American History

Name

Professor

Class

Date

American History

Native peoples of North American

The years 1491 and 1610 are very symbolic in the Native American culture; 1491 symbolizes pre-contact Native Americans and 1610 became the first permanent English settlement moment in Jamestown (Sutton 73). There were several different Indian populations in the present-day United States each of these groups lived a lifestyle in accordance with its environment. The Native American culture was composed of diverse cultural groups, as it was not just a one-prototype Native American. There were many cultural groups of Native Americans with diverse culture, which inhabited the land before the Europeans arrived.

In the late 15th century 2 worlds met; 1 European and 1 Native American and more than five centuries later the consequences of that encounter are still being felt. The Native American tribes of North America are Kwakiutl, Lakota, Pueblo, Inuit, and Iroquois (Sutton 73). The Inuit lived in arctic area currently known as Alaska and northern Canada. They lived in cold areas characterized by Tundra, which is an ice desert. The temperature is usually below freezing point most of the years. In order to survive in these harsh conditions, the Inuit lived in igloos, which were made out of snow ice. The Kwakiutl lived in present-day Washington and Oregon, which is in the Pacific Northwest. They are characterized by a rainy and mild climate. Kwakiutl used canoes to gather food, travel and trade. Their homes were large enough to put their whole extended families in one house. The Pueblo lived in present-day southwest United States; this is a desert area boarding cliffs and mountains. Next is the Inuit tribe located in arctic northern Alaska. This tribe grappled with the cold temperatures of their environment. Inuit were primarily hunters since the geography is vastly different with little vegetation that can survive in the environment.

The Columbian Exchange

With financing being provided by the king and queen of Spain, Christopher Columbus sailed to the new world in 1492 (Specht 37). Columbus moved from Spain and sailed in hope of finding a quick direction to the Indies. He successfully landed in Cuba and discovered America. With Columbus innovations, trade began between the two different worlds, which is known as the Colombian exchange. Colombian exchange is defined as the transportation of plants, animals, microbes, and people across the Atlantic and back; not only by trading them but also transplanting them from Europe and Africa into the new world. Although many people seem to think about Christopher Columbus initial voyage in 1492, changing the history of Americans, it literary modified a great deal more significantly (Specht 37). This process brought immense environmental effect that had real repercussions.

The year 1492 was the most important moment in history because of the encounters in eastern and western hemispheres, which initiated a string of changes that transformed every aspect of life all around the planet. The changes brought by the Colombian exchange were momentous. The two hemispheres of the world had separate ecosystems, which had developed on their own for thousands of years. The back and forth transfer of these elements brought an alteration to both hemisphere systems. In some regions, the Colombian exchange of microbes and plants was disastrous for Native Americans, which was a double win for Europeans (Specht 36). At first, Europeans obtained a supply of food that permitted unprecedented reproduction. Next, they gained access to more land largely for indigenous people. As a result, the exchange exhausted the population on the American side of the Atlantic while swelling those of the European and African. Eventually, the surplus population in Europe and Africa flowed westwards to fill the population vacuum created on the American new Atlantic universe.

Early English settlements at Roanoke and Jamestown

Sir Walter in 1585 originally started and funded Roanoke. The colony did not go well from the beginning as Native Americans cut off this supply routes and those who survived during the winter starved to death. It took many years to the rise of Jamestown colony on the James River aptly named for King James (Donegan 69). After the first year of war, only 40 people survived. Among the survivors in that era, there came across two famous people, John Smith and Pocahontas. Smith was the governor of the colony and saved the colony with the saying “he that will not work shall not eat.” Pocahontas was a Native American princess, daughter of the Powhatan chief. She died at the age of 22; even after her death, she continued to have an impact on the relationship between the Jamestown settlers and the Powhatans.

In 1622, the English kept on taking over more land that letter brought vast problems between the Europeans and Native Americans. As a result, Powhantas attacked the settlements killing hundreds of settlers which sparked up many rebellions, with the most famous being Bacons Rebellion. In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon and other farmers wanted the governor to seize more land from native America because they wanted it for tobacco plantations (Donegan 71). Governor Barkley refused to say there had been too much fight. Bacon later matched to Jamestown and took over the House of Burgesses, which is today Virginias and Americas first full representative government. Native Americans believed that the land belonged to all, whereas the English had the opinion of privatizing land and property.

Salem Witch trials

Salem Witch trials began in the spring of 1692 in Salem Massachusetts after two girls accused women of being witches, fear paranoia and hysteria snowballed into a societal nightmare (Goss 90). A series of accusations resulted in nearly two dozen people in England being put to death in supposedly practicing witchcraft. Many were brought to judges with little to no evidence against them except for the baseless testimonies of others. Unfortunately, things got out of hand destroying lives, breaking up families and thrusting their little villages into disarray. Under the English law, the trials at Salem did not work the way people are used to presently, with lawyers and strict rules about evidence. Often these trials would be heavily weighed against the accused; in fear of execution, many confessed. Surprising those who confessed to witchcraft were not executed but the others who refused were executed.

Two girls Betty Perris and Abigail Williams began exhibiting chicken pox symptoms. Certain individuals within the community became convinced that the girls had been cursed by witchcraft. The citizens of Salem village began seeing witchcraft everywhere and in 1692, more women were arrested. Those who were accused were placed on trial and if they were found guilty, the punishment was death. No one was quite sure what caused the sudden panic over witches in Salem village. Some have simply attributed this to mass psychogenic illness or mass hysteria. Rapid accusations and fear fuelled the frenzy, which eventually led to the executions (Goss 23). Twenty people had lost their lives and Salem village had forever earned its mark in the history books.

The Seven Years’ War

A four to seven year of war entailed Austrian war of succession where Britain and Austria fought against France and Prussia, which ended with a French and Prussian victory as Prussian annexed the state of Silesia (Baugh 397). After the war on succession, Britain, which was previously an ally with Prussia, saw Austria as too weak against France. Therefore, Britain made an alliance with Prussia and France. The seven years’ war all started in the European colonies in the Americas as Britain and France both sought claiming in the mortaring land between the 13 colonies and Novellas (Baugh 670). As French built villages, Britain under Washington attacked the French. Meanwhile in Europe, Prussia knew that Austria and its neighbour would declare war (Baugh 673).

Prussia then invaded Saxony an ally of Austria. They were able to take Dresden but failed to take Prag; as a result, Sweden declared war on Prussia hoping to regain some proper alien land as France entered in Hanover. The Prussians were fighting a war for funds. Although they were gaining many financial aids from the British, none was nearly enough to stop his enemies. Britain, on the other hand, had more success; they were able to take French Senegal, French India, Quebec, and Montreal. In 1762, Spain entered the war and invaded Portugal an ally of Britain (Baugh 633). The British responded by invading Havana and Manila. As the Austrians lost her eastern allies they were now interested in creating peace. The war ended in 1763 of the treaty of Paris, as all European border was restored, Cuba and Manila were given back to Spain. The war left many countries in financial problems who then led to the partition of Poland and many revolutions.

The Constitutional Convention

After America issued a declaration of independence, the country was launched into a war with the most powerful country in the world. The United States government had serious difficulties supplying General Washington’s troops with supplies to fight the British because the Congress did not have the power to tax. The confederation congress was forced to beg other countries and individual states for money. America had created a confederation in which the states had all of the power under its first constitution; in addition to lacking the power to tax, the government had only one branch, a legislature (Bilder 32).

