Organizational Behavior Name Institution Tutor Date   MEMO To: All employee From: Social Services Department Date: Subject: Teamwork at the Workplace After careful deliberation, the organization management has determined it is necessary to embrace teamwork among the employees. Working together will enhance morale, solve problems, be supportive of each other, enhance creativity, and bring new ideas to the organization. This will go all the way to increasing performance and job satisfaction among the employees. To achieve effective teamwork, there is a need to have a shared purpose. The shared purpose will increase motivation and performance. Therefore the management will put in place the following techniques to achieve team effectiveness; 1. Effective communication 2. Effective conflict management 3. Set the organizational shared purpose 4. Change management To enhance the success of the above strategies, the management will cultivate the culture of effective feedback and encourage team norms for behavior change among the employees. The suggested norms for the teamwork will be effective communication and empathy. The norms will be made explicit by developing the team charter. Team chatter will clarify more on the purpose of the teams and set forth the expected behavior. Please understand that the management is taking these steps to enhance organization performance, job satisfaction among employees, and create incentives for the employees. Thank you for your cooperation, should you have any question, channel it to the social services offices. Part two To From Date Subject: Communication process Dear all, Am glad to share several aspects of effective communication that are essential in public organizations. Some of the aspects I would like to share are communication process, possible threat to the communication process, communication networks, and internal communication. The communication process has four key elements. They include sender, encoding, channel, and decoding. The sender is the source of information; the information might consist of both verbal and nonverbal messages. Encoding is transforming the information to signals for it to be sent via a communication channel. The channel is the medium of information transfer to the recipient, while decoding is the process where the recipient translates the information that is either seen or heard to a concrete meaning that can be internalized. The receiver is the person whom the information was directed to. There are various threats to the communication process. Noise, uncomfortable communication, language barrier, and less active listening are major threats that can affect the communication process. However, a good communication network can solve them. There is three common communication network for an organization. Communication networks play a crucial role in providing information on job opportunities for job applicants. The wheel network illustrates the centralized communication. The communication flow is from one person. The circle communication network is a communication flow from one person to two or three other recipients who are next to them. The star network allows decentralized communication flow among all recipients, while the chain network provides communication flow to all recipients who are at the end of the chain. Lastly, the Y-network is a communication flow among two recipients who are at the center of the network. Regardless of the communication network used in an organization, the communication flow is important to managers as they are supposed to create a positive impression on various stakeholders in the organization. This should be done to reduce the negative effects of poor internal communication Internal communication in an organization involves the communication flow between individuals or groups of people at a different level. The aim of internal communication is to communicate information on design, implementation of designs, and to coordinate the daily activities in the organization. It is vital in business performance since it enhances information sharing on the organization vision, and also it enables the employees to cope with changes that occur in the organization. Therefore poor internal communication has negative impacts on the organization. Some of the effects are poor morale, lower employee performance and productivity, low organization performance, and high employee turnover. Best regards Part three Conflicts and performance In several organizations, conflicts are common occurrences. Often, people in an organization can block the action or decision of another person. According to the study done in the US, employees spent at least 2.1 hours in every week on conflicts. The authors of consulting psychologist found out that conflicts had a huge financial impact on an organization as they, in most cases, disrupted the smooth flow of activities. However, according to organizational behavior research, conflicts can have both positive and negative impacts on the performance of an organization. Functional conflicts align the organizational goals and improve their performance while the dysfunctional conflicts that hurt the workplace relationship, thus affecting the performance. If an organization has low conflict cases, indifferences and lack of discussions on important issues might be the reasons, thus hampering the performance, this is contrary to conflicts that are aligned to the objectives and are less personal. They boost performance. Therefore, conflicts are not all that bad. Performance of an organization can begin to suffer only if the conflicts are too much and begin to be disruptive. Third-party interventions Often leaders are expected to intervene to solve conflicts among the workforce. They are expected to understand individual employee grievances, identify their needs, understand the source of conflict, and give an equal chance to all involved in the conflict to express their feeling about the issue in question. There are several approaches that can be used by leaders to resolve conflicts. Involving a neutral third party can restore a damaged relationship and bring reconciliation through mediation. Mediation is effective as it enhances fairness and satisfaction to both parties. It improves relationships, performance, and workforce morale and reduces the stress among the employees. Therefore leaders should use mediators to solve conflicts as they help the parties reach a consensus through participation, reparation, forgiveness, and reintegration, unlike other conflict resolution techniques. Cross-cultural conflict resolution In situations where there are cultural differences, conflict resolution techniques also differ. Different culture and norms can mold an individual’s personality to either love harmony over discord, be more competitive or even individualistic, be facts oriented, or use emotion appeals for persuasions. The leaders are expected to consider the effect of both local and national cultures on an individual, in terms of their perception about the conflict and how to solve them. They are expected to adapt to changes and always adjust the conflict styles when needed to. Both private and public sector is governed and defined by different organizational cultures. Hence cross-cultural conflict resolution techniques are used. Therefore, leaders should incorporate several skills in resolving cross cultural conflicts. Some of the skills include good listening skills, sensitive to individual needs, be participative, compassionate, and be a mentor, and avoid competition. Bargaining in conflict resolution Often bargaining in conflict resolution begins with building relationships. Creating a good rapport with a partner reduces the chances of the other party getting angry during negotiations. There are two types of bargaining in conflict resolution, distributive and integrative bargaining. Distributive bargaining involves the win-lose strategy while the integrative win-win strategy. Both the approaches are efficient as they enhance economic outcomes and emotional integration among the employees. Also, the techniques are efficient in the public sector as they create mutual relationship among the employees. They can be used in both big and small ways and bring appealing results.

Non-Profit Fundraising Name Institution Affiliation Fundraising Klein (2009) describes the concept of conversion rate and he describes it as the proportion of first-time donors who provide a donation for the second time. According to the author the ideal conversion rate is roughly 40%. To have a higher conversion rate organization should ensure that they personalize their thank-you notes, spell donors’ names accurately, send them annual report, newsletter or any other kind of correspondence between sending them a money request. Also, the overall retention rate of major donors should be roughly 66%. Klein (2009) also describes the concept of fulfillment cost and this is what it costs an organization to keep a donor. Klein recommends that this cost should be roughly $3 and 10 yearly for every donor. Organizations should frequently go through their mailing list to ensure they do not keep records of people who cannot donate again. Notably, organizations aim to develop a donor base because it is the most unswerving way to sustain their operations overtime and also because foundation funding has turned out to be scarcer in the economy. Klein (2009) emphasizes that the lifeblood of stable and successful social change nonprofits is loyal donors. Klein’s article is related to nonprofit fundraising careers as it discusses various concepts related to fundraising such as how to attract and retain donors, and sources of money such as community funding. The book also describes who can be potential donors; that is people who believe in your organization’s work. Thus, the book deliberates on effective fundraising strategies such as reaching out to people who deeply care about the organization and those who support its mission as well as segmenting donors to establish appropriate relationships with them. Klein (2009) indicates that donors should be segmented based on their longevity of giving, frequency of giving and size of gift. Furthermore, the book is related to nonprofit fundraising careers as it describes how organizations should build relationships with donors though knowing them personally and approaching them to request for funds face-to-face and not just by communicating with them through e-mail or phone. Giving USA (2018) provides a synopsis of giving in 2017. As stated in the article total 2017 contributions were $410.02 billion of which 70% was provided by individuals, 16% by foundations, 9% by bequests and 5% by corporations. The recipients of these contributions by category were religion, education, human services, foundations, health, public society benefit, humanities, art and culture, international affairs as well as animals/environment. The article is related to nonprofit fundraising careers as it describes the major sources of donations and the factors that influence the amount these donors give. For instance, increase in corporate donations has been attributed to a 4.1% rise in corporate pre-tax profits. Jonker, Meehan & Iseminger (2014) states that money is important to nonprofits but their leaders often find it uncomfortable or challenging to request for it from people. Many extraordinary and bold nonprofits fail to assume bold fundraising efforts. Raising money is not easy, however, nonprofit leaders who want to see their organizations succeed must be committed to fundraising. Jonker, Meehan & Iseminger (2014) summarizes three proved principles that are followed by effective fundraisers; the first one is spend money to get money. Secondly, nonprofit leaders should go where there is money, for instance money is with individuals and not foundations; thus, nonprofits should target them. Thirdly, nonprofit leaders should overcome their fear/ discomfort of talking about finances by thinking in terms of their mission which is to change the world as opposed to just asking for money. The article is related to nonprofit fundraising careers as it discusses effective strategies of raising money such as planning for the top prospects through understanding their passion and interests as well as thanking donors to set stage for another gift. The authors also recommend that to attract funds easily, non-profit leaders should be good stewards of the offered donations. Foster, Kim & Christiansen (2009) describe their ten funding models based on three parameters; decision makers motivations, types of decision makers and source of funds. The ten funding models are heartfelt connector, beneficiary builder, member motivator, big bettor, public provider, public innovator, beneficiary broker, resource recycler, market maker and local nationalizer. The first three models; member motivator, beneficiary builder, and heartfelt connector are financed by individual donors. While big bettor is financed mostly by foundations, one or a few individuals. The beneficiary broker, policy innovator and public provider are mainly funded by the government. The resource recycler model is supported mostly by corporate funding while the local nationalizer and market maker have mixed funders. The article is related to nonprofit fundraising careers as it describes the various funding models and in return, fundraisers will get to the funding model that works best for their organization because different nonprofits take varying funding paths. Bassoff & Chandler (2001) describes the myths related no nonprofit fundraising and the reality shift associated with the myths. The article is related to non-profit fundraising career as it explains the reality behind some myths that may discourage fundraisers from seeking funds to support their mission. For instance, the myth that money comes from huge companies can mislead fundraisers by making them to target and spend on big companies while individuals are also major donors, yet if this myth is taken into consideration individuals may be ignored. References Bassoff, M., & Chandler, S. (2001). Notes from Relationshift: Revolutionary Fundraising. Author’s Choice Publishing. Foster, W. L., Kim, P., & Christiansen, B. (2009). Ten nonprofit funding models. Stanford Social Innovation Review Spring 2009 Giving USA (2018). An Overview of Giving in 2017. Jonker, K., Meehan III, W. F., & Iseminger, E. (2014). Fundraising Is Fundamental (If Not Always Fun). Stanford Social Innovation Review Klein, K. (2009). Reliable fundraising in unreliable times: What good causes need to know to survive and thrive (Vol. 33). John Wiley & Sons.

