Ibn Khaldun by Taha Hussein and Islamic History

 

 

Table of Contents

Table of Contents. 2

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION.. 2

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW… 7

  1. Ibn Khaldun SOCIAL IDEAS. 7
  2. Taha Hussin SOCIAL IDEAS. 14
  3. Arabic Literature with Social Ideas Found in Taha Hussin SOCIAL IDEAS. 16
  4. Ottoman Empire and its Influence with the Ibn Khaldun SOCIAL IDEAS. 17

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY.. 20

Research Design. 21

Data Analysis and Findings. 22

Ethical Issues. 23

Research Questions. 25

Chosen Research and Literature. 25

CHAPTER 4: PRESENTATION OF RESULTS. 26

CHAPTER 5: DISSUASION.. 31

CHAPTER 6: REFERENCES. 37

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ibn Khaldun by Taha Hussein and Islamic History

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Ibn Khaldun was a 14th century Arab historian who has been associated with the development of theories in various fields. He was considered wide ahead of his times and has been credited with casting influences in the subjects of history, literature, economics, sociology, philosophy and demographics. What has remained substantial to his powerful concepts is that he was a realist and concentrated on presenting his views in simplistic yet understandable ways (“Ibn Khaldun,” 2018). What was known about him in the 14th century provides little insight into his life and personality. His work was given attention in the 16th and 17th centuries, when a number of Egyptian and Turkish historians came across his theories. His writings were critically analyzed, with regards to the theoretical frameworks that explained the works of societies and civilizations as a whole.

Ibn Khaldun was an Arab historiographer and student of history. He is broadly considered as a trailblazer of the cutting edge orders of historiography, humanism, financial aspects, and demography. He is best known for his book, Muqaddimah or Prolegomena. Additionally, the nineteenth century European researchers recognized the centrality of the book and considered Ibn Khaldun to be one of the best scholars of the middle ages. Ibn Khaldun’s epistemology endeavored to accommodate supernatural quality with philosophy by isolating science into two distinct classifications, the religious science that respects the sciences of the Qur’an and the non-religious science. He further ordered the non-religious sciences into scholarly sciences, for example, rationale, number juggling, geometry, stargazing, and so on and helper sciences, for example, dialect, writing, verse, and so forth. He additionally proposed that perhaps more divisions will show up later on with various social orders.

Ibn Khaldun believed that the state was a need of human culture to control bad form inside the general public, however the state implies is constrain, along these lines itself a treachery. All social orders must have a state overseeing them so as to build up a general public. He endeavored to institutionalize the historical backdrop of social orders by recognizing omnipresent wonders present in all social orders. He believed that development was a wonders that will be available as long as people exist. Similarly, Ibn Khaldun portrayed the satisfaction of essential needs as the start of human progress. Based upon the literature review the foundations of this study are based upon two important and integral congruent sections of history and literature. The first section is based upon the life and works of Taha Hussain as the founding father of Arabic literature (“The life of Taha,” 2018). He received recognition for being one of the most influential histographers who discovered the works of the late 14th century philosopher and sociologist Ibn Khaldun. The bounding grounds have significantly remained Arabic literature and its various branches.

Social ideas of Ibn Khaldun were based on collective utilization of religion and socialism to define modern approaches towards evolution and progress. These approaches were further explored by the Egyptian scholar Taha Hussein, whose largest contribution to the Arabic literature has been the introduction of Ibn Khaldun’s work. This research is consistent with the ideas of the philosopher and theorist Taha Hussein as an influence on the Arabian literature. Ibn Khaldun holds symbolic importance since his work was found at a time when the devastation regarding the decline of the ‘Ottoman Empire’ was ruefully being faced. The main attempts made by Ibn Khaldun have been to re-define the religious aspects and the social aspects (Al-Jubouri, 2018). He is considered one of the greatest philosopher minds who categorized theories under two main dimensions; religious perspectives and non-religious perspectives. In addition, he was one of the most knowledgeable intellectual theorists of his times with expertise in subjects of mathematics and basic sciences, apart from humanitarian and social sciences. He predicted in the 14th century that the future societies will introduce new subjects that may be based upon the foundations of the past. Therefore in the 21st century, he is known to have knowledge in the fields of politics, sciences, philosophy, sociology, economics and humanities. His main aim, although, was to form a primitive theory that would cover all the basic humanities subjects’ and would define the cultural behaviors of people in societies.

The social ideas of Ibn Khaldun regarding the state were of considerable importance. He attempted to adjust to every single conceivable society’s social conduct and impact in training, financial aspects and governmental issues. In any case, he didn’t surmise that laws were picked by only one pioneer or a little gathering of individual however for the most part by most of the people of a society. To Ibn Khaldun, the state was a need of human culture to control foul play inside the general public, yet the state implies is compel, in this way itself a treachery (Hozien, 2018). All social orders must have a state overseeing them so as to build up a general public. He endeavored to institutionalize the historical backdrop of social orders by recognizing pervasive marvels present in all social orders.

The majority of Taha Hussein’s significant assemblage of works are worried about Arabic writing. The experience of organization, open administration, governmental issues and culture all shaped and reinforce Taha Hussein’s idea and add profundity to his vision. Egypt has done all through its long history, to make a powerful commitment to human development. Against this foundation of patriotism Taha Hussein, drawing on an abundance of sources, composed ‘The Future of Education in Egypt’ (Hussein, 2018). Although he would keep on distributing articles on instruction and to give open addresses after the production of this book, examination of his later work uncovers no new, extensive vision or scholarly structure, but instead critique on different angles, resistance of some position, or assaults on contradicting perspectives.

Ibn Khaldun believed that development was a marvels that will be available as long as people exist. He described the satisfaction of fundamental needs as the start of human advancement. Toward the starting, individuals will search for various methods for expanding profitability of essential needs and extension will happen. Later the general public begins winding up progressively stationary and concentrates more on making, expressions and the more refined attributes. Before the finish of a general public, it will debilitate, enabling another little gathering of people to come into control.