In the summer of 1787, 55 delegates representing twelve of the thirteen states met in Philadelphia in May of 1787. In addition to Washington, Madison, and Hamilton, the famous Benjamin Franklin also attended the congregation. The delegates chose Washington to preside over the convention, as no one would question his selfless loyalty to the United States. The constitutional convention consisted of a series of compromises or settlements of disputes in which each side gave some of their demands (Bilder 117). Many state constitutions consist of essential rights and freedoms such as Virginia’s declaration of rights. Many delegates argued that the separation of powers made a list of rights unnecessary; this issue would soon arise in the ratification debate. However, after a long hot summer, the constitution was finally approved.

Works Cited

Baugh, Daniel, and Daniel A. Baugh. The Global Seven Years War 1754-1763: Britain and France in a Great Power Contest. New York. Routledge, 2014.

Bilder, Mary Sarah. Madison’s Hand: Revising the Constitutional Convention. United States. Harvard University Press, 2015.

Donegan, Kathleen. Seasons of Misery: Catastrophe and Colonial Settlement in Early America. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013.

Goss, K. David. The Salem witch trials: a reference guide. London. ABC-CLIO, 2008.

Specht, Joshua, and Etienne Stockland. The Columbian Exchange. London. Macat Library, 2017.

Sutton, Mark Q. An introduction to native North America. New York. Routledge, 2016.

.

Economic Growth and Regional Imbalance

Economic Growth and Regional Imbalance

Author

Professor

University

City, State

January 17, yTable of Contents

Economic Growth and regional Imbalance 3

Introduction 3

Theory of Economic Growth 3

Types of Economic Growth……………………………………………………………………….4

Effects of Growth…………………………………………………………………………………………….8

Gross Value Added (GVA) 8

Regional imbalance……………………………….…………………………………………………………9

Current Government (Conservative Party) Policies to Reduce Regional Imbalance……….9

Conclusion 11

References 12

Economic Growth and Regional Imbalance

Introduction

Economists acknowledge growth as a vital aspect of every economy, and it generates economic growth (Barro and Sala-i-Martin 2004, p. 16). Economic growth is the incline in the production of goods and services over a specific era (Amadeo, 2018). It allows organizations to gain more profit thus boosting the capital to invest more thus creating a source of employment with a reasonable rate of wage. Regional disparity is the measurement of overall inequality that mainly affects both social and political solidity (Kanbur and Venables, 2005, p. 3). Various areas in Europe such as Stockholm in Sweden is considered as a fast developing area concerning urbanization. However, some districts in that region are lagging behind with less employment rate as well as low level of education thus developing regional imbalance (Andersson et al., 2014, p.8). The discussion focuses on economic growth, the extent to which school is the primary cause of regional imbalance between the north and south of England and how the current UK Government aim to solve the issue of spatial inequality.

Theory of Economic Growth

In the UK, the Office of National Statistic (ONS) is accountable for assembling the state’s economy data four times a year to measure the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and value of services and products (Cullen, Baverstock and Cullen, 2018). ONS determines the economic development based on at least 40,000 firms, and 200,000 goods and only 40 percent of the information from the analysis; preliminary reading of the GDP will be incorporated in the full appraisal (Hyde, 2010). On the other hand, some writers argue that economic growth can be measured through the standard of living within a region, which is a very challenging criterion (Coyle, 2011).

Economists prefer to use real GDP instead of nominal GDP because it gives the most precise data of growth (Amadeo, 2018). Moreover, it eliminates the effects of inflation. On the other hand, Nominal GDP is useful in estimating how ‘big’ other ostensible figures are that is in evaluating the rate of budgets discrepancy (EconData, 2018).

Types of Economic Growth

Short Run Growth

The production cycle is the actual oscillation of the short term of economic growth that transpires over an era (Amadeo, 2017). A business cycle is a handy tool for exploring the economy because it can assist one in making better financial choices. It determines the actual real GDP. Each business cycle has four stages. They are expansion, peak, contraction, plus trough that take place at various intermissions as shown in the diagram below.

Output (GDP)

 

Actual Growth

Peak

Expansion

 

Growth Trend

Trend

 

Trough

Time

Contraction

 

Fig 1: Diagram for Business Cycle (Short run Growth) (Courses.lumenlearning, 2018).

However, they lack decipherable indicators. The expansion phase occurs between the trough and the peak stage. It is when there is a rise in the GDP, prices rise, and investors gain confidence in their assets that the inflation will continue thus making them increase the value of their properties leading to the peak period. However, after climax, the phase transits to contraction level where the economy deteriorates to the trough stage (Amadeo, 2017). The rate of unemployment inclines at the end of the contraction because of the unstable economy.

The causes of fluctuation in the actual growth rate are the shortage of human resource, an incline of total demand, and rise in need for importation (Hall, 2010). Lack of labor leads to underutilization of resources in a given area thus affecting economic development. Performing more imports than exports rather than balancing the two results to balance of payment shortfalls. Hence, it would be best to adjust these three significant causes of fluctuation to enable stability in the actual growth.

Long Run Growth

Long Run Aggregate Supply (LRAS) is whereby suppliers rely on price to determine the number of goods to supply consumers with while in the short run, they retaliate to change in demand and cost to determine the amount of products to produce (Capital, 2018). Monetarists claim that total output is independent of inflation because labor, enterprises, capital, and land are the primary catalysts for economic growth as shown in the diagram below.

Price Level

LRAS2

LRAS1

 

Real National Output

Fig 2: Classical Monetarist Diagram Indicating that Supply is Independent of Price (Arlene, 2015).

Therefore, an increase in yield and efficiency is due to the proper utilization of the four factors. For instance, when there is a total exploration of the resources, there is full employment. Hence, the diagram does not rely on demand to determine the productivity level because it is an inconsistent element. In other words, it emphasizes the use of fiscal policies to fuel demand to achieve development without a rise in price response.

An increase in production potential response influences LRAS to shift outwards leading to inclined employment (Capital, 2018). When there is maximum utilization of resources, there will be demand for labor thus leading to regional balance. For instance, developing more enterprises in Stockholm will drive to more employment in the region. Another outward shift is caused when there is more industrious potential thus leading to demand workforce. A good example is a region in Sweden where there are many innovative industries; they will seek labor thus creating employment for the inhabitants within that locality.

Effects of growth

Costs

Every state or region deems economic growth as an excellent achievement, but it comes along with its costs (Economicsonline.co.uk., 2018). A good example is deforestation to fulfill the demand for timber for construction of more houses. However, as the tree cutters cut down the trees, they forget the policy of cutting and replanting of trees thus a negative impact on the environment (Economicshelp.org, 2018). Desertification such as overgrazing or deforestation will generate more income to a particular zone, but it causes risks (Economicsonline.co.uk., 2018).

Another demerit is increased competition of raw materials on the UK economy (Pettinger, 2018). With the Chinese being second to the U.S regarding the purchasing power, prices of resources such as oil will incline thus squeezing the standard of living in the north-west (Pettinger 2018). The rise of income will influence prosperity in many due to more wealth thus attracting high crime rates thus making a particular area insecure (Economicshelp.org, 2018). Hence, economic growth does not only bring positive changes but, also negative impacts on the society.