Organizational Behavior Name Institution   Organizational Behavior Prompt 5A The aphorism “culture eats strategy for breakfast” implies that a single ideology cannot achieve an organization’s success without being supported by key strategies. Thus, organizational leaders have to maintain cultural coherence across all departments, particularly in determining corporate strategy. Strategy, capabilities, and culture need to be aligned for best results (Riccucci, 2014). All teams need to be engaged in every activity to promote positive organizational behavior. In an organization, I would use this thinking to encourage better working strategies that engage all subordinates in across all organizations portfolios. I would also use culture when drafting an organizational strategy. Consequently, maintaining cultural coherence in the organization succeeds when leaders incorporate capabilities, knowledge, and strategies effectively. Prompt 5B Setting goals to direct organizational performance is a sign that the organization has a definite target to achieve. One of the attributes of goals is that they serve as a direct function since they direct attention and effort towards the achievement of the organization’s activities. The second aspect of goals is that they have an energizing function (Locke, & Latham, 2002). Great or high goals lead to more exceptional achievements than small goals. When the leader sets top targets, which may seem unachievable, more significant efforts are channeled towards their, unlike when low goals are set (Locke, & Latham, 2002). When a team has more significant targets to achieve, they have higher self-efficacy than those working towards a lower target. The third attribute is that goals affect persistence as continuous success inspires people to work for higher achievement after achievement of tasks at hand. The last quality is that goals affect action indirectly by enhancing arousal, discovery, and leading to task recovery by directing essential knowledge and strategies. In the organization, I would use goals more effectively by inviting the subordinates to take part in the goal-setting exercise. By making employees set goals will motivate them to work towards achieving the specific goals as they would feel appreciated and recognized. This theory will also make other subordinates to own the goals hence embrace efficacy and persistence in achieving them. Goals can be used to promote collaborative behavior in the workplace (Locke, & Latham, 2002). Consequently, goal setting and implementation strategies that positively impact organizational culture. During my internship program at Scripps Health in the HR Department, I was involved in a goal setting activity. The CEO organization welcomed all the subordinates to contribute to the process. The experience helped me to develop an insight over the importance of having inclusive leadership as it helps in motivating employees and other stakeholders to work towards the same goals.   References Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American psychologist, 57(9), 705. Riccucci, N. M. (2014). Leadership and the transformation of a major institution: Charles Rossotti and the Internal Revenue Service. In Serving the Public Interest: Profiles of Successful and Innovative Public Servants (pp. 24-35). Routledge.

Law and Ethical Reasoning Name of Student Institutional Affiliation  Law and Ethical Reasoning Living a will provide people with the opportunity to state their preferences about the type of medical treatment they can receive if they are unable to give informed consent (Rao, 2000). The living wills are useful in any case where the patient cannot state their medical choices. In a large number of states, pregnant women do not have equal right as other people to create and adhere to a living will. The justification for the exclusion of pregnant women is that they may not have considered the effects of their choices during pregnancy. These statutes claim to protect women who would be devastated to find out that the doctor continued with a life-ending treatment while in fact, she would have chosen to continue with life-sustaining treatment to give the fetus an opportunity to grow. Living wills for pregnant women are heavily influenced by the politics surrounding abortion. Most state legislatures have a clause to sidestep the living will as it is only logical to protect the life of the unborn baby by giving the incapacitated pregnant woman life-sustaining treatment. However, this decision does not consider that forcing medical care on the pregnant patient violates her autonomy as a woman. The pregnancy exemption laws impermissibly restrict the woman’s right to refuse unwanted medical intervention as well as their right to abortion. These exemptions also infringe on the pregnant woman’s ability to control their end of life healthcare, more commonly known as the “right to die” (Villarreal, 2018). In most cases, the illness or accident that incapacitates a pregnant woman also jeopardizes the health and survival of the fetus. Therefore, continuing the pregnancy is often futile. Maintaining a woman on life support is harmful to the fetus because ventilators and catheters often cause an infection that further jeopardizes the development of the fetus. The exemption of a pregnant woman from the right to enact a living will do not allow for the consideration of the pregnant woman’s pain, the growth of the unborn baby or the prognosis of the unborn baby (Villarreal, 2018). Pregnancy exemptions to living wills are unconstitutional, not only because they create an undue burden on the woman’s right to have an abortion before the fetus is viable but also because the state’s interest in the prospective life of the unborn baby cannot overrule a woman’s right to refuse medical care. In Planned Parenthood v. Casey, the court stated that women maintained the right to terminate a pregnancy before it was viable (Villarreal, 2018). However, the state’s interest in life would be allowed to proceed only if the restriction on the woman’s right to choose does not place an undue burden on the woman. If the woman is incapacitated due to injury or illness, continuing the pregnancy infringes on their right to choose by placing an undue burden on the woman (Epstein & Walker, 2013). Most states with the exemptions on pregnancy women coerce women into accepting unwanted medical care if it is possible that the fetus will grow to pave way for “live birth”; a standard that is vague and medically uncertain and therefore places an undue burden on the rights of women to abortion. In In re Quinlan, the court ruled that the individual’s right to privacy also includes the right to decline from unwanted medical care as well as the right to abortion (Rao, 2000). The ruling found that the state cannot compel unwanted medical care on people that have expressed their wish to stop life-sustaining medical care to medical professionals and others through the healthcare power of an attorney. This ruling should take precedence when a pregnant woman is incapacitated. The state’s interest in human life should not outweigh the person’s right to refuse unwanted medical care. Therefore, the state’s interest should not justify the violation of a woman’s bodily autonomy notwithstanding how far along she is in the pregnancy (Epstein & Walker, 2013). In my opinion, society should choose to maintain the woman’s autonomy over her body, above all else. If the patient is incapacitated with no signs of recovery, I will opt to discontinue treatment. Continuing to put a woman such as nancy under medical care would place a burden on her dying body to support a fetus. It would also lengthen the suffering of the patient. The purpose of medical care is to alleviate suffering not to increase it. Also, continuing to give medical care does not guarantee the survival of the fetus. It may also lead to the birth of an infant with severe defects. This infant would then begin a life with difficulties, and the chances of their survival would be minimized due to the lack of a mother. Continuing medical care also places financial stress on the family as well as the healthcare providers. Even though theoretically, the patients financial status should not determine the level of care they receive, in reality, it is among the most crucial factors in determining a patient’s access to healthcare. Therefore, society should consider the financial implications too. References Epstein, L., & Walker, T. G. (2013). Constitutional Law: Rights. Sage. Rao, R. (2000). Property, privacy, and the human body. BUL rev., 80, 359. Villarreal, E. (2018). Pregnancy and Living Wills: A Behavioral Economic Analysis. Yale LJF, 128, 1052.