In The Muqaddimah, the most vital work of Ibn Khaldun, he mindfully and conscientiously examined an acquaintance of logic with history in a general way, in view of recognizable examples inside a hypothetical structure of known chronicled occasions of his time. He depicted the beginnings, improvement, social patterns and the fall all things considered, prompting the ascent of another general public which would then pursue similar patterns in a persistent cycle. Ibn Khaldun did not make an ideal model for a general public amid his life, yet he thought there was a requirement for another model to oversee society to guarantee its nonstop financial development (Dale, 2015). Likewise, he prescribed the best political ways to deal with build up a general public as indicated by his insight into history. He intensely underlined that a decent society would be one in which a custom of instruction is profoundly established in its culture. Ibn Khaldun trusted that an excessive amount of administration, for example, assessments and enactments, would prompt the decay of a general public, since it would oblige the advancement of increasingly concentrated work increment in researchers and improvement of various administrations.

Ibn Khaldun believed that officials can’t comprehend the universe of trade and don’t have indistinguishable inspiration from a businessman. In his work The Muqaddimah, Ibn Khaldun underscored public opinion to think as what decides human conduct and universal examples. This workforce likewise motivates individuals to shape into a social structure to co-work in division of work and association. As per Zaid Ahmand in Epistemology and the Human Dimension in Urban Studies, the fikr thinking is the supporting column for every single philosophical part of Ibn Khaldun’s hypothesis identified with individuals’ otherworldly, learned, physical, social and political propensities (Ahmad, 2010). Similarly, another essential idea Ibn Khaldun accentuates the authority of specialties, propensities, and abilitiesin his readings. These happen after a general public is built up and as indicated by Ibn Khaldun, the dimension of accomplishment of a general public can be dictated by simply examining these three ideas. A general public in its most punctual stages is traveling and principally worried about survival, while a general public at a later stage is inactive, with more noteworthy accomplishment in artworks. A general public with a stationary culture and stable governmental issues would be required to have more noteworthy accomplishments in specialties and technology.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

A.    Ibn Khaldun SOCIAL IDEAS

Gibb (2009) brought attention to one of the recent findings in terms of theoretical grounds, where the name of Ibn Khaldun has received critical attention in the last decade. Although, dedication has been given by researchers, publishers and the notable Dr. Taha Hussain. Since the early 1900’s the works of Ibn Khaldun are being studied, and his worth as a potential socialist and economist are being recognized. The most important aspects of his works includes his socialist theories in relation with the historical notions as well. But, the writer argues, that the pace for publishing and popularizing his work have made slower progress than anticipation. The author of this paper clearly remarks that even the published works of the historian deal more with the analysis of his character and his intellectual abilities rather than focusing on his theoretical frameworks. Therefore, there is a need for a deeper and more investigative analysis for the historian’s efforts and clearly hypothesizing the practicality of his theories.

Soofi (1995) observed the works of the 14th century theorist Ibn Khaldun, to understand the knowledge of the intellectuals of the previous centuries. Ibn Khaldun has been notified to be a diplomat, a jurist, historian, a contemporary sociologist and economist. Ibn Khaldun favored a significantly different perspective than the rest of his peers for the frameworks of the political economy on a macro level. His traditional ideas influenced the contemporary cycle of the economy with rational approaches for the execution of power, economic reasoning and the models that guided why some nations develop and others don’t. In pursuit, the logic behind the ideas of the theorists of those times, Ibn Khaldun had a much wider perspective when it came to explaining the functions of an economy as a whole. The socialist theorization linked the economics of the subcontinent again and again, as shown in his works.

Mohammad (1998) analyzed and compared the socialist ideas of Ibn Khaldun as a historical socialist with the theorists; Hegel, Karl Marx, and Durkheim. In this comparison the ideas, philosophical lessons and the primary directives of Ibn Khaldun’s social drafts were critically analyzed. The comparison was also done as an ode to the western diaphragms of sociology and boundaries of philosophy, religion and economics. In essence, Ibn Khaldun was a social thinker who was much ahead of his time in pointing out the implications of the social changes happening around him, in his times. He did not live to see whether his hypothesized verdicts were much closer to reality. His works remained particularly unrecognized because of some preliminary reasons. The first reason is the evolution of the industrial revolution introduced in the 15th century which affected the cultural dimensions of the social structure of the society. While Ibn Khaldun remained traditional and it seemed that his narratives were more focused on the human potential. Empirically, the investigation also found that despite traditional ideas, he had a more modern approach towards the societal dialects. One of the major interpretations about Ibn Khaldun has been expressed in terms of how he was a pioneer amongst the free thinkers of the society in those times. He believed that humans were neither subject to the current traditions and practices, nor were they encompassed in the surroundings of the past decades. The civil lines seldom defined how the individuals reciprocated their knowledge, execution of their behaviors and their general day to day agreements and disagreements with the societal laws and enforces. He believed that man was the subject of his own thinking that develops from the social and economic constructs and the metaphysical incidences they experience in their lives and those of others around them.

According to Dhaouadi (1990), the western sociological researchers have often ignored or paid little attention to one of the earliest social theorists of the 14th century such as Ibn Khaldun. This may have been possible because of contrasts between the Arab and the western philosophers. However, others have dignified that Ibn Khaldun lived in a time where the Arab-Muslim conflict of the rulings of civilizations were evident. Although, it is seldom believed that the Middle Eastern, Arab and the Muslim nations have shifted away from their religious and social dilemmas, what can be particularly said is that Ibn Khaldun was ahead of his times. In his attempt to define the stature of the society, law and peripheral perspectives about social laws and elements of economics, he became a central figure in theorizing history and linking it with the frameworks of sociology. He focused on defining and clearing the conflicts between the Arabian peninsulas and the rest of the world. For this purpose, he worked on the modern agenda of showing a positive and more realistic side of the Arabian and the Muslim world. He worked on showing the common fundamental principles that looked same in both the Arabian and the Western worlds. In his account, Muqaddimah, he subjected the concept of ‘supernatural’ to define why these beliefs existed in the Muslim world and what importance did they hold. On the other hand his account, Al Assabiyya, concentrated on the dynamics of the economy as a process that is in continuous transformation. In this particular account he predicted the rationale and the possibility that Arabs would dominate the oil producing domains of the world as a cultural pursuit. Therefore, Ibn Khaldun is regarded more of as a realist sociologist who identified things as they were and defined the rationality behind things that make sense.