Benefits

Economic development will lead to increased employment (Gordon, 2004). When there is more employment such as London, the living standards of people in that region will improve because they will have a reliable source of income to cater for their needs. Another benefit of economic growth is an increased capital investment (Gordon, 2004). When a firm is doing well regarding input and output in the UK, but there is more demand, it will strive to invest in more products to supply the rise of needs in the society. This benefit will lead to increased labor force thus accommodating the unemployed.

Gross Value Added (GVA)

Gross Value Added (GVA) is the rate spawned by any area involved in the manufacture of commodities as well as services (Cullen, Baverstock and Cullen, 2018). It is determined by the current indispensable values that entail the effect of price rise, exclusive of taxes on yields such as Value Added Tax (VAT). GVA is gauged via the income strategy at times symbolized by GVA(I). GVA Per head of populace is a handy method of contrasting regions of various sizes. The 2014 report in the table below depicts that both GVA and GVA per head at the current indispensable prices have inclined in both the North West and South East of England while there is a decline in the same in the North East and South West of England. (“Regional gross value added (income approach)” 2016).

NUTS1 regions

GVA per head (£)2

GVA per head growth on 2014 (%)

GVA per head index (UK=100)

Total GVA (£m)2

Total GVA growth on 2014 (%)

Share of UK total GVA (%)4

 

 

United Kingdom5

25,351

2.1

100.0

1,666,342

2.6

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

North East

18,927

2.8

74.7

49,677

3.0

3.0

 

 

North West

21,867

3.0

86.3

156,872

3.6

9.4

 

 

Yorkshire and The Humber

20,351

2.4

80.3

109,704

3.0

6.6

 

 

East Midlands

20,929

1.0

82.6

97,887

1.8

5.9

 

 

West Midlands

20,826

1.6

82.1

119,769

2.2

7.2

 

 

East of England

23,970

1.7

94.6

145,651

2.7

8.7

 

 

London

43,629

1.6

172.1

378,424

3.2

22.7

 

 

South East

27,847

2.3

109.8

249,174

3.2

14.9

 

 

South West

23,031

2.0

90.8

126,007

2.9

7.6

 

 

 

 

 

England

26,159

2.1

103.2

1,433,164

3.0

86.0

 

 

Wales

18,002

2.8

71.0

55,788

3.0

3.3

 

 

Scotland

23,685

1.8

93.4

127,260

2.3

7.6

 

 

Northern Ireland

18,584

1.4

73.3

34,410

2.0

2.1

 

 

Extra-Region

n/a

n/a

n/a

16,242

-19.3

1.0

 

 

Table 1: The regional imbalance in the North and South of England (Cullen, Baverstock and Cullen, 2018)

Therefore, indicating a regional imbalance in both the North and South part of England while the west side of the North is doing well, the East region is suffering spatial inequality and a similar case in the Southside (Ons.gov.uk, 2018).

Regional imbalance and Education

A difference in the education level can lead to social inequality especially in the Northern zone in areas such as Yorkshire, North-West, and North-East. Where there is weak or inefficient funding of schools to improve the learning resources and the environment leads to lower level of education (Northernpowerhousepartnership.co.uk, 2018, p. 4). Insufficient skills can also trigger regional imbalance when companies fail to empower the skills they need in employees in students while at the secondary level. Therefore, ineffective training leads to inadequate capabilities in a region thus discriminating people during employment

Factors such as fewer career paths have led to low employment chances. For instance, diversification of sectors such as energy, advanced manufacturing, medical, and technological innovation in the North will lead to more career paths thus enhancing employment chances (Northernpowerhousepartnership.co.uk, 2018, p. 28). As indicated in the table below, there is a less population of people qualified at the NQ level 4 and above. Therefore there is a need to increase the qualifications through diversification of career paths to accommodate many people from the Northern region

Table 2: The levels of qualifications of workers in different sectors in the North (Northernpowerhousepartnership.co.uk, 2018, p. 39)

Current Government (Conservative Party) Policies to Reduce Regional Imbalance

Current Government (Conservative Party) Policies to Reduce Regional Imbalance

One education policy that will reduce regional imbalance is improving the goals and the performance of the North’s institutions to alter the economy of North England (Burns, 2017). Those residing in the North of Tyne will gain from £600 million administration expenditures on the main local concerns such as the employment sector (Jones et al., 2017). This strategy will reduce regional imbalance through boosting the quality of education plus job creation. Three years have passed since the preliminary forecast on regional inequality with the same proposals, yet no change has been initiated hence, it may take longer to place the policy in practice (Ernst and Young, 2017, p.4). According to Mr. Osborne’s proposal to implement the education policy in the disadvantaged areas, £300 million is required to fund the project to ensure students in the North get a quality education but this was sidelined by Theresa May (Ahmed, 2018). He believes that the policy will work because education; lack of skills in training is what makes Northern part of England to lag behind thus when fulfilled, it will rebalance the regional economy (Ahmed, 2018).

Regional mayors are representatives elected within an area by the residents; they are chairs of the combined authorities of a region (Local.gov.uk, 2018). Hence, they are entitled to devolved powers. Northern Powerhouse Rail (NPR) is significant tactical rail project premeditated to alter the connectivity of economic centers of the Northern region of England thus enabling its economic growth. The budget may result in a range of £69bn from now to 2050 thus leading to £2.3bn on an annual basis meaning the project is estimated to last for thirty years (Railtechnologymagazine.com, 2018). HS2 is essential to the progress of NPR, and the plan is to include junction in other cities like Liverpool, Sheffield, and Manchester (Railtechnologymagazine.com, 2018). The rail will reduce regional imbalance through the employment of more people at the rail stations. It will work to reduce the local inequality in the long term because it will take longer than the anticipated time. Mr. Osborne claimed that he doubts whether the HS3 will take place because he does not have faith in Theresa May but Jake Berry told the BBC that the government is committed to enhancing the transportation sector in Northern England hence it will pass (BBC News, 2018)

Conclusion

The main reason for the regional imbalance between the north and south of England is the low level of education and inadequate skills. The students are denied quality education because there is no support of the institutions’ management. There are also insufficient skills due to ineffective training on what the employment sector seeks. Therefore, the government should focus on improving the education system through funding the poor schools. Enterprises should also take their desired skills to schools to ensure future employment in north and south of England. If the government policy to fund schools will take place, it will work in the long-run since it considers both the current students and the future generation. Instead of outsourcing skills from other parts of England, the north and south will by then fulfill the demand in the employment sector. Therefore, it will only rebalance the regional economy if the policy will be implemented instead of being sidelined by other projects such as the NPR.

References

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

Ahmed, K. (2018). Osborne urges action on north-south divide. [online] BBC News. Available at: http://www.bbc.com/news/business-42893861 [Accessed 18 Mar. 2018].

Arlene, S. (2015, March 1). Aggregate Demand, Aggregate Supply, and the Investment Demand Curve [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://arlenesmacro.blogspot.co.ke/2015/03/aggregate-supply.html

Amadeo, K. (2018). The 4 Critical Stages of the Business Cycle. [online] The Balance. Available at: https://www.thebalance.com/what-is-the-business-cycle-3305912 [Accessed 18 Mar. 2018].

Amadeo, K. (2018). How Economic Growth Benefits You. [online] The Balance. Available at: https://www.thebalance.com/what-is-economic-growth-3306014 [Accessed 18 Mar. 2018].

