Write about ONE element of your 2075 socio-poli-economic life at ALL THREE levels of Braudel’s analysis and with reference to SES and key concepts/themes of this course. This means you will describe your own material life in terms of the

Student’s Name

Professor’s Name

Course

Date

Housing Consumption

Needs, patterns, as well as trends in the housing consumption in a changing and contemporary society, has been a significant concern of professionals in recent years. Housing consumption encompasses diversity of issues that are influenced by different consumers in the market, especially those who seek to provide consumable and shelter services for their households as well as themselves. The consumption of houses is influenced by affordability, appropriateness, level of income, as well as the availability of the housing stock.  In the private market, housing consumption is the ultimate outcome of housing expressed demands and is controlled by the demand and supply theory. Housing demand is responsive to the price of housing, distributions as well as levels of consumer income, tastes, and preferences, household composition, amount of other goods, as well as demographic influences. This paper, therefore, discusses the consumer and the housing stock demands and supplies, housing consumption decisions, as well as diversity and discrimination.

Supply and demand influence the consumption of housing as it relies heavily on them. Every housing transaction constitutes a seller and a buyer. A low supply causes a direct increase in prices. On the same note, an increase in demand increases the prices of housing (Piazzesi 532). On the other hand, an oversupply and or a weak economy lead to low housing demand, which in turn lower their prices. Borrowing costs or interest rates are some of the factors that influence the demand for housing. People are more likely to take more debts when the interest rates are low. As a result, they are able to finance the purchase of houses as the amount they have to pay as interests are not burdensome. If the number of buyers increases, demand increases. On the same note, if the supply of housing inventory is limited, people from a low-interest environment tend to buy even more.

When the housing supply is constant, the suppliers may increase the inventory. Similarly, consumers may expand rooms to incorporate their family or buy more. As a result, the construction of new home and increase in development, adding to the already existing (Piazzesi 532). Contrary, during the time of disasters such as earthquakes and floods, or when there is demolishing of the existing properties, the housing inventory decreases. Therefore, demand and supply affect the consumption of housing. Besides, the confidence of the consumers increases the demand for houses. The housing consumption and market, as well as the future of the economy in housing, depending on the people’s confidence. For example, the demand for houses is more likely to rise faster in a booming market. Moreover, the consumption of housing is affected by affordability. In income levels keep increasing, people are able to afford more housing. On the other hand, during rapid economic growth, the consumption of houses increases with the rising demand.

In conclusion, housing consumption encompasses diversity of issues that are influenced by different consumers. The consumption of houses is influenced by affordability, demand, and supply, level of income, as well as the availability of the housing stock. A low supply causes a direct increase in prices while an increase in demand increases the prices of housing. The consumption of housing is also affected by affordability.

 

Works Cited

Piazzesi, Monika, Martin Schneider, and Selale Tuzel. “Housing, consumption and asset pricing.” Journal of Financial Economics 83.3 (2007): 531-569.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Write about ONE element of your 2075 socio-poli-economic life at ALL THREE levels of Braudel’s analysis and with reference to SES and key concepts/themes of this course. This means you will describe your own material life in terms of the

Student’s Name

Professor’s Name

Course

Date

Housing Consumption

Needs, patterns, as well as trends in the housing consumption in a changing and contemporary society, will significantly affect the real estate demands in future. Housing consumption will involve diverse issues that will influence consumers in the market, especially those who seek to provide consumable and shelter services for their households as well as themselves. The consumption of houses is influenced by affordability, appropriateness, level of income, as well as the availability of the housing stock.  In the private market, housing consumption is the ultimate outcome of housing expressed demands and is controlled by the demand and supply theory. Housing demand is responsive to the price of housing, distributions as well as levels of consumer income, tastes, and preferences, household composition, amount of other goods, as well as demographic influences. This paper, therefore, discusses how demand and supply will affect housing consumption by 2075.

Supply and demand play a critical role in the housing industry. A low supply causes a direct increase in prices. On the same note, an increase in demand increases the prices of housing (Piazzesi 532). On the other hand, an oversupply and or a weak economy lead to low housing demand, which in turn lower their prices. Borrowing costs or interest rates are some of the factors that influence the demand for housing. People are more likely to take more debts when the interest rates are low. As a result, they are able to finance the purchase of houses as the amount they have to pay as interests are not burdensome. If the number of buyers increases, demand increases. On the same note, if the supply of housing inventory is limited, people from a low-interest environment tend to buy even more. However, increase in demand can trigger production which in turn can lead to recession. For example, during the Great Recession, the demand of house increased which led to increase in supply. As a result the prices fell below the market values which caused a recession.

