop music as an identity of the African American community.

 

 

 

References

Bradley, R. N. (2016). Re-Imagining Slavery in the Hip-Hop Imagination. South: A Scholarly Journal, 49(1), 3-24.

Brooten, B. J., Hazelton, J. L., & (2010). Beyond slavery: Overcoming its religious and sexual legacies. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Coleman, M. N., Butler, E. O., Long, A. M., & Fisher, F. D. (2016).  In and out of love with hip-hop: saliency of sexual scripts for young adult African American women in hip-hop and Black-oriented television. Culture, Health & Sexuality [Cult Health Sex], 18 (10), 1165-79

Dwyer, J. I. (2012). Darkest America: Black Minstrelsy from Slavery to HipHop. Library Journal, 137 (11), 89-90.

Emdin, C. (2010). Urban science education for the hip-hop generation. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Naison, Mark. (2008). Hip Hop and Oral History: Turning Students into “Griots for a New Age”. OAH Magazine of History, 22(3), 46-48.

Riley, R. (2018). The Burden: African Americans and the Enduring Impact of Slavery. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.

Sundquist, E. J. (2006). Empire and slavery in American literature, 1820-1865. Jackson: Univ. Press of Mississippi.

Washington, A. R. (2018). Integrating Hip-Hop Culture and Rap Music into Social Justice Counseling with Black Males. Journal of Counseling & Development, 96 (1), 97-105.

Music in the 1920’s and 1930’s

What were some of the most popular musical styles from the 1920’s and 1930’s?

The most popular musical styles in 1920 and 1930 were Jazz and Blues. The 64-bar show tune, the romantic ballad and the tenor sax dominated the East Side Style, (Mordden 16). Another style that was used was Scat singing.

Who were some of the blues and/or Jazz musicians?

At the beginning of 1920, Jazz music had started progressing and was fueled by the prohibition of alcohol to some extent. In Chicago, jazz scene developed very fast as a result of immigration of jazzmen (Naumann and Aoseley 87).  Some of the jazz musicians included, Paul Whiteman who recorded a subgenre known as Whispering. Other jazz musicians included Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong. Blues music was also played during the period by musicians such as Mamie Smith who recorded Crazy Blues.

What were the most songs about?

Jazz had its roots in work songs, blues, field holler, and spirituals. Some were gospel and other songs were about love.

What was the difference between white music and black music?

The main difference between white music and black music was the instruments used to play the music (Randle 67). Many Africans and Hispanic Americans had fewer instruments, teachers, and opportunities as opposed to the white musicians.

 

Works Cited

Mordden, Ethan. Make belief: the Broadway musical in the 1920s. Oxford University Press, 1997.

Naumann, Emil, and F. A. Gore Ouseley. The history of music. Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Randle, William. “Black Entertainers on Radio, 1920-1930.” The Black Perspective in Music, vol. 5, no. 1, 1977, p. 67., doi:10.2307/1214359.

 

 

Works Cited

Davis, Nancy J., and Robert V. Robinson. Sociological Perspectives. Pearson Custom Pub., 2009.

Jarvis, Peter. Globalisation, lifelong learning and the learning society: sociological perspectives. Routledge, 2008.