Andersson, E., Lundberg, J., & Hedin, S. (2014). Interim Report – Part B.1 Study on promoting multi-level governance in support of Europe 2020( CCI 2013CE16BAT019). Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/studies/pdf/mlg_cs5.pdf

Barro, R. J., & Sala-i-Martin, X. (2004). Economic growth (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Berry, J., Hammond, P. and Jones, A. (2018). Budget delivers devo deal and transport boost for North of Tyne – GOV.UK. [online] Gov.uk. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/budget-delivers-devo-deal-and-transport-boost-for-north-of-tyne [Accessed 18 Mar. 2018].

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Top of Form

Top of Form

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History of Art

Student’s Name

Professor

Course

Date

History of Art

1. a) Renaissance era is known for the uprising of the religious art, which was focused on spreading the influence of the church. The best well-known example is “The Last Supper”, drawn by Leonardo da Vinci. It uses the biblical motive, including the display of Jesus Christ and his Apostles. It was used to promote the religious ideas to the high society.

b) To maintain the people’s fate in the spiritual higher powers, Baroque art style was commonly used, especially by the Catholic Church. To make people think that even Catholic priests have divine powers, given them by god, the “Miracles of Francis Xavier” was created by Peter Paul Rubens, and it helped to establish the influence of a church amongst people.

c) In the Age of Enlightment, the artists started to reference the old cultural traits, and were focused on finding the morality. Sometimes they made it through philosophers, and the work “A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery”, made by Joseph Wright, is an example of how high was the importance of that age’s thinkers.

d) The propaganda in the modernism period was strictly obvious, especially in USSR, where it was used to spread the communist ideology and persuade people to join military forces. An example of that could be “Motherland Calls” poster, created in 1941 by Irakli Toidze.

2. a) The importance of the particular human beings, such as a one person or a large group, was the main focus of ancient Greek philosophers. They were also spreading the idea of the development of the human society.

b) Critical thinking helps to develop the perception of a social and cultural state of a place of living, and helps to recognize the oppressive nature of the government influence, which was common for the Modernist period. More than that, it is important for every particular person, because it would help to develop your own conclusions and summaries about different pieces of art.

3. a) The art in Northern Europe became more focused on the humanist ideology, therefore it was conflicting with the old standards, which were focused on promoting the influence of a church. Biblical references became also less emphasized in art. Moreover, the popularity of a printmaking in the art market also increased.

b) The markets of art are being influenced by the trends from other lands, and therefore, artists are trying to take the new niche, which leads to the creation of a new market.

c) As it was mentioned above, the system of printmaking highly developed, and it was used to gain influence in the religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics, by spreading caricatures that were focused on humiliation the ideology of the opponent.

4. a) Such function is being highly used by the rulers of the government or churches, to make common people understand that they are nothing but their subordinates, and they cannot oppose the influential power and wealth.

b) Rococo was highly promoting the lifestyle of wealthy people, and displayed their enjoyment and it seemed like there is no other social classes besides them. This style is also often characterized by different types of curves displayed, which are emphasizing on forms, and those forms are also unique with their asymmetrical depictions. Pastel palette of colors is another point that characterizes Rococo, both in painting art and in sculpture.

5. The art style, which also included the works of Monet and Cezanne, was known for rejection of the conservative ideologies, and that is why it could be considered as a “new look”. Abstract illustrations and constant experimentations on how to deliver the idea to the viewer are also the main traits of such art. Techniques, which are used in the Modernist style, are usually considered to be cutting-edge, especially if we talk about classic representors of this style. By this, it becomes possible to use their example and innovations in order to influence the art directions, which would appear in future.

6. All of the objects are displayed in an impressionistic manner; the display of a nature in a lone atmosphere was also uncommon before this work. Unique shapes and grim colors that were selected for this painting are creating a strong context, which represents van Gogh’s desperation in his latter years. Crows are also usually represent the menacing doom, and probably they could be considered to be something like vultures in this particular situation, when they are awaiting for something bad to happen and flying around the wheat field, which could be the metaphorical representation of van Gogh’s state of mind. Complexed metaphors are one of the key points, which made this pointing historically remembered.

7. a) Rejection of the traditional ways of displaying perspective, creates new ways for experimentations. The division into smaller, simple objects, which is used in cubism, helps to achieve a new representation of the object, which includes details that could not be perceived in a classical representation.

b) Picasso’s work has a historical background, which references to the Spanish Civil War, particularly to the bombing of Guernica. This war episode influenced an artist, so he created his famous painting. Although, it was not accepted by the audience at first, it was the first work to promote the modernist art, and was a big step to the start of its development.

8. a) Abstract Expressionism allows to create artworks, which are based on spontaneous feelings of the artist. That is why it could be considered as a pure art – there is no thinking through the details, consequences or other small things, which are known to be materially-minded.

b) The main difficulty that the common audience is facing while observing the Abstract Expressionism art, is that it does not have any conservative traits that are usual for paintings. There are usually no distinct objects and ideas of the pictures are delivered through the author’s feelings, which are also could be not familiar to the audience.

c) The main thing which Pop art had taken from Abstract Expressionism is its rebellious nature that is challenging the minds of the audience and conflicts with conservative ideologies. Also both of them are taking the industrialization theme for their art as the main one.

9. Not every kind of artwork is easy for the common people to comprehend, especially when it comes to the abstract creations. More than that, when the artwork has the political context, it can cause the conflicts in society, which could let to the civil oppositions. However, it is still innapropritate for the government to gain full control over the spreading the art, and forbid everything that they find not fitting to the today’s state of society. Artist must have an opportunity to express themselves, even if their ideas are not close for the people that are not interested in art, politics and other similar spheres of life. Maya Lin’s “Vietnam Veterans’ Memorial” could be an example that it is possible to find a compromise even to such a controversial topic as a Vietnamese war, therefore there is no need in a complete restriction of an art statements.

10. a) People are usually following the conservative ideas about the concept of art, however there are still performers that are yet to be recognized as art. Now, it is possible for people to make their own decision on whether something is art or not, due to the spread of the Internet and easy access to the most of artworks.

b) America is a democratic country, which allows people to express themselves through art. Different opinions, views and ideas are spread through the art, and everyone is trying to share their own story and perception of the world. However, sometimes it is even used by the government for its propagandistic aims, in order to achieve influence over people.

c) For the most part, the artworks are being examined by the professional critics and sometimes even by the people who are representing government. However, now as the access to the Internet is available to the most part of the world, it is possible even for common people to observe the artworks and make their own conclusions about it.

d) The value of an art is being estimated by the critics and the owners of the exhibition. If the artist’s name is widely known, it also adds up to the price of his work.

Works cited

H. W. Janson, Anthony F. Janson, History of Art. 5th Revised & enlarged Edition. ISBN-13: 978-0131584297

Art

The Last Supper

This work of art functioned as religious propaganda at the time it was painted. This was in an attempt to remove the foreign elements from the story of the last supper from the Italian Christians at the time. Christians at the time were concerned with viewing the Last Supper in their own image and not as some foreign Jewish happening (Frojmovic, 2002). This saw da Vinci depict the characters as Italians with only the appearance of Judas being seen as the only foreign element.

