Non-Profit Management Context: Middle East & Northern Africa

 

 

 

Non-Profit Management Context Middle East and Northern Africa

Student Name

Professor

Institution

April 14, 2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-Profit Management Context Middle East and Northern Africa (Research Paper)

Introduction (300 words)

  • Nonprofit organization (NPO) is an institution created with no business or profit intentions but seeks to develop and sustain and social issue through crafting collaborative efforts to alleviate challenges and problems
  • Majority nonprofits in the world focus on poverty eradication, provision of education facilities in the less developed countries, provision of better health, creating an inclusive society, advocating for human rights for the oppressed in dictatorial society, and creating a place for women and disadvantaged social groups
  • The increase in specific social and health problems such as untreatable diseases, poverty, hunger, floods, political oppression, and poor economic levels has led to growth of specific nonbusiness entity that focus of such particular issues
  • Majority of NPOs rely on contributions from volunteers and donors to meet their objectives. However, large international nonprofits operate under parent organizations that may be business entities. The huge donors in these NPOs include global multinationals such as Walmart, Toyota, Apple, Facebook, and Google that allocate some of their profits to charities and humanitarian aid
  • Africa still remains the region with the highest number of nonprofits organizations followed by the Latin America and middle east. Most of the prominent NPOs in the world are based in America and Europe
  • By the end of 2017, the NPO activities in Middle East and Northern Africa focused on education, poverty, health, and housing.
  • These efforts have been complimented by the entry of Asian nonprofit institution that are focused on provision of solar power to support learning and environment conservation

Historical development of nonprofits in the Middle East and North Africa (800 words)

  • The influx of nonprofits in Middle east and North Africa dates back to the period after independence. The social, political, and economical systems in most countries were unstable and requiring external aid that developed countries provided. However, the population that lived in rural and remote areas lacked essential services and commodities such water, food, sanitation, education, and health facilities. The plight of women and children facilitate the entry of NPOs in these regions to offer supportive services through collaboration with governments and local social institutions
  • Middle East attracted more nonprofits that focused on the human rights for women and the girl child. The strict religions and fundamentalist believes as well as civil wars in the regions denied women and children access to basic services such as education and health care. These institutions sought to engage the governments and political administration to expand the facilities and provide more avenues for women and children to participate in the economic and political lives
  • While the operations of these NPOs are still challenged due to the civil and political unrest, they have continued to influence the position of women in in the society. Importantly, regional organizations have provided support in education and healthcare services leading to improvement of education levels in the middle east countries
  • On the other hand, northern Africa has posted similar challenge over the years with Libya, Egypt, and Tunisia involved in significant political unrests that have results in wars and other conflicts. The religious systems in these countries have also oppressed the women and children denying them basic rights that are available to men
  • Additionally, the increased levels of poverty in marginalized areas as well as lack of education, waters, and health care facilities in such areas created an imbalance in social and economic development. Therefore, on profits that focused initial efforts in northern Africa sought to fight poverty, illiteracy levels, and provide better healthcare services to the poor and marginalized
  • Middle East and North Africa represent the leading region sin the world with the highest presence of international nonprofit organizations
  • Examples of nonprofit organizations in Middle east
    • America-Mideast educational and training services, Inc. (AMIDEAST) – creates and strengthens cordial relations between America and Middle East & North Africa through educational training and skill exchange programs
    • Anna Lindh Foundation – promotes integration, relations, and coexistence between cultures promoting respect dialogue and diversity
    • Middle East Youth Initiative – offers economic empowerment and inclusion of young people in the Middle East region through building partnerships and strategic alliances among policy makers, investors, youth leaders, governments, civil society, academics, and the private sector
    • Said Foundation – targets the children towards assuring a better future for them by investing in children education, development, and understanding of important cultures
    • Save the Children Sweden – The Middle East Chapter provides programs to uplift and sustain better living conditions for children in difficult situations. The program has been expanded in North Africa to promote the abilities of parents and guardians in achieving better lives for the children
  • Examples of nonprofit organizations in North Africa
    • Action for Africa – nonprofit organization Africa that supports productive and healthier young lives through supporting early child development, education especially for girls and orphans who have higher risk of illnesses, social violence and neglect
    • Fistula Foundation – Focus on restoring health for African women suffering from obstetric fistula. The nonprofit organization is a response to the increased number of women who deliver without medical help due to available of facilities or resources
    • World Conservation Network (WCN) – involved in identification and preservation of endangered specifies of wild animals and their habitants such as lions, elephants, cheetahs, rhinos. Promotes coexistence between local population and wildlife through sensitization and awareness programs
    • Search for common ground(SFCG) – a north Africa and middle east nonprofit organization that seeks to improve women participation in the social, economic, and political processes. Focuses on rights of women through inclusive dialogues with leaders in various sectors

Discuss philanthropic (humanitarian) traditions – (1000 words)

  • Nonprofit organizations and nongovernmental institutions operate on similar principles and traditions that aim to correct social evils and achieve balance in provision of services. Majority of nonprofit organization in Middle East and Northern Africa seek to understand the plight of neglected members of the society then provide aid to uplift and improve their social and economic conditions through educational opportunities, health, housing, and integration in the modern society
  • Relief tradition – philanthropy as relief relates to the charitable act to eliminate human suffering among targeted population. Common propagated by organizations affiliated to churches and other religious institutions to the bible teaching on compassion and sharing, “love your neighbor as you love yourself. Nonprofit organizations that further this tradition include world vision, red cross, world relief, direct relief, care international, save the children, among other NPOs, among other NPOs
  • Improvement principle – this tradition is more used by the modern organizations and includes providing adequate tools for the neglected, poor, and marginalized individuals to aid them develop a better future live. The provision of educational opportunities, lighting services, health care facilities, scholarships, trainings, awareness programs,
  • Social reform tradition – this tradition recognizes poverty, illiteracy, religious discrimination, and racial differences as the huge challenges facing developing and underdeveloped countries. Social reform includes initiating and supporting social change due to the impact that the society has on other aspects of growth, development and inclusion. Establishing accurate and proper social values and rules is significant in the functioning of social, political, and economic systems
  • Response Principle – tis tradition includes investing to change the perceptions and opinions of individuals, societies, and institutions towards adopting a common agenda in then achievement of mutual goals. NPOs involved in sensitizing the public on their rights, need for their participation in the various national aspects, and encouraging children to pursue education are some of responsive strategies that the organizations have used to create a unified society that is able to establish and achieve mutual goals.

Key features of the regulatory and tax environment – (1000 words)[1]

  • The regulation of NPO various from region to region due to the diversity in political, policy, regulatory, and income laws. The universal goal for majority of nonprofit organizations has led to unification of taxation and regulation mechanisms that seek to create a global environment where the organizations can work without excessive control and monitoring
  • The vital element of these regulation processes is the exemption from income and other forms of taxes by the government and other entities. The objective of these NPOs has informed the decision by international society to exempt them from levies on their incomes that come from projects, sponsors or donors. While some countries and regions have indirectly dictated the utilization of the funds collected by these organizations, nonprofits select the appropriate project to invest in economic, social, education, infrastructure, religious, and research settings
  • However, the exemption from tax system is subject to application by the NPO and subsequent review and approval by the government. In the United States, The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is responsible for received tax exemption application from NPOs then vetting such organizations to determine their operations, sources of revenue, expenditure, and other financial processes before issuing them with tax exemption certificates
  • Similarly, nonprofit organizations working in the Middle East have faced the same procedures in complying with the regulations and tax systems. In these regions, the tax authorities or services work with the NGO or NPO organizations to provide exemptions on the payment an filing tax returns
  • However, organizations that do not deliver their mandate in uplifting the lives of the population may be forced out of these regions through imposition of taxes rendering the operation futile. The exemption from taxes is method by government to enough the nonprofit organizations to expand their activities in the humanitarian, development, and relief efforts. Additionally, the sources of finances for the institutions has also been considered in exempting them from income levies due to the understanding that majority of donors and volunteers are subjected to normal incomes taxes such as Pay as you Earn
  • On the other hand, the regulation on nonprofit organization sin northern Africa and Middle East is carried out by specific government authorities that oversee the operation of these institutions. The authorities ensure that the NPOs meet their objectives in the charters agreed with the governments. Importantly, the organizations are not allowed to interfere with the national political, social, and economic landscape. The mandate of most NPOs includes providing relief, response to calamities, and supporting social processes such as education and healthcare. The governments have strict rules to bar the organizations from interfering with the major sectors in the politics and economy.
  • NPOs that participate in the political processes such as campaigns and election have often found them deregistered and blocked from operating in these regions. This also applies to such institutions that go beyond the agreed charters and scope of work. The struggles between government sin developing countries and NPOs has resulted from the increased activities by these entities such that the population will view the NPOs as more important in uplifting their lives leading to conflicts and eventual registration of such institutions
  • Other regulations include solicitation of funds within the regions covered or outside such areas. The NPO must understand and adhere to such policies to avoid creating tensions between countries. For instance, the civil wars prevalent in the Middle East determine which countries the NPOs should engage in seeking financial or material support.
  • The self-regulation among these organizations is recommended by experts and analysts of charitable process due to the closed nature of their operations. While the government have laws and rules that guide the operations of NPOs, such regulations only apply to general processes with control and management of internal activities left to the organizations to manage. The NPOs operating in Middles East and Africa have shown high self-regulation levels leading to their success in meeting their goals and objectives.

Core policy postures (positions) – and how they affect nonprofit management styles, organizational structure and capacities – (1000 words)[2]

  • The social, economic, and political environments in Middle East and Northern Africa have influenced the management and structuring of the nonprofit institutions that have presence in the regions. Middle East Countries have strong religious background and views as well as the extensive oil resources but weak political systems that culminate to offer unstable environment for positive operations of foreign NPOs. Countries such as Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates are extremely wealthy in oil deposits and other resources despite their poor administration. The economic policies and political regulation have impacted the introduction of humanitarian and relief programs because proper administration of the available resources is able to sustain the whole population through better lifestyle without outside help.
  • Similarly, northern African countries such as Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Sudan, and Morocco have comparable environments that determine the success of NPO operations. The widespread social challenges such as corruption impact the introduction of essential operation in these countries. The styles and types of governments have also impacted the management and functions of the NPOs in North Africa
  • The various core economic, political, and social policy postures and positions impact the managements, organization and capabilities of the nonprofit organizations
  • The management and regulation policy frameworks have increased micromanagement of many nonprofit organizations and NGOs in Africa and Middle East. Countries with volatile political systems such as Iran and Iraq have influenced the operations of these institutions though direct interference with their management styles and planning of operations. The fact that majority of NPO working in these regions originate from the west create the need by these nations to direct all the operations due to ill relations between middle east and western powers.
  • Fundraising policies – on the other hand, the procedures and rules on raising resources for the various humanitarian projects has also impacted the capabilities of the NPOS. Most organizations are used to an environment where they are free to solicit funds from various sources that may not be authorized by the governments such as churches, communities, and schools. However, most developing countries will limit the number of sources that the organizations can use to collate their funds thus impacting ton the organizations of projects as well as the capacities to meet the targeted populations and regions. The NPOs cite the restriction on collection of funds as the major challenge facing their operations in the Middle East and African countries. The poor relationships among countries in these regions also reduce the number of donor and volunteers.
  • Fiscal policies – the financial policy in any country also impacts the operations of nonprofit organizations because the revenues collected and expended by such institutions is not considered in annual government collection and expenditure. The regulation by many government in the middles east and African countries to determine the cumulate revenues and expenses for the country require the NPOs to provide their financial statements and reports which may pose adverse effects to their future capabilities. Through exposing their financial reports, the institutions will reveal the allocation for resources to various regions and social challenges thus creating perceptions by the government and the public of their operations. NPOs prefer using their internal management styles and structures to decide on the use of their finances without any oversight or control from government or other external entities
  • Selection of projects and regions to service
  • Dictation on the expenditure
  • Operational and financial reviews

Comparison with standard Western nonprofit management model – Naturally, the paper will have to be more illustrative than comprehensive in their treatments, and should focus on any trends and characteristics in which the given region may require an adaptation of, or a different approach to, the standard Western nonprofit management model. (400 words)

  • The standard Western nonprofit management model includes a Board that is charged with strategic running of the institution in the various regions selected as candidates for the humanitarian aid. The boards are usually composed of founders and major financiers of the institutions.
  • The composition of the board determines the success of the operations though the development of various committees that are charged with separate responsibilities that cultivate to the mission, vision, and core values of the NPO
  • The management model has been considered effective in the United States, Europe, and other countries have implemented all the aspects of the system
  • The finance, program, planning, fundraising, personnel, and executive committees are some of the critical elements this management model
  • However, the entry of the western NPOs in foreign regions such as Africa and Middle east include influences on the implementation of these management styles leading to adoption of local models that have adverse impact on the eventual outcomes of the programs. It’s imperative that these nonprofits stick to their management and operational styles considering that the goals of the projects are based on these styles. However, some of these style shave proved unviable in some countries such as Libya, Iraq, and Iran where the levels of common languages, social aspects, political ideologies, and other processes impact the implementation of programs
  • Notably, cultivating public confidence is important in achieving the set objective with the minimal modification of standard management models. The accountability levels in NPOs is very important in informing the donors, volunteers, and other stakeholders on the utilizations of their resources and the actual health, education, or social impacts that they have contributed to the population
  • Importantly, the management and control of these organizations should not be entirely left to volunteers and local personnel in these regions. Many NPOs have reported change of their program objectives due to the individuals charged with running projects in the remote areas. Reporting is very vital in management of projects that are spread across many communities to ensure that the injection of the resources is yielding the expected outcomes
  • While the NPOs are not business entities, their management and operations should meet the requirements of profit organizations because they work with finances, personnel, infrastructure and other resources thus required to be responsible in terms of professionalism and financial control.

 

Conclusion (200 words)

 

 

Bibliography (35)

Wang, Jiane-Ye. What Drives China’s Growing Role in Africa? Washington: International Monetary Fund, 2007.

Kinzey, Ruth. Promoting Nonprofit Organizations: A Reputation Management Approach. New York: Routledge, 2013

Fishman, James, Schwarz, Stephen, and Mayor, Lloyd. Nonprofit Organizations: Cases and Materials. New York: Foundation Press, 2015

Wang, XiaoHu. Performance Analysis for Public and Nonprofit Organizations. Sudbury: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2010

Denhardt, Robert, Denhard, Jane, Aristigueta, Maria. Managing Human Behavior in Public and Nonprofit Organizations. Thaousand Oaks: SAGE, 2012

Driver, Carolyn. Guidelines for Writing Successful Grant Proposals for Nonprofit Organizations. Bloomington: AuthorHouse, 2010

Wolf, Thomas. Managing a Nonprofit Organization: Updated Twenty-First-Century Edition. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2012.

Weikart, Lynne and Chen, Greg. Budgeting and Financial Management for Nonprofit Organizations. Thaousand Oaks: SAGE, 2012

Budrys, Grace. How Nonprofits Work: Case Studies in Nonprofit Organizations. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2013

Hoque, Zahirul, Parker, Lee. Performance Management in Nonprofit Organizations: Global Perspectives. New York: Routledge, 2014.