Drawing lessons from the Great Recession, as a real estate agent, it is more important focus on both supply and demand. While demand will trigger mass production in future, especially due to increase in populations, real estate will have to regulate supply. Consequently, producers should embrace different strategies from over producing such as allowing consumers to expand their existing rooms to incorporate their family. As a result, the construction of new home will decrease or remain constant (Piazzesi 532).  Therefore, demand and supply will affect consumption of housing. Besides, the confidence of the consumers will increase the demand for houses. The housing consumption and market, as well as the future of the economy in housing, will be determined by the people’s confidence on both the market and the producers. For example, the demand for houses will most likely rise faster in a booming market. Moreover, the consumption of housing will be affected by affordability.

In conclusion, housing consumption will encompass diversity of issues that will influence consumers. The consumption of houses, therefore, will be influenced by affordability, demand, and supply, level of income, as well as the availability of the housing stock. A low supply causes a direct increase in prices while an increase in demand increases the prices of housing.

 

Works Cited

Piazzesi, Monika, Martin Schneider, and Selale Tuzel. “Housing, consumption and asset pricing.” Journal of Financial Economics 83.3 (2007): 531-569.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Qualitative Research Design

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How People Describe their Experience with the Plastic Bag Ban in the US

Students Name

Institution Affiliation

 

 

How People Describe their Experience with the Plastic Bag Ban in the US

Introduction

Plastic bags have always been considered convenient, cheap, and hygienic in our daily lives, especially when we check out at grocery stores. After using plastic bags for many years, its consequences start to float out on the surface as a result. The topic for this project is how people describe their experience with the plastic bag ban movement in the US. The proposed issue is crucial because plastic bags and other plastic products have adverse effects on the environment. For instance, disposed of plastic bags and products can easily wind up in rivers, storm drains, and oceans, creating massive floating patches of garbage and threatening marine life (Zeitlin, 2019). White pollution (refers to plastic pollution) is an excellent example of the negative outcome of using plastic bags.

The continued use of plastic materials has resulted in the death of marine life who suffocate after accidentally eating plastic bags that are disposed into the ocean. Up to 80 percent of ocean plastic pollution enters the ocean from land, at least 267 different species have been affected by plastic pollution in the sea (Guern, 2019). Numerous state governments have sensed the urgent of imposing a plastic bag ban and started acting on it like Washington DC. However, the free use of plastic bags is still prevalent in many states like Arizona today. This research is vital as it will help in developing a better understanding of the views of the general public regarding the plastic bag ban in the USA. The project will provide the researcher with a platform to get accurate feedback from the people on the move to ban plastic bag use recently witnessed in several states across the U.S. The research will also help in observing the causal relationship between the ban on plastic bags and the reduction of plastic pollution.

The study in inductive research and will utilize grounded theory to develop new themes from the data collected (Tie, Birks & Francis, 2019). The study aims to advance, expand, and refine a body of knowledge to establish facts or reach new conclusions on the perception and impact of plastic bags ban in the U.S. The study will be twofold. That is, the researcher will start by developing an overview of public views and behavior regarding plastic bags ban in the USA. From the results, the researcher will determine the following outcomes. First, the positive impact of the plastic bag ban on the environment. Second, the causal relationship between plastic bags bans and increased use of reusable bags. Lastly, the economic impact of plastic bags ban. The research intends to answer the question: what is the effect of plastic bags ban on individuals, the environment, and the economy? The study assumes that people will increase the use of reusable bags for shopping after the implementation of plastic bags ban policies.

Literature Review

Policy implementation on the use of plastic shopping bags is rapidly increasing globally. This is in the attempt to address the problems associated with waste accumulation, energy implications, and resource waste resulting from excess deposition of plastic materials in the environment. Several countries have implemented the ban on plastic bags, including China, Bangladesh, India, and South Africa among other countries. According to The Third Pole (2018), Bangladesh implemented the plastic bag ban in the capital city of Dhaka, which later expanded to the entire country after plastic bags clogged city drains, resulting in two floods. This was the same situation in Mumbai, where the Indian government banned plastic bags in response to drainage problems. Similarly, China implemented a nation-wide ban on the use of plastic bags in supermarkets and shops due to the environmental pollution resulting from the use of plastic bags (China Development Brief, 2019). As an outcome, everyone in China uses reusable bags instead of plastic bags. The European Union passed legislation in 2015 aiming to reduce the use of plastic bags in half by 2019 and a half again by 2025 New York Times (2018). France, for instance, banned the single-use of plastic bags and intends to impose more strict bans soon.