The Renaissance period was largely influenced by Christianity given that Europe was predominantly Christian. This saw art at the time attempt to reimagine religious messages, depict scenes from the bible and generally promote Christianity among the population. This work of art was therefore meant to alter the attitudes and opinions concerning Christianity and make it more popular thereby making it religious propaganda.

b. Baroque

Name of Artist: Jaques-Louis David

Napoleon in his Study

This work of art depicts the emperor Napoleon in a positive light so as to portray him as an able leader. Primarily functioning as political propaganda, the painting depicts Napoleon donning expensive clothing, having papers all around him, the melted candles and as well the clock in the background perhaps eluding to a fact that he was up all night. The propaganda is meant to depict him as a determined, trustworthy and loyal leader.

Political propaganda flourished in the Baroque period given that it was during the time of the French Revolution. It was therefore important to rally the masses and as well the soldiers behind their emperor to ensure the survival of the empire (Janson & Anthony, 2001). This work of art is therefore an attempt to ensure the masses view their leader in a positive light and follow his direction whenever called upon.

c. Age of Enlightenment

Name of Artist: Alfred Leete

BRITONS

The work of art features British Lord Kitchener pointing out to Britons to join the army and participate in the war. Functioning as war propaganda, this work of art uses the image of Lord Kitchner pointing out and the bold lettering to call to attention all British people as to the seriousness of the war and to ensure everybody engages either as factory workers or soldiers.

During the period of World War I, governments would turn to artists to help spread the message that they were at war and appeal to their patriotism and national sentiment to ensure participation and see their individual country’s win (Janson & Anthony, 2001). This poster was quickly spread through the mass media and appealed to the reasoning and logic of the British masses.

d. Modernism

Name of Artist: Mjölnir ,Hans Schweitzer

Our Last Hope—Hitler

This work of art was political propaganda meant to portray German ruler Hitler as the savior of the German people. The work of art features German people that are unemployed and generally poor and portrays in bold that Hitler is the only savior likely to help them from their current state.

Arising from German expressionism, this work of art was used during German presidential elections as propaganda meant to portray Hitler as a savior for the people. During this time, there was a great depression in the country with high unemployment and general poverty and portraying Hitler in this way meant he would likely get more votes (Janson & Anthony, 2001).
2. When looking at major changes in the way people thought of themselves and their culture, it is interesting to note that the ideas from ancient Greek and Roman philosophies are often referenced as the model for “re- thinking” or re-examination of oneself and one’s cultural attitudes. (You must answer both parts.)
a. What are the key points of the ancient Greek philosophies that emerged in the Renaissance and the“Age of Enlightenment”? (Hint: fundamentals of humanism)

The main major Greek philosophies to be found in these ages are an increased interest in logic and reason and humanism. Humanism was largely concerned with using Greek philosophies and teachings to further Christian theology at the time. The focus of humanistic approaches was therefore on poetry, rhetoric, grammar, morality and historical philosophies. An emphasis on logic and reasoning was in response to traditional Christian teachings that were challenged by many Greek philosophers. Empirical studies based on scientific facts and truths became integral to art during this period with individuals needed to engage their cognition to deal with different issues surrounding church and even political reform (Janson & Anthony, 2001).

b. In particular, in anticipation of Modernism, what was “the importance of the individual”, “thinking for yourself” and using “critical thinking and logic” in these discussions about how one thought of oneself and one’s culture?

The individual is important in society as a unique and critical person able to make their own decisions without following societal values or standards. The individual is expected to have their own personal interests which then shape how they relate to their society. In this regard, the individual is seen as a critical thinker and egoistic and does not follow others blindly (Kelly & Stephen, 2000). Such critical thinking involves the individual carefully analyzing different elements of the said culture before amalgamating them together and based on their own interests, takes a course of action. Within the society however, the individual is expected to act in a moral manner, hold their own opinions and think independently. In the end, the society is viewed as a collection of the individuals therein and is only as good or moral as the members within it.

3. How did the Protestant movement in Northern Europe change the art world of Northern Europe?
a. How did the religious movements change the art market in the North?

The protestant movement came as a reform struggle against corruption and abuses that were perpetuated by the Roman Catholic Church. The movement began in German and subsequently spread to Britain, Holland and Switzerland leading to a split between the Protestants and Roman Catholics (Janson & Anthony, 2001). Protestantism led to development of new forms of art that spread the religious agenda of the Protestants and differed from art of the renaissance period that were present in other parts of Europe. For instance, biblical representations in art were shunned by Protestants and focus shifted to plain and more personalized messaging in works of art. This meant that there was a huge reduction in number of religious art produced in these countries. This subsequently forced writers to engage in other forms of secular art such as still life’s, historical painting and portraits.

b. How did the growing world trade economy create new markets for art?

New markets for art were primarily created as a result of the development of selling mechanisms such as art exhibitions, fairs, studios and markets across the world, the emergence of collectors of art and as well the production of movable artworks. In addition, auctions became for works of art became widespread after the 17th century allowing for more markets. The growth of world trade also saw increase in communication mechanism such as the internet and cultural integration through globalization that made sure art was appreciated in different areas across the world.

c. For these new markets, what innovations or changes in art making developed? Select examples to illustrate your answer.

The innovations that took place involved experimental ones such as incorporation of more colors to produce lights and shadows and conceptual innovations that sought to create a sense of perspective. The innovation with regards to perspective saw ideas on drawing three-dimensional works of art on surfaces that were flat. This saw works such as Leonardo da Vinci’s Perspective that utilizes a linear perspective approach. This innovation saw artists able to create more realistic paintings and works of art. In being able to enhance realism, as well as innovations geared towards reproduction of shadows and use of external light sources, traditional artists were able to penetrate these new markets that were predominantly made of wealthy individuals across the world.

4. The Baroque period in European history was a time of very powerful kings and aristocratic classes of people.
a. How does Baroque architecture demonstrate the function of art as a reflection of the wealth and power of the kings and rulers?

An important characteristic of Baroque architecture was a focus on theatricality, decorations, dramatic effects, plasticity and massing. The Saint Peters Square in Rome for example is an ideal example of the architecture of this time. The oval church is decorated with an ornate gold dome and polychrome marbles pointing to the wealth and status of the papalcy at the time.

Lorenzo Bernini’s St. Peter’s Square

Baroque architecture was additionally characterized with heavy structures and pillars. In addition, the location of these areas was largely accessible to the public so that they could view the buildings and admire the prestige therein.

b. In discussions of late Baroque, or the “Rococo” period, what characteristics or elements of the
paintings made during this period demonstrate the attitudes of the wealthy classes and their relationship to the actual social and living conditions of their time?

The Rococo period saw the depiction of the excesses of the wealthy and the ruling class in society. Nonetheless, this period saw increased freedom among the people following the coming to rule of King Louis the XV that saw relaxation of rigid laws (Janson & Anthony, 2001). Subsequently, paintings are to be seen showing elements of beauty, playfulness, romance and beauty such as in Jean-Honore Fragonard’s Stolen Kiss. Additionally, the period sees the painting of aristocrats that are elegantly dressed and playing in different landscapes such as Jean Antoine Watteau’s The Lesson of Love. However, there would be great anger towards the king following some period of depression and this is to be seen in paintings such as The Blonde Odalisque that sought to show the extramarital affairs of the king at the time.

5. In describing the various styles which defined the beginnings of Modern Art, the artworks of the French artists Monet and Cezanne are often cited as major demonstrations of a “new way of looking”, as Sister Wendy labels these painters. To what does this “new way of looking” refer to? You may present a bullet list of the characteristics of the art which demonstrate a “new way of looking”. Include examples of their work that illustrates your answer. (Hint: major characteristics of Modernism.)