Organizational Behavior Name Institutional Affiliation Organizational Behavior Question 1 Organizational behavior (OB) refers to the manner people within an organization respond to issues affecting the organization. OB is, therefore, a definition of the attitudes and actions of individuals towards themselves and the corporation and the overall effect on the functioning and performance of the business. As explained by Scandura (2018), OB emanates from the norms and values established within the enterprise over a long time and govern the conduct of employees. In this case, the way the business plans and executes its functions and the response of employees to key issues facing the corporation depend on the set beliefs at the workplace. OB dictates the way employees communicate and interact with each other and their leaders and the tactics employed in performing tasks. In this regard, OB is a key determinant of the ability of the enterprise to address market needs, and hence the level of success and position in the market. Successful organizations embrace an OB that aligns to the nature of the external environment, the set business goals, and the resources available to earn a competitive advantage. Therefore, OB is a definition on the manner the behavior of leaders and workers in an organization affect the functions and nature of the response to external stimuli as key determinants of success. The concept of OB bears a significant relevance in the leadership and management of public and nonprofit sectors. Since OB chiefly entails the study of how individuals within the organization behave depending on their values, the concept provides leaders and managers with the skills, ideas, and tools required in directing and influencing workers towards public and community interests. In this case, through an understanding of the theory of OB, executives will be capable of guiding employees to be more responsible in their actions. In other words, the high diversity in public and nonprofit organizations makes the building and maintenance of a distinct behavior for all workers difficult. Hence, the study of OB among leaders and managers will allow them to gain the capability provoking effective delivery of services by displaying traits that apply universally among all groups of workers as embodied in the popular culture of the country or the respective community (Woodman, Sawyer, & Griffin, 1993). Specifically, organizations in the public and nonprofits sectors are prone to shocks from major events occurring in the country, which shapes the personality traits of workers. Therefore, OB intervenes to ensure leaders and managers exhibit flexibility to guide subordinates to remain committed to the organizations despite the numerous factors that tend to divert employees from the specific behavior required for the success of the enterprise. Another critical idea is that the entire concept shows that making distinctions about differences between the public and private sector is challenging. Both public and private sector organizations employ rules that bear significant similarities to undermine all avenues aimed at revealing their differences. In fact, as opposed to the idea that public organizations stick to rules and procedures, private organizations also employ formal procedures. For example, as shown by Nutt (2006), with the variation being only in the extent of enforcement, both public and private organizations might have similar regulations governing the conduct of employees and making purchase decisions. In fact, public and private organizations are guided by the culture rooted in the population of workers. With the absence of a clear culture and the necessity of influencing workers to exhibit specific traits, there is a lack of a universal procedure, tools, or models universally applicable to all organizations. The idea provokes each organization, whether public or private, to exhibit a set of values relevant to its unique challenges and goals, which undermines the effort to create the differences between the public and private sectors. Through the application of common tools in governing employees’ behavior, the similarity in goals and operation modes, and the lack of a common definition of culture, making distinctions about differences between the public and private sectors becomes challenging. Nevertheless, private-public distinction allegedly makes a difference regarding the concept of organizational behavior. Private and public organizations differ in their definition and understanding of motivation. Private organizations define motivation as a measure of commitment to the job, innovation, and generation of value to the business. Public organizations ascertain motivation based on the adherence to the state rules, service delivery, and responsible behavior to the public. Rainey and Bozeman (2000) indicate that the two have a different system of rewarding employees and recognizing performance in that private organization opt for extrinsic rewards while public corporations opt for intrinsic rewards. For example, private enterprises have enough resources to offer compensation and have good control over the behavior of workers, and willing to share earnings with workers. Contrary, public organizations mostly employ intrinsic rewards, such as self-esteem and good reputation from the people, because efficiency and service delivery are more critical factors rather than profit maximization (Nutt, 2006). As suggested by the Self-Determination Theory, employees in public organizations measure success from the impact created to the public where the job becomes a source of motivation because leaders have limited resources to offer monetary rewards. A distinction also exists in the definition of values in that with private enterprises, commitment to service, innovation, and change are critical traits desired. However, for public entities, collaboration, honesty, truth, and trust to the required state regulations are more significant. Question 2 Goal-Setting Theory suggests that motivation to act in a specific manner comes with setting clear goals for employees. In this regard, setting specific and challenging targets enable an organization to perform better than when it sets general and easier targets (Scandura, 2018). In this case, the theory suggests that to drive the organization towards the right behavior, the management, and leadership have to scan the environment, evaluate the capabilities of the workforce, and set clear goals that offer reasonable challenges. The achievement of the intended outcomes will also be possible through strict follow up to ensure commitment and evaluation of feedback. Goal-Setting Theory is grounded on the idea that the leadership of the corporation predetermines the pace of change for the workforce and implements measures to influence employees to display a specific minimum level of performance. Therefore, the theory is an OB idea suggesting that the leadership has to precisely determine what it can acquire from employees and influence the right action towards the realization of the expected results. Turning into the historical antecedents and the intellectual roots, Edwin Locke, recognized for pioneering in the development of Goal-Setting Theory, begun researching the effects of goals on human behavior in 1960. Towards the end of the decade, he had stipulated that setting goals greatly enhances motivation and influence workers to act in a specific manner. The theory has its roots on the psychological viewpoint affecting human behavior in that goals shape choice by narrowing an individual’s attention or views towards the chosen destination. It also holds that goals affect efforts exerted by psychologically influencing the intended person to develop a feeling of personal achievement by meeting the targets required. Goals might also eliminate monotony to enable a person to display consistency in performing repetitive work. Lastly, goals inspire an individual to change behavior in response to meeting the targets. For many years, Goal-Setting theory proved effective in influencing OB, enabling companies to achieve robust growth, a factor that provoked more research and development of the theory. Consequently, as shown by key Scandura (2018), models for defining the nature of goals and manner of executing developed including the SMART tool which stands for specific, measurable, actionable, relevant, and time-based goals. Therefore, Goal-Setting has grown into a model for transformation and change in organizations, which are the main features describing OB in the contemporary environment. Nevertheless, despite the demonstrated relevance of Goal-Setting Theory in influencing positive OB, it has been criticized for undermining intrinsic motivation pivotal for innovation and high-performance culture. The logic behind the critique is that setting clear, time-bound and challenging goals will limit the worker’s freedom and compel them to work to the expectation of managers rather than using the job to prove personal knowledge and skills (Ordóñez, Schweitzer, Galinsky, & Bazerman, 2009). The outcome of the job is perceived to have been influenced by the executive rather than coming from the worker, which makes the job less interesting to the employee. To me, the critique is not compelling because irrespective of the presence of specific goals, the employee enjoys the autonomy of accomplishing the task and utilizing their skills. Additionally, I see that the set goals are the minimum level required and any effort employed to exceed the targets satisfies employee psychological needs leading to high intrinsic motivation. Additionally, specific goals provide guidance to employees regarding the needs of the organization, and hence, goal-setting opens collaboration between leaders and workers and self-assessment to allow higher intrinsic motivation. Hence, Goal-Setting theory is a device for enhancing intrinsic motivation rather than undermining it. Finally, my thought about the practical value of Goal-Setting theory is that it is a machine for change and transformation by allowing employees to trace where the organization is heading to and support the business’s agenda. I see that the theory promotes uniformity of purpose and elimination of confusion regarding the right behavior at the workplace to achieve organizational excellence. The theory, compared to others such as Equity, Expectancy, and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, provides cost benefit in that it does not propose the use of material things such as money to motivate employees. I also view that unlike the Reinforcement theory, Goal-Setting does not require strict adherence to professional practice and ethics, which might be difficult in a multicultural environment. In fact, Goal-Setting Model possess a high degree of practicality when the workforce is diversified with different cultural beliefs and social norms. Similarly, other theories including Self-Determination might prove ineffective in the presence of high diversity or non-technical workers not easily motivated by intrinsic rewards. Therefore, Goal-Setting theory is the most efficient, simplest, and versatile tool for OB in the current environment characterized by high diversity, uncertainties, and need to maintain low operating costs. Question 3 There are key motivation theories clearly highlighted in the Scandura textbook, which are critical for enabling a manager to maintain a suitable OB at the workplace. Firstly, the Self-Determination Theory suggests that motivation in employees is achieved through intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors are the features that enable the worker to feel that they have a reasonable level of freedom to choose and perform the work. In this case, the job becomes a source of motivation by allowing the worker to fulfill their needs such as personal development, self-esteem and belonging (Scandura, 2018). Extrinsic factors come externally such as the desire to earn monetary rewards and avoid punishment. The other is the Expectancy Theory, which suggests that employees have expectations that upon fulfillment will lead to increased motivation. In this case, the level of motivation depends on the extent to which employees’ expectations are exceeded. The third is the Equity Theory, which suggests that employees are motivated when treated fairly by the organization. According to the theory, the workers’ compensation and rewards have to align appropriately with the level of contribution to the organization. The idea is that when employees receive a fair share of the value they generate, they feel honored, respected, and cared and develop the urge to perform highly to continue benefiting from the company. Equity Theory is comprehensive encompassing fairness in all aspects of operation, including power distribution, treatment of employees, among others. The theories present a general view that motivation is about meeting the needs of employees to influence them to feel attached to the corporation. The three theories discussed above are important in management especially in the public and nonprofit context. Firstly, Self-Determination Model presents the view that employees in an organization cannot be motivated by extrinsic rewards only but a combination of both extrinsic and intrinsic motivators (Grant, 2008). The idea assists in ensuring efficiency in managing workforces especially for public organizations with limited resources. In fact, through proper job design to suit employee’s career choices and interests, work capabilities, and experience, the managers can achieve extraordinary level of motivation with the limited resources. In this case, Self-Determination Theory provides an avenue for establishing the right OB in public organizations irrespective of the few extrinsic motivators available. The Expectancy Theory directs the management to realize that they have a key obligation in addressing the needs of employees to maintain their interest and commitment to serving the organization (Scandura, 2018). As a matter of fact, it enlightens the management to spot changes in the external market and ensure it provides its workers with what other similar companies are providing to their employees. The theory guides managers to retain talents for the interest of delivering quality services to the public. In other words, the Expectancy Theory highlights the nature of the relationship between the organization and employees to reveal the significance of the notion of mutual benefit, which guarantees high motivation in employees. On its part, the Equity Theory is important in enabling executives to identify the significance of ethics and professionalism in management. The idea is that for the management to motivate employees, especially in public organizations, it has to demonstrate selflessness and stick to fundamental values that govern human behavior in general. Hence, Self-Determination, Expectancy, and Equity theories are guidelines towards proper management of workforce to guarantee high motivation. Lastly, in managing a motivation dilemma where workers are complaining about lack of commitment from the organization in addressing their needs, both Self-Determination and Expectancy theories are relevant in fixing the problem and turning around the workforce. In testing the relevance of the former theory, I will compare costs and the benefits associated with redesigning the compensation system relative to the expected outcome when motivation increases. Reasonable low costs and a significant increase in output will indicate the suitability of the theory. In other words, the model for motivation, as stressed by Woodman, Sawyer, and Griffin (1993), has to assist in generating more revenue rather than a reason for calamitous losses. For the Expectancy Theory, I will test its suitability by evaluating the discrepancy between what the organization is offering to workers and what other similar organizations are providing to their employees. In essence, low reward relative to the industry’s standards indicates a deviation from the equilibrium level of expectation, which has to be matched by proper readjustment of the reward system. Therefore, the suitability of any of the two motivation theories will depend on the outcome, the effect on the performance of the enterprise, and the changes in the external environment. In summary, the arguments presented shows clearly that OB is a wide and complex concept requiring managers to equip themselves with important tools, ideas, and theories to guide them in their practice. In essence, no single theory of motivation works effectively under all circumstances. Therefore, executives bear the tough burden of scanning the environment and identifying the best alternative idea for driving their organizations towards the right behavior.   References Grant, A. M. (2008). Does intrinsic motivation fuel the prosocial fire? Motivational synergy in predicting persistence, performance, and productivity. Journal of applied psychology, 93(1), 48-58. Nutt, P. C. (2006). Comparing public and private sector decision-making practices. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 16(2), 289-318. Ordóñez, L. D., Schweitzer, M. E., Galinsky, A. D., & Bazerman, M. H. (2009). Goals gone wild: The systematic side effects of overprescribing goal setting. Academy of Management Perspectives, 23(1), 6-16. Rainey, H. G., & Bozeman, B. (2000). Comparing public and private organizations: Empirical research and the power of the a priori. Journal of public administration research and theory, 10(2), 447-470. Scandura, T., A. (2018). Essentials of Organizational Behavior: An Evidence-Based Approach (Second Edition). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. Woodman, R. W., Sawyer, J. E., & Griffin, R. W. (1993). Toward a theory of organizational creativity. Academy of management review, 18(2), 293-321.

