Boeing – 737 MAX Defects Plane Crashes

Boeing – 737 MAX Defects Plane Crashes

Introduction

            Boeing Aerospace Company is one of the world’s planes manufacturer of commercial planes, security systems, and defense as well as space planes. Boeing provides after-sales support for all clients from around the world. Boeing has massive influence in the US airline sector and governments in more than 150 countries. 29th October 2018 and 10th March 2019 were crucial moments due fatal crashes of two Boeing 737 MAX planes in different parts of the world (Shvindina, 2019). Lion Air flight 610 in Jakarta, Indonesia crashed 12 minutes after takeoff into the java sea ending the lives of 189 passengers and crew. In another incident, Ethiopian airlines flight 302 headed to Nairobi, Kenya crashed just six minutes after takeoff, killing the 157 passengers and crew on board. The two events led to an uproar in the global aviation circles, with calls to ground all Boeing 737 MAX in operation in different airspaces around the globe.

            Following the accidents, airline companies from around the world grounded Boeing 737 MAX, triggering investigations by the US Department of Justice and Federal Transportation Authorities (FAA). The two incidents posed both legal and ethical issues of different proportions. A legal problem concerns the compensation of victims involved in the two crashes. Airline operators from around the world are also likely to demand payment from lost revenue as they wait to install improved simulator software. On the other hand, an ethical problem emerges from details by the management team that it was aware of flaws in Boeing 737 MAX simulator software. The issue is compounded by the fact that the management did not reveal the information until the recent incidents. This essay provides that Boeing’s two events in Ethiopia and Indonesia have legal and ethical implications to the company, victims, airline operators and shareholders.

Identification and application of general legal topics

Compensation laws provide that victims of accidents should be adequately compensated for deaths and other losses. Airlines and insurance companies have tangible partnerships to ensure loss of lives and property due to plane accidents are adequately compensated. Plane crash information is effectively applied to determine if airplane parts/gadgets are defective (Johnston & Harris, 2019). Hence the investigators engage in the evaluation of incidents to assign liability on percentage grounds.  Manufactures can be at fault if it is determined that some of the devices in the planes are faulty (nypost.com/2019). Such a failure cannot be more than 70% if the management is not aware of defective equipment before a crash (Shvindina, 2019).  Victims of plane crash victims receive compensation depending on the liability of operators or manufacturers. Connecting the legal issue with crashes of two Boeing 737 MAX planes within the last one year is critical. Settlement of the victims has been compounded by the fact that Boeing Aerospace company management admitted that it was aware of the safety concern of the 737 MAX indicating a probable malfunction. However, the company did not reveal the information until after the two crashes.

Management at Boeing means that faulty Boeing 737 MAX simulator software prevents pilots from about the pitch in the plane. According to the management, the fault in the 737 MAX was discovered several months after launching the flight. Although it is not explicit if the defect informed the crashes in Ethiopia and Indonesia that accused deaths of more than 346 people, all observations indicate acts of omission and commission by the manufacturer.  File lawsuits suggest that Boeing Aerospace Company has been charged for misconduct and greed, with claims that the company failed to inform pilots about the simulator software on 737 MAX (nypost.com/2019). Families in Indonesia, Kenya, France, and Ethiopia, the US, among other countries, have filed lawsuits against the company. As a demonstration of the amounts of money expected in compensations, a French window is suing Boeing for $276 million daily lost revenue accrued by the company in 2018.

            US Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) has specific regulations and inspection procedures to ensure all planes manufactured in the country meet the stringent standards for operations. An issue of regulation is prominent in the Boeing 737MAX crash issue (Johnston & Harris, 2019). As a demonstration of the determination to regulate the aviation sector, Federal investigators and Congressional committees are seeking answers on how the FAA certified the plane. Efforts by the federal agencies will alter how the US aviation sector is controlled. Shareholders and victims’ families have mobilized their legal teams to sue the company, claiming that the multinational put revenue/profits over safety and security.