  • Response to the surroundings – the artists made paintings that depicted happenings in their surroundings. For instance, Manet’s Olympia was in response to promiscuity in France while Cezane’s Pot of Primroses and Fruit shows his depiction of the environment around him as it is.
  • Expansive Canvas – both the works of Monet and Cezane sees the viewers eye move beyond the canvas as they are wide.
  • Impressionist – the use of natural light is widely utilized by the two artists as seen in Monet’s Camille Monet on Her Deathbed and as well Cezane’s Pot of Primroses and Fruit in which there is no real regard for form but rather a focus on light.

6. Vincent Van Gogh’s painting “Wheat Fields with Crows” was cited by Simon Sharma in his video “The Power of Art” as the first true work of Modern Art. Please explain how this work demonstrates some of the defining ideas and characteristics of the Modernist movement. You may use a “bullet list” format for your answer instead of the essay format to save time.

  • Expansive – the work of art is wide and appears to move well beyond the canvas.
  • Iconography – Van Gogh utilizes a wheat field and crows as subjects in the painting. In addition, he makes use of a stormy sky as an icon in the work.
  • Symbolism – the stormy skies in the painting are meant to depict the sadness and loneliness in the life of the painter at the time given that he would later on commit suicide pointing to a sad and disturbed mindset.
  • Response to surroundings – this work of art was in response to the authors surrounding of the countryside at the time it was painted.

7. Cubism was one of the major innovations to appear in Modern Art. (Answer both parts.)
a. What were some of the explanations of the basic concepts behind the style? In particular, even
though early examples of cubism were seen as major distortions and abstractions in image making, how did early Cubism represent a truly different way of looking at subjects? (Hint: details verse the whole)

Cubism allowed the artist of the time to be able to depict and see real life objects in a totally different manner. The movement incorporated the use of texture, color and even text at some point in order to create different visualizations for the viewer (Janson & Anthony, 2001). The paintings herein are not always meant to be realistic in nature but are rather the culmination of piecing together of individual fragments from different vantage points and ultimately make one whole painting. The artist normally views the subject matter from each and every angle before deciding on which pieces to bring together. In so doing, the artist tries to provide a detailed and fuller explanation of the subject matter therein and therefore breaks historical barriers of time and space in paintings.

b. Perhaps one of the most important Cubist work created in the 20th century was Picasso’
“Guernica”. What make this painting so important in Art History? (Hint: the contradiction of history and Modernism.)

The Guernica is an exemplification of the changing narratives of art in history. At the period in which Picasso came up with it, art was mostly concerned with mythological and religious issues, landscapes and portraits. However, he came up with the artwork to make a political statement that was largely unheard of at the time. In this way, he shifts from the traditional representational form of art into more expressions from the artist and seems to engage the viewer more in the work of art and its interpretation. He also utilized collage making which was a radical shift at the time given that it was not regarded as high art at the time.

8. The artworks, especially paintings, of the Abstract Expressionism, were essentially endpoints for the agenda of Modern art.
a. Explain how Abstract Expressionism demonstrated the achievement of “pure art”; that is, art that was “art for art’s sake”.

Abstract expressionism sought to move art from mere decorations and attempt to input the personality of an individual artist into their work (Janson & Anthony, 2001). This meant that that works of abstract expressionists were viewed as revelations and events that engaged the viewer deeper than other art. Issues of utilizing pure lines, pure paint and color meant that abstract expressionists’ works could be felt by viewers, were undefinable in academic terms and were free from conventional rules of art making.

The artist was able to assert their own individuality into the work making them to some extent part of the subject matter (Janson & Anthony, 2001). Viewing of such works was seen as a pure experience with the paintings being larger and in some instance moving beyond the field of view of the viewer. The motive of abstract expressionists was therefore to ensure painting became a moral activity that could evoke sentiment in the viewer and abide by ethics of the art as opposed to commercialization of the same.  

b. What was it about Abstract Expressionism that many people found the art “too difficult”?

The depiction of authentic emotions in the work of abstract expressionists was a major impediment to other artists hence terming it as too difficult. In addition, may saw the style as being at odds with happenings across the world that were more concerned with issues of consumerisms and commercialization of the practice of art. In this regard, it followed that a majority of works of abstract expressionists were similar to the works of pioneer artists such as de Kooning for instance making such works to lack a real emotional authenticity to them (Janson & Anthony, 2001). It would appear that translating real emotions into their work was a major challenge hence the decision to shun abstract expressionism altogether.

c. How did Abstract Expressionism set the stage for the emergence of “Pop Art?”

The focus on abstraction by artists meant that they were at odds with growing trends across the globe that was focused on a consumerism culture. This saw the growth of pop art in the 1950s which was more accommodative of consumerism and the mass media. This was seen as alternative to pure abstraction and saw that works of art could create fluid and multiple meanings for the viewers (Janson & Anthony, 2001). In this way, combinations of different everyday images and objects could be used in artworks such as newspapers or even flags. Rauschenberg is one artist for instance who utilized combines to make different works of art such as the Bed of 1955 that seemed to reject pure abstraction.

9. In the documentary about , Maya Lin’s “Vietnam Veterans’ Memorial”, the work was associated with much political controversy. It also was prime example of art in the Post-Modern mindset. The “Vietnam Veteran’s Memorial” is clearly an example of “public art”; art that is made to be seen by anyone and everyone. How strongly should government/politics influence public art? (HINT: it’s about censorship.)

The influence of governments when it comes to regulation of public art should at all times be minimal given the complexities when it comes to censorship of material for instance. Public art is normally geared towards addressing given concepts and issues in society that may be deemed as important by the artists. In this regard, censorship of such artistry borders on the limitation of freedom of expression which is a universal right for everyone and is not a privilege offered by any government after meeting set conditions or criteria. In addition, censorship by the government on public art may not be justified given the increasingly globalized world we live in. whereas certain art may be deemed offensive in a given part of the world, it may have significance in another. This means that censorship would be akin to disregarding the cultural differences that are inherent in the world and that are expressed through the different public arts.
10. Why is it so difficult to describe “contemporary American Art?” The discussion is about artworks made after 1990. Discuss the impact of social media, the internet, and American culture on questions of: 

a. What is art, and who decides?

Contemporary art in America is characterized by features of globalization that has been aided by the mass media and internet. This has seen awareness of art increase across different areas given that anyone with access to the internet is able to follow developments in art in different areas. Art continues to be seen as the different videos, music, paintings, monuments, graffiti and murals across the country (Meyer, 2013). In addition, there has been development of public art that sees online projects, street parades and pop-up art shops in different areas of the country. With regards to who determines what art is, it has primarily remained those who are concerned with art itself. It is not everyone on the internet that is concerned with artwork and only those regarding the substance of a given work of art can be regarded as the deciders of what may be regarded as art.

b. What are the functions of Art in America?

Art has social functions in America being able to address societal issues such as politics and even patriotism in the country (Meyer, 2013). Music has been used to rally people around different social issues such as gender violence and police brutality in the country. Satirical works of art have been used to criticize different actions of leaders in the country and lead to addressing of political concerns of the people. Works of art also function as elevators of a community’s status for example when such artwork is treasured in the community. The expression and gratification functions of art are also to be found in America.

c. Who decides what is good or bad Art in America?