Organizational Behavior Name Institutional Affiliation  Prompt 4A How do the internet, email, and social media change the way people communicate and/or collaborate at work? It is without a doubt that technology has brought changes in workplaces and people communicate differently in the workplace. Social media, email and internet have brought communication at the workplace to a whole new level. There is now fast communication among the employees and between the management and the subordinates. An employee can now send emails, text or even video conference with subordinate staff or superiors through social networking application. Furthermore, it is no longer mandatory that one is present at the workplace every time as one can work from home and communicate with the management through emails or through video conferencing. One can also engage in other important duties outside the office and still keep in touch with colleagues at the office. What do you see as the pros and cons of teamwork conducted using online tools as compared to in-person team meetings with a particular focus on the role of the differing role of the team leader? Using online tools in collaboration is fast becoming a feature of modern places or work. Companies and organizations are attracted to online tools which are cost effective and allows the employees to work together from anywhere, at any time by using any device that is internet enabled. However, teamwork that is conducted using online tools has its advantages as well as its disadvantages. One of the advantages of using online tools n teamwork is that it gives members the tools that they may need to work with others from any location. The downtime is thus reduced and people are also allowed to be productive when they feel that they can give their best. Secondly, using online tools saves on cost as compared to the traditional methods. There are software such as Kahootz which have offers such that an organization will only pay for the users that are needed in any given month. With regard to leadership, using online tools is advantageous in the sense that all materials of the project will be kept in the same workspace. A leader will therefore not be worried about keeping track of emails and different attachments as these are well archived using the online tools. A leader just needs to do a full audit trail of every member’s interaction with the workspace. On the other hand, using online tools in collaboration has some cons. Firstly, using online tools reduces the personal contact which can, in turn, lead to confusion over what is expected of the team members. Personal contact can, however, be improved through making sure that every team member knows clearly his/her roles and responsibilities. Secondly, using online tools in collaboration requires a dedicated management without which the team may fail to meet its objectives. An online workspace should be well administered to enable contributions. Prompt 4B How has (or hasn’t) your OB perspective on this topic evolved over the past two weeks? Over the past two weeks, I have learned the importance of using online tools at work. As such, my perspective about the online tools and how they should be used at work have changed and I think they can help spur the growth of an organization. An organization can seek the services of an individual who is miles away and use the online tools to communicate and work with such an individual. I think it is high time that organizations embrace online tools.