Sidani (2008) introduced a very early social philosopher known by the name of Ibn Khaldun as a former historian and interpreter of sociology and domestic economics. The main focus of this paper is central to the attention given to his concept of leadership as a dominant factor in the grouping theorization. The paper focuses on the post modern developments found in the world of Ibn Khaldun and his early assessment of the social dynamics of society. His central focus on the quality and power vested by a leader and his power have remained the center of anarchy. His works also bring attention of the western world towards the definition of power and domination held in the west and the possible contrast between the systems of the western and the Arabian worlds. The writer of the paper concluded his analysis, that Ibn Khaldun was a keen observer of situations as to how and why they existed. He wasn’t interested in questioning and finding the answers. What he was interested in was defining how things existed and what common elements they shared with others on a general level. The writer of this paper believes that if the theories of Ibn Khaldun are brought into practical power, then the cultures and variations in power can benefit from his explanation of the core values of all systems.

Baali (2018) defined the works of Ibn Khaldun under four major categories. Firstly he established that Muqaddimah, as an explanation, was a fine masterpiece that aimed to surprise the world over how the Arabian world functioned in general. Without the existence of the work of Ibn Khaldun, the Arabian region would have been left devastated and cut off from the entire world. His efforts can be recognized for aiming to define that the main conditions were not met with jurisdiction, but the Muslims and Arabs were only obliged to their heritage and cultural directives. He rationalized that the Muslim world would not change or accept the Arab philosophy not because they disliked the western ideas. But they would not dissuade from their own ideas because they seemed logically acceptable to them. Secondly, the lower side remains that his work did very little to change the perspective of the western theology of the Arabs. However, he is still credited for his lean attempt to clear the image of the Arabs. Thirdly, his work has been judged less and very little opinions have been formed about his work. As a result on the positive side, his work has not been manipulated with. Fourthly, as a downside again, his work has been interpreted by many researchers who may have called him the inventor or creator of many theories.

Alatas (2006) laid emphasis on a very serious social issue. He questioned as to how an important and central figure in the modern sociology and economics has not been kept under the radar. He talks about the theorist Ibn Khaldun who was a modern pioneer of the incorporator for many different elements in the sociological contexts. Upon much anticipation, the writer reveals that the main reason why Ibn Khaldun has been excluded from the earlier theorists is because of his Arabic origins. The westerners may disagree, but even in the 21st century, the western world gives little acknowledgement to any other theorists other than their own intellectual historians. The perspective is wide in terms of how the world may view preliminary ideas of philosophers from other parts of the world. According to the perspective of Ibn Khaldun the Muslim history has only been studied by the westerners for establishing contrasts between the two phenomenons. While, what Ibn Khaldun did was to point out the common elements amongst both the western and the Arab cultures.

Rosenthal (1983) argued that the historian Ibn Khaldun is not celebrated much, not only in the western world, but he is often given little importance in the Arab and Muslim world as well. The more research that has been done about Ibn Khaldun, the more theories and number of subjects have been found in his works. It seemed that his ideas were not limited to the dimensions of one theory, rather he was accustomed to bring a wider depth to his work again and again. His recognized work has been aligned with the fields of economics, political sciences, humanism, philosophy, religion and more importantly his social ideas. Socialism tends to be the most powerful base that he adopted for the practices and adoption of cultural values in the Muslim world. Political thought in the Islamic ideology if often inferred as being harsh, hierarchical and based upon relationships drawn from the pre-islamic eras. It has been analyzed that although Ibn Khaldun was an intellectual thinker who preferred to be a realist, despite his modernistic views he was in alignment with the environment and the existent thoughts of his times. And this is the most genius attribute of his personality.

Chapra (2008) believed that Ibn Khaldun presented a very dynamic and sultry manner in his theory that raised the bars for other theorists of those times. What he refers to as Ibn Khaldun’s theory of development, is one of the most versatile explanations of how things are presumed to be in the Arab parts. The main aim of the theory is to provide an argument that defines the shape that an economy undertakes when nearing decline. The theory contrasts the involvement of factors such as economics, sociology, societal norms, and political, historical and philosophical memorandums. Another important connection that has been made in the theory is that all these factors overlap and symbolize important events in the function of a society, an economy or overall what we may call a dynasty or civilization. The major counterparts of this study involve assessing the ideology of Ibn Khaldun in terms of the Muslim nations function differently, how they work and what possible explanation is alluded to the performance of the Middle Eastern, Arab and the Muslim nations.

Mahdi (1957) related the concepts of Ibn Khaldun with those of the other Muslim philosophers including Aristotle and Plato. Historically, the theories of Ibn Khaldun proved to reach the counterparts of philosophical thought that may have revolutionized the traditional norms of humanism. Even in the 14th century, Ibn Khaldun devised that history and philosophy, in essence, were only the study of humans and how they interacted with their societies. Therefore, his theories deal with the actual understanding of how individuals behave in their cultural settings. It was further discovered, that Ibn Khaldun believed that philosophers before his time had not given ‘human sciences’ the status of a separate field. Therefore, he felt inclined to fill this gap and state clearly why he believed that individualistic philosophies needed to receive attention. An interesting notion that is attributed with Ibn Khaldun is that his philosophies have not only been limited to one subject. Rather he has connected his theories and philosophies in ways that shows his ideas for every separate subject. The expertise of Ibn Khaldun in various sciences, proves that his knowledge and practical assumptions were evitable for providing accurate explanations of the political and social powers held by the Arab states. These assumptions have been proved through this book, where the author has highlighted major Islamic trends and downfalls that were predicted by Ibn Khaldun long before in the 14th century. His theories proved to be true when examining the historical basis of states, nations and civilizations suffered.

Lastly, Caksu (2018) argued that by depending on the perceptions, hypotheses and remarks that are referenced in al-Muqaddimah, Ibn Khaldun saw some Islamic goals, how he moved toward the connections between the standards and the substances, how he managed the holes, pressures and logical inconsistencies among them, and what sort of arrangements he found. This can be trailed by an exchange of the effect of ‘asabiyyah on the understanding of a few marvels, improvements and questionable occasions that showed up in early Islamic history. As an end to the investigation, it was advanced that Ibn Khaldun included extravagance and profundity to such ideas as ‘asabiyyah and mulk, conveying an elective point of view to their jobs in history and monotheist religions, and also utilizing them as amazing yet adaptable applied apparatuses.