The decision on whether a given artwork is good or bad is normally quite subjective to each and every individual. In this regard, in America, it is normally the individual creating or consuming a given art who decides whether it is good or bad. This is in terms of issues of beauty for instance that are normally different from individual to the next depending on their culture, experiences and upbringing (Meyer, 2013). It would be hard to claim that something is universally accepted as good or bad. This means that the evaluations of different people with regards to good or bad art are normally with regards to their perceptions of the world. The internet is able to widen such perceptions given the exchange of information and knowledge.

d. How does one determine the value of Art in America?

The value of an art is dependent on several factors in America. One consideration is normally the stature of the artist with established artists’ work being placed at higher value than others. Also, in most cases, it has been viewed that the larger a given artwork, the higher its price in the market although this is not applicable to domestic or office building installations. When at art changes hands from the owner to a given buyer and then the next, it is viewed that the value of such a work is diminished I the long run when compared to newer ones (Meyer, 2013). The issue of supply and demand also comes in with rare works of art being valued more than those that are readily available in America.

References

Frojmovic, Eva. Imagining the Self, Imagining the Other: Visual Representation and Jewish-Christian Dynamics in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Period. Leiden: Brill, 2002. Print.

Janson, H W, and Anthony F. Janson. History of Art. , 2001. Print.

Kelly, Catriona, and Stephen Lovell. Russian Literature, Modernism and the Visual Arts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Print.

Meyer, Richard. What Was Contemporary Art?, 2013. Print.

Artwork

Student name

Course title and number

Instructor’s name

Date

Artwork

Question 5:

The works of Cezanne and Monet were part of the art style, which was famous for rejecting the conservative ideologies. This is the reason why it was considered to be a ‘new way of looking’. The primary traits of such art also include the constant experimentations and abstract illustrations on the processes that can be used to deliver the idea. The techniques used in the modernist style are often viewed as cutting-edge, especially in reference to the classic representors of the style. Therefore, it is possible to use their innovations and examples to influence the directions of the art that would appear in the future.
Question 6:

All the objects that are present in the painting are displayed in a manner that can be described as impressionistic. For instance, using the display of nature in the alone atmosphere was rare before the creation of this work. The grim colors and unique shapes that were chosen for the painting play a role in the creation of a stronger context, which is a representation of Van Gogh’s desperation during his final years. The presence of crows is usually a representation of menacing doom. In this situation, they could be interpreted as vultures since they were awaiting for a negative event to occur and flying close to the wheat field. The wheat field, in this case, could be interpreted to be a metaphorical representation of the state of mind that Van Gogh had. The main reason why this painting was remembered historically was that the use of complexed metaphors was one of its primary points.
Question 7:

  1. Cubism uses the concept of dividing images into smaller and simpler objects to come up with a new representation of the object. The object will include details that were impossible to perceive in classical representations.
  2. The painting by Picasso was based on the Spanish Civil war, and the bombing of Guernica in particular. Although the painting was initially not accepted by the audience, it was the first painting that promoted the modernist art, and served as a crucial step to the beginning of its development.

Question 8:

  1. Abstract expressionism is important since it relies on the spontaneous feelings that the artist has. This is the reason why it is considered to be a pure art because the artist does not have to think through consequences and details, which is part of material-mindedness.
  2. The main difficulty that is faced by the audience as they observe Abstract Expressionism is that the paintings lack conservative traits that are common for many paintings. Usually, the pictures do not have any distinct objects since the ideas behind the picture are delivered through the feelings of the author. The audience may be unfamiliar with the feelings that the painter had.
  3. The main theme that pop art copied from Abstract Expresionism is the rebellious nature that challenges the audience’s mind and is against the conservative ideologies. Additionally, both of them use the industrialization theme as the main theme for their art work.

 

Question 9:

Not all types of art are easy for people to understand, especially when they are abstract creations. Additionally, in cases where the artwork includes a political concept, the artwork may cause a lot of conflict in the society, which may result in oppositions. However, it is not appropriate for the government to be able to control the spreading of art, and forbid any painting that they determine to be unfitting to the society. Artists should be given the opportunity to express themselves even when other people do not support their ideas.


Question 10:

  1. It is difficult to describe contemporary American Art since people possess conservative ideas about art and that there are performances that should be recognized as art. However, it is easier for people to make their own decisions on whether something can be defined as art or not because the internet has allowed people to access many types of artworks.
  2. The functions of art in America include allowing people to express themselves and to enable people to share their perceptions of the world, and their personal stories. However, art is sometimes used by the government to spread propaganda and achieve a certain influence over the people.
  3. To determine good and bad artwork in America, artwork is often examined by both professional critics and government representatives. However, since the internet allows people to observe any types of artwork, people are currently able to observe artwork and come up with their own conclusions about them.
  4. The value of art in America is estimated by the professional critics and exhibition owners. If the artist is well-known, then the value of his or her work is increased.

American History

Name of Author

Name of Professor

Course Name

Date of the Submission

Question 1

A two party-system is described as a government that is made up of two main political parties. They are known as the majority and minority parties. In the United States, the ruling party becomes the majority and the minority becomes the opposition. Most of the elected leaders belong to either one of these two parties.

The two – party system emerged in the United States in the 1790s. This change came with the American Revolution when the major political leaders started having differences regarding certain policies. The main difference occurred between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. Hamilton wanted to model the American government like the British one by creating a centralized government. Jefferson on the other hand thought that this move would give too much power to the government. Some leaders from the pre- revolution era like James Madison thought that this system would be temporary. Little did they know that it was to become the basis of the modern American political system. Following the American Revolution, the people realized that they could actively participate in the legislative process. Voters aligned themselves to major political groups that promised to represent them in the best way possible. The 1976 election became the first election with organized political groups at all levels of the government.

One of the two parties that emerged was the Democratic – Republican. It was founded by Thomas Jefferson. The other political party was the Federalists. It was formed by Alexander Hamilton. The Federalist believed that a central governance and control of the treasury was vital in growing the economy in terms of manufacturing and trade. As a result, they earned the support of the working population. The Democratic – Republicans strongly opposed this idea. They proposed that power should be left in the States because they believed that a centralized government would give rise to oppression. Unlike the Federalists, they highly valued agricultural practices.

Question 2

Following independence, a wave of optimism swept the country and encouraged Americans to explore westward towards the Pacific. This expansion was defined by Theodore Roosevelt as “The Great Leap Westward “. It actually began before the revolution when settlers advanced into what we now refer to as Kentucky and Ohio States. Other activities that promoted the westward expansion include the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 and the Lewis Clark expedition. In 1812, the war helped to define the boundaries of the country after concurring of the Old Northwest tribes. In 1830, there was the Trail of tears which basically refers to the forceful evacuation of American Indians from the Southeast. In the mid nineteenth century, a journalist John O’Sullivan claimed that Americans were a superior species tasked with spreading civilization to the Mexicans and Native Americans. He called this belief the Manifest Destiny. His theory played a major role in the westward expansion There was also the Kansas – Nebraska Act that allowed new States to choose whether or not they would allow slavery. This encouraged settlers to move to these States depending on their standing on slavery. In 1848, more settlers flooded the California territory following the discovery of gold. In 1862, after the Homestead Act was passed, more Americans moved to the west. This is because it allowed anyone to file a claim on 160 acres of land in the west as long as they lived in it for five years. All these factors contributed to the westward expansion of the U.S.