Organization Behaviour Name Institution Organization Behaviour Prompt 5A How does the idea of stress and performance relate to other concepts in the class that we have learned about so far? Stress refers to physical, emotional and psychological strain usually when the demand exceeds the individual’s copying threshold leading to the disruption of psychological equilibrium. Organizational stress can affect anyone from the subordinate staff to the top management officers. The impact of organizational stress is that it decreases the efficiency of performance and job satisfaction. Stress and performance are related to other organizational concepts such as goal setting theory, task motivation, and transformational leadership. First, stress can disrupt or enhance organizational performance. Stress management, therefore, requires transformational leadership to motivate employees and increase task performance. Goal setting provides strategic directions for task motivation thus enhancing self-efficacy. How do external factors affect organizational culture? Some of the external factors that affect organizational performance include the microeconomic policies, technology, socio-cultural forces, and customer base, among others. Bringing is other stakeholders to participate in decision making, for instance, consultants and other executives, enhance transparency, openness, and accountability leading to greater for implementing working goals that boost the organizational performance. Besides, for an organizational change to succeed, the change leaders must build both the internal and external environments through effective communication and participation (Scandura, 2019). In most cases, the external environment forms the primary organizational market base and therefore, their needs are crucial for consideration during the process of creating an organizational culture such as quality production or transparency and accountability. How can leaders affect change in organizational culture? Change management is one of the crucial tasks of a leader, yet, bringing in organizational change is the most difficult change. As a transformational leader, the first step towards implementing change is to convince the employees and other stakeholders on why the change is necessary (Rainey, H. G., & Thompson, 2006). Leading change requires the leaders to develop an adequate plan that aligns the reform to the organizational mission and goals. Consequently, the change leader should devise a strategy to confront resistance, build support for the change, communicate the importance of the change effectively and encourage the participation of team members in implementing the change. Prompt 5B Create a set of goals for your career and your education. Why based on the readings, do you think they are well specified? The set of goals I have set are categorized into short-term and long-term goals. They include; Short-term goals 1. To increase my job performance by being more efficient, meeting deadlines and ensuring customer satisfaction. 2. To earn additional professional development certificate by pursuing a post-graduate course like an MBA. 3. To change jobs by moving to a more challenging role. 4. To create a personal website to showcase my professional skills. 5. To increase my networking skills for achieving my career goals. 6. To improve my communication skills and other soft skills like teamwork and cultural awareness. Long-term goals 7. To be promoted to more challenging top management positions. 8. To change careers and improve job satisfaction. 9. To start a personal business. 10. To become a subject matter expert. I consider these goals well specified because they are attainable, realistic and time-bound and therefore SMART. According to Locke & Lathan (2002), specific challenging goals lead to greater achievement. I, therefore, believe that commitment to the above foals will inspire much achievement in my career and education. References Locke, E. A., & Lathan, P. G. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: a 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist, 1-13. Rainey, H. G., & Thompson, J. (2006). Leadership and transformation of a major institution: Charles Rossoti and internal review service. Public Administration Review, 1-9. Scandura, T. A. (2019). Essentials of organizational behavior: an evidence-based approach. London: Sage Publishers.

Organizational Behavior Student’s Name Institution Date   Organizational Behavior Part One: Selecting Applicants The organization’s flagship executive fellows program seeks to hire 10 participants for the year to implement the organization’s objectives in various programs. The hiring and selection process needs to be a fair process considering the participants selected are more than willing to engage in the program within the public institution. As such, and also as required by law, it is crucial to apply objectivity and fairness in the hiring process so that the most qualified are given the chance to join the fellowship program. The first strategy in selecting the participants should be checking their organizational-fit. The person-organization fit concept refers to the match between an individual’s values and those of the organization. For instance, if the projects within the program require a high level of integrity and honesty, the hiring panel should check for participants who possess such values as they will be a good fit for the organization. Scandura (2019) adds that employees who have a high organizational fit are less likely to quit their jobs. Another strategy for selecting the participants should be checking for the person-job fit. The hired participants should demonstrate a good person-job fit, which means that the various job characteristics align with the employees’ motivation, abilities, and personality, according to Scandura (2019). In his study, Grant (2008) concluded that intrinsic forms of motivation are critical in strengthening an employee’s persistence at the workplace. As such, the hiring panel should check for applicants who are intrinsically motivated by factors such as achieving their goals and objectives on the job. Additionally, the hiring panel should check for applicants who would be intrinsically motivated by the forms of rewards that the organization would provide. It is essential that the employees remain motivated throughout their working period for optimal performance. It is also important to check for applicants who are intrinsically motivated by public services considering the organization is a public one. According to Rainey and Bozman (2000), public sector employees tend to place a higher value on public service. Therefore, the hiring team should check if the applicants have interests and value public service. The organization should hire a diverse group of fellows to join the program for purposes of equality. While there are chances the applicants may not be from diverse racial backgrounds, the diversity should then be considered in terms of job skills and personalities. A diverse workforce encourages creativity, which would be crucial in implementing the organization’s projects (Bharadwaj & Menon, 2000; Woodman, Sawyer & Griffin, 1993). Hiring employees with diverse skill sets and personalities produces high energy, autonomy, and abilities to contribute to different ideas when undertaking projects. Lastly, a critical factor to consider when hiring the employees would be their personalities. While people exhibit different and varied personality traits, it is essential to consider the personality traits that fit the organization’s culture and job demands. Considering that the fellows are joining a public organization, it remains essential that they exhibit personality traits listed among the Big Five traits that include openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness. Working for a public organization would require that the employees are extraverted as they will interact with members of the public, are emotionally stable to handle the work pressure, and cooperative enough to work on the projects, are reliable and prompt, and are open to learning and new experiences. To determine if the fellows possess these critical personality traits, the hiring panel should administer the Big Five Personality Test to evaluate the applicant’s personalities. Part Two: Selecting the Projects While selecting the projects for this public organization, it is necessary to take into consideration the fact that the funds used are public funds, and therefore the projects should be beneficial to the public. Additionally, having selected the 10 fellows for the year, it is critical that the projects in which they are involved are fully utilizing their skills and abilities, as they expand their knowledge and experience on the job. To systematize this process will mean to consider important factors such as the resources available, the project objective, and the returns available. A project selection strategy that the organization should consider is the cost-benefit ratio. This strategy entails checking if the costs of running the project and the value of the return are worth the investment. The return should be more than the cost incurred. The costs for the project would include training the 10 applicants, purchasing materials required, and hiring other contractual personnel such as contractors depending on the project, among other costs. It is also critical to ensure that the kind of project selected aligns with the government’s mission and objectives for its citizens considering the organization is public. The projects must be sensible and necessary in the fulfillment of the government’s obligations. According to Rainey and Bozman (2000), public organizations are under government ownership, and this fact means that the government exercises its formal authority over agencies and imposes its rules that include functions such as the selection of projects. Therefore, for the government to approve the projects selected, the selection committee should consider projects that align with the government’s mission. Another strategy to consider when selecting the projects is the fellows’ professional skill sets and abilities. The employees selected possess different professional skills such as accounting, purchasing, and supplies, management, or engineering. The diverse skill sets, as noted before, encourage creativity within the organization. For instance, it would be remiss of the public organization to select engineering projects when the fellows selected are management professionals. Therefore, when selecting the projects, it is critical to consider projects that will require the fellow’s input so as to also maximize the output, given the costs incurred (for instance, employee training). It is imperative to remember that the costs of running a project should be lower than the value created for it to be profitable to the public. The project selection committee should also ensure that the higher management within the government approves of the projects selected to avoid any form of friction that may stall the progress of the projects. Lastly, the projects selected, considering they would impact the public, should have the approval of the stakeholders involved. The stakeholders, in this case, would be the government and the members of the public. It is obvious that for the projects to start running they must have government approval, and in most cases, funding. If the committee selects projects that directly impact the members of the public, the project must entail public participation to evaluate the effectiveness of the project to the public. Therefore, it is important to only select projects that the public members approve to ensure that the costs incurred are worth the investment and will fully utilize the 10 fellows’ skills and professional knowledge.   References Bharadwaj, S., & Menon, A. (2000). Making Innovation Happen in Organizations: Individual Creativity Mechanisms, Organizational Creativity Mechanisms or Both?. Journal Of Product Innovation Management, 17(6), 424-434. doi: 10.1111/1540-5885.1760424 Grant, A. (2008). Does intrinsic motivation fuel the prosocial fire? Motivational synergy in predicting persistence, performance, and productivity. Journal Of Applied Psychology, 93(1), 48-58. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.1.48 Rainey, H., & Bozeman, B. (2000). Comparing Public and Private Organizations: Empirical Research and the Power of the A Priori. Journal Of Public Administration Research And Theory, 10(2), 447-470. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.jpart.a024276 Scandura, T. (2019). Essentials of organizational behavior (2nd Ed.). Los Angeles: Sage Publishing. Woodman, R., Sawyer, J., & Griffin, R. (1993). Toward a Theory of Organizational Creativity. The Academy Of Management Review, 18(2), 293. doi: 10.2307/258761

Economic Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation   Fundraising 1.0: AN OVERVIEW OF THE NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 1.1: Valley of the Sun YMCA YMCA is an organization that engages in enabling several United States (US) communities to learn, grow, as well as thrive. It has created a robust network system on the ground, considering that it engages over 10,000 neighborhoods in the country. YMCA is slowly ground on the empowerment agenda, considering that it is more interested in empowering youths by enabling them to remain healthy for optimal social output. Its strengths are based on its capability to nurture every teen and child, thus, contributing significantly towards the wellbeing of the nation. However, the major challenge relates to the creation of an active support program that can be able to cater to the health and wellbeing needs of every person it engages. The proper running of the plan calls for the substantial investment of funds, which may not always be enough. YMCA is usually funded by different organizations to enable it to meet its financial obligations and goals. It has a host of various organizations that are committed to ensuring that its quest to help young people attain their potentials and lead a healthy living is achieved. Some of its principal donors are AARP Foundation, Howard Johnson, Comcast, Annie E. Casey Foundation, and CVC Health. Other organizations that support YMCA work include The Walker Family Foundation, UnitedHealth Group, and The REI Foundation, among others. Briefly, YMCA has a host of donors that enable it to sustain its development programs and agendas. 1.2: Tempe Community Action Agency Tempe Community Action Agency (TCAA) was established in 1966 and has come up with policies aimed at elevating poverty at the family level. TCAA is all about fostering dignity, as well as self-reliant by strengthening neighborhoods and families. Therefore, it helps to address the economic challenges of the most vulnerable in the community. Currently, it runs empowerment programs that benefit over 22,000 children, seniors, and adults. The weak within, as well as near Tempe City benefits from programs such as creating affordable housing, health services for the infants, as well as toddlers, and provision of proper care for the aging. The organization also helps to address issues concerning food insecurity. However, the organization does not have distinct donors, which usually happens to a significant challenge. It relies on how well people will buy its products to promote their activities and agendas. The donations can also be given on kinds such as presenting goods and foodstuff and volunteering in talents and time. Otherwise, everyone is at liberty to donate at any day and time. Apart from that, one can promote TCAA work by attending its events or even purchasing some of the products it makes. 1.3: Wildfire Wildfire is an Arizona based organization that aims at elevating poverty in the area. Its main message is to promote fair practice that will enable the members to reduce the level of debt in communities living in the state. As an organization, Wildfire aim at coming up with ethical, collaborative issues by ensuring community support programs are maintained. Therefore, it is not only about elevating poverty but also finding permanent solutions that can end the menace. The organization faces significant challenges when trying to create a permanent solution to acquire sufficient funds as it does not have unique donors. It relies on different people for donations where one can make his contributions online. Therefore, this means that the organization does not have a stable funds’ acquisition network. 2.0: ORGANIZATION’S HISTORY, MISSING, PROGRAMS, AND OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION 2.1: Valley of the Sun YMCA YMCA is an organization that aims at improving youth development but strengthening their healthy living. Therefore, it has a special mission anchored on the principles of enhancing the social welfare of over 10,000 neighborhoods in several parts of the US. Therefore, since the establishment of the organization in 1800, it has continued changing its policies to accommodate more vulnerable people in the UK. To date, YMCA has remained functional for more than 160 serving the deserving population on various capacities. Therefore, to demonstrate its influence, the organization has engaged in several projects meant to improve the attainment of the set goals. The programs are usually based on three major areas. It has set programs based on youth development where the organizational members delve on nurturing the capabilities and potential of teens and children. Secondly, YMCA also aims at promoting healthy living where its members are interested in improving the general wellbeing and health of the nation. The third set of programs are related to the promotion of social responsibilities where the members concentrate on giving back, as well as providing the necessary support to the neighbors. The trend has helped to create a more responsible society where everyone feels close to each other. 2.2: Tempe Community Action Agency (TCAA) TCAA has a rich history as it was established more than 50 years ago. It was strongly themed on the principle of strengthened neighborhood and families by ensuring that the poverty levels have been adequately reduced. Its mission is to ensure that several sustainable programs are enacted to help improve the lives of the homeless, as well as stabilize housing. Therefore, as a nonprofit organization, TCAA has managed to address societal vices such as food insecurity, promote good health among the children, and take care of the aging. Apart from that, TCAA also helps to uplift the economic status of the families identified to be living below the average. The organization has, therefore, managed to initiate and develop several community programs aimed at improving the living standards and the social wellbeing of the community members. The community action program is one of them, and it aims at promoting various social welfare programs such as taking care of the aging. I-HELP Shelter Program aims at providing the necessary support to the homeless. The Food Program is meant to ensure that no one starves by delivering food to needy families. There is also the Senior Independence Program that is intended to provide a comfortable living for the elderly such as giving them the necessary hospice services. Other programs embraced by TCAA organization are Farmers Market, Community Garden, and Economic Advancement measures. They are all meant to fast track and enhance the achievement of the set development goals. 2.3: Wildfire Wildfire is still not a very old nonprofit organization even though it has managed to achieve a lot in Arizona. The members have been able to live to the mission that aims at promoting better living among the Arizonians. Wildfire has managed to come up with several initiatives that are aimed at elevating poverty while at the same time providing a lasting solution to those in various needs. Therefore, it operates under three major programs, which are based on advocacy, access, as well as sustainability. The advocacy program is meant to raise awareness of the existence of vulnerable in society so that the world can get to know about them. The access program, on the other hand, is meant to increase the accessibility of essential services and products to the poor so that they can be able to sustain their livelihoods. The sustainability programs are intended to ensure that such applications are elevated and ready to stay permanently. Therefore, they are meant to ensure that poverty has been elevated on a more permanent basis. 3.0: THE SOURCES OF FUNDING FOR EACH OF THE ORGANIZATIONS 3.1: Valley of the Sun YMCA As indicated earlier, the YMCA has many sources for funding its activities. It has established a long list of donors who have always been ready to fund its operations. Focusing on financial and material assistance from potential donors has become one of the fundamental mechanisms for funding YMCA operations. Deloitte is one of the donors as it has subscribed as one of the primary facilitators of the nonprofit organization’s activities. Apart from that, it also benefits from financial assistance from the National Basketball Association (NBA) and Susan Crown Exchange. As a result, it is considered to be one of the most financially stable nonprofit organizations. It does not depend on earned revenues, which cannot be predicted. It only depends on unearned income in the form of donations, grants, as well as events. 3.2: Tempe Community Action Agency TCAA majors from earning from real revenue that comes in the form of sales, memberships, as well as admission. It has no specific or established donor meaning that it depends on other options for funding its activities. Anyone visiting its site is at will to donate in cash or kind. One can donate goods such as clothing and food. The volunteering option also enables TCAA to save on extra cost that could have been incurred as part of operation cost. The organization also generates revenue from membership and admission fees charged to everyone that intends to become an active member of the organization. TCAA is also able to generate revenue from sales of its products and services. Member and non-members are charged a fee for attending its event. They are also encouraged to purchase products originating from TCAA. The move enables it to get funds that can be used to run its activities and essential programs. 3.3: Wildfire Wildfire generates its funds from the earned revenues. The members are expected to part with admission fees when being registered. They are also likely to remit membership fees on an annual basis, especially during the annual conference. The organization has not established products it can sell to generate more funds. It heavily relies on the donations made by anyone who feels touched by its work and impacts to the less fortunate in society. 4.0: MECHANISMS USED BY THE ORGANIZATIONS TO CARRY OUT THEIR FUNDRAISING 4.1: Valley of the Sun YMCA As an established nonprofit organization, the YMCA has managed to create a team or professional fundraising team that can be able to engage with high profile donors. The organization has managed to create career advancement opportunities one of them being the creation of a proper fundraising team. It is worth indicating that the funds it gets are enough for bankrolling a team of professional fundraisers who can engage with various renowned foundations and association of adequate funding of its operations. Therefore, YMCA participates on several mechanisms to promote and solicit for more funding. It uses professional solicitors as they can present their ideas and various development initiatives for more funding. It also encourages the conduction o special events such as the case of holding annual conferences to lobby for more donors to come on board and promote its operations. The use of direct mailing is at times employed to help remind of the donors of what is expected to them. This is regarded as part of ethical and proper communication when lobbying for more funds. 4.2: Tempe Community Action Agency Valley of the Sun YMCA TCAA does not have sufficient funds to hire professional fundraising staffs. Therefore, it has to rely on a team of volunteers that act as its face by helping it galvanize for more funds. The volunteering department is correctly structured in a manner such that the members have unique uniforms to promote the work of TCAA and attract potential donors. Therefore, the nonprofit organization is compelled to employ unique mechanisms for soliciting for a fund such as giving high expectation among the board members. The portal on the ‘other giving options’ is meant to pave the way for those who may be willing to perform unique roles such as soliciting for funds for TCAA. It also has an online giving portal that indicates ‘donate today’ where anyone who feels touched by the activities of TCAA can contribute in cash. The holding of special events such as the TCAA Event and annual conference is deemed a unique mechanism for soliciting for more funds on behalf of the nonprofit group. 4.3: Wildfire The Arizona nonprofit outfit does not have professional fundraising staff as it relies on volunteers when seeking for funds. It depends on the efforts made by the volunteers in not only promoting its services but also soliciting for funds from the potential donors. The use of special events and mailing are considered some of the effective mechanisms employed by Wildfire to raise funds. The organization also has an online portal where any willing donor can make his contributions more directly. Apart from that, the organization also made use of special events to solicit for more funds from the potential donors. 5.0: ROLE THAT GRANTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS PLAY IN THE LIFE OF THESE ORGANIZATIONS 5.1: Valley of the Sun YMCA In the YMCA, the use of grants and other forms of contributions have imperative roles they play in the improvement of the livelihoods of the most vulnerable in the US. One of the primary focuses is enhancing child care across the US. Children are provided with necessary amenities such as food and clothing so that they can feel equal to those bred in well up families. Therefore, the primary aim is to ensure that their health is maintained and improved while at the same time, ensuring that they have an adequate opportunity to enjoy essential amenities such as playing kits. The nonprofit organization also takes care of the teens by ensuring that they are provided with the necessary facilities such as playing packages and other recreational amenities. The principal aim is to ensure that their social needs are adequately met. YMCA is also interested in ensuring there is regular maintenance of a healthy living. It targets the most vulnerable in society by ensuring that they are provided with the necessary basic needs such as food and clothing, and shelter. They are equipped with an adequate balanced diet too helps ensure that they have met all their nutritional requirements. The organization mainly targets the elderlies as they do not have someone to look after them. Therefore, this helps to ensure that they lead a healthy and comfortable life. Some part of the funds also goes towards enhancing its social programs. This entails giving back, as well as providing the necessary support to the neighborhoods. YMCA is also interested in ensuring that the poor neighbors have their needs met to help them lead a more comfortable and healthy living. As an established nonprofit organization, the YMCA has also managed to get sufficient funds to have a pool of employees who are either employed on a permanent or contractual basis. It has managed to create several employment positions such as the camp positions and fund soliciting vacancies. Therefore, a chunk of its funds goes towards meeting the salary requirements as it has to pay its employees. However, the employees are expected to maintain an active fund soliciting program, as well as enhancing the image of the nonprofit organization. 5.2: Tempe Community Action Agency TCAA funds are allocated on poverty elevation programs such as in buying foods for the low-income families and meeting the daily basic needs of the needy in society. The organization also engaged in helping the poor acquire better houses. Thus, a substantial amount of its funds goes towards sustaining the housing program. It also allocates a considerable amount of its funds to health programs to help maintain its housing projects. TCAA is also concerned about the economic empowerment programs meaning that it also allocates a significant percentage of its funds to go towards empowering the poor economically. 5.3: Wildfire Wildfire is an organization interested in elevating poverty in Arizona. Therefore, it allocates sufficient funds to go towards enhancing various community action initiatives and help come up with a long-lasting solution towards poverty elevation. Thus, a massive chunk of the collected funds goes towards promoting advocacy programs. The members are required to raise awareness on the existence of poverty in Arizona, thus, demonstrating the need to end it. Funds are also allocated towards buying basic amenities to help ensure that the deserving members access basic needs just like the other members of the society. Another percentage of the funds go towards maintaining a sustainable structure. Wildfire aims at ensuring that a permanent solution towards the mitigation of poverty is maintained. 6.0: EFFICIENCY OF THE ORGANIZATIONS’ FUNDRAISING 6.1: Valley of the Sun YMCA As a well-established nonprofit organization, YMCA has managed to pay its professional solicitors more than 10% of its total funds. The professional solicitors are engaged in activities such as enhancing the fundraising program by ensuring that a proper communication conduit between the organization and the potential donors is maintained. The solicitors also make sure that donors are regularly updated and provided will detailed financial reports on how funds were utilized for accountability purposes. They also present various proposals justifying why the YMCA needs to be allocated more funds based on the achievements it has made. Therefore, the YMCA seems to have come up with an effective and sustainable fundraising program as it does not eat a massive chunk of its funds as required (Global Cloud, 2016). However, it will need to adjust it by making sure it does not exceed the recommended rate (Network for Good and TrueSense Marketing, n.d.). Currently, the fundraising cost is justified as the roles played by the professional solicitors have succeeded considering that YMCA has managed to win the confidence of more potential donors such as NBA meaning that the cost is well covered. 6.2: Tempe Community Action Agency TCAA has not managed to maintain a stable team of professional solicitors as it mainly relies on volunteers to act as the frontline fundraisers. Therefore, it incurs minimal expenses in meeting the financial needs of the volunteers as it only needs to meet the cost of their essential needs when working. This is not justified at all as the team of volunteers are not able to cover some of the critical fundraising procedures, such as demonstrating the need to donate among the potential donors (Fundraising Planning, n.d.). This calls for a proper overhauling of the fundraising programs by ensuring that a minimal amount of the annual budget is allocated to them. It is high time TCAA understands that fundraising is essential as it helps to create awareness among the potential donors, thus, helping to increase funding (Garecht, 2010). 6.3: Wildfire Wildlife, just like TCAA, has failed to allocate sufficient funds to its professional solicitors. It incurs minimal expenses in promoting and raising awareness on its existence when using the team of its volunteers. This can be reflected as a disadvantage considering that the organization’s activities will not be well known by the intended potential donors (Global Cloud, 2016). Therefore, it will be more imperative to allocate some funds to go towards professional fundraising as this would help raise more funds that can improve the service delivery of the nonprofit organization (Fundraising Planning, n.d). Wildfire may be operating at the minimal for not engaging in the professional fundraising program. 7.0: CHALLENGES THAT THE ORGANIZATIONS ARE FACING, OR FACED IN FUNDRAISING 7.1: Valley of the Sun YMCA YMCA is an established nonprofit organization meaning that it does not face significant challenges in its fundraising program. Its capability to attract potential donors is enough proof that it faced minimal hurdles when trying to lobby for more funds. However, its professional solicitors may end up demanding more pay as a result of the intensive work they encounter. This is one of the significant challenges in many established organization, and it often eats into the funds meant to strengthen the development projects (Garecht, 2010). 7.2: Tempe Community Action Agency TCAA faces some challenges when trying to fundraise. Its lack of a well-established fundraising structure is its major undoing despite having been operational for over 50 years. Therefore, it is high time the nonprofit organization ponders on employing proper and well-structured fundraising program. 7.3: Wildfire Wildfire has not established a functional fundraising program meaning that it is unable to attract potential donors. Lack of a well-structured fundraising program raises doubts among potential donors as they cannot be able to authenticate the validity of a nonprofit program (Global Cloud, 2016). As such, it is high time Wildfire should seek at establishing a proper fundraising program. 8.0: ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE ORGANIZATIONS’ RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT, WHAT THEY DO WELL, AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT 8.1: Valley of the Sun YMCA YMCA is almost perfect in everything program it conducts. However, it will need to structure its employment framework to include a team of volunteers to help create a positive impression that it is not about making a profit. This will have the potential of attracting more funds. 8.2: Tempe Community Action Agency The establishment of a volunteering program is one of the significant strengths of TCAA. Nonetheless, the nonprofit organization will need to high professional fund solicitors to help it meet its financial obligations. 8.3: Wildfire Wildfire has an established team of volunteers in addition to having a well-established website. However, it will also need to hire services of professional fund solicitors to help it raise more funds.   References Fundraising Planning. (n.d.). Chapter Seven Garecht, J. (2010). How to Hold Great Fundraising Events, A Step by Step Guide, 1-10. Network for Good and TrueSense Marketing. (n.d.). The Online Giving Study: A Call to Reinvent Donor Relationships, www.OnlineGivingStudy.Org, 1-21. Global Cloud. (2016). Storytelling that Gets More Donations, DonorDrive: Peer-to-Peer Fundraising, 1-47.

Report III

HEALTHCARE

Health  care health-care ,  or  healthcare  is  the  maintenance  or  improvement  of  health  via  the  prevention  ,  diagnosis  ,  and  treatment  of  disease  ,  illness  ,  injury  ,  and  other  physical  and  mental  impairments  in  people  .  Health  care  is  delivered  by  health  professionals  in  allied  health  fields  .  Physicians  and  physician  associates  are  a  part  of  these  health  professionals  .  Dentistry ,  midwiferynursingmedicineoptometryaudiologypharmacypsychologyoccupational therapyphysical therapy  and  other  health  professions  are  all  part  of  health  care  .  It  includes  work  done  in  providing  primary care  ,  secondary  care  ,  and  tertiary  care  ,  as  well  as  in  public  health  .  Access  to  health  care  may  vary  across  countries  ,  communities  ,  and  individuals  ,  largely  influenced  by  social  and  economic  conditions  as  well  as  health  policies  .  Providing  health  care  services  means  “the  timely  use  of  personal  health  services  to  achieve  the  best  possible  health outcomes”  .  Factors  to  consider  in  terms  of  healthcare  access  include  financial  limitations  (such  as  insurance  coverage)  ,  geographic  barriers  (such  as  additional  transportation  costs  ,  possibility  to  take  paid  time  off  of  work  to  use  such  services)  ,  and  personal  limitations  (lack  of  ability  to  communicate  with  healthcare  providers  ,  poor  health  literacy  ,  low  income)  .  Limitations  to  health  care  services  affects  negatively  the  use  of  medical  services  ,  efficacy  of  treatments  ,  and  overall  outcome  (well-being  ,  mortality  rates)  .  A  health  system  ,  also  sometimes  referred  to  as  health  care  system  or  as  healthcare  system  ,  is  the  organization  of  people  ,  institutions  ,  and  resources  that  deliver  health  care  services  to  meet  the  health  needs  of  target  populations  .  There  is  a  wide  variety  of  health  systems  around  the  world  ,  with  as  many  histories  and  organizational  structures  as  there  are  nations  .  Implicitly  ,  nations  must  design  and  develop  health  systems  in  accordance  with  their  needs  and  resources  ,  although  common  elements  in  virtually  all  health  systems  are  primary  healthcare  and  public  health  measures  .  In  some  countries  ,  health  system  planning  is  distributed  among  market  participants  .  In  others  ,  there  is  a  concerted  effort  among  governments  ,  trade  unions  ,  charities  ,  religious  organizations  ,  or  other  co – ordinated  bodies  to  deliver  planned  health  care  services  targeted  to  the  populations  they  serve  .  However  ,  health  care  planning  has  been  described  as  often  evolutionary  rather  than  revolutionary .

Some  authors  have  developed  arguments  to  expand  the  concept  of  health  systems  , indicating  additional  dimensions  that  should  be  considered  :

  • Health systems  should  not  be  expressed  in  terms  of  their  components  only  ,  but  also  of  their  interrelationships  ;
  • Health systems  should  include  not  only  the  institutional  or  supply  side  of  the  health  system  ,  but  also  the  population  ;
  • Health systems  must  be  seen  in  terms  of  their  goals  ,  which  include  not  only  health  improvement  ,  but  also  equity  ,  responsiveness  to  legitimate  expectations  ,  respect  of  dignity  ,  and  fair  financing  ,  among  others  ;
  • Health systems  must  also  be  defined  in  terms  of  their  functions  ,  including  the  direct  provision  of  services  ,  whether  they  are  medical  or  public  health  services  ,  but  also  “other  enabling  functions  ,  such  as  stewardship  ,  financing  ,  and  resource  generation  ,  including  what  is  probably  the  most  complex  of  all  challenges  ,  the  health  workforce .”

However  ,  there  are  ways  you  can  help  yourself  avoid  any  of  this  ever  happening  and  it’s  by  using  these  five  healthcare  tips  that  are  scientifically  proven  to  improve  your  overall  health :-

  1. Eat nuts

Despite  being  high  in  fat  ,  nuts  are  incredibly  nutritious  and  healthy  .

They’re  loaded  with  magnesium  ,  vitamin E  and  various  other  beneficial  nutrients .

Through  numerous  studies ,  nuts  have  been  proven  to  help  you  lose  weight  and  help  fight  type  2  diabetes  and  heart  disease  .  Not  only  that  ,  but  some  studies  have  analysed  the  process  of  consuming  nuts  and  found  that  10% – 15%  of  the  calories  in  nuts  aren’t  even  absorbed  into  the  body  and  can  potentially  boost  your  metabolism .

  1. Don’t fear  coffee

Coffee  has  been  unfairly  scrutinised  in  the  past  ,  but  the  truth  is  that  it  is  actually  very  healthy  .  What  coffee  provides  is  a  high  number  of  antioxidants  with  studies  showing  that  coffee  drinkers  actually  live  longer  and  have  a  reduced  risk  in  developing  type  2  diabetes  ,  Parkinson’s  disease  ,  Alzheimer’s  and  numerous  other  diseases .

  1. Eat fatty  fish

Almost  everyone  ,  even  if  you’re  not  a  scientist  know  how  healthy  fish  is .  This  is  even  truer  in  fatty  fishes  such  as  salmon  ,  which  is  jammed – packed  with  omega – 3  fatty  acids  and  various  other  nutrients .  Studies  have  shown  that  those  who  eat  more  fish  have  a  lower  risk  of  a  huge  variety  of  diseases ,  including  heart  disease  ,  dementia  and  depression .  You  should  try  and  add  fish  to  your  diet  so  you’re  able  to  see  the  benefits  at  first  hand .  Studies  have  shown  that  those  who  eat  more  fish  have  a  lower  risk  of  a  huge  variety  of  diseases  ,  including  heart  disease  ,  dementia  and  depression  .  You  should  try  and  add  fish  to  your  diet  so  you’re  able  to  see  the  benefits  at  first  hand.

  1. Drink water

We  shouldn’t  be  the  ones  telling  you  this  ,  but  drinking  water  has  a  huge  number  of  benefits  ,  after  all  ,  our  bodies  are  between  50%  and  75%  water  .  The  number  of  benefits  consuming  the  right  amount  of  water  daily  can  bring  is  incredible  ,  one  of  which  is  it  can  help  boost  the  number  of  calories  you  burn  and  boost  your  metabolism  by  around  24% – 30%  over  a  one – and – a – half – hour  period .  You  should  be  trying  to  drink  around  1.2  to  1.5  litres  of  water  on  a  daily  basis  to  feel  the  benefits  water  can  bring .

  1. Take vitamin  D  tablets

Most  people  get  their  source  of  vitamin  D  from  the  sun  ,  but  if  you  don’t  get  enough  sunlight  ,  then  you  need  to  start  taking  something  that  provides  vitamin  D  .  It’s  been  shown  that  taking  tablets  that  provide  vitamin  D  deliver  numerous  health  benefits  .  This  includes  improved  bone  health  ,  increased  strength  ,  reduced  symptoms  of  depression  and  lowers  the  risk  of  cancer  to  name  a  few .

 

Lastly  ,  we  can  conclude  that  only  earning  money  at  the   cost  of  health  is  of  no  worth  because  all  that  money  will  somehow  go  into  the  health  expenditure  and  will  also  decrease  the  quality  of  life  and  health . Care  of  our  health  is  in  our  hands  ,  its  just  our  decision  to  let  it  gloom  or  let  it  shrink .  So , we  should  consider  our  health  as  precious  to  ourselves  other  than  money  and  time  because  without  health  both  time  and  money  are  worthless .