In the United States, legislative changes have occurred at city levels. For example, the San Jose City Council implemented a policy banning single-use plastic bags in retail shops. The city of Oakland, Fairfax, Malibu, and Washington have also implemented a ban on the use of plastic bags (Zeitlin, 2019). However, several legislations have failed setting drawback to plastic ban. For example, Missouri, in a legislature in 2015 ban cities and counties within the state from implementing plastic bags bans. Currently, the approach on plastic ban in the U.S. focuses on the efforts to increase recycling rates rather than reducing consumer use, which according to Zeitlin (2019), is a lenient approach regarding the harmful impact plastic bags have in the environment.

Research by Guern (2019) on the perceptions of the ban on plastic bag use indicates that people are more likely to adopt greener choices, unlike in the past decades. This is because people are becoming more aware of the adverse impact plastic bags have in the environment. Modern lifestyles contribute to a broad range of problems that compromise the integrity of the situations in which we work, play, and live. The increasing impact of lifestyle choices on the environment has resulted in the creation of movements like “Go Green,” the “Greener Choice,” and the “Green Market” to create awareness on environmental conservations. Today, single-use plastic bags continue to be a significant challenge in America, with many citizens using plastic bags daily. Nonetheless, widespread reduction in the use of plastic bags to the increased use of reusable bags for shopping can help in introducing a more sustainable consumption pattern among American citizens.

Proposed Data Collection Methods

Data Collection

The primary data collection method will be the use of semi-structured interviews to collect data on the perception of the public on the movement of the plastic bag in the United States. The study will recruit participants from various states about their opinions on the ban of plastic bags. Creswell and Poth (2013) state that grounded theory studies should recruit diverse and dispersed populations to obtain contextual data that are useful in developing categories in the axial coding phase of the study. The reason for adopting an interview methodology is because the research is qualitative and intends to capture the attitudes of the public which is only possible through interviews. Merriam and Tisdell (2015) suggest that qualitative studies often use semi-structured interviews to collect data. Interview questions will include exploratory and causal research questions to examine different views of citizens on the ban of plastic bags. The meetings will take place in the large grocery stores in various states in the United States including individuals in states that implement plastic ban policies and those that do not implement the ban.

The strategy and the diversity of participants will help to obtain a comprehensive overview of the perceptions of the public on the increased call to ban the use of plastic bags for shopping. Edwards and Holland (2013) suggest that qualitative interviews are vital in developing a richer understanding due to the personal interaction between the researcher and participants. Semi-structured interviews allow researchers to capture information that is difficult to record, such as changing the attitude or facial expressions that can add to the quality and accuracy of the collected data. Semi-structured interviews provide researchers with a more flexible approach such that the interviewer can quickly changer questions if the current item does not capture accurate or relevant information (Edwards & Holland, 2013). Therefore, the use of structured interview will help in obtaining reliable data that reflect the population of the United States.

Sampling

The study will adopt a stratified purposeful sampling method. That is, collecting data from different sub-groups in terms of age, gender, and use of plastic bags. The study will divide and compare data from young adults (25-35), middle-aged (36-44), and older adults (45-65). The research will also collect and analyze data from individuals with high income, those with middle income, and those from low-income populations. The study will compare data from male and female participants. The study will compare the attitudes between people who use plastic bags and those using reusable bags. Lastly, the will compare the opinions of participants who use taxed plastic bags and those who use non-taxed plastic bags from the cities of DC and Boston.

The sampling strategy will help in recruiting participants that accurately reflect active purchasers in public. The approach will ensure that each sub-group within the population receives a proper presentation and allow the researcher to take control of the subgroups to ensure a similar presentation in the sampling. Likewise, purposeful sampling allows the researcher to recruit participants whose data can be generalized to the entire population (Palinkas et al., 2015). This will help to improve the quality of the results and justify the implication of the findings to the general public. Purposeful sampling will be vital in reducing the cost of the study. According to Palinkas et al. (2015), purposeful sampling provides researchers with flexible schedules to save time and financial resources during data collection. Therefore, purposeful stratified sampling will be most appropriate to achieve the purpose of the study.