Halpem, Mafred. Politics of Social Change: In the Middle East and North Africa. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2015

Svara, James. The Ethics Primer for Public Administrators in Government and Nonprofit Organizations. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2014

Anheier, Helmut. Nonprofit Organizations: Theory, Management, Policy. New York: Routledge, 2014.

Osula, Bwamwell, Ng, Eddie. “Toward a Collaborative, Transformative Model of Non-Profit Leadership: Some Conceptual Building Blocks.” Leadership in Non-Profit Organizations, 4, no. 2 (2014): 87-104

Singh, Ardhendu. “Conducting Case Study Research in Non-Profit Organizations”, Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 17 no. 1, (2014): 77-84.

Arvidson, Malin, Lyon, Fergus. “Social Impact Measurement and Non-profit Organizations: Compliance, Resistance, and Promotion.” International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 25, no. 4, (2014): 869-886

Berman, Margo. Productivity in Public and Nonprofit Organizations. New York: Routledge, 2014.

Maier, Florentine, Meyer, Michael, Steinbereithner, Martin. “Nonprofit Organizations Becoming Business-Like A Systematic Review.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 45, no. 1, (2016): 64-86

Potluka, Oto, Spacek, martin, Schnurbein, Georg. “Impact of the EU Structural Funds on Financial Capacities of Non-profit Organizations.” International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 28, no. 5, (2017): 2200-2223

Gould, Julie. “Non-profit organizations: Scientists on a mission” Nature, 527, no. 7577, (2015): 265-266.

Ceptureanu, Sebastian, Ceptureanu, Eduard, Bogdan, Liviu, Radulescu, Violeta. “Sustainability Perceptions in Romanian Non-Profit Organizations: An Exploratory Study Using Success Factor Analysis.” Sustainability, 10, no. 2, (2018): 294

Sheehan, Robert. Mission Impact: Breakthrough Strategies for Non-profits. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2010

Epstein, Marc, Yuthas, Kristi. Measuring and Improving Social Impacts: A Guide for Nonprofits, Companies, and Impact Investors. Orkland: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2014

Turton, Tine, Torres, Nicholas. Social Innovation and Impact in Non-profit Leadership. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 2014

Flynn, Patrice, Hodgkinson, Virginia. Measuring the Impact of the Non-profit Sector. Washington: Springer Science & Business Media, 2013

Aoki, Masahiko, Kuran, Timur,Roland, Gerard. Institutions and Comparative Economic Development. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012

Kovacs, Gyongyi, Spens, Karen. Relief Supply Chain Management for Disasters: Humanitarian Aid and Emergency Logistics. Hershey: Information Science Reference, 2012.

Meier, Patrick. Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2015

Kumar, Anuradha. Human Rights Development of Under Privileged. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons, 2006

Tanielian, Melaine. The Charity of War: Famine, Humanitarian Aid, and World War I in the Middle East. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2017

Shaw, John. The World’s Largest Humanitarian Agency: The Transformation of the UN World Food Programme and of Food Aid. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011

Anderson, Ronald. World Suffering and Quality of Life. New York: Springer, 2015

Walker, Peter, Maxwell, Daniel. Shaping the Humanitarian World. New York: Routledge, 2014

Irwin, Julia. Making the World Safe: The American Red Cross and a Nation’s Humanitarian Awakening. New York: OUP USA, 2013

Slim, Yugo. Humanitarian Ethics: A Guide to the Morality of Aid in War and Disaster. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015

Eweje, Gabriel. Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability: Emerging Trends in Developing Economies. Auckland: Emerald Group Publishing, 2014

 

 

 

[1] Wang, Jiane-Ye. What Drives China’s Growing Role in Africa? (Washington: International Monetary Fund, 2007), 23.

[2] Wang, Jiane-Ye, 89.

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s