B.     Taha Hussin SOCIAL IDEAS

Taha Hussein was an Egyptian Arabic and the most compelling twentieth century author, scholar, philosopher, and a nonentity for The Egyptian Renaissance and the pioneer development in the Middle East and North Africa. His sobriquet was “The Dean of Arabic Literature”. He was designated for a Nobel Prize in writing multiple times. Taha Hussein was a scholarly of the Egyptian Renaissance and a defender of the belief system of Egyptian patriotism alongside what he called Pharaonism, trusting that Egyptian human advancement was oppositely restricted to Arab development, and that Egypt would just advancement by recovering its antiquated pre-Islamic roots. Hussein composed on Ibn Khaldun, a Tunisian student of history, guaranteed by some to be the author of human science.

Mahmoudi (1998) described the life and thought of Taha Hussein, who is regarded as the pioneer and the father of the modern Arabic literature guides. His most recognized contributions are in the world of the Arabic literature and providing recognition to the 14th century thinker and theorist Ibn Khaldun. However, Hussein has set his own cultural and intellectual influence in the fields of social and economic constructs. Most of his elementary thoughts have been focused around the humanitarian and modern social cultural attributions. He regards the social frameworks of a society as positive elements that can be traced back to history, the very nature of humans and the older and traditional concepts of how the society works in general.

Kalpakian (2008) explained the importance of Ibn Khaldun amongst the earlier progenitors of the concepts of realism and social constructive norms whose theories are still applicable in the fields of international relations, today. According to this paper, the theories of Ibn Khaldun received attention in the 90’s in terms of management of the international and global crisis strategies. Various attempts have been made to decipher how Ibn Khaldun has related the theologies of science and religion.

Galal (2000) embarked on how the ideal theory of Taha Hussein was dictated, presented, formatted, and presented in front of the world. The writer believes that it is important to cater that although Taha Hussein was influenced from the earlier theories of Ibn Khaldun, he did not fully become a disciple of his theories. Rather he formulated and devised his own view of philosophy, sociology and history works together to bring about the workings of an economy. His main influence can be denoted in terms of the Egyptian society where he came across some important sociological and cultural barriers.

C.    Arabic Literature with Social Ideas Found in Taha Hussin SOCIAL IDEAS

Brugman (1984) in his book mentioned Taha Hussein as one of the greatest contributors for introducing and highlighting the name of Ibn Khaldun in the history of Arabic literature. He contributed vastly in the fields of history, psychology, economics, philosophy and most importantly sociology. The sociological contexts have often been named as the most conflicting pieces of work in terms of presenting the Arabian view of politics and power.  Similarly, Hourani (2013) explained how Ibn Khaldun came into existence through his literature narratives from his book Muqadimmah; in which he has presented a very clear dissection and analysis of the Arabian cultures and societies. His writings brought the attention of the Arabs and Muslims to a new concept of ‘clans’ and subjective groupings in their society, which they were not aware of before.

Taha Hussein exhibited that from the earliest starting point of the nineteenth century, Egypt, similar to Europe, received the pleasantries of present day life entire heartedly and with no feeling of unease. All parts of Egyptian life, regardless of whether material or good, progressed toward becoming Europeanized (Alatas, 2006). He referred to numerous instances of this in Egypt, from the working of railroads and the laying of transmit and phone lines to the presentation of bureau government and the parliamentary framework. Also, it was the equivalent with the cutting edge training framework. Be that as it may, there is another type of patriotism and enthusiasm which has emerged in this cutting edge age and which supports the life and relations of countries (Rejwan, 2008). It has been brought into Egypt together with the results of present day civilization. He contended that legislative issues are not quite the same as religion and that the arrangement of government and the structure of the state are established on utilitarian concerns.

Tomar (2018) examined social interpretations of Taha Hussin regarding Ibn Khaldun, who is the most examined scholars in the cutting edge Arab world. The most vital purposes behind this is that he lived in a period of emergency that looks like the one that Muslims have wind up in right now, that his musings have discovered endorsement from Western researchers and that they have present day qualities. It is for these reasons that the works of Ibn Khaldun, from the nineteenth century on, have offered ascend to a wide assortment of understandings, including skillet Islamism, patriotism, communism and other philosophies that have discovered enthusiasm for the Arab world. In this article, subsequent to analyzing the legacy of thought handed down by Ibn Khaldun to Arab culture, beginning from the time in which he lived.

D.    Ottoman Empire and its Influence with the Ibn Khaldun SOCIAL IDEAS

According to Rahman (1958), it is observed in the first volume of Muqaddimah that Ibn Khaldun being the social historian he was, already had understood how the economics of the dynasties worked. According to the understanding presented by the author of this book, Ibn Khaldun theorized that the functions of every kind of dynasty can be categorized in the parts of a cycle. This cycle continues to move in time periods and until the cycle of every dynasty remains the same. A dynasty begins by being powerful, with the front led by a leader. This dynasty then flourishes and reaches its peak. This peak can be analyzed in terms of socialism, economics and political attainment. When these factors are peaked, the political power is weakened internally and then the dynasty moves towards a decline. These periods of decline are marked with weakened hold of the governmental authorities over the economic and social demographics of the community. Internal and external flaws correlate and assemble in unique orders to create chaos and loss of control in terms of political hold.

Baali (2018) believed that Ibn Khaldun considered the most successful dynasties of the world as some way or the other meet this fate in the end, especially the Arab and the Muslim dynasties. The significance of his theory in the real world is that centuries later, the Ottoman Empire met the same fate and diminished from being one of the largest and most successful dynasties in the world, officially. Another eminent problem that led to the decline of the Ottoman Empire was found to be explained exactly in the works of Ibn Khaldun i.e. the behavior of the political power groups. He believed that the more scattered and uncivilized the groups, the more they will focus on adopting behaviors of the powerful and mighty rulers. Since they would have no strategy of their own, they would be willing to adopt and practice the earlier examples of rulers set before them. As a result, during the declining stage it would seem that some political groups and leaders would be holding the stage. But in reality, it would only be an imitation to cover the weakness and flaws of the system. The efforts of these groups can be regarded as examples of taking one last step to restore power. Therefore, it is often said that Ibn Khaldun was genius enough to forecast and predict the end of the Ottoman Empire as an empirical example that would transform the shape of the world.