Proposed Analysis Methods

The study will adopt a content analysis method. According to Drisko and Maschi (2015), content analysis helps identify patterns form written, visual, or recorded data. Content analysis will help to interpret and understand the patterns of public opinion regarding the ban on plastic bags. Content analysis will help the study to understand the attitudes or reasons behind the views of the respective participants. The method will also help in identifying different patterns of opinions among different sub-groups that will be used in the study. The analysis method will also help in capturing the communication flow and responses of various participants regarding the ban on plastic bags.

The analysis process will start with reading the first interview transcript to identify relevant comments, observations, or queries. Using content analysis, the researcher will examine all the transcripts to determine and compare pertinent patterns of the responses to develop categories (Noble & Smith, 2013). The researcher will categorize the data into sub-groups and identify common patterns across the groups. The researcher will saturate the types by identifying instances that represent the category and continue looking through the transcripts until the new information obtained does not provide further insight into the group (Creswell & Poth, 2013). The researcher will identify common patterns with the aid of Athelstan computer software and AntConc software (Anthony, 2019: Athel, 2019).  After the development of set categories, the researcher will recognize a single category from the open coding as the central phenomenon of interest. For example, opinions on plastic bags ban. Then the researcher will return to the identified groups to select the categories that relate to the central phenomenon of interest to determine the causal relationship (Creswell & Poth, 2013). In this case, the researcher will identify categories like plastic bag ban effect, consumption behavior effect, and waste management tax effect.

Next, the researcher will use the MALLET software top organize the information form the coding phase into a coding paradigm that presents a theoretical model of the opinions and attitudes of American citizens on the movement of banning the use of plastic bags for shopping (McCallum, 2019). The theory will help in identifying new themes and propositions relating to the opinions of American citizens and the plastic bag ban effect, consumption behavior effect, and waste management tax effect. Lastly, the researcher will conduct a broad level of analysis by developing a conditional matrix. The conditional model will help in visualizing the causal relationship between the opinions of the public regarding the plastic bag ban in the U.S and its impact on plastic bag ban, consumption behavior, and waste management tax. However, the use of a conditional matrix will be optional during the study process.

 

 

References

Anthony, L. (2019). Laurence Anthony’s AntConc. Retrieved from https://www.laurenceanthony.net/software/antconc/

Athel. (2019). Collocation extraction software: Collocate. Retrieved from http://www.athel.com/colloc.html

China Development Brief. (2019). 10 Years on from the Ban on Free Plastic Bags. Retrieved from http://www.chinadevelopmentbrief.cn/articles/10-years-on-from-the-ban-on-free-plastic-bags/

Tie, Y., Birks, M., & Francis, K. (2019). Grounded theory research: A design framework for novice researchers. SAGE Open Medicine7, 205031211882292. Doi: 10.1177/2050312118822927

Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2013). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Drisko, J. W., & Maschi, T. (2015). Qualitative Content Analysis. Content Analysis, 81-120. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190215491.003.0004

Edwards, R., & Holland, J. (2013). What is Qualitative Interviewing? London, United Kingdom: A&C Black.

Guern, C. L. (2019, November). When The Mermaids Cry: The Great Plastic Tide. Retrieved from http://plastic-pollution.org/

McCallum, A. (2019). About Mallet. Retrieved from http://mallet.cs.umass.edu/topics.php

Merriam, S. B., & Tisdell, E. J. (2015). Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

New York Times. (2018, October 31). European Parliament Approves Ban on Single-Use Plastics. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/25/world/europe/european-parliament-plastic-ban.html

Noble, H., & Smith, J. (2013). Qualitative data analysis: a practical example. Evidence-Based Nursing17(1), 2-3. Doi: 10.1136/eb-2013-101603

Palinkas, L. A., Horwitz, S. M., Green, C. A., Wisdom, J. P., Duan, N., & Hoagwood, K. (2015). Purposeful Sampling for Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis in Mixed Method Implementation Research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research42(5), 533-544. Doi: 10.1007/s10488-013-0528-y

The Third Pole. (2018, April 9). Plastic chokes Dhaka’s drainage. