Effect of business school management learning

 

 

Effect of Business School Management LearningStudent’s nameInstitution

 

 

 

 

 

Essential Expectations of an Economics CurriculumThe hope of any economics curriculum designer is that at the end the student will have a distinctive combination of evaluation, analysis, and critique skills. Additionally, a curriculum is designed to bring about a combination of sensibilities that enable students to engage with the development of both political, economic, and historical processes. As such, the completion of an economics course should see the student learn how to appreciate the variety of problem-solving and decision-making skills needed for the improving the effectiveness of crucial development interventions and the ones needed for engaging the society’s institutions in particular. The student must also learn to recognize the intrinsic essence of social institutions to the identities, values, and meaning of people and how such people make sense of the things which happen to them and others. The economics curriculum is also aimed at ensuring students appreciate the manner in which social institutions determine the risk management. Risk management in economics school and in the world always involves mobility and survival of economic various entities. Therefore, the students appreciate conflict mediation, the transfer of ideas, and the delivery of strategies to deprived entities. A student must also learn how to articulate the important issues that surround the assessment of the efficacy of various projects. The coursework expects to produce a graduate who can demonstrate the different ways in which the research, development theory, and policy from a variety of sectorial and disciplinary perspectives can be integrated usefully and coherently. A person is taught how to incorporate various forms of evidence from primary, web-based, and secondary sources and articulate such ideas to a different group of listeners. The ultimate goal of any economics curriculum, therefore, is to reimage development for this century. More expectations at school include the student’s ability to struggle with abstract ideas, marshal concrete evidence from different origins, and use such ideas and evidences in concreting and complexing policy problems in a developing world. While most economic programs lack formal prerequisites, students are still expected to increase their levels of conversance with major issues and theories relating to matters of decision-making such as marginalism, opportunity cost, and efficient markets. Additionally, there is usually a high level of emphasis on the integration of various theoretical and methodological perspectives from across various bodies of knowledge including social, political, and actuarial sciences. Students trained in the economics discipline are also expected to attend classes on weekly basis and learn from each other to harness their diverse backgrounds. This feature is a key concept in most schools and is aimed at giving students the experience necessary to handle matters of diversity and international relations as a key eye-opener in the practical world. From the beginning, students need to be informed about the importance of maintaining respect for potentially radical and diverse views which may be voiced during the course. The practical application of skills depends on the confidence to attempt measures outside the bounds of conventional business operations. Some of the ideas that are considered controversial usually aid in the creativity process which, of nurtured, has potentially useful applications.Flawed Economics Principle CourseDoran & Business Expert Press (2012) point out the inability of the Economics Principles Course offered in most colleges to enhance economic literacy. There have been numerous calls for various colleges to improve their focus on economic literacy. For example, a 1950 report written to the American Economic Association recommended the reduction of the total number of content and objectives in the elementary course. The report also recommended that students needed training on ways to follow current news in a bid to enhance their interest in the field of economics. O’Sullivan et al., (2017) also points out that the encyclopaedia which currently makes up the large part of the course at the beginning of college-level economics fails in teaching students about how to think with regard to economic questions. Students end up memorizing a few diagrams, policy recommendations, and facts and after ten years they will be as illiterate in economics as the day they first joined college.  Mallard, (2012) suggests that the most appropriate way to teach economics, especially microeconomics in the introductory classes is to expose students to a series of applications of a number of short-listed main ideas of the field. The major goal of the Principles of Economics course is to provide a viable foundation of economic knowledge which is required for subsequent coursework in economics. However, the explosion in economic knowledge has derailed the pursuit of the foundational goals in economic knowledge and instead caused the texts and syllabi to be fuller. Numerous topics have been added including topics such as public choice, game theory, environmental economics, new classical economics, growth, and monetarism. For all these topics, there are very few which get deleted in the end. The addition of topic and increased sophistication and complexity of the course increases the cost. Even at such high costs, most students are seen to leave the course with little knowledge of the fundamentals of economics. The typical course needs to focus more on the importance of acquiring knowledge by agents regarding the drivers of a rational decision-making exercise. As such, the macro-economic principles should be memorable, simple, and focussed on policy. Students would have higher levels of literacy if they began to understand issues such as what the real interest rates are and how they are determined. The current scenario is one where the instructors spend the large part of the class time lecturing and almost no time emphasizing on the acquisition of hand-on skills. This trend is consistent for the research, masters, doctoral, associate degree, and liberal arts institutions. The Principles course does not improve an individual’s economic literacy the people that take it as well as those who are scared away by the technical nature of the course. Major failures pointed out about the course result from the inability to enhance the students’ application of economics to their professional, personal, and public lives. When multiple topics get jammed into the course, students almost never master the basic aspects. These aspects are the building blocks for the addition of further knowledge on economics but their weakness devalues the student’s literacy levels. Alternatives for The Principles of Economics CoursePhaneuf & Requate (2017) offers a method for refocussing the course that is geared towards the achievement of economic literacy. Hence, the literature proposes a single term course which has the potential to improve the levels of economic literacy of students undertaking a single economics course. The aim of the proposed changes is to equip learners with knowledge and skills for work in business, economics, and other majors which need a firm background in economics. Changing the Focus of Principles of EconomicsMost courses in economics have a number of standards which constitute the building blocks. These standards usually contain the operational description of economics literacy. They are often divided into a number of topics such as allocation of goods, economic behaviour, scarcity and choice, markets, macroeconomics, or the relationship between the government and the economic institutions. Various standards include at the very least a number of statements that define the core of knowledge on economics and descriptions that explain the things that students are supposed to do with such knowledge. The literature presented by Phaneuf & Requate (2017) shows just how some of these standards explain basic economic ideas. Regarding scarcity, most standard agree that the productive resources are not abundant. As such, people may not acquire all the goods and services that they want. They have to choose some of the goods and give up others. In such a case, students are required to demonstrate their understanding of the concept by explaining such issues as the costs of things that a community avoids in preference for using tax revenue to give a professional sports team a rent-free stadium. Economic BehaviorThe second matter concerns five common standards which often define the rationale for economic behaviour and hence address the concerns of Phaneuf & Requate (2017). For a person to make a decision effectively, the standards assume that one must make a comparison of the extra costs of alternatives with the additional advantages. Most of the choices that students are expected to make in the real world involve doing a little more of something and at the same time doing a little less of another thing. There are very few decisions in which a person is expected to select an entire item and forego another. Decision-making lessons also assume that people tend to respond predictably to both negative and positive incentives. Additionally, standards about decision-making lessons emphasize on the voluntary exchange and how it occurs only when the parties taking part expect to get fair gains. The voluntary exchange condition is true for the trading activities between individuals, organizations, and countries. In case various regions, nations, or individuals specialize in the things that they can produce at minimal cost and then engage in trade with others, both the consumption and production increase. Moreover, the price levels are used as indicators of various signals that make sense to buyers and sellers. However, the changes in demand or supply causes adjustments in the market prices and various incentives are affected as well. The demonstration of a mastery of the notion of economic behaviour standards by students may be done by expecting students to come up with an explanation for seemingly complex economic concepts. For example, students may be required to explain why the allowance of firms to exchange pollution rights may lower the economic cost of minimizing pollution or why it is more sensible to have a number of firms specializing in the reduction of pollution and why the pollution rights give incentives to businesses to seek cleaner technology in their production processes. Allocation of Goods and ServicesThe standards touching on the allocation of goods and services dictate that a variety of methods may be used for the allocation of various goods and services. The individuals who act solely or collectively through governmental institutions have to choose the specific methods which they use in the allocation of the goods and services at their disposal. The standards also emphasize that a market’s existence results from the interaction of a buyer and a seller. Therefore, the interaction of the buyer and seller is the main determinant of market prices and also causes the allocation of scarce goods and the scarce resources. With regard to the allocation standards, students are expected to show that they have mastered allocation issues through description of benefits and costs of mechanisms in the market for an issue such as the prioritization of candidates for donor organs or a similar scenario. Literacy of StudentsStudents may be considered as literate if they can make use of standards set for various goals in economics courses to describe the benefits and costs, elaborate events, and make solid arguments. If a course targets literacy, it must be more focussed on the basic concepts as opposed to the trend evidenced from the areas of focus of modern day texts and courses. The learning resources which are released by limiting the number of issues should be exploited to enhance the understanding of the important ideas. BudgetingA number of topics and lessons need to be eliminated from the traditional Principles course. The major constraint on knowledge acquisition is the student’s ability to learn the content and not the ability of the instructor to cover it. The typical description of economists of their courses is based on the material which they cover. However, Husted & Melvin (2017) argues that the most important things in a course is what a person learns and not what they cover. The choice of a broad coverage by an instructor causes the students to have a high level of familiarity with very many concepts but they cannot apply the majority of these concepts including the basic ones. Principles instructors may set higher goals than the coverage and mastery of the standards but they should also assure that students thoroughly master the standards before they proceed. Again, it is important to realize that the most important achievement for the course is that students successfully apply the things they learn in the school environment and later after they complete their studies. Therefore, the improvement of economic literacy would require that the course focusses on concepts which students may use throughout their whole lives. These concepts include the identification of the opportunity cost of a proposed public-spending. As such, the course must be seen to instil the art of practice of these concepts until the concepts become a way of thinking for the students. The Principles coursework needs to drop some of the traditional topics so that some of the available resources can be released and enable students to master the standards. Majority of the dropped topics could be forwarded to Principles Two coursework. One of the major features that needs to be dropped is the cost curves. The understanding of cost curves by students does not in any way contribute to what constitutes economic literacy. Cost curves help students to predict the exact output levels for firms that set or take the prices. They also have the capacity to decide whether there are any economic profits earned and also make the decision for firms to enter or exit an industry. However, the cost of mastering these cost curves exceeds the benefits. Most of the students have little post-college chances to use marginal analysis using cost curves. Instead of learning such cost curves, students are better equipped if they study marginal costs and marginal benefits in similar problems as those which they will dace later in life. Students need to learn the ways through which agents enter beneficial industries and quit the unprofitable ones and they can easily learn that without studying and mastering the cost curves. Another recommendation is that graphs should e limited. Graphs provide an effective way for students who understand them quickly to represent the functional relationship between various economic variables. However, there are still students in most economics classes who do not catch on to graphs quickly. The mastery of graphs becomes a compulsory aspect and is a requirement for passing various college-level tests. However, students who have not mastered the graphs in the past do not apply them in the future and the same goes for a substantial section of the students who understand graphs well. The way to learn graphs for most students is to memorize them and forget them soon after the course is over. A common understanding of economics courses is that students need to memorize the multiple graphs or obtain relevant data from exams from the past to predict which graphs to memorize. This understanding is usually common for students in their first two semesters of college and could prevail throughout the course. However, tutors have the ability to develop methods of teaching that minimize on the use of graphs.Another redundant and seemingly tiresome concept taught in college is the behaviour of industries without perfect competition. These include the comparisons between the monopolistic and oligopoly competition which needs to be eliminated for favour of focussing on price-seeking and price-taking behaviours. Students are also more knowledgeable if they have sufficient understanding of the ways in which competition enhances welfare as well as how agents seek payments. For example, a student is not deemed more literate just because they can say if a fast-food industry is an oligopoly or more like a monopolistic competition. Such details may not be as useful as knowledge about the drivers of price and cost because even of a person knows that certain firms are duopolies, the data is inapplicable in any form of decision-making process and it probably does not take an expert in economics to make such a deduction. The relevance of business education in real lifeBusiness education is broadly acknowledged as a real and effective pivot for the growth of skilled or professional manpower in all the facets of commercial, managerial and industrial areas. Osuala (2004) asserted that the introduction of business studies emphasizes the need for equipping the youth or learners with experience that furnish them with saleable competencies and skills. Business activities influence people’s daily lives as they travel, work, spend, save, play and invest. Business affects incomes, opportunities, and jobs for personal development and also has an important effect on the quality of life, the standard of living and on the surrounding or environment where people live.Business education involves not only studying the individuals, organizations, and communities but also involves assessing and evaluating their problems and needs, in addition to generating solutions. The subject helps in building a strong background for the learners who have ambitions of furthering their training and study in specialized fields such as marketing, management, accounting, entrepreneurship, communication technology among other fields. Again, it helps in providing practical skills for the learners who have the desire of moving straight into their places of work. Generally, business education endows the learners with a new and practical context for the other subjects they have learned such as science, mathematics, languages, social studies and technology. It helps the learners in recognizing the relevance and applicability of these subjects whenever they are used in the business world. Business education demonstrates how various subjects of study can coalesce in an industrious and productive activity. It gives an increased comprehension of mutual reliance through business approach, as individuals become increasingly reliant on others. Being also a dynamic field, business education is a significant tool for building and cultivating skills to deal with change.Business education helps the learners in the following ways:Business education teaches learners self-reliance and the ability to manage projects and other resources.Business studies is a type of studies which is devised or designed to instill in learners knowledge, business spirit, skills and acumen required to succeed in the field of work and to be self-reliant. Igboke (2000) looked business education as a changing field of education which is geared towards equipping the adults and youths for and also about business. He further stated that learning for business is training for a job in business when it is planned to equip adults and youths for real practice in the field of business.Skill is viewed as the capacity to perform a task expertly, Abanyam (2014). It is the mean dexterity and ability which if used on a given task like a business, the outcome will be proportionate to the set objective and hence brings about enhanced economic status. A learner who acquires enough skills and knacks in business operations during the training process stands a high chance of establishing an occupation he/she likes and even able to employ many other individuals afterward. Such an individual is regarded as self-reliant and self-sufficient in the area where he/she domiciles.Self-reliance can be defined as the economic and social ability of a person, household or a society to meet important needs (including food, water, shelter, protection, health, education, and safety) in a sustainable way and with decorum. Ogbonna (2012) hypothesized that self-reliance means the dependence on an individual’s own judgments, resources, and abilities or being independent. Hence, it refers to the ability to depend on oneself in undertaking a given task. To be self-reliant, learners need to acquire particular skills which can equip them and enable them to stand on their own in the society. Some of such skills are marketing skills, accounting skills, communication technology skills and information skills.Accounting is one of the major areas of business education which equips learners with requisite dexterity, attitude, and knowledge which is relevant in doing financial computations in any job. Accounting skills range from reporting skills, record keeping skills to financial management that are necessary for promoting efficient and successful financial management in any kind of business activity (Eze, Ezenwafor & Igberaharha, 2016). Accounting skills learned in business education entails the ability to understand and interpret financial statements, prepare reconciliation statements, prepare cash and bank reports, understand various deductions and payroll, compute depreciation, ability to evade unplanned expenditures and the ability to record various business transactions.Business education has changed the education system to a system that aims at preparing or grooming manpower with an objective of filling the ever increasing vacuum caused by unemployment. It is disturbing and shocking to learn that graduate unemployment is experienced in almost all the countries around the world. However, it is not possible to name an academic discipline which is not represented adequately in the increasing society of unemployed graduates who are employable. Therefore, preparing graduates and all the other learners for the competitive environment of work has become the main objective of business education. Entrepreneurship education and skill acquisition are regarded as indispensable towards sustainable growth of the nations and self-reliance. Persuasive and effective oral and written communication skillsCommunication skills are essential for success in any field. It enables the learners to develop the ability to shape or tailor their messages to various types of people and audiences. For instance, courses in business communication and marketing help in creating effective campaigns which target specific customers, while corporate communication helps in designing effective and successful business presentation, guide group meetings and also in writing internal business documents for workers guidance. Communication acquired in business education is relevant and can be applied in the other areas of life such as:Leadership Good leadership in any field needs effective communication with all the members of the organization such as the managers, employees, investors, and customers. Each group of these people may need a different style of communication and leadership. Leaders should, therefore, adapt depending on the people they are leading or communicating with at different times. Therefore, communication proficiency is an essential aspect of leaders’ set of experience and skills.Communication is an essential skill for individuals entering the job marketThe International Journal of Business Communication did and published a research where 354 directors were requested to rank and grade incompetencies when employing fresh college students. The research findings suggested that effective communication abilities are the most desirable and attractive qualities in a new employee. Unfortunately, it was found to be the first incompetency in the list among the graduates, followed by dearth of self –motivation and problem-solving skills, Weldy & Icenogle (1997).Effective communicators make much moneyAccording to the research which was done in the year 1988 by Curtis and submitted at the Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association, it was found that communication skills are the most cherished skills in the current job market. The research surveyed 1000 managers and arrived at this conclusion. The findings suggested that the most valuable skill individuals can invest within themselves is sound communication. If individuals can communicate more effectively, then they can surely land jobs which can enable them earn the highest amount of money, Moreale (2000).Good communicators possess greater self-esteemAccording to an editorial titled “Self-Esteem and Effective Communication Skills” which was aired by Live Strong, it was found that individuals who are great communicators tend to be majorly extroverted. The study stated a 2001 research which was published by the Journal of Research in Personality which says that extroverted individuals tend to possess greater self-esteem. Extraversion always makes it simpler for individuals to approach foreigners and strangers, speak in large gatherings and also appear friendly. This makes the other people perceive extroverts positively which boost their self-esteem further. Individuals suffering from low self-esteem are always anxious about relating to strange people and also uncomfortable in gathering or group settings, Thompson (2017).Effective communication helps in building a thriving family unitA study done by Pearson and Sessler in the year 1991 called Family communication and health: Maintaining marital satisfaction and quality of life, presented at the International Communication Association stated that communication is linked to the family satisfaction. Disclosing, supporting, negotiating, communicating needs, positively distorting and showing the understanding of members of the family are some of the communicative aspects which are essential in developing a family unit which is happy and healthy, Pearson & Sessler (1991).Time ManagementTime management mostly focuses on the relationship between it and the productivity on the work. Stack (2005) indicates that job satisfaction and work success can be measured by productivity or output. The two methods which can be used to increase productivity include; finding ways of working faster at the job that people always do and by getting rid of activities which waste time. A good meaning of “wasted time” is the time that is spent in achieving no output or in achieving an output which is of low value. As Benjamin Franklin once said “time is money”; it makes a great sense and meaning in business. Therefore, time management which the learners are taught in business education helps them in several ways in real life experiences. Some of the benefits of time management include:Stress level reductionThe main benefit of time management is reduction of the stress level. If one follows time management appropriately, he/she can get better output or results. Stress always leads to ruining of the job schedule and a troubled or messed up work schedule/program can never produce the best results. The outcome will undoubtedly come but nobody can claim that the result will be worst or the best.

Gain self-confidenceSelf-confidence does a significant duty in the life of human beings and self-confident individuals always live better lives as compared to their counterparts who suffer from timidity or low self-confidence. The feeling regularly comes when one plans his/her work correctly and take proper decisions on time for better results. With self-confidence, one is able to do almost anything and self-trust can lead people to another level.Financial soundnessThe success results in financial soundness with itself. Individuals always become financially stable when they plan their lives properly and also maintain and follow a timetable of their professional and personal life. The lifetime learning enhances the empowerment of people with the know-how. They can always do research and find whatever information they need. The interpretation of the information and sharing gives the individuals the opportunity to have network connectivity.Become healthyBeing healthy is a good thing for human beings and it can always be realized by a suitable maintenance. To live a healthy life, time management is helpful since an individual will have to adopt a schedule in his/her life; this will enable him/her save and have time for exercise and other works that are health related. Once individuals have decided to manage their time, they should discipline themselves and practice self-improvement with fitness/health as the major factor.
Time management helps one to challenge his/her productivityThe capacity of everyone is the same and it is only the habits which differentiate their outcomes. The individuals who get 100 percent are not robots but also human beings; what brings about the difference is that they pursue their dreams passionately. One can prioritize while also planning the job execution order. Productivity is always a challenge to face since it’s a process that put individuals on their heels. It is a race that must be won by everyone. Concisely, it’s something great to adopt but always requires the capacity to cope up or handle the pressure it presents.Business education  helps in understanding organizational behavior and structureOrganizational behavior studies the impact and the influence that organizational structure, individuals, and groups have regarding the behavior in an organization or institution with the aim of using such knowledge in enhancing the effectiveness of the organization, Robins, Judge and Sanghi (2006). In the world of business nowadays, organizational behavior is a vital tool for effective management of teams and it helps in understanding and predicting the behavior of individuals in an organization. It examines how institutions can be accurately structured and how external events affect organizations. An organizational study is one of the most important features in management sciences since it enables the management to study and learn from a phenomenon which has been successful somewhere. Learning organizational behavior is very useful and relevant in real life situations. Some of the significance of organizational behavior includes;
a. Organizational behavior helps in understanding employees and the organization in a better wayStudying organizational behavior helps individuals understand the organization and the employees in a better way. This enhances the relationship between the employees and the organization hence creating a suitable working environment/condition in an institution. Organizational behavior helps in finding out the factors causing different behaviors and also helps one to apply various strategies to manage the serious behavior that can cause damage to the organization.b. Organizational behavior helps in effective use of human resourcesIf the head of an organization or a manager have the skills of organizational behavior, he/she can apply human resource management skills in the needed area. This reduces the chances of incurring losses and at the same time increases the chances of making profits and promoting sustainable development of an organization. c. Organizational behavior helps in enhancing labor/industrial relationsThe knowledge of organizational behavior helps in comprehending the root-causes of different issues, predict their future solving mechanisms and also manage their negative consequences. Since the leaders know about the negative and positive consequences of various behaviors, it allows them uphold friendly relationships with the workers hence creating peace in the institution or organization.

d. It helps in motivating employeesStudying organizational behavior helps business owners in motivating their employees hence facilitating organizational performance. Since the employees are different from one another, organizational behavior helps the managers in applying suitable skills and motivational tools in line with the individual nature of the employees. Business education offers learners with a wide range of field for specializationBusiness studies degree prepares the learners for different and dynamic managerial and expert purposes. The education emphasizes operating in a dynamic international environment. The degree course in business education offers the learners with the chance of specializing in the fields that respond best to the requirements of the job market and their specific interests. The students doing degree courses in business education can always take advantage of the other courses provided by the School of Management. By choosing programs in administrative sciences such as political science, the students can develop appropriate study course for themselves.  Some of the options in master’s studies include; Specialization in Insurance and Risk Management, Specialization in Leadership in Service Economy, Specialization in Accounting, Specialization in Economics, Specialization in Business Management, Specialization in Marketing and Specialization in Business Law and Tax Law.

 

 

ReferencesAbanyam, F.E., (2016).Self-Employment skills possessed by business education students of colleges of education for sustainable development in cross river state, Nigeria (Master Thesis).Curtis, D. B., Winsor, J. L., & Stephens, R. D. (1989). National preferences in business and communication education. Communication Education, 38(1), 6-14.Doran, D. T., & Business Expert Press. (2012). Financial reporting standards: A decision-making perspective for non-accountants. New York, N.Y.] (222 East 46th Street: Business Expert Press.Eze, T.I., Ezenwafor, J. I., & Igberaharha, C. O.,(2016). Assessment of entrepreneurial skills needed for self-employment by business education graduates in Delta state, Nigeria. European Journal of Management and Marketing Studies, 1(2), 1-14. Husted, S. L., & Melvin, M. (2017). International economics. Boston: Pearson/Addison-Wesley.Igboke, S.A. (2000).Business education: Principles and methods. Owerri: Cape PublishersInternational LtMallard, G. (2012). What to Expect from Your Economics Course. The Economics Companion, 24-29. doi:10.1007/978-0-230-35645-0_3Morreale, S. P., Osborn, M. M., & Pearson, J. C. (2000). Why communication is important: A rationale for the centrality of the study of communication. JACA-ANNANDALE-, 1, 1-25.Ogbonna, M.N. (2012). Restructuring Teacher Education as an Instrument for Achieving Self-Reliance and Sustainable Development in Nigeria.Proceedings of School of Voc.Ed.FCE, Eha-Amufu 6th National Conference. 33-41Osuala E.C. (2004), Foundation of vocational education. Enugu-Nigeria: Cheston Agency Publishers.O’Sullivan, A., Sheffrin, S., & Perez, S. (2017). Economics. Pearson Education UK.Pearson, J. C., & Sessler, C. J. (1991). Family Communication and Health: Maintaining Marital Satisfaction and Quality of Life.Phaneuf, D. J., & Requate, T. (2017). A Course in Environmental Economics. West Nyack: Cambridge University Press.Robins S. P., Judge, T. A., & Sanghi, S. (2006). Organizational Behaviour.  Stack, Laura, Career Advice; Leave the Office Earlier, Washington Post. com, March 24, 2005Thompson, V. Self-Esteem & Effective Communication Skills.  Published June 13, 2017. Livestrong.com.Weldy, T. G., & Icenogle, M. L. (1997). A Managerial Perspective: Oral Communication Competency Is Most Important for Business Students in the Workplace Jeanne D. Maes. The Journal of Business Communication (1973), 34(1), 67-80.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Effect of business school management learning

 

 

Effect of Business School Management Learning

 

Name
Institution

 

 

 

 

 

 

Essential Expectations of an Economics Curriculum
The hope of any economics curriculum designer is that at the end the student will have a distinctive combination of evaluation, analysis, and critique skills. Additionally, a curriculum is designed to bring about a combination of sensibilities that enable students to engage with the development of both political, economic, and historical processes. As such, the completion of an economics course should see the student learn how to appreciate the variety of problem-solving and decision-making skills needed for the improving the effectiveness of crucial development interventions and the ones needed for engaging the society’s institutions in particular. The student must also learn to recognize the intrinsic essence of social institutions to the identities, values, and meaning of people and how such people make sense of the things which happen to them and others. The economics curriculum is also aimed at ensuring students appreciate the manner in which social institutions determine the risk management. Risk management in economics school and in the world always involves mobility and survival of economic various entities. Therefore, the students appreciate conflict mediation, the transfer of ideas, and the delivery of strategies to deprived entities. A student must also learn how to articulate the important issues that surround the assessment of the efficacy of various projects. The coursework expects to produce a graduate who can demonstrate the different ways in which the research, development theory, and policy from a variety of sectorial and disciplinary perspectives can be integrated usefully and coherently. A person is taught how to incorporate various forms of evidence from primary, web-based, and secondary sources and articulate such ideas to a different group of listeners. The ultimate goal of any economics curriculum, therefore, is to reimage development for this century.
More expectations at school include the student’s ability to struggle with abstract ideas, marshal concrete evidence from different origins, and use such ideas and evidences in concreting and complexing policy problems in a developing world. While most economic programs lack formal prerequisites, students are still expected to increase their levels of conversance with major issues and theories relating to matters of decision-making such as marginalism, opportunity cost, and efficient markets. Additionally, there is usually a high level of emphasis on the integration of various theoretical and methodological perspectives from across various bodies of knowledge including social, political, and actuarial sciences. Students trained in the economics discipline are also expected to attend classes on weekly basis and learn from each other to harness their diverse backgrounds. This feature is a key concept in most schools and is aimed at giving students the experience necessary to handle matters of diversity and international relations as a key eye-opener in the practical world.
From the beginning, students need to be informed about the importance of maintaining respect for potentially radical and diverse views which may be voiced during the course. The practical application of skills depends on the confidence to attempt measures outside the bounds of conventional business operations. Some of the ideas that are considered controversial usually aid in the creativity process which, of nurtured, has potentially useful applications
Decision making
Opportunity cost
Marginalism
Efficient markets
Undergraduate economic curriculum
The relevance of business education in real life
Business education is broadly acknowledged as a real and effective pivot for the growth of skilled or professional manpower in all the facets of commercial, managerial and industrial areas. Osuala (2004) asserted that the introduction of business studies emphasizes the need for equipping the youth or learners with experience that furnish them with saleable competencies and skills. Business activity influences people’s daily lives as they travel, work, spend, save, play and invest. Business affects incomes, opportunities, and jobs for personal development. A business also has an important effect on the quality of life, the standard of living and on the surrounding or environment where people live.
Business education involves not only studying individuals, organizations and communities but also involves assessing and evaluating their problems and needs, in addition to generating solutions. The subject helps in building a strong background for the learners who have ambitions of furthering their training and study in specialized fields such as marketing, management, accounting, entrepreneurship, communication technology among other fields. Again, it helps in providing practical skills for the learners who have the desire of moving straight into their places of work.
Generally, business education endows the learners with a new and practical context for the other subjects they have learned such as science, mathematics, language, social studies, and technology. It helps the learners in recognizing the relevance or applicability of these subjects whenever they are used in the business world. Business education demonstrates how various subjects of study can coalesce in an industrious and productive activity. It gives an increased comprehension of mutual reliance through business approach, as individuals become increasingly reliant on others. Being also a dynamic field, business education is a significant tool to build and cultivate skills to deal with change.
Business education helps the learners to develop the following skills:
Communication
Communication skills are essential for success in any field. It develops the learner’s ability to shape or tailor their messages to various types of people and audiences. For instance, courses in business communication and marketing help in creating effective campaigns which target specific customers, while corporate communication helps in designing effective and successful business presentation, guide group meetings and also in writing internal business documents for workers guidance. Communication acquired in business education is relevant and can be applied in the other areas of life such as:
Leadership
Effective and good leadership in any business or any other field needs effective communication with all the members of the organization including managers, employees, investors, and customers. Each group of these people may need a different style of communication and leadership. Leaders should, therefore, adapt depending on the people they are relating or communicating with at different times. Communication proficiency is an essential aspect of leaders’ set of experience and skills.
Communication is an essential skill for individuals entering the job market
The International Journal of Business Communication did and published a research where 354 directors were requested to rank and grade incompetencies when employing fresh college students. The research findings suggested that effective communication abilities are the most desirable and attractive qualities in a new employee. Unfortunately, it was found to be the first incompetency in the list among the graduates, followed by the death of self –motivation and problem-solving skills, Weldy & Icenogle (1997).
Effective communicators make much money
According to the research which was done in the year 1988 by Curtis and submitted at the Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association, it was found that communication skills are the most cherished skills in the current job market. The research surveyed 1000 managers and arrived at this conclusion. The finding suggests that the most valuable skill individuals can invest within themselves is sound communication. If individuals can communicate more effectively, then they can surely land jobs which can enable them to earn the highest amount of money, Moreale (2000).
Good communicators posses greater self-esteem
According to an editorial titled “Self-Esteem and Effective Communication Skills” which was aired by Live Strong, the research suggested that individuals who are great communicators tend to be majorly extroverted. The study states a 2001 research which was published in the Journal of Research in Personality which says that extroverted individuals tend to possess greater self-esteem. Extraversion always makes it simpler for individuals to approach foreigners and strangers, speak in large gatherings and also appear friendly. This makes the other people perceive extroverts as positively, which boost their self-esteem further. Individuals suffering from low self-esteem are always anxious about relating to strange people and also uncomfortable in gathering or group settings, Thompson (2017).
Effective communication helps in building a thriving family unit
A study which was done by Pearson and Sessler in the year 1991 called “Family communication and health: Maintaining marital satisfaction and quality of life”, presented at the International Communication Association stated that communication is linked to the family satisfaction. Disclosing, supporting, negotiating, communicating needs, positively distorting and showing the understanding of members of the family are some of the communicative aspects which are essential in developing a family unit which is happy and healthy, Pearson & Sessler (1991).
Business education teaches learners self-reliance and the ability to manage projects, time, and resources
Business studies is a type of studies which is devised or designed to instill in learners knowledge, business spirit, skills and acumen required to succeed in the field of work and to be self-reliant. Igboke (2000) looked business education as a changing field of education which is geared towards equipping the adults and youths for and also about business. He further stated that learning for business is training for a job in business when it is planned to equip adults and youths for real practice in the field of business.
Skill is viewed as the capacity to perform a task expertly, Abanyam (2014). It is the mean dexterity and ability which if used on a given task like in business, the outcome will be proportionate to the set objective and hence brings about enhanced economic status. A learner who acquires enough skills and knacks in business operations during the training process stands a high chance of establishing an occupation he/she likes and even able to employ many other individuals afterward. Such an individual is regarded as self-reliant and self-sufficient in the area where he/she domiciles.

 

 

 

REHABILITATION OF STREET CHILDREN IN INDIA

  1. Introduction

The issue of street children has become a major topic of study in the world. Children go to the streets because of unstable families among other elements that make their life hard to live. Such families are characterized by alcoholism, low incomes, substance abuse, divorce and separation, weak relationships, and death of parents (Mathur, 2009). These children face challenges such as inadequate access to early childhood education, cleaning drinking water, food, clothing, and proper medical care. The children engage in small chores such as working in hotels, vending newspapers, washing cars where they are underpaid and mistreated (Britto and Super, 2013). Therefore, such children are vulnerable to ailments such as waterborne disease, HIV, and psychological distress. India is one of the countries faced with the challenge of street children who account for 18 million mostly in Kolkata and Bombay cities. Therefore, this project proposal seeks to establish the plan for rehabilitating 1,000,000 street children in India through sustainable programs such as early childhood education, early, and proper nutrition for a period of two years (Mathur, 2009). The project is thereby described. It covers the objectives and justification supported by literature review. The members of the project are also explained. Also included is the timeframe, the place, the actual plan for the project, the pricing, and the project sustainability.

2.0 Rationale and Objectives

The establishment of the two rehabilitation centres will decongest the two cities of India of the street children. Therefore, the projects will assist in the provision of basic services like early childhood education, clean food and water, and proper clothing to the children. Such projects create employment opportunities to the communities involved. They will have long-term positive economic and social effects on the lives of children through social inclusion (Arnett, 2014).

2.1 Description of the project

India has faced the problem of street children for a long time and the government’s efforts to address the issue have not yielded much result (Mathur and Mathur, 2009). Most children are still wallowing in abject poverty; hence this has led to the need for this project to rehabilitate a substantial number of these children. Therefore, two rehabilitation centres are to be constructed in Kolkata and Bombay cities of India that currently host many street children. The two centres are to have classrooms, libraries, stationery, casual clothing and uniforms, furniture and fittings, kitchens, dining halls, playing fields, dormitories, and special rooms for healthcare workers (Mathur, 2009). The two centres are to be constructed at an estimated cost of $1,000,000 for a period of 2 years. They are expected to provide employment opportunities to the teachers, cateresses, and healthcare workers of the surrounding communities.

2.2 Aims and Objectives of the Project

Sen (2009) argues that to achieve sustainable programs for the street children in India projects are needed by well-wishers to address the following issues that are affecting the street children in the two cities of India.

  1. To reduce the number of vulnerable children from the streets of India.
  2. To ensure such children have access to early childhood education.
  3. To enhance proper clothing, nutrition, and healthcare for the children.
  4. To reduce the rate of drug and substance abuse among the children.
  5. To easy the government the burden of the street children.
  6. To reduce child labour in the streets of India.
  7. To create employment opportunities to the locals of the two cities.

2.3 Rationale for the Project

The demand for Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) in India is ever raising, due to low maternal and child mortality rates (Britto and Super, 2013). As a result of the ECCE programs offered by different bodies have been under private management as there are no laws to control their activities. Percy-Smith and Thomas (2009) claim that children’s’ rights have been advanced by The National Indian Child Care Association, Amrit Foundation of India, and international organizations like the UNICEF. This has forced the Indian government to establish laws for ECCE and the associated appropriate standards to address the ECCE needs of the children. But still the number of street children remains a challenge. Therefore, this project is intended to fill the gap left by the government in rehabilitating a large number of children who are still suffering in the streets. Khwairakpam and Sukhminder (2013) argue that the street children are not properly protected. Such children do not have access to early childhood education and their needs are not well taken care of by any responsible individuals (Mathur and Mathur, 2009). Therefore, there is need to transform the lives of the young children through the rehabilitation centres so that they can have access to basic education, better healthcare, and food.

            In India over 18million children work on the streets particularly in Kolkata and Bombay cities. Mathur (2009) claims that the children are vulnerable to diseases, lack of clean drinking water, shortage of proper clothing, inadequate food, and lack of other social protection services from the government. Thus, the project is intended to host children from hostile families and those who lack proper social protection so that they can benefit from the basic needs to be provided in the centres.

Narayan (2013) argues that family problems such as alcoholism, poor parent relationships, divorce or separation of parents, parents’ violence, or death of a parent are the most prevalent reasons why children resort to the streets. These street children mostly come from poor housing conditions characterized by high levels of illiteracy, drug abuse, and lack of employment (Praharaj and Arora, 2008).Thus, the projects will transform the lives of the children so that they can change behaviour through psychological counselling and funded learning.

Most of the children are employed by hotels, tea shops, canteens, restaurants, and eating points (Sharma and Lal, 2011). These businessmen exploit them like prisoners with low pay, sometimes with no pay, and abuses (Mathur, 2009).Because of these, some of the children have resorted to self-employment or doing multiple jobs such as collection of recyclable products such as metals, plastics, and papers. Other chores include newspaper vending, selling sweets, car cleaning, shoe shining, working in building places, small hotels, and repair shops. The older ones are involved in drug-trafficking, stealing and pick-pocketing, and sexual activities (Sharma and Lal, 2011). Therefore, this project will host the children in controlled and monitored rehabilitation centres to reduce child labour and risks of sexual activities among the young children.

Cleghorn and Prochner (2010) assert that in India the street children are highly vulnerable to low incomes since they do not enjoy the monetary and psychological support that other children have. Thus, they develop ways to deal with the harsh conditions that they thrive in (de Benítez, 2007). Such children adopt strategies such as taking alcohol, drug usage, and prostitution (Gaidhane et al., 2008). Therefore, this project will assist the children to stop drug abuse and address the life frustrations that the street children undergo because of lack of social protection services.

According to Woan and Auerswald (2013), the street children suffer food shortage since they do not have access to proper medical care, sanitation, and nutritious foods. They depend on food leftovers from hotels, garbage bins, or food stalls. Bathing in the open air is the order of the day among the children in India. They remain naked for long times after bathing, therefore, losing modesty senses. Irvine and Schroth (2011) assert that the children lack clean washrooms and therefore they resort to using the roadside as part of toilets. Hence, this project will ensure the provision of clean food, water, washrooms and toilets so that to prevent the emergence of waterborne diseases.

Embleton et al. (2013) argue that the street children are in most times faced with extortion and abuse since they do not have social belonging and individuals who can provide protection to them. Many children complain of police beating and forcing them to share the little pay they earn from the hard construction sites. Sen (2009) asserts that various forms of abuse include physical abuse, sexual abuse, healthy abuse, psychological abuse, and verbal abuse. Psychological and verbal abuses are the most prevalent among the children and those who receive substantial incomes are abused more (Towe and Sherman, 2009). Hence, the project intends to address the psychological trauma experienced by the children in the streets.