Gorkun (2018) examined the presence of Ibn Khaldun in social metaphysics. This investigation had numerous critical qualities for both current Turkey and the Islamic world, and it is felt that it is required in the look for Social Metaphysics. Similarly as this examination accommodates the foundation of an exact association among religion and life, as there is additionally an association between the individual and society, society and organizations and sciences and reasoning, it is a less demanding to-comprehend and progressively satisfactory examination than those made to date.

Okumus (2018) studied the historical period of the decline of the Ottoman Empire. As the Ottoman Empire melted away the statesmen, researchers, masterminds and students of history started to focus on the foundations for this disintegration and began to examine the conceivable approaches to end it. A social scholar, Ibn Khaldun’s verifiable and social perspectives were an essential source to which scholars turned so as to discover an answer for the disintegration and crumpling of the Ottoman State. There is no uncertainty that Ibn Khaldun had and keeps on importantly affecting different scholars, both Western and Eastern, non-Muslim and Muslim. The main aim of this paper is to assess the impact and accuracy of Ibn Khaldun’s idea on the decline of the Ottoman era.

Kaplan (2018) used an inter-disciplinary procedure, including the social hypothesis, comprises primarily of two sections. In the initial segment, by taking its sign from social humanities, it handles one of the more troublesome inquiry of the ‘understandability and translatability of societies’. It contends that it is extremely hard to completely and completely get it the emanation of Ibn Khaldun’s state of mind by simply utilizing the hypothetically constrained and generally molded methodologies of the mainstream western sociologies, and accordingly it inspects these methodologies and systems fundamentally and logically. Thus, it brings up that one can just comprehend and decipher completely and accurately Ibn Khaldun’s projections through taking the conceptualization of the entire custom of Islamic idea and human progress into thought. In the second part, it demonstrates the creativity and the splendid commitments of Ibn Khaldun’s speculations for the production of a progressively inventive and imaginative Islamic idea. Lastly it researches the topic of how Ibn Khaldun’s idea can give new potential outcomes and openings in making another origination of human advancement.

Azadarmaki (2018) examined Ibn Khaldun’s quality, contemplations, and works. Regardless of the way that he lived in the fourteenth and fifteenth hundreds of years, his musings are fitting for discourse in the twentieth century and have turned into a wellspring of logical and political decisions. The scholar analyzed the development and significance of two scholarly customs: Iranology and Returning to Self-Ego. In the main stage, the portrayal of his considerations emerges from the normal and political worldview and the convention of Iranology through a communication with Western improvement. Consequently, Ibn Khaldun’s considerations were made as to Western improvement.

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

The literature review of this research has been divided into four literary segments. Each section provides information about the existing research about Ibn Khaldun and Taha Hussein and their recognition in the theoretical world. The main focus of this paper is to provide a consensus on how the 14th century historian influenced many later researchers in using his theories as a fundamental framework. Taha Hussein is credited with his interest found in the works of Ibn Khaldun and his contribution to the world. In a common demeanor both the researchers and historians have received attention for their contribution towards the Arabian literature and showing the world the importance of Arab and Muslim scholars and theorists. In essence the works of Ibn Khaldun were studied in the 16th and 17th centuries by Egyptian and Turkish researchers (Al-Jubouri, 2018). They later centuries marked the end of one of the largest civilizations of the world, known as the Ottoman Empire. It was analyzed that even 2-3 centuries later, the predictions and concepts of Ibn Khaldun were accurate and they were used as the final attempts to look for a solution to save the empire from falling. On the other hand, Taha Hussein was influenced from the theories and the concern that Ibn Khaldun showed towards depicting a more natural and positive image of the Arab and Muslim nations.

The very complicated scenario is that although Ibn Khaldun is a popular theorist in his domestic nations and literature, the westerners have long since ignored his existence and has attributed little importance to his attempts. The west still does not regard Ibn Khaldun as a genius and a former inventor of the sociological, philosophical and economics’ concepts. In this regard, many scholars have raised questions as to whether the lack of importance has something to do with his religion and his origins. On the offset, the Arab, Muslim and African boundaries continue to use his theories and concepts as part of sociology, philosophy, humanity and the study of societies, civilizations and dynasties. The main aim of this paper is to present the works of Ibn Khaldun with references to the social thoughts that formed a basis for the study of the decline of the Ottoman Empire. Ibn Khaldun’s concepts are explained as a part of the research by Taha Hussein in his contributions towards the Arab literature. However, no new theory or concept has been derived from the basis of this study. Rather, the author has concentrated on the existence, content and development of the previously derived theories that have relevant in this case scenario.

Research Design

Qualitative analysis has been used for the purpose of this study. The primary and secondary research investigations have been used to analyze the content and theoretical frameworks from the research done by previous scholars and researchers. Since the findings mainly concern the Arab literature and the history of the Arabian and Muslim subcontinents, the data is not readily available. The same texts and same theories have been studied and re-phrased again and again, it may be said that the originality of the concepts and theories has been preserved.

This chapter mentions the main research methodologies used by the author and the main research design used for this study. The ‘coding system’ has been mainly used for this study to analyze the concepts, theories and the analytical data for this study. The study uses qualitative research data for identifying the previous researchers for conceptual framework. There is no actual hypothesis of the paper to provide a counter argument for the analysis. The methodology used in the context of this study is limited to the research provided by Arab scholars and researchers in the previous centuries. The concept of coding uses the technique of breaking down words and concepts from the analysis of the theories. The process of coding has been utilized to infer the Arabian literature, the theories used in the practical situations such as that of the Ottoman Empire, the educational relevance of the theories and the application in the real world. It was also analyzed that how important were the concepts in depicting a truer Arabic picture for the western world.

Data Analysis and Findings

The main aim of the research is to correlate the concepts of the theories of sociology of Ibn Khaldun with regards to the importance that Taha Hussein attaches to the theorist. And to find how accurate are the theories in real societal scenarios. The latter part has been proven in the 16th and the 17th centuries, the other question was to prove the existence and practical application of these theories in the 21st century. It was found that the works of Ibn Khaldun have been deciphered as accurate even today, but more support and research is needed to firstly, translate his works and secondly, to apply the theories in practical cases of the 21st century. The notion however, is still not popular amongst the western theorists. Therefore, the final goal of this paper is to present material in a manner that is acceptable for the western world to view. The coding process was analyzed under certain divisions and constituent parts:

  • The coding process maintained consistency;
  • The coding process ensured reliability for future research patterns; and
  • The coding process was conducting by different themes. These researchers belonged to different time frames, time lengths, centuries, and had different purposes for researching.