Manufacturing defective devices can be legal aspects of the problem facing Boeing. An act of knowingly manufacturing a defective device offers a constitutional dimension to the problem. Developing Boeing 737MAX simulator software failed to adhere to laid down regulations for manufacturing devices of such sensitive nature. Boeing Aerospace Company applied a shortcut to achieve the much-desired selling point for the 737 MAX planes. The new development would require a pilot to accumulate just 2.5hourd iPad training before they can fly the latest model. Questions have been raised about the competency of certifying and regulating agents.  Nature of practice to the pilots has been doubted, implying the possibility of lawsuits against the involved agencies. Issues of certifications have emerged, indicating that Federal Aviation Authority could be liable.

            Breach of business contract is a legal issue in the problem. Purchasing an aircraft is accompanied by a guarantee that the devices have been manufactured to highest level of safety standards. Boeing Aerospace Company failed to recall the faulty planes several months after launching the products into the market. Operators of the grounded planes can initiate legal proceedings due to massive losses. Boeing Aerospace Company has clients in more than 150 countries in the world (Learmount, 2019). Frustrated airlines have to cancel thousands of flights following the grounding of company’s planes with uncertainties on when the company will return to operations, further compounding the issue.

The company argues that they are ready to sue the company for huge losses. For example, European and US airlines have argued that grounding the planes constitute losses running into millions of dollars and thus are ready to sue Boeing Aerospace Company to recover the damages. Southwest Airlines, that has the biggest fleet of Boeing 737 MAX planes, has indicated that it lost more than $200 million in the first quarter due to grounding of aircraft and canceled flights (Arumugham, 2019). American airlines Inc. has estimated the losses from the grounding of the Boeing 737 MAX to about $350 million resulting from the canceled 15,000 flights.

Boeing Aerospace Company may not be compelled to compensate for the losses but repairing the lost image would be herculean. Reports from Boeing Aerospace Company management show that simulator lacks the necessary features and capacity to reproduce conditions during flights. Ethiopian and Indonesian airline crashes may have been informed by the incapability of the device. It can be argued that Boeing Aerospace Company knowingly sold the planes fitted with the defective simulator software. Therefore the company could have violated warranty agreements and thus has liability over losses due to grounding of planes. MCAs are the software attributed to the crashes in Jakarta and Addis Ababa.

The reluctance of US Federal Aviation Administration and Boeing Aerospace Company to adequately inform the pilots caused the accident (Shvindina, 2019). Therefore, the two agencies contributed to breach of warranty and could lead to critical legal implications. Implementation of such legal action could see the manufacturer lose several billions of dollars in compensation claims. Reports indicate that Boeing Aerospace Company recommends just 30-minute self-instruction course for pilots.  Professionals in the field suggest that acquisition of the skills require additional classroom instructions or useful simulator software.

How Milton Friedman’s shareholder or free-market ethics influenced the leadership of the company

Milton Friedman’s shareholder philosophy observes that corporate managers have a duty to perform business to fulfill the desires of shareholders. The economist implied that making as much profits as possible increase shareholder value in all dimensions. However, Friedman’s philosophy insists on importance to conform to basic rules of the society, legal requirements as well as ethical responsibilities. Boeing Aerospace company management insisted on launching 737 MAX planes to compete with Airbus in the lucrative markets. In doing so, the management was keen to increase shareholders’ value. The management was eager to maintain the clientele base and focus on revenue generation. Corporate managers at the company have a duty to ensure that they overcome competition in the market by employing all possible approaches.

Boeing Aerospace Company’s launching of 737 MAX planes was in response to A320neo launch by Airbus (Zhang, 2019). The latter has fuel efficiency features which lower the cost of operations. Such action is critical in promoting the interests of shareholders. Having fuel-efficient planes in the portfolio is essential to increasing sales and ensures that Boeing Aerospace Company does not lose bulk of clients to Airbus. Launching 737 MAX was strategic in overcoming the daily competition between the two multinationals. Records indicate that Boeing Aerospace Company and Airbus have been engaged in equal duopoly in a market valued at $3.5 trillion in the last 20 years (Learmount, 2019). Therefore, Boeing Aerospace Company leadership has been embroiled in efforts to protect the market share through monitoring approaches that Airbus makes. The reverse has also been true with airbus leadership keen to defend its share of the market.

Milton Friedman’s free-market ethics focus on promoting business freedom as critical political freedom. Succinctly, it is impossible to separate business and political interests. The theory provides that economic freedom is essential for protection of minorities and ensuring mitigation against all forms of discrimination. Boeing Aerospace Company leadership acknowledges its responsibilities in protecting the rights of the shareholders, including those with minimal portfolio (Johnston & Harris, 2019). Thus, in spite of the quagmire that the company faces following the two crashes, the leadership remains upbeat that it will soon recover.

            Questions have been emerging on whether Boeing Aerospace Company has lacked the necessary leadership to handle the issue. The problem has been intensified by the fact that governments from around the world have the same feeling. Countries have grounded their 737 MAX planes with clear indications they have lost confidence in the leadership of the company. Issues emerging indicate that in spite of the need to protect the interests of the shareholders. Boeing Aerospace Company leadership should have observed a sense of market ethics in making critical decisions such as launching the 737 MAX planes.

The ethical framework that the company leadership could have utilized in this situation

Boeing Aerospace Company leadership could have used the consequentialist theory. An application of the approach would have offered a moral framework and ethical course depending on the final results. Before launching 737MAX, Boeing Aerospace Company leadership should have pragmatically considered the outcomes (Shvindina, 2019). In spite of the need to protect the market share, Boeing Aerospace Company leadership should have put safety ahead of profits.  The framework implies that Boeing leadership failed to consider how their actions would affect the results.

The management should have chosen an action plan that contributes to the overall good. Boeing Aerospace Company would have avoided the difficult situation facing the company if the leaders had engaged in a better framing of the case (Knights  & O’Leary, 2006). By application of consequentialist theory, Boeing Aerospace Company leaders would have shaped and contained an adverse escalation of the problem. Implementation of the consequentialist approach would have revealed the issues and the opportunities for the company. Use of the method would have enhanced transparency at Boeing Aerospace Company so that leadership emphasized performing all necessary tests before the launch of 737 MAX planes. Thus, the results on the performance of the planes would be different.

Use of the approach would have morally beneficial so that Boeing Aerospace Company management applied procedures that aligned with ethically reflective objective. Boeing Aerospace Company management could have applied a consequentialist framework to prioritize human safety (Knights & O’Leary, 2006). Increased levels of uncertainty and risks that Boeing Aerospace Company has been experiencing could be attributed to failure by the management to adhere to the consequentialist framework. Following the first crash of Lion Air in October Boeing leadership could have employed all the necessary actions to avoid further escalations. An application of the consequentialist framework could have led to a clear path of action. Boeing Aerospace Company could have engaged the regulators to tighten Boeing 737 MAX features to increase passenger safety.

References

Arumugham, V. (2019). Vaccine safety: Learning from the Boeing 737 MAX disasters.

https://nypost.com/2019/05/19/boeing-admits-to-flaw-in-737-max-flight-simulator

Johnston, P., & Harris, R. (2019). The Boeing 737 MAX Saga: Lessons for Software Organizations. Software Quality Professional21(3), 4-12.

Knights, D., & O’Leary, M. (2006). Leadership, ethics and responsibility to the other. Journal of Business Ethics67(2), 125-137.

Learmount, D. (2019). What’s the difference?: two fatal Boeing 737 Max crashes have raised concerns that the system for extending pilot’s qualifications to new variants of an aircraft type may have been stretched too far. Flight International.

Shvindina, H. (2019). Coopetition as an Emerging Trend in Research: Perspectives for Safety & Security. Safety5(3), 61.

Zhang, H. (2019). Dynamic Word Embedding for News Analysis (Doctoral dissertation, UCLA).

Questionable Justice in Australian Courts

Several artworks that depict the Lady of Justice statue exist in different forms, including sculptures, paintings, metal status, and coats of arms. These artworks are found in courthouses almost in all parts of the world from South America and Europe to North America and the Middle East. These statuses are also found in legal, educational institutions and law offices where the Lady of Justice holds a sword, scales of justice, and perhaps blindfold. As the name suggests, the Lady of Justice is a symbol of fairness, while the blindfold represents impartiality and equality (Kuijer, 2013). However, this is not always the case because some instances of bias are witnessed in courts across the world. Australia is not an exception because there are a few instances that demonstrate partiality and unfairness in rulings or proceedings. Goddess Justitia wears a blindfold that is symbolic of equality, but the extent of its reflection in actual workings in Australian courts is questionable because of biases witnessed in some rulings and admission of emotions during practice.

Fair trial and hearing constitute equality, the right to a public hearing, and independent and impartial judgment. However, this has not been entirely the case in Australian courts because of several reasons. First, research conducted in 2016 revealed that Australian magistrates and judges admitted to experiencing strong personal emotions and feelings towards cases they preside over (Carbonell, 2016). A study conducted by Flinders University Judicial Research led by Sharyn Roach Anleu indicated that over 90% of judicial officials and magistrates ranked fairness as the most crucial element to bring to the bench. The officers use specific strategies to prevent biases in their rulings, but they still struggle with emotions. The plan at hand is mostly evidence-based, whereby judicial officials depend primarily on the evidence presented to make rulings (Carbonell, 2016). During the interviews, some magistrates conceded personal reactions to individuals in court were unavoidable. Any time emotions come to play, impartiality cannot be granted, and this is a big issue in judgments not just in Australia but also in other parts of the world.

Besides, Networked Knowledge Law Report highlights Antoun v R(2006) HCA 2 case as an example of an instance of bias in case hearing. In this case, the Antouns were charged together for demanding money with threats from MS, with the intention to steal. The case was tried in the District Court NSW before Judge Christie (Moles & Sangha, 2006). The Antouns were found guilty and sentenced to prison. Their efforts to appeal bore no fruits because they were based on the conduct of the judge. Precisely, the basis of the appeal was that the behavior of the trial judge was not impartial and that a fair-minded observer would easily have realized. The bottom line is that the judge apprehended bias, which is said to have emerged from the way in which Judge Christie dealt with the submission of ‘no case to answer’ and his approach to handling a question of bail (Moles & Sangha, 2006). This is one of the many instances where judicial officials in Australia fail to obey the element of the blindfold on the Lady of Justice. It clearly shows that as much as the blindfold represents equality, the Australian courts do not entirely demonstrate impartiality in their proceedings and rulings.

Moreover, questions of biases have been mentioned on the Federal circuit court where Judge Sandy Street has continually ruled for Immigration in over 200 cases. Precisely, a statistical analysis shows that out of 256 immigrant applications made between January and June 2015, 254 were against Judge Street’s ruling (The Guardian Official, 2016). In other words, only two cases out of 256, which represent about 1% of the cases, were ruled in favor of immigration applicants. In such an instance, a fair-minded observer would definitely conclude that the judge was biased within that period. The entire public gave negative reviews and even went to give complaints on social media where they blamed the judiciary for their misfortunes. There is no way a judge would demonstrate such high levels of biases in rulings and still be allowed to hear more cases. In fact, he should not have gone beyond 100 cases before he was excused from hearing immigration matters. The judicial leadership failed big time by allowing Street to continue hearing cases that he obviously demonstrated biases (Robinson, 2015). It means that Street’s behavior was just ‘normal’ conduct to the jury leadership. In other words, the administration saw nothing wrong with what was happening until there was a public outcry that they decided to put Street on a judicial review. This is sufficient evidence to prove that even though blindfold on the Lady of Justice represents impartiality, there is no fairness in Australian courts.

Those in defense of the jury in relation to equality argue that Australian courts follow the court process to the latter. They argue that a fair trial is where the jury recognizes the interests of both the accused and the victim – defendant and plaintiff. This is what happens in Australian courts, where the judges often recognize both parties and give them time to make their submissions (Solovay, 2008). Once they make their submissions, the judges make judgments based on the evidence provided. When one mentions instances of apprehended bias and other forms of partialities, those who defend the jury argue that they are very few instances that cannot amount to 1% of the cases heard. Such an argument is wrong because besides the example above, there are several others cited as being ‘biased.’ Examples include but not limited to Ebner v Official Trustee in Bankruptcy (2000) 205 CLR 337, R v Goussis [2007] VSC 171, Johnson v Johnson (2000) 201 CLR 488, Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs v Jia Legeng (2001) 205 CLR 507, and R v Branko Balic (No 2) (1994) 75 (Judicial College of Victoria, 2014). Surprisingly, some of the cases that have not been cited here date back to 1920s, which shows that the issue of biases in Australian courts is not new and that the problem has been consistent over time.

In conclusion, the Lady of Justice is a symbol of a fair trial in the whole world. Some of them have blindfolds on their faces that represent equality in rulings, but this is not always the case. In Australia, there are several instances where the courts have failed to demonstrate equality. It is unfortunate that one judge can give 99% of rulings in favor of an institution (Australia’s Migration Department) yet the judicial leadership fails to realize until there is a public outcry. It is even worse to note that the issue of biased rulings has been in existent since the 1920s and no permanent solution has been realized until today. Therefore, as much as the blindfold represents equality, there is no doubt that instances of biases in case hearings and rulings exist in Australian courts.

References

Carbonell, R. September 28, 2016). Judges admit to emotion in court but say they avoid bias in judgments. The Law Report; ABC News.

Judicial College of Victoria (2014). Judicial Bias. Judicial College of Victoria. Retrieved from http://www.judicialcollege.vic.edu.au/eManuals/VCPM/27528.htm

Kuijer, M. (2013). The blindfold of Lady Justice: Judicial independence and impartiality in light of the requirements of article 6 ECHR. Leiden: Recht University Press.

Moles, R. & Sangha, B. (2006). Networked Knowledge Law Reports Antoun v. R [2006] HCA 2; (2006) 224 ALR 51. Networked Knowledge. Retrieved from http://netk.net.au/Australia/Antoun.asp

Robinson, N. (September 9, 2015). Federal Circuit Court judge Alexander Street accused of bias after rejecting hundreds of migration cases. ABC News.

Solovay, S. (2008). Tipping the scales of justice: Fighting weight-based discrimination. Amherst, N.Y: Prometheus Books.

The Guardian. (February 29, 2016). Judge faces judicial review over ‘biased’ immigration rulings. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2016/feb/29/judge-alexander-street-judicial-review-immigration-rulings

Literary History Analysis

The extent to which one can read and write determines their level of literacy. Reading and writing are part of individuals’ way of life in society. That is because, in one way or the other, almost every person engages in some reading and writing. What then motivates people to read and write? Some individuals may only read and write for a specific purpose, say reading and writing for the sake of a school program. However, some read and write because they love it and are passionate about it. Recently researchers are showing significant interests in the relationship between the reading and writing process, and the culture that revolves around reading and writing. That comes with the ability to be able to read and write during the early stages of growth. However, there still exists a gap in the impacts of one’s first experiences of reading and writing has in their perception about the same, later in life. This research thus, reviews some of the answers of the eight participants to Literary History Analysis (LHA) questionnaire, determining the impact their early reading and writing experience have on their interest about the same growing up.

 Reading and writing form part of individuals’ society, in one way or the other, as the participants’ answers on the LHA questionnaire presents. Every participant testified to having participated in writing as well as reading at a given point in their lifetime. Even so, a more significant percentage only had experience with reading, of course, with the help of their family members. When it comes to writing, the majority had their first experience when they joined the school. For instance, participant 7 writes, “growing up, I always loved reading science fictions before bed. I always found them interesting and loved discussing them with friends at school. I have been writing essays since middle school…” Participant 7 recalls her experience with reading and writing, and clearly, her readings begun at home while her writing experience came with essay writings from middle school. Brandt (1994) finds out from the interview that most people typically remembered their first reading experiences as pleasurable occasions organized by adults. Such means that adults are usually supportive when it comes to helping children read. However, her findings on writings are not anything far from the feedbacks in the LHA questionnaire. According to Brandt (1994), there were few memories of writing outside school, and for those that remembered, such usually occurred out of the eye of adult supervision and, often, involving feelings of loneliness, secrecy, and resistance. Such means that the majority of writing experiences were not supported at home. What roles thence, do such experiences play in the participants lives?

Every participant agreed to have read some novels at their tender age, and the majority were only able to write when they started schooling. This early experience with reading turned more into a hobby for the majority of the individuals. At the early stages, and with the help of the family members, in this case, mostly mothers, most people had experiences with fiction novels. Majority of these people continued reading such books as they grew up to become independent. They expressively indicate their love for reading stories which originated from the experiences they were introduced to by their mothers. One participant stated, “I have always loved reading…. I think that these attitudes came from me growing up in a Jewish home, where reading books about Judaism is a norm.” This particular participant loves everything to do with reading and owes this to the early experience and the background, which requires reading of Judaism books. Such shows that the first encounters that one has of reading play a significant role in their later perception.

When one is exposed to books of a particular type, which he or she tends to enjoy, the likelihood is that they would love doing that while growing up. Those who had early experience in reading religious books such as the participant mentioned above turned out to be enjoying reading books of such type later in life. Some of the participants identified with having read fictions novels at their early development stages. As time progresses, they still love such books. The pie chart in figure 1.1 below shows a representation of the feedback given to the LHA questionnaire. The higher percentage of the participants participated in reading in their early stages. Writing, on the other hand, was very minimal, with the majority starting to write at school in different stages. Later, the impact of such early exposure pattern reveals itself, as the majority followed the same. Those that had earlier exposure to reading both fiction novels and religious books maintained this to their old ages. As a result, the percentage of those still enjoying reading is high compared to those who love writing.

Figure 1.1 a pie chart showing the ratio between and later reading and writing

One can say that early experiences when it comes to reading and writing act as a significant determinant to whether one would enjoy such later in life. The idea that most families make it a norm to read stories to their children is very substantial. That is because it positively impacts on the attitude and passion of such kids. The children tend to grow enjoying such experiences with the urge to carrying on with them. That is seen when the majority of the answers in the LHS love reading with skills drawn from their childhood memories. However, the majority of families do not introduce their children to writing early enough. That tends to impact negatively on them. The feedbacks show that most of the writings are school initiated. This means that the majority write for the sake of completing a task and not out of passion. As a result, not so many people grow up to love writing, as some would compare to reading.

Moreover, even for those who tend to write, say out of passion, they do so for their benefits. That means not the majority would love to write for the public, because their parents in the early days never exposed them to writing. Participant 3 explains, “I happen to love writing when not graded.” Why when not graded? Majority of individuals lack the confidence of presenting their own writings, especially since it represents own thoughts. Parents are never used to writing in the presence of their kids to bring out such confidence. Brandt (1994) as well discusses most of the interviewees being unable to write publicly but for private reasons. That is owed to the fact that they lack such exposure from their parents during their early years. As a result, one could say that early reading and writing experiences are essential in determining the literacy level of an individual. Having supportive parents during the early years in terms of helping one learn to read and write would turn out to be a positive thing in developing their literacy growth.

In a nutshell, Reading and writing are part of individuals’ way of life in society. That is mainly because almost every person engages in some reading and writing. The reviews of some of the answers of the eight participants to Literary History Analysis (LHA) questionnaire confirms that. In addition, the reviews help identify the impacts of exposing one to reading and writing early in life. From the review, it was determined that early reading and writing experience play a significant role in one’s willingness to become a writer or read later on. Every participant testified to having participated in writing as well as reading at a given point in their lifetime. Even so, a more significant percentage only had experience with reading, of course, with the help of their family members. When it comes to writing, the majority had their first experience when they joined a school. It is therefore conclusive that early experiences when it comes to reading and writing act as a huge determinant to whether one would enjoy such later in life. The idea that most families make it a norm to read stories to their children is very significant. That is because it positively impacts on the attitude and passion of such kids. The children tend to grow enjoying such experiences with the urge to carrying on with them.

Reference

Brandt, D. (1994). Remembering writing, remembering reading. College Composition and Communication45(4), 459-479.

Literary History Analysis

The extent to which one can read and write determines their level of literacy. Reading and writing are part of individuals’ way of life in society. That is because, in one way or the other, almost every person engages in some reading and writing. What then motivates people to read and write? Some individuals may only read and write for a specific purpose, say reading and writing for the sake of a school program. However, some read and write because they love it and are passionate about it. Recently researchers are showing significant interests in the relationship between the reading and writing process, and the culture that revolves around reading and writing. That comes with the ability to be able to read and write during the early stages of growth. However, there still exists a gap in the impacts of one’s first experiences of reading and writing has in their perception about the same, later in life. This research thus, reviews some of the answers of the eight participants to Literary History Analysis (LHA) questionnaire, determining the impact their early reading and writing experience have on their interest about the same growing up.

 Reading and writing form part of individuals’ society, in one way or the other, as the participants’ answers on the LHA questionnaire presents. Every participant testified to having participated in writing as well as reading at a given point in their lifetime. Even so, a more significant percentage only had experience with reading, of course, with the help of their family members. When it comes to writing, the majority had their first experience when they joined the school. For instance, participant 7 writes, “Growing up, I always loved reading science fictions before bed. I always found them interesting and loved discussing them with friends at school. I have been writing essays since middle school…” Participant 7 recalls her experience with reading and writing, and clearly, her readings begun at home while her writing experience came with essay writing classes from middle school. Brandt (1994) finds out from the interview that most people typically remembered their first reading experiences as pleasurable occasions organized by adults. This means that adults are usually supportive when it comes to helping children read. However, her findings on writings are not anything far from the feedbacks in the LHA questionnaire. According to Brandt (1994), there were few memories of writing outside school, and for those that remembered, such usually occurred out of the eye of adult supervision and, often, involving feelings of loneliness, secrecy, and resistance. Such means that the majority of writing experiences were not supported at home. What roles thence, do such experiences play in the participants lives?

Every participant agreed to have read some novels at their tender age, and the majority of participants were only able to write when they started schooling. This early experience with reading turned more into a hobby for the majority of the individuals. At the early stages, and with the help of the family members, in this case, mostly mothers, most people had experiences with fictional novels. Majority of these people continued reading such books as they grew up as a form of reaching independence. They expressively indicate their love for reading stories which originated from the experiences they were introduced to by their mothers. One participant stated, “I have always loved reading…. I think that this attitude came from me growing up in a Jewish home, where reading books about Judaism is a norm.” This designated participant loves everything to do with reading and owes this to the early experience and the background, which requires reading of Judaism books. Such shows that the first encounters that one has of reading plays a significant role in their later perception.

When one is exposed to books of a particular type, which he or she tends to enjoy, the likelihood is that they would love doing that while growing up. Those who had early experience in reading religious books such as the participant mentioned above turned out to be enjoying reading books of such type later in life. Some of the participants identified with having read fictions novels at their early development stages. As time progresses, they still love such books. The pie chart in figure 1.1 below depicts the representation of the feedback given to the LHA questionnaire. The higher percentage of the participants participated in reading in their early stages. Writing, on the other hand, was very minimal, with the majority starting to write at school in different stages. Later, the impact of such early exposure pattern reveals itself, as the majority followed the same. Those that had earlier exposure to reading both fiction novels and religious books maintained reading practices until their old ages. As a result, the percentage of those still enjoying reading is high compared to those who love writing.

Figure 1.1 a pie chart showing the ratio between and later reading and writing

One can say that early experiences when it comes to reading and writing act as a significant determinant to whether one would enjoy such later in life. The idea that most families make it a norm to read stories to their children is very substantial. That is because it positively impacts on the attitude and passion of such kids. The children tend to grow enjoying such experiences with the urge to carrying on with them. That is seen when the majority of the answers in the LHS love reading with skills drawn from their childhood memories. However, the majority of families do not introduce their children to writing early enough. That tends to impact negatively on them. The feedbacks show that most of the writings are school initiated.This means that the majority write for the sake of completing a task and not out of passion. As a result, not so many people grow up to love writing, as some would compare to reading.

Moreover, even for those who tend to write, say out of passion, they do so for their benefits. That means not the majority would love to write for the public, because their parents in the early days never exposed them to writing. Participant 3 explains, “I happen to love writing when not graded.” Why when not graded? Majority individuals lack the confidence when presenting their own writings, mainly because it represents own thoughts. Parents are never familiar with writing in the presence of their kids to bring out such confidence. Brandt (1994) as well discusses most of the interviewees being unable to write publicly but for personal reasons. That is owed to the fact that they lack such exposure from their parents during their early years. As a result, one could say that early reading and writing experiences are essential in determining the literacy level of an individual. Having supportive parents during the early years in terms of helping children to learn to read and write would turn out to be a positive thing in developing their literacy growth.

In a nutshell, reading and writing are part of individuals’ way of life in society. That is mainly because almost every person engages in some form of reading and writing. The reviews of the answers of the eight participants in response to theLiterary History Analysis (LHA) questionnaire confirm this. In addition, the reviews help identify the impacts of exposing children in particular to reading and writing early in life. From the review, it was determined that early reading and writing experience play a significant role in one’s willingness to become a writer or read later on. Every participant testified to having some familiarity with reading and writing and its importance in their lives. Yet,  a more significant percentage only had experience with reading, of course due to the help of their family members. When it comes to writing, the majority had their first experience when they joined a school. It is therefore conclusive that early experiences when it comes to reading and writing act as a huge determinant to whether one would enjoy such later in life. The idea that most families make it a norm to read stories to their children is very significant. That is because it positively impacts on the attitude and passion of such kids. The children tend to grow enjoying such experiences with the urge to carrying on with them.

Reference

Brandt, D. (1994). Remembering writing, remembering reading. College Composition and Communication45(4), 459-479.

Outside College Learning

Socrates, arguably the greatest philosopher who ever lived, urged people to do the best to learn from their environment. I made great effort to practice what he said, and I can now attest to its importance. College is good. There is a lot – especially in academic and technical skills – that I have learnt from it. However, there is also what it does not teach, because it cannot teach. This is where the school of life comes in.

Outside college, I have learnt many things. However, there is one that trumps them all: perseverance. Life is just not a bed of roses. Even as I sought to study and increase my chances of succeeding in life, I have come to appreciate that everything takes time. Most importantly, it is a constant game of trying on a daily basis (Duckworth 83). Sometimes we succeed, sometimes we do not. I struggled to fund my education, having to do numerous jobs to be able to afford it. Time was always never enough. I had to balance my studying with other personal responsibilities. It was no easy task at all. However, my motto was simple: if I fall, I stand up; if I fail, I try again. Sometimes opportunities did not come as fast, but I held on, toiling as I kept working. I was able to complete my bachelors and master’s degrees.

Without perseverance, it is difficult, if not impossible, to succeed. Talent is just not enough and luck will not distinguish us from those that fail. Many a times, it is the ability to keep pushing and the drive to keep going that makes the difference. I am glad that I was able to learn this outside college – from the school of life.

Why Perseverance Matters Most

Socrates, arguably the greatest philosopher who ever lived, urged people to do the best to learn from their environment. In my studies, I made great effort to practice what he said, and I can now attest to its importance. College is good and I have learnt many things from my formal education. However, there is a lot that it does not teach. This is where the need to learn from the outside environment comes in. Outside college, I have learnt many things. However, there is one virtue that trumps them all: perseverance. Life is certainly not a bed of roses. Even as I sought to study and increase my chances of succeeding in life, I came to appreciate that everything takes time. Most importantly, it is a constant game of trying on a daily basis (Duckworth 83). Sometimes we succeed, sometimes we do not. I struggled to fund my education, having to do numerous jobs to boost my income. I had to balance my studying with other personal responsibilities. It was no easy task at all. However, my motto was simple: if I fall, I stand up, and if I fail, I try again. Sometimes opportunities did not come as fast, but I held on, toiling as I kept working. I was able to complete my bachelors and master’s degrees. Without perseverance, it is difficult, if not impossible, to succeed, because talent is just not enough. Besides, luck will not distinguish us from those that fail. Many a times, it is the ability to keep pushing and the drive to keep going that makes the difference. This is a crucial lesson that I have learnt outside college.

Work Cited

Duckworth, Angela. Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance. New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2019.