There have been issues with the education of the street child (Hart, 2013). On the other hand Jambunathan and Caulfield (2008) argue that a study that was carried out in Bombay in 2004 on the education of street children revealed worrying trends. The survey found out that 60 percent of the children had never stepped into a school compound and two-thirds of them were totally illiterate.30% had attended elementary school and 10% intermediate or high school. Most of the children in the study said they ran from their homes because they were forced to attend school or work to assist their parents (Towe and Sherman, 2009). Therefore, the study seeks to absorb all the 1,000,000 street children into educational programs so that they can grow to be responsible members of society.

2.4.0 Ethical and Political Early Childhood Education Development Practice

2.4.1 Ethical

The teachers to be employed in the two learning centers need the support of education stakeholders so that they can recognize the children who are disabled and understand complex impediments to their learning and participation. The professional help in this pedagogy of inclusion ought to involve an on-going reflection on the thinking and practices of teachers. Moss et al. (2009) advocates for transformative pedagogies focused on ethical commitment to resist discrimination and inequalities. Hence, the teachers should develop an open, listening, positive orientation, and embrace the cultural backgrounds of such children to achieve the objectives of the projects.

For the two plans to accomplish the stated goals there is need to practice social justice in the early childhood education. According to Mevawalla (2013), the recognition justice involves appreciating the values, languages, social, and cultural backgrounds of the communities around the schools. The redistributive sentence consists of the distribution and redistribution of resources equitably. In education, it involves the shifting of resources and funds to realize equal access and participation in gaining high quality and available early knowledge for all the children. Therefore, the projects seek to access the funds to accomplish this objective as well as take care of these diversities and also ensure a clean environment within the two cities.

 The teachers of the projects will be required to create environments and conditions for learning that enable participation of all the children. They will make observations by gathering information around the skills, talents, and interests of the children to nurture them well. Such information will be used to form a basis for creating shared experiences with the children. Then the teachers will develop participatory activities for the children according to the skills identified. Therefore, this ensures the full attainment of the well-being of the children such as self-esteem, control of their lives, satisfaction, and happiness (Thoits and Hewit, 2001).

2.4.2 Political

According to Naughton and Davis (2009), street children in India are both whites and non-whites. The white children can stand above racism. There is also the belief that whites are the center of knowledge and humanity. Most governments tend to empower the indigenous people to achieve self-determination and representation through decolonization. The project aims to rehabilitate all the vulnerable street children regardless of their racial backgrounds.

Darder (2018) argues that the learning experiences that are transformative are those that try to; abolish deficit thinking, assist teachers to appreciate the political and social nature of schooling, lead to teaching that recognizes social justice, equity, and diversity. The management of the two projects will not allow the oppression of children in the course of their transformative programs. Hence, this will ensure the achievement of the targeted objectives.

Intercultural and social justice education should be the ultimate objectives of such projects (Campbell, 2014). The two projects will respond in transformative ways to deal with the marginalization of some groups as ‘others’ and privileging the already ‘privileged’ as deserving of their status. There will be equality and social justice in the teaching of the children to realize intercultural education. Therefore, this will help in addressing issues of classism, racism, linguicism, and sexism among the children under rehabilitation.

2.4.3 Ethical and Political Practice

The project is intended to embrace all the white and non-white street children from diverse backgrounds and achieve social justice in education (De Benítez, 2007). There will be the appointment of student leaders from the different cultural diversities and minority ethnicities of the children who will guide in the recognition and celebration of the diverse cultural practices annually. Thus, this will be through the participation in the co-curricular activities such as drama, games and equal social interactions. There will be free interactions of children with management and their teachers who will identify their skills and   De Benítez (2007) assert that such projects need to offer personal and specialized interventions like counseling, and they try to ensure that the children have essential access services. The social workers together with teachers will also work to reduce the depriving adverse effects by engaging dedicated services such as support for substance abuse, sports empowerment, and trauma therapies.

The management of such projects ought to work closely with the local administration and the political leaders to provide significant interventions like offering treatment and psychosocial counseling to sexual abuse victims (de Benítez, 2007).Therefore, the leaders will assist with plans including those of home placements to realize reunions with families so that they will be visiting their children in the centers. Other government interventions that the project will require include the preparation of outreach workers for the street children and launch of child help hotlines so that the projects attain the one million children target. Other support services include complaint and mechanisms for reporting and psychosocial counselling.

2.5 Members of the Project

Projects must have steering committees to ensure successful implementation. Therefore, the project team should headed by the executive who consists of Chairperson, Secretary, Treasurer, Coordinator and other members (Mathur, 2009). It should also incorporate building and construction engineers, community social and health workers, community parents, community administration, community religious leaders, early childhood teachers, and government representatives.

2.6 Timeframe and Place of the Project

The 2 rehabilitation centres will be put up at the same time in a period of 2 years in the two cities of India i.e. Kolkata and Bombay. The first year will involve engaging the different stakeholders in consultations and signing agreements and the actual construction will commence in the second year. Sen (2009) claims that the Indian government should adopt Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) based approaches in addressing the issue of street children. Therefore, the implementation of such projects needs the facilitation of the government in terms of land agreements and provision of security services to the facilities.

2.7 Focus Area

The most worrying survey that was conducted in Kolkata revealed that 6 children in every 554 of age 5 to 14 were HIV positive (Bal et al., 2010). 18 million children surviving along the streets of India is a worrying number that needs to be treated with the seriousness it deserves (Sen, 2009). Hence, the project is intended to rehabilitate the lives of these children in the two common streets of India i.e. Kolkata and Bombay by providing them with early childhood education, proper clothing, nutrition and HealthCare. The street children have for a long time been subjected to torture, mistreatment, and forced labour (Bal et al.2010). Therefore, the project will assist to deal with the issue of child labour along the streets by engaging them in productive life transforming activities.

3.0 Project Planning

Phases Proposed work Responsibility Timeframe
Phase 1 Interviewing the street children, their families, and the community on the need for the project Teachers of early childhood and the community social workers June 2018-August 2018
  Consultation with community parents Community social workers September-October 2018
  Consultation with community administration and  religious leaders Parents selected November to December 2018
  Consultation with government representatives Community administration January to February 2019
  Compile & review stakeholders feedback All members of the project March to April 2019
Phase 2 Reviewing financing report

 

All members of the project May to June 2019
Phase 3 Actual construction Building and construction engineers and the project executive July to June 2020

4.0 Pricing

Cost centres Cost per unit Number of units Total cost
Project resource cost- Project resource cost-Cement $4 100,000 bags $400,000
S Project resource cost-and $20 per truck 1000 trucks $20,000
Project resource cost-Bricks $1 200,000 bricks $200,000
Project resource cost-Painting $10 1000 buckets $10,000
Human resource cost-Labour $1 100 construction workers  for 8 hrs/day for 5 months $120,000
Human resource cost- $150 1000 $150,000
Human resource cost-Managers and support staff $880 50 $44,000
Project resource cost-Stationaries $.002

$.001

2,000,000 books

2,000,000 Pens

$4000

$2000

Travel cost-Travel allowance for project team $1000 50 members $50,000
    Total cost $1,000,000

 

5.0 Sustainability  

The projects should achieve the listed objectives in two cities of India. It is expected to run to the future and there is the desire to make it a world example of a mega project which is going to transform the lives of one million street children in the Indian history (Sen, 2009). The two institutions will embrace cross-sectional exchange programs with other government schools so as to realize universal services to the street children as well (Ba et al., 2010). Therefore, the project is intended to achieve educational standards, better healthcare, nutrition clothing, and reduced child labour that has been most prevalent in India.

5.1 Participation and Ownership of the Project

The non-governmental organizations (NGOs) forced the government to form the Scheme for Assistance to Street Children to address the needs of such children but the results have not been much (Cleghorn and Prochner, 2010). Therefore, this project requires the full support of the government, the community administration, members of the surrounding communities, early childhood teachers, community health workers, and the vulnerable children in general. The two facilities will be fully owned by the communities and the children of the places they are going to be constructed. Hence, some 10 parents of the cities have offered free land where the construction will take place (Cleghorn and Prochner, 2010). The local administration together with the department of lands will assist in the drawing of land agreements so as to ensure a smooth transition.

5.2 Capacity Building Mobilising and Educating

            The project is expected to generate incomes through creation of numerous jobs to the population of the local communities such as, trained early childhood teachers, trained community healthcare workers, cateresses, and other support staff. Jambunathan and Caulfield (2008) support the implementation of exchange programs with the government-owned rehabilitation centres in the areas of child education and teachers’ continuous training. This is aimed at realizing uniformity in the educational curriculum of all the children in India. This project will also offer additional services such as seasonal trainings to untrained individuals who may want to become trainers in the future. The parents will also be trained on general skills of cooking and maintaining health standards in their households. All these will be achieved through collaboration with the local Early Childhood Development (ECD) colleges to offer free training services to aspiring teachers (Cleghorn and Prochner, 2010). The local health centres will offer free training to the parents on health-related issues within the premises of the rehabilitation centres.

5.3 Environmental and Contextual Sustainability

            The street children form groups with leaders who sometimes use the younger children to commit crimes such as stealing and drugs business (Sharma and Lal, 2011). The 2 projects will ensure a crime and drug free society where children’s lives are transformed through education, healthcare, proper nutrition and, clothing and through international education exchange programs. The projects will also provide long-term employment opportunities to the communities and it is expected to attract foreign attention on the need to advocate for the rights of children.

5.4 Generative

Street children ought to be exposed to transformative economic activities. The two rehabilitation centres will put in place some long-term sustainable projects so as to generate incomes for self-reliance (Mathur, 2009). Projects such as rearing of milk and meat cows and bees for honey will be highly considered. The milk will be consumed by the children and the excess processed into products such as yoghurt and cheese which will be sold to the local community to earn income. There will be an idea to establish a slaughterhouse for the meat cows and the meat products will be sold to the surrounding institutions and the community. Honey from bee rearing will be packed and sold to the local and national supermarkets to earn income (Mathur, 2009). Additionally, the centres will have bakeries for baking loaves and snacks for children consumption and the excess will be sold in the immediate shops and supermarkets to raise additional income.

6.0 Conclusion

In conclusion, from Khwairakpam and Sukhminder (2013) argument, the issue of street children in India’ cities is alarming. The children find their way into streets due to poor parental relationships and topics such as alcoholism, separation, inadequate incomes, and death of one or both parents. As a result, these children have no access to clean food, drinking water, proper clothing and medication. Due to hard economic conditions facing the children they are involved in child labour doing small chores such as cleaning vehicles, working in small hotels, and constructions sites where they are underpaid and mistreated. They also engage in petty crimes like pickpocketing and drug abuse which leads them to participate in immoral sexual activities thereby increasing the spread of sexually transmitted diseases like HIV. The street life does not allow these children to access early childhood education that is necessary for their future prosperity. The efforts of international NGOs like the UNICEF and the Indian government associations to rehabilitate the children into Early Childhood Care and Education have not yielded much due to the ever rising population of the children. Based on Sen (2009) findings, the two intended projects of rehabilitation centres with the support of the community administration and labour seek to provide interventions measures through ethical and political practices so as to achieve access to basic needs and the education for the children.

Bibliography

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Campbell, C., 2014. Community mobilisation in the 21st century: Updating our theory of social change?. Journal of Health Psychology19(1), pp.46-59.

Cleghorn, A. and Prochner, L.W., 2010. Shades of globalization in three early childhood settings: Views from India, South Africa, and Canada. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Darder, A., 2018. The Student Guide to Freire’s’ Pedagogy of the Oppressed’. Bloomsbury Publishing.

deBenítez, S.T., 2007. State of the world’s street children: violence. London: Consortium for street children.

Embleton, L., Mwangi, A., Vreeman, R., Ayuku, D. and Braitstein, P., 2013. The epidemiology of substance use among street children in resource‐constrained settings: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Addiction108(10), pp.1722-1733.

Gaidhane, A.M., Syed Zahiruddin, Q., Waghmare, L., Shanbhag, S., Zodpey, S. and Joharapurkar, S.R., 2008. Substance abuse among street children in Mumbai. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies3(1), pp.42-51.

Hart, R.A., 2013. Children’s participation: The theory and practice of involving young citizens in community development and environmental care. Routledge.

Hedges, H. and Cullen, J., 2005. Subject knowledge in early childhood curriculum and pedagogy: Beliefs and practices. Contemporary issues in early childhood6(1), pp.66-79.

Irvine, J.D., Holve, S., Krol, D. and Schroth, R., 2011. Early childhood caries in Indigenous communities: A joint statement with the American Academy of Pediatrics. Paediatrics & child health16(6), pp.351-357.

Jambunathan, S. and Caulfield, M., 2008.Developmentally appropriate practices in Asian Indian early childhood classrooms. Early Child Development and Care178(3), pp.251-258.

Khwairakpam, S. and Sukhminder, K., 2013.Street children in India. Asian Journal of Home Science8(1), pp.300-304.

Mac Naughton, G. and Davis, K. eds., 2009. Race and early childhood education: An international approach to identity, politics, and pedagogy. Springer.

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Mathur, M., Rathore, P. and Mathur, M., 2009.Incidence, type and intensity of abuse in street children in India. Child abuse & neglect33(12), pp.907-913.

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Praharaj, S.K., Verma, P. and Arora, M., 2008.Inhalant abuse (typewriter correction fluid) in street children. Journal of addiction medicine2(4), pp.175-177.

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Critical Analysis: Clean Energy

Critical Analysis: Clean Energy

Brief Description

Apergis, N., Payne, J. E., Menyah, K., & Wolde-Rufael, Y. (2010). On the causal dynamics between emissions, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and economic growth. Ecological Economics, 69(11), 2255-2260.

In this article, Apergis, Payne, Menyah, & Wolde-Rufael (2010) try to explain the causal relationship between Carbon (IV) Oxide, the consumption of nuclear and renewable energies, emissions, and economic growth using 19-country-group from different corners of the world from 1984–2007. The authors also use the panel error correction model to examine these relationships. The long-run estimates from this study show that statistically, there is a significant negative relationship between consumption of nuclear power and emissions and a significant positive association between consumption of renewable fuels and emissions. Results on a causality tests show that the consumption of nuclear power plays helps reducing the emission of CO2 in the short-run but consumption of renewable fuels does not. The authors explain the reason for this as the lack of enough storage technology to deal with sporadic supply issues.

Analysis

The methodology of this analysis in the article involves the use of panel error correction model. The choice of the model is justified by the nature of the study. For instance, panel error correction model provides the researchers with nice interpretation with both short-term and long-term equations that are applied in the study (Apergis et al., 2010). In theory, the panel error correction model is important as a representation of co-integrated Vector Autoregressive Model (VAR). Thus, with the panel error correction model, it is possible to apply VAR to integrated multivariate time series. This helped the researchers to provide representation courtesy of representation theorem by Granger. Therefore, with co-integrated error correction model, researchers obtain VAR representation. The panel error correction model representation offers more efficient coefficient estimates compared to others like the VAR.

According to Apergis et al., (2010), the short-term causality tests as shown in Table 3 indicates that the tests elaborate that consumption of nuclear energy is crucial in reducing carbon (IV) Oxide emissions, which is a crucial result for this study. The key focus here is that nuclear energy does not emit CO2; it is a very efficient and reliable source of power compared to others like coal and fossil fuel. The biggest selling point for this article to environmentalists is that there are no carbon emissions by nuclear power plants that have been examined. These researchers or authors embrace nuclear energy because of the imminent global warming threat that outweighs the possible threat of the localized nuclear power meltdowns.

Nuclear energy plants are reliable because they need little fuel and are less vulnerable to shortages caused by natural disasters or strikes. International relations also have little impact on the fuel supply to the plant reactors as uranium is evenly deposited across the world. As stated by, however, uranium mining leaves residues from ore chemical processing, exposing members of the public to radon. Although safety results of the compromised reactor may be disastrous, the precautions taken to avert this menace can prevent it as well. Nuclear power remains one of the safest energy producing methods.

On the other hand, nuclear energy consumption also has negative characterizes which should be considered. First, nuclear energy affects human health as the uranium used is a rare non-renewable source of power (Natural Resources Defense Council, 2012). Cooling system failures can also cause possible explosions that are hazardous. Excessive radiation exposures may be fatal or can cause cancer. It is also expensive to establish a nuclear power plant. Nuclear energy also affects the environment negatively because nuclear is a catalyst for the destruction of nature coming from waste disposal and meltdowns, which affect economic growth negatively. If the fission reactor loses coolant water, a meltdown occurs as the rods overheat. The rods containing uranium pellets of fuel dissolve and leave the fuel widely exposed. Without a coolant, the temperature increases and at 2800°C, the fuel rods then melt (Natural Resources Defense Council, 2012). A mass of white-hot molten then melts through its containment vessels all the way to the ground. The result is grammar-rays which are exposed in the traveling air which and affect any living thing within the radius of 300-1000 Meters.

However, the indication that consumption of renewable energy has a statistically significant and positive influence on the economic growth of a country could be misleading and should be restricted to the short-run. The nuclear power plants and fossil fuel industries show a comprehensible interest in withering the renewable energy; however, their days are actually numbered (Heinberg, 2015). The globe is heading towards a renewable world, whether or not it is intelligently planned for. However, the better path for this is through intelligent planning. This transition can be hastened by building more solar panels as well as wind turbines and.

However, an equally important part of the transition is deliberately transforming how we use the energy we trap. Such implies that we nearly or completely rethink the economy; it means as well as its ends. This means that growth ought to be the goal of the economy. Instead, nations must focus on satisfying the basic needs of their citizens in the current, shrinking budget of both materials and energy (Heinberg, 2015). In the meantime, to make sure that the continuing public buy-in of in this enormous collaborative project, the economic means of a country ought to include the endorsement or promotion of various activities that enhance human well-being as well as happiness.

Conclusion

The effects of nuclear energy in the long-run are negative because it will affect living things (human beings) and the environment. Nuclear energy may be reliable but it still remains the most destructive and dangerous energies ever. Regardless of involving economic growth as a goal in its use, we cannot guarantee that its use will be only for nonviolent goals. In turn, we can put our faith in renewable energy such as solar and wind fuels, because they are more effective as well as less dangerous fuels, without having to focus majorly on economic growth. All the same, we can still fancy the bidirectional causality that exists between the consumption of renewable fuels and the economic growth. This is because the expansive use of renewable power reduces the developing countries’ dependence of energy sources owned by foreign developed countries and also minimizes the risk of using volatile natural gas and oil prices as well as supplies.

References

Apergis, N., Payne, J. E., Menyah, K., & Wolde-Rufael, Y. (2010). On the causal dynamics between emissions, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and economic growth. Ecological Economics, 69(11), 2255-2260.

Heinberg, R. (2015). Renewable Energy Will Not Support Economic Growth. Post Carbon Institute. Available at: http://www.postcarbon.org/renewable-energy-will-not-support-economic-growth/

Natural Resources Defense Council. (2012). What if the Fukushima nuclear fallout crisis had happened here?

 

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

  1. Key characteristics that divide organisms into prokaryotes and eukaryotes

All living organisms are classified as either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes are categorized based on the characteristics of their cells. Some of the main characteristics that divide the organisms into prokaryotes and eukaryotes include;

Cell structure

Even though the cells of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have some similar basic features like the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane, the prokaryote’s cells are simpler in comparison to the cells of eukaryotes. This is mainly because eukaryotic cells contain many internal cellular organelles that prokaryotic cells lack. Eukaryotic cells have the nucleus which mainly consists of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and proteins. Some of the examples of eukaryotes include animals, plants, fungi, and protists. On the other hand, prokaryotic cells lack the nucleus. Examples of organisms with prokaryotic cells include archaeans and bacteria. Eukaryotic cells are more often multi-cellular and have cytoskeleton while prokaryotic cells are always unicellular with no cytoskeleton (De Duve, 2007).

Cell division

This is the process where a parent cell divides into two new cells known as daughter cells. In prokaryotic cells, the division process is simpler than in eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells mostly divide through the process of binary fission. Binary fission consists of a series of continuous steps which include DNA replication, chromosome segregation, and separation. In eukaryotic cells, cell division takes place through the process of mitosis or meiosis. Before the division, the DNA multiple chromosomes replicate and the organelles are also duplicated. The division then takes place in two major steps i.e. mitosis and cytokinesis.

Reproduction

In prokaryotes, reproduction is always asexual i.e. there is no union of gametes. These organisms are able to reproduce without a mate. Eukaryotes, on the other hand, can reproduce both asexually and sexually. Sexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction where male and female gametes fuse to form a zygote which eventually develops into an offspring.

  1. Key characteristics that divide prokaryotes into eubacteria and archaeans

While both eubacteria and archaeans are classified as prokaryotes, they are different evolutionarily. There exist two types of eubacteria i.e. Gram-positive and gram-negative while there are three types of archaeans which include halophiles, thermophiles, and methanogens. Examples of eubacteria are Bacillus, Mycobacteria, Clostridium, and Anaerobacter among others. Archaeans include Lokiarchaeum, Ferroplasma, Halobacterium, Thermoplasma etc. Some of the key characteristics which divide eubacteria and archaeans include;

Cellular structure

The cell wall of eubacteria is made of peptidoglycan which consists of lipopolysaccharide or muramic acid. They also have ester-linked lipids arranged in shape of a straight chain. On the other hand, archaeans have a cell wall which is said to be pseudo-peptidoglycan and also have ester-linked lipids which are in the shape of branched chains.

 

Reproduction

Eubacteria reproduce asexually but some are able to produce spores which enable them to be dormant during harsh or unfavorable conditions. Archaeans, on the other hand, reproduce asexually through binary fission, budding or by fragmentation process. Binary fission is where the organisms divide itself into two parts and its genetic material is also copied to both the two bodies during the process (DeLong, 2010).

Metabolic pathways

In breaking down the glucose, eubacteria follow the glycolysis pathway and the Kreb’s cycle. Kreb’s cycle is a series of reactions through which living cells produce energy. Archaeans, on the other hand, do not follow Kreb’s cycle or glycolysis. They are however able to extract nutrition and energy from different sources which include sunlight, sugars, metal ions and hydrogen.

Composition of RNA polymerase

The core architecture of eubacteria consists of four sub-units while that of archaeans consist of ten sub-units. Considering also their pathogenicity, some species of eubacteria are pathogenic while archaeans are non-pathogenic (Esko and Jeffrey, 2017).

  1. The evidence that archaeans and eukaryotes are more closely related than eubacteria

Multiple biochemical and genetic lines

Biologists argue that since the discovery of archaeans, it has been demonstrated that they have some evolutionary links with eukaryotes. Particularly, the informational systems of the archaeans demonstrate a higher similarity sequence with their eukaryotic homologues as compared to their bacterial homologues, on several occasions these are not found in bacteria. For instance, thirty ribosomal proteins are particularly found in both the eukaryotes and the archaeans but are absent in bacteria, and most of the translation factors of archaeans demonstrate some similarities to their counterparts (eukaryotes) (McDonald, et.al 2012).

In terms of their structure and subunit composition, the RNA polymerases of both archaeans and eukaryotes are closely related and they also use the same promoters as well as basal transcription factors during initiation.

The four major activities which take place during DNA replication i.e. initiation, fragments priming, new strands synthesis and unwinding of the DNA are facilitated by enzymes which are shared by both the eukaryotes and the archaeans but are not homologous to bacteria.

Various operational systems that are membrane-based such as secretion pathways, vacuolar ATPases of archaeans and eukaryotes also seem to be related (Wang et.al 2007). An evolutionary link in metabolic systems may also be harbored between the archaeans and eukaryotes, for example between arginine biosynthesis pathway and carbamoylphosphate synthetase in the pyrimidine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

References

De Duve, C. (2007). The origin of eukaryotes: a reappraisal. Nature Reviews Genetics8(5), 395.

DeLong, J. P., Okie, J. G., Moses, M. E., Sibly, R. M., & Brown, J. H. (2010). Shifts in metabolic scaling, production, and efficiency across major evolutionary transitions of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences107(29), 12941-12945.

Esko, Jeffrey D. “Eubacteria and Archaea.” Essentials of Glycobiology. 2nd edition. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 18 Apr. 2017.

McDonald, D., Price, M. N., Goodrich, J., Nawrocki, E. P., DeSantis, T. Z., Probst, A., … & Hugenholtz, P. (2012). An improved Greengenes taxonomy with explicit ranks for ecological and evolutionary analyses of bacteria and archaea. The ISME Journal, 6(3), 610.

Wang, Q., Garrity, G. M., Tiedje, J. M., & Cole, J. R. (2007). Naive Bayesian classifier for rapid assignment of rRNA sequences into the new bacterial taxonomy. Applied and environmental microbiology, 73(16), 5261-5267.

Woese, C. R., Kandler, O., & Wheelis, M. L. (1990). Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 87(12), 4576-4579

 

Nick Cave

Introduction

Human beings express their feelings, thoughts, and emotions to each other via many forms of art specifically through language, music, and culture among different types. The field and discipline of art have evolved for some time now regarding its expressions and nature. Art since immemorial has been part of human life. Art does not change, what transforms is how and where is expressed. Various cultures have significantly transformed leading to new forms of artistic expression.

Nicholas Edward Cave

Nicholas Edward Cave is an Australian born music and a songwriter. He also doubles up as an author-composer and actor. Cave’s work is marked by emotional intensity and lyrical obsessions with death, violence, faith, and love. He has a unique baritone voice. Nicholas Cave also was trained in art before formally embarking on his musical journey. Since 1970, he has occasioned a central role in Melbourne’s scene of post prank. His brand after migrating to England assumed a reputation of being the full violent band in the globe.

Nick Cave has over the years acquired the reputation of an artist, messenger, and instructor who values art. In this regard, he appreciates both visual and performing arts with the help of a wide range of instruments particularly sound and performance, sculpture, video footage and other forms of installations. Cave is a relatively prosperous artist, who is now fighting to live a good legacy.

Nicholas Edward Cave loves Sound suits and other sculptural works depending on his body size and scale. His sound suits make the audience or the viewer to look at him without reasoning. This is possible due to the camouflaged nature of his body as result of the mask that he uses to cover his body. This, in essence, hides race, social status, gender, and age from the eyes of the viewer[ CITATION Ada14 \l 1033 ].

Cave’s project HEARD•NY, which was a mega performance in Grand Central Terminal, is a classic example of how he was attempting to get us back to this aspirational environment, where we question ourselves and others around us, about the actual status of life. Unfortunately, most people do not examine the origin and the nature of life as Cave does and challenges us to do. Nick Cave is extensively celebrated for his compelling and unique Soundsuits. His cultural forms are determined by the human body. His costumes are made using assorted second-hand clothes. Effectively, sculptures, Soundsuits, costumes and musical devices are set in motion only. Cave and his team members essentially dancers wear the costumes, thereby changing them into sound and other applicable forms of video including YouTube.

Cave has invested heavily in an expensive and extensive immersive installation until in a place called MASS MoCA, which he commissioned in 2016. He has also organized several solo exhibitions at the Cranbrook Art Museum.

Style of Performance

Caves performance is very objective. His style of presentation erases and replaces individual personality. It is substituted by peculiar and formal features of the relevant scavenged matter. They are revealed through scale. There is no specific symbol or label that uncovers the size and height of the costume. Moreover, the pictures captions do not reveal much regarding the size of the costumes. In this case what is important is the monumental nature of the garments and that of the people wearing them. Cave argues that anyone who is ready to go through a social ceremony is tribal. His work appreciates the hyped role garnered by fashion in the modern world[ CITATION Ada14 \l 1033 ].

Caves moral core holds as one of the basic appealing categories of Cave’s art. His work of art reveals the capacity of human beings to drive change in their respective communities despite the current challenges[ CITATION Art18 \l 1033 ]. Nick Cave sound suits are inherently majestic in the sense that they can mix fashion and sculpture. ”Sound suits” initially emerged as metaphorical clads of armor in a desperate response to the beatings of Rodney King. However, they have transformed into instruments of empowerment. Sound suits completely conceal the body of the artist and effectively acting as an alien secondary skin. This enables viewers to look without bias and prejudice at the performance. Nick Cave usually presents in the sculptures by his own. He does this by either dancing before the camera or the audience.

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

Adam, M. G. (2014). Big bucks: The explosion of the art market in the 21st century. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Art in the 21st century. (n.d.). Retrieved 2 28, 2018, from art21.org: https://art21.org/watch/art-in-the-twenty-first-century/s8/nick-cave-in-chicago-segment/

 

 

 

Recorded Music Production

Introduction

Planning and budgeting are quite significant tools when it comes to studio session management and control (Nunes et al., 2013). For a proper and professional recording session there has to be distinctive stages during the sessions. There are four important stages of recording a song in a professional studio. Namely the composition stage, roles in the studio, recording in layers and finally mixing and mastering.

The composition stage is where most of the activities involving the song creation take place. This is the stage where either the song composition starts from scratch, or modification a lyric, or adding a bridge. It doesn’t mean that when the band is in the studio, the songwriting process is done. The best lyrics are formed in the studio.

The second stage involves the roles of each person in during the studio session. On the recording gig, there is four chief personnel besides the musicians: the main producer and sound engineer, the mixer and finally the master-er (Power And, & Hallencreutz, 2007). During this stage, the band is held to the level of the visualization for the recording by the producer. When it comes to if the track is good enough and the artists are done with one part the producer has the final say on the quality. In order to achieve the objectives and goals of the session, the engineer utilizes the technological resources in the studio. That means if the producer requires a little shingle from the artist, to make it happen the engineer must correct the compression settings or even the microphone. For the recording to sound like one piece of work, the finishing touches is done by mastering guy sets levels and enhance the product with finishing touches.

The third stage includes the recording in layers. Just like painting most of the recording is supposed to take place in layers.  Starting with a base color, an artist then roughs it up into various basic shapes using different tones to add further details on top. The same is to be said about the process taking place in a recording studio. The tempo of the song is set with the most basic layer which is the click track. A simple drum sequence, usually the guide rhythm tracks which is laid down once the tempo is laid down. Then to set the proper feel for the song and to lock the structure of the song the bass/ guide guitars/ keys are laid over the top. For the final tracks to be in proper melody, then the guide vocals are laid. The band can now start to record the parts to be heard in the final mix now that the guide tracks are down. This is usually done part-time or even live when the band is playing in unison. The drummer is basically the one who sets the tempo by playing his part all through the song with as many takes as possible.

Mixing and Mastering

The parts get recorded in multiple tracks per instrument often multiple tracks per instrument (Burgess, 2010). The sounding of a track is determined individually and collectively by the mixer. For the listener to get the sounds clear and distinctively the use of spatial analogy for sound separation is required.  The combination of reverb, EQ and compression are the most common mastering tools. The difference between mastered tracks though easy to recognize but hard when it comes to description.

One Week Album Recording Session Schedule

The session schedule will depend on the number of musicians and vocalists that are involved in our band. Due to the arrangements and complexity of the boarding and recording project, it may take about 30 to 50 hours. Therefore a one-week album schedule is recommended.

Session Day 1

We normally commence with a rhythm section of bass and drums together with the keyboards. Therefore on the first day arrival time should be strictly 10 AM so that the band can be able to get enough time to working and interact with this essential group of musicians.  Tracking of the entire songs in the album of 10 songs in 6 hours. The keyboard player usually remains for 2 to 3 hours after the completion of the 3 major musicians in laying the bed tracks. This is to ensure addition of the extra orchestrations or keyboard parts that is the string.

Session Day 2

The vocals for the solo is recorded while voices are still fresh. After this recording of any of the group, vocals could take place. Then perhaps for a 3-4 hour session by the first dub musician later in the evening.

Session Day 3

This day will most likely be dominated by recording sessions with the vocal group since the project will involve studio background vocalists.

Session Day 4

This session includes a chance for additional or extra musician over-dubs as included in the session budget. This could be most likely a horn section or the string ensemble coming in to do 3 songs. This might as well be different musicians each participating in a 3 to 4-hour studio session. Any additional time during this session day will mostly be used for counterchecking or finishing incomplete vocals done by the artists.

Session day 5

This is the day session when final mix and mastering will be done after everything is recorded. This will most likely be the busiest day working with the producer and sound engineer. Since the mixing is done manually songs are likely to take an hour or more depending on the effort required. For a recorded project it is likely to take 2-6 hours for necessary mastering normally done at the end of the process.

The session

Before the setting up and starting of the sessions, to save the session from confusion through microphone leads are run first. This is because when various leads gather at the pane, they might create a mess making it difficult to trace any complications. To minimize disorganizations and save time, the keeping a tracking sheet with song location of individual songs is quite significant. Communication between musicians and the recording crew is key before the recording starts.

 

Sample Budget

PROJECT EXPENSES (PRIMARY)

Pre-production                                                                                    Rate (per artist)           Total
Rehearsal Space Rental $50 $300
Equipment Rentals $50 $300
Session musicians $50 $300
Sub Total   $900

 

Recording/ Production Rate (per hour) Total
Recording Studio Rental $50 $2500
Equipment Rental $10 $500
Producer $10 $500
Engineer $10 $500
Arranger $5 $250
Tapes & Supplies $5 $250
Session Musicians $10 $100
Other    
Travel $100 $500
Accommodation $100 $500
Sub Total   $5600

 

Post production Rate (per song) Total
Mixing $100 $1000
Mastering $100 $1000
Other    
Packaging 250 copies $1000
Subtotal   $3000

 

Weekly Subsistence Expenses Total
Housing $300
Local Transportation $800
Food/Personal $100
Weekly subsistence total $200
Subtotal $1400

 

TOTAL PROJECT EXPENSES

Project Total
A $900
B $5600
C $2000
D $1400
Total 10,900

 

All in the producer (production/mixing/sound/engineering) – $600 per song multiplied by ten songs making it $6000.

The session amount charged for Musicians is six musicians at $50/ hours totaling to $3000. The mastering session is also a critical area of the budgeting process. The charges are $100 per song and therefore $1000 for the ten songs. Other charges include the packaging which involves limited run CD pressing of 250 copies with two pocket eco packaging costing $1000. Album art design rates are usually $500 and the digital distribution costing about $20.00. All this leads to a total cost of $ 10,900.00

Therefore for a ten album tracks, the band should be prepared on spending around $12,000.00. There are also other expenses that may arise during the recording and production process such as the need to rent instruments. This will lead to extra costs on the production than anticipated. If the cost becomes unaffordable other means to reduce the overall expenses can be devised. This includes going to the studio with digital-only release or LANDR to master the tracks. But since the band desires to utilize the professional resources in the studio, we opt for the producer to take us through the songs recording and production process.

Studio time

We are all aware of the time set for the studio session being the most obvious cost for recording in a studio. During the time calculation, I find it important to add a little extra to avoid the stress caused by crumpled sessions which doesn’t add any value to the project. Proper estimation is required for the time taken during the setting up sound systems and also the time taken for the period of artists’ changeover. Therefore the addition of extra time to the budget is essential for quality recording and production.

Musicians

It is usually evident that involving other great musicians in our record will cost a lot of money (Baskerville, & Baskerville, 2010). For an album production session, something to consider is even though I may be expensive to involve musicians of a higher caliber, they save you some money.  This is so because a less experienced musician will probably need many takes and editing compared to a seasoned session player with only a few takes will get the job done. Therefore the top cats can save us some money even though they are expensive to hire.

Scheduling

Another way of cutting down the expenses is knowing how to schedule and sway musicians’ arrival. For example getting drum sounds while you have the whole rhythm section there is a waste of time and money. The musician is supposed to show up based on the complexity of the project setup. This usually means that the bassist can be the last one to be recorded.

Editing

The editing process is crucial and has to be put into proper consideration (Burgess, 2013).  This means the amount of prep and editing that is going to be required during the mixing process. A band project is usually a complex project when recording since a lot of editing may be required. Therefore during tracking, it is recommended to make as many crucial decisions as possible. Therefore what takes ten mins now may take ten more minutes later making it an extra $10 of the studio time.

 

 

Engineer

When it comes to proper budgeting, it will be important to realize how the sound engineer is going to work (Baskerville, & Baskerville, 2010). Their flexibility in the setting up, an organization of the professional tools and their approach to problem-solving during the studio sessions. For the continual progress of the session, the take organization and labeling is going to be significant. Sloppy edits, confusion and poorly labeled tracks over the playlist all will cost a lot of money. Therefore proper budgeting and the battle plan are required to decide on how things will be organized.

Duplication is not our department, but when it comes to the cost, it will present for the band it is good to have an idea about it.

Mastering

Having an idea or a rough budget for the mastering process is also significant when budgeting for the studio sessions. Based on the number of songs one is supposed to include an estimate.

Mixing though it seems quite obvious it is important to consider the way in which the songs are going to be mixed. This is so because we have to know if the rate will be per song or hourly and if the mixing of the particular project is going to be done in the studio to tape.

Vocal takes

It is also important during the budgeting to recognize the type of singers you are working with, and the time they will need to capture and take (Baskerville, & Baskerville, 2010). One of the things that eat up the studio time is a recording of the vocals which may make the whole studio session expensive. The experience of the vocalists also matters a lot since a vocalist who is inexperienced may need a vocal coach. To avoid bad takes the vocal coach will work out the repeated problems to avoid vocal problems.  The artists are supposed to be provided with full breakdown costs and estimates in some physical forms.

 

Conclusion

Proper budgeting makes the whole studio sessions and song production more enjoyable for the band and musicians involved. This will definitely lead to saving of unnecessary costs while at the same time utilization of the available studio resources to the maximum. Accounting for each and everything in a studio is not an easy task since and so there may be a need for future changes along the way.  But since the budgeting process provides a solid footing, it will be easy to adapt to the choices made or altered.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Baskerville, D., & Baskerville, T. (Eds.). (2010). Music business handbook and career guide. Sage.

Burgess, R. J. (2013). The art of music production: the theory and practice. Oxford University Press.

Burgess, R. J. (2010). The Art Of Music Production: With an Introduction to Twentieth-century Music. Omnibus Press.

Nunes, T., Gillett, S., Norrish, P., Lima, M., Jordán, C., Vargas, I., … & Lawrence, A. (2013). Planning and budgeting. In Plant Identification (pp. 39-76). Routledge.

Power And, D., & Hallencreutz, D. (2007). Competitiveness, local production systems and global commodity chains in the music industry: entering the US market. Regional Studies, 41(3), 377-389.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix

Initial pre- production meeting

Sonic signature/ artist identity/ vision/ intention of the recording/ audience/ time/ budgeting/ musicians/ tech spec)