Overall, it can be concluded that the concepts and theories used in this paper have been analyzed from different angles, therefore there is no contradiction in the findings. The findings from these concepts have traditionally been used twice; firstly it was used by the Muslim scholars in the frameworks of the Ottoman Empire and then again by Taha Hussein to implicate an image of the Arabian Peninsula. Other researchers and observers have used the theories and concepts for educational purposes in bringing awareness to the western world.  

Ethical Issues

Some problems associated with conducting the research have been identified in terms of the content analysis of the process. Firstly, the missing information regarding the exact date of the development and presentation of theory did not prove whether the theories were identified in the life of Ibn Khaldun or after his death. Similarly, the links between different philopshies and theories as well as with concepts and ideologies were also missing as that may not make rational sense. Additionally, records and historical evidence that seems to contradict with the provided literature. Hence, the fundamental question remains that whether all the theories and concepts provisioned by Ibn Khaldun have been defined or there is are still some areas that are left? Since the theorist belongs from the 14th century, it is hard to say whether all of his work has been found and studied. It may also be that some of his works have still remained unturned and this may define the lack of links between some of the theoretical concepts.

The second most important problem that has often been pointed out when reviewing literature, is the issues in translations. Since Ibn Khaldun was of the Arabic and African origins, his works have been preserved in the Arabian forms. However, since it has been studied on an international level, his work has been translated into several other languages for the purpose of inquiry. Therefore, the ethical dilemma remains that historians may have interpreted the meaning of theories and concepts in contexts, which originally may not have been presented by the author.

The third issue is that the works of Ibn Khaldun have and will remain contradictory because they have been based on the Arabic establishments. The Muslim and the Western worlds have always remained segregated for the religious and racial basis. More importantly, what has given heed to the differentiation is that the two have remained culturally different from each other. The practices adopted by the West and the Muslim communities have opposing implications and this is further enlarged by the societal and social inferences. Therefore, it will be difficult for the Western theorists to take into account the findings of the historian and give him the due importance. Lastly, the historian Taha Hussein is not to be confused as being a disciple of Ibn Khaldun. It should be remembered that Taha Hussein only came across the historian when investigating for his own research. Therefore, his theories and concepts are not initiated or influenced by the works of Ibn Khaldun. His main attempt was only to bring importance to Ibn Khaldun’s name and his analysis of the society in the 14th century.

Research Questions

The research analysis and research design focused the concept of linking the social and cultural norms of the West with those of the Muslim world by the works of Taha Hussein and Ibn Khaldun. The given paper will answer following research questions in this study.

  • What is the link between the social ideas of IBen Kaldun introduced by Taha Husian and social ideas that influenced the Islamic Empires such Ottoman Empire or Arabic Literature?
  • Why did Taha Hussein consider it important to highlight the works of a 14th century theorist?
  • What were the main characteristics of the works and social ideas of Ibn Khaldun?
  • Define the religious and non-religious perspectives of Ibn Khaldun’s social ideas?
  • Define the social ideas of Ibn Khaldun from Western approach and explore its weaknesses.

Chosen Research and Literature

Through my research, I found that very little research and material is available to provide a substantial guide to the works of Ibn Khaldun. The 14th century historian has developed a number of theories in the fields of economics, sociology, cultural studies, philosophy, history, humanitarian studies, and the existence of beliefs, politics and the government studies. Therefore, the argument of the 21st century historians is valid, that the works of Ibn Khaldun should receive due attention. The reliability of this research can be proved with the statement that this paper is only a reflection of the previously introduced studies. This paper is an accumulation of the historical theories and concepts found through research.

CHAPTER 4: PRESENTATION OF RESULTS

To present the results, coding and frequency system will be used. For this purpose, particular themes and their relevant codes were separated from the literature review and their frequency was used to answer the research questions asked in Chapter 3. Given below are the themes acknowledged from the literature review.

Theme Code
14th Century Historians #CH
Ottoman Empire #OE
Theology #T
Dynasties #D
Social humanities #SH
Iranology and Self-Ego #IS
Islamic Revolution #IR
Western Approach #WA
Rationalization #RN
Social Conduct and Behaviors #SCB
Religion #R
Arabic Literature #AL

The codes of these themes were searched from the library database of resources used in this research and the frequency was used to answer the research questions.

What is the link between the social ideas of IBen Kaldun introduced by Taha Husian and social ideas that influenced the Islamic Empires such Ottoman Empire or Arabic Literature?

Social ideas of Ibn Khaldun were based on collective utilization of religion and socialism to define modern approaches towards evolution and progress. These approaches were explored by the Egyptian scholar Taha Hussein, who studied their influence on the Arabian literature and later on the Ottoman Empire. According to Al-Jubouri (2018), Ibn Khaldun re-defined the religious aspects and the social aspects and explored sociology from religious and non-religious perspectives. The primary themes used to answer this question were religion, Ottoman Empire, social humanities, and social conduct and behaviors. Research showed that the theories of social ides presented by Ibn Khaldun held symbolic importance centuries later when the decline of the ‘Ottoman Empire’ was ruefully being faced Baali (2018). His social ideas to connect religion with socialism proved right when the Ottoman Empire did not follow this approach and diminished from being one of the largest and most successful dynasties in the world.

Similarly, Ibn Khaldun’s description regarding the behavior of the political power groups was another eminent problem that led to the decline of the Ottoman Empire (Azadarmaki, 2018). He believed that the more scattered and uncivilized the groups, the more they will focus on adopting behaviors of the powerful and mighty rulers. Moreover, the absence of personal strategy could force them to adopt and practice the earlier examples of rulers set before them. Eventually, it would seem that some political groups and leaders are holding the stage during the declining phase (Mohammad, 2018). Hence, it can be concluded that Ibn Khaldun was genius enough to forecast and predict the end of the Ottoman Empire as an empirical example that would transform the shape of the world.

Why did Taha Hussein consider it important to highlight the works of a 14th century theorist?