This expansion was only advantageous to the settlers who acquired a lot land, natural resources and ports; the ingredients for the growth of a vibrant economy. The Native Americans on the other hand were the losers. They were forcefully moved to reservations after their land had been claimed. They lost their traditional settlements which in turn affected their traditional practices.

Question 3

The American civil war started in 1861 following the disagreement between the southern and the northern States regarding the abolition of slavery. The northern States had already abolished slavery but the southerners still perpetuated it because they believed that it was important for the economy (Hallwood 3).This is because they relied on slave labor to manage their large scale plantations. The northerners on the other hand, depended on manufacturing industries for revenue. After the Kansas – Nebraska Act was passed, more tension arose between the pro and anti – slavery groups. In 1859, an abolitionist carried out a raid on the Harper’s Ferry. His actions together with the election of Abraham Lincoln, another abolitionist, caused more strain in the country. This then led to the secession of seven southern states from the main government. These States were known as the Confederate. On April 12, 1861, the confederates attacked Fort Summer in California because it was being held by the federal government. Two days later, they had power over the Fort and that is how the war began.

Four more States later joined the Confederacy and the war went on until 1863 when President Lincoln declared an Emancipation Proclamation that freed slaves. The Confederates lost their manpower and the slaves joined the northern Union Army. After four years of winning and losing, the confederates surrendered to the North and the war ended. The North won because it used its railroads to transport war supplies. In addition, it had acquired foreign support after freeing the remaining slaves.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Hallwood, Paul. “The Confederacy and the American Civil War, 1861-1865: Grievance?.” Journal of Economic Literature41 (2018): F54.

 

 

 

American History

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Question 1

The two-party system in America politics has a long history that can be traced back to the 1790s. According to the available historic findings, George Washington, the first president of the United States of America believed that political parties were detrimental to the sustainability of America and needed to be eliminated. However, during his term in office, a political rivalry emerged between the federalist and anti-federalist (Stobaugh 44).

According to the available literature, the disagreements between the two political groups were grounded on foreign policy, economy and the nature of the government. In actuality, disagreements about the nature of the government emerged after the revolution and escalated significantly throughout the 1790s. In particular, the political rivalry was shaped by the arguments of Thomas Jefferson, anti-federalist and Alexander Hamilton, a federalist (Stobaugh 44).

Alexander Hamilton preferred the British imperial form of government comprising of a central government, strong states’ political representatives, financial institutions, treasury, and a national military. Jefferson, on the other hand, preferred state governments and legislation to a central government. To him, a national army and central treasury would accord the central government with excessive power that would subject the finance-driven economy to gambling (Stobaugh 45).

In an economic context, Hamilton argued for the establishment of a national bank, a central government with the power to regulate tax and the use of paper money across the states. However, the anti-federalist led by Jefferson felt that such measures would erode states’ rights and benefit the financial-driven northern states at the expense of the agricultural-driven southern states (Stobaugh 45).

The origin of the two-party system was also fueled by disagreements on foreign policy. Hamilton advocated for close ties with the British as a means of achieving economic prosperity while Jefferson saw the move as a threat to their independence. The Federalist Party ended in 1800 when Jefferson became the president of a Democratic-Republican Party, beating John Adams of the Federalist Party. Nonetheless, this decade of mistrust, profound arguments and establishment of factional newspapers marked the origin of the two-party system in America politics (Stobaugh 46).

Question 2

Throughout the 19th century, the United States witnessed rapid economic and territorial growth, emerging as a world production center. The westward expansion of United States was kicked off by President Thomas Jefferson when he purchased Louisiana in 1803. He also initiated the purchase of Florida from Spain, an initiative that was accomplished by president James Monroe in 1819. After reaffirming their independence in the 1812 war, the Americans developed a sense of pride, nationalism, and optimism that encouraged the expansion across borders (Stobaugh 47).

The demand for the admission of Texas in the union increased significantly after Mexico gained independence from Spain. Subsequently, Mexico passed a law in 1830, prohibiting U.S citizens from immigrating into Texas. After Texas become independent in 1836, its leaders sought to join the union, a process that was finalized in 1845 (Stobaugh 49).

During the same year, the idea of manifest destiny was coined, creating the need for the U.S to expand westward towards the Pacific Ocean. The religious empowerment experienced during the second awakening provided an incentive for the growth towards the west. It created the idea that the U.S was a noble nation blessed by God and that native Americans were heathens. As such, American missionary spread across the Mississippi river to spread Christianity (Stobaugh 52).

The expansion across the Mississippi River was also driven by the need for land that could be used for agriculture. A defining feature of the manifest destiny was the American racial and cultural superiority. Hispanics and Native Americans were perceived to be uncivilized and inferior. This encouraged further expansion and by the end of 1850, the land between the Pacific and Atlantic ocean was under the control of U.S (Stobaugh 57).

The issues of morality, patriotism, race, money, and religion resulted in the war with Mexico that led to the addition of the U.S territory. However, it also led to the brutal mistreatment and dislocation of Hispanic and Native Americans among other non-European groups. The white Americans benefited from land and trade that contributed significantly to their superiority over others. The territorial expansion of U.S also introduced the debate on slavery that led to the civil war (Stobaugh 60).

Question 3

The origin of the American civil war of 1860 can be traced back in 1803 after the purchase of Louisiana. According to the available historic finding, Congress was forced to develop a policy to facilitate the growth of slavery towards the western territories. Subsequently, Missouri made an application to the Congress seeking to be recognized as a slave state. However, Missouri was accepted as a slave state while Maine was accepted as a free slave state order to ensure congressional balance. The Missouri compromise led to the separation of the south from the north along 360 30’ as a slave and free slave states, an idea that was criticized by Thomas Jefferson (Stobaugh 62).

Nat Turner, a slave, triggered a rebellion that intensified across plantation in Virginia in 1831. The rebellion lasted for two days leading to the killing of nearly 60 white Americans. 55 slaves were executed for the killings while over 200 slaves were executed without trial. As a consequence of this event, the Virginia legislators reacted by limiting the civil rights accorded to slaves during that period such as education (Stobaugh 63).

In 1846 and following the end of the American-Mexican war, the Wilmot Proviso legislation was proposed. The legislation aimed at outlawing slavery in all U.S territories stretching from southwest to California. Although the legislation was not passed by Congress, the controversies surrounding it led to the debate on secession (Stobaugh 63).

The 1850 compromise was another significant event in the history of the American civil war. The accord that was pioneered by senators Douglas and Clay led to the admission of California as a slave-free state. However, it failed to control slavery along the Mexican Cession. This led to the return of slaves who had escaped from the south to the north (Stobaugh 64).

In 1854, the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 was enacted leading to the overturning of the Missouri Compromise. As such, settlers in the two states were allowed to make their decision on whether to accept slavery or not through a popular vote. The two states endorsed anti-slavery laws after a long period of bloodshed (Stobaugh 64).

After Abraham Lincoln was elected as president in 1860 on a Republican ticket, the tension on anti-slavery intensified in many southern states. This led to the secession of South Carolina followed by other six states in 1861 hence the beginning of the civil war.

Works cited

Stobaugh, James P. American History: Observations & Assessments from Early Settlement to Today. Green Forest, Ark: Master Books, 2012.