This was another quite comprehensive question and it required ample research work for answer. Five themes used to answer this question were 14th century historians, theology, religion, Arabic literature, and rationalization. The 14th century is full of a wide range of literary works from diverse nations and distinct approaches. Most of the historians and philosophers of this era focused on intellectuality and its connection to human life practices. A similar description of social ideas was presented by Ibn Khaldun, who connected socialism to religion and defined the most pertinent dimensions of Islamic socialism that are common in today’s world (Al-Araki 2006). Besides, the majority of Taha Hussein’s significant assemblage of works are worried about Arabic writing. The experience of organization, open administration, governmental issues and culture all shaped and reinforce Taha Hussein’s idea and add profundity to his vision. Hence, Taha Hussein chosen the 14th century as this era offered foundation to modern philosophy and provided valuable descriptions of evolution in Arabic literature.

The work of Ibn Khaldun and his relevant studies are still being taught at various universities. His perspective and analysis of the art of humanism, his division of its fields, his exchange of its issues and establishments, his dialect and wording are as yet legitimate in contemporary social science (Caksu, 2018). The theory, which propelled this examination, asserts that there is not really any rational or far reaching picture among the counseled articles and books on Ibn Khaldun’s Muqaddimah (Brugman, 1984). Hence, it is concluded that Ibn Khaldun’s technique for examination, his agent idea of human progress, and his new investigation of social science are of critical importance for studying evolution and sociology.

 

What were the main characteristics of the works and social ideas of Ibn Khaldun?

Three main characteristics of Ibn Khaldun’s work were cohesiveness, relativity, and transparency. He offered comprehensive description of Islamic socialism and defined how religion can be practically implemented in routine life premises (Baali, 2018). Moreover, social theories presented by Ibn Khaldun were relevant to socialistic concepts of pre and post-colonial era. He linked religion to life in such a way that both concepts jointly present a system based on prosperity and evolution of a progressive life (Tomar, 2018). Similarly, Ibn Khaldun was quite clear in his approach while defining socialistic values of religion and offered a transparent description of social theories that can still be executed in modern world. According to Ibn Khaldun, the state is a need of human culture to control bad form inside the general public and all social orders must have a state overseeing them to build up a general public (Rejwan, 2008).

His, social ideas of regarding the state were of considerable importance. He attempted to adjust to every single conceivable society’s social conduct and impact in training, financial aspects and governmental issues.

Define the religious and non-religious perspectives of Ibn Khaldun’s social ideas?

The relevant themes considered while answering this question were Religion, theology, Arabic literature, Islamic revolution, and the western approach. According to Al-Jubouri (2018), Ibn Khaldun was one of the greatest philosopher minds who categorized theories under two main dimensions; religious perspectives and non-religious perspectives. His ideas were based on collective utilization of religion and socialism to define modern approaches towards evolution and progress. His recognized work has been aligned with the fields of economics, political sciences, humanism, philosophy, religion and more importantly his social ideas. In his opinion, the legislative issues are not quite the same as religion and that the arrangement of government and the structure of the state are established on utilitarian concerns. Gorkun’s (2018) examination of Ibn Khaldun’s presence in social metaphysics accommodated the foundation of an exact association among religion and life. The study showed that there is an association between the individual and society, society and organizations and sciences and reasoning. However, it it is a less demanding to-comprehend and progressively satisfactory examination than those made to date.

On the other hand, the western sociological researchers have paid little attention to Ibn Khaldun because of contrasts between the Arab and the western philosophers (Dhaouadi, 1990). Ibn Khaldun worked on showing the common fundamental principles that looked same in both the Arabian and the Western worlds. He predicted in the 14th century that the future societies will introduce new subjects that may be based upon the foundations of the past. His works also bring attention of the western world towards the definition of power and domination held in the west and the possible contrast between the systems of the western and the Arabian worlds (Sidani, 2008).

Define the social ideas of Ibn Khaldun from Western approach and explore its weaknesses.

Finally, this question was answered by exploring six main themes including Dynasties, iranology and self-ego, western approach, religion, Arabic literature, and social conduct and behaviors. According to Rosenthal (1983), Ibn Khaldun is not celebrated in the western world and is given little importance in the Arab and Muslim world as well. Ibn Khaldun who was a modern pioneer of the incorporator for many different elements in the sociological contexts. However, the main reason why Ibn Khaldun has been excluded from the earlier theorists is because of his Arabic origins (Alatas, 2006). The westerners may disagree, but even in the 21st century, the western world gives little acknowledgement to any other theorists other than their own intellectual historians. According to the perspective of Ibn Khaldun, the Muslim history has only been studied by the westerners for establishing contrasts between the two phenomenons (Okumus, 2018). However, there is no uncertainty that Ibn Khaldun had significantly affected different scholars, both Western and Eastern, non-Muslim and Muslim. The portrayal of his considerations emerges from the normal and political worldview and the convention of Iranology through a communication with Western improvement. Consequently, Ibn Khaldun’s considerations played a key role in Western improvement.

One major weakness found in the work of Ibn Khaldun is that his work remained particularly unrecognized because of some preliminary reasons. The first reason is the evolution of the industrial revolution introduced in the 15th century which affected the cultural dimensions of the social structure of the society. While Ibn Khaldun remained traditional and it seemed that his narratives were more focused on the human potential. Despite traditional ideas, he had a more modern approach towards the societal dialects and had a much wider perspective when it came to explaining the functions of an economy as a whole. To cover this weakness, Taha Hussein connected the unrecognized theories of Ibn Khaldun to the advanced western philosophies presented before and after the industrial revolution. The similarities and differences in their definitions were examined from literary perspective to draw logical conclusions.

CHAPTER 5: DISSUASION

The main focus of the paper has been to present the Arabian literature in a more decisive manner that would change the western perspective. This paper analyzes the contributions of the Egyptian writer and historian Taha Hussein who has been credited to transform the image of education, sociological and literature narratives through his efforts. Taha Hussein is regarded as a modern day prose analyst who not only added to the Arabian literature value but also brought the attention of the world towards the long lost theorists and their works (Hussein, 2018). Amongst the most influentially observed pieces are the works of the 14th century historian and economist Ibn Khaldun (Muslimphilosophy, 2018). Taha Hussein, in his attempt, to search for the basis of Arabic literature, came upon the prose generated by Ibn Khaldun. Although, his central focus was on education and improving the stature through Arabic and Islamic principles, he has helped provide a status to the Arabic literature field. His major arenas have been in the fields of literary studies, social and societal studies, autobiographical and historical studies and religious studies.

Similarly, Taha Hussein is one of the highly recognized Egyptian scholars who have contributed immensely to Arabian literature, the foundations of prose, poetry, and translations. His main investigations led him to study the Islamic and Arabic schools of thought in detail and to understand the differences that existed between the Western and the Muslim nations (“Anatomy of a Dynamic,” 1998). His name has been attached with the stigma of being the first modern century sociologist to become the first Arabic scholar to study poetry analytically. Any reasonable person would agree that Taha Hussein was a genuine pioneer in instructive and educational methods and that numerous countries including Egypt, redeem to receive his recommendations.

The social and societal aspects of his work focused on the diversions and issues of the society that are symmetrically different from those of the western worlds. His research highlighted the weaker dimensions of the society that need economic and sociological progress for improving the cultural status. His work holds significance for portraying a rational image of the problems of the poor, poverty crisis and its humanitarian influence on the society (Hussein, 2018). His work also holds significance for the Egyptian society as a depiction of the beliefs and cultural practices of the empire. The beginning stage for Taha Hussein’s meaning of Egyptian personality was his investigation of traditional, medieval and current history where the new Egypt will be innovative or inventive just in so far as it is established on the interminable Egypt of its past (al-Hakim, 2018). Thus, he thought of things to come of training in Egypt just in the light of its remote vestige. In this way, Egypt’s antiquated past was taken to be one mainstay of the nation’s social future and one of the fundamental highlights of its national character. A second mainstay of Egyptian culture taken from history was its human progress.

The third mainstay of Egyptian culture was Islam and the Arabic dialect where Islam, which came and spread all through the world, was warmly gotten in Egypt where it was quickly held onto as the national religion and Arabic, the dialect of Islam, was embraced as the national dialect. The determination of these mainstays of Egyptian culture plainly showed the impact of Taha Hussein’s shifted foundation and a mind shaped (“Reviewing Ibn Khaldun,” 2018). A similar impact might be found in his scholarly and regulatory endeavors to create Egyptian instruction. He closed from these mainstays of culture that the Egyptian and the European personality are indistinguishable. Similarly, given the significance of Ibn Khaldun as a thinker of history and a social scholar, it is amazing that the principal full evaluation of his social thought in a Western dialect was composed by a visually impaired Egyptian trade understudy.

Taha Husayn’s 1918 doctoral paper at the Sorbonne dissected the Muqaddimah, with a hypothetical introduction to Ibn Khaldun’s colossal Book of Examples and Archive of History, which endeavors a widespread history of the world (Tomar, 2018). Husayn’s perusing was ahead of schedule, as well as likewise interesting, for he was a generally instructed Muslim concentrate an extraordinary work of his own legacy yet in oral and interpreted frame, and for a French paper administrator who was like Ibn Khaldun convinced that he had imagined the genuine and all inclusive exploration of parties. It is maybe unavoidable that so bold a youthful researcher would in the long run move toward becoming fundamental to his nation’s political, instructive, and artistic life.

Although this work has held the data made in the previous one to his movement to Egypt, he made numerous increments which demonstrate that Ibn Khaldun amended his life account amid the stay in Egypt. Ibn Khaldun was the first Muslim mastermind who sanctified for himself a long life story which filled an entire book and who let us know honestly a considerable lot of his demonstration and affaires that he ought not have uncovered (Azadarmaki, 2018). Indeed Ibn Khaldun’s depiction of his very own life is a nitty gritty history in the medieval Muslim writing. It ought to be recalled that Ibn Khaldun’s ethical uprightness ‘couldn’t be questioned upon the premise of setback he had endured in his open issues (Okumus, 2018). The ascent and fall of rulers and even lines had turn into a course of the day and Ibn Khaldun was not an exception to the general principle. The political insecurity in Maghrib was expected to such huge numbers of chronicled and sociological variables.

In the meantime, what makes Ibn Khaldun remarkable is the way that he was profoundly engaged with the befuddled and temperamental advancements of the states and administrations in Maghrib and Spain (Rejwan, 2008). Besides, he was nearly viewing with that sharp interest of a social researcher the course of the occasions around him and attempting to drive at the principal reasons for the setbacks to which he himself had been oppressed. Along these lines the association of Ibn Khaldun in the befuddled legislative issues of the day was especially not quite the same as that of his peers. It was for this equivalent reason that he could deliver an interesting work like Muqaddimah. Moreover, Ibn Khaldun, as he demonstrates in his Mukaddirna, was an incredibly perceptive person and a notable theorist in the earlier Muslim civilizations. The Ottoman letters confirm that the dynasty was somewhat following his theory as a solution to the failing political scenario of Turkey (Al-Araki, 2006).

The second discovery is that the Muslim empires such as the Ottoman began adopting the solutions and methods prescribed by Ibn Khaldun long before the Europeans became aware about it (Caksu, 2018). Since, Ibn Khaldun is also associated with a North African origin, he is said to have inspired the culture of the political scenarios in the subcontinent as well. His contributions have made significant changes for the cultural practices of Islamic and the Arabian communities. Ibn Khaldun’s considerations are of significance in that they clarify the explanation behind Iran’s moving far from the recorded point of view as opposed to their following their advancement, improvement and hence accomplishing a better status. As to the normal convention of coming back to the self-conscience, it very well may be asserted that Ibn Khaldun’s contemplations are connected for the reintroduction of the authentic past as opposed to an advance towards what’s to come.

Ibn Khaldun is frequently portrayed as a predecessor of humanism, despite the fact that he doesn’t seem to have applied any constitutive effect on any of the originators of the cutting edge sociologies. He is the writer of a voluminous world history, some portion of which is an annal of the different neighborhood traditions, a significant number of them in Northern Africa (Kalpakian, 2008). Another piece of this work manages other Muslim terrains, and even with the non-Muslim world, making it one of the principal Islamic endeavors at world history. By a long shot the most renowned piece of this book, in any case, is The Muqaddimah, or presentation, in which Ibn Khaldun figures the standards of what he himself portrayed as another science filling in as an assistant for historiography (Hassan, 2018). This investigation of human progress as he called it, endeavors to figure general laws of history, as a principled methods for setting up the veracity of chronicled reports. The most critical of these laws is the roundabout development between country or ancestral social orders and urban civic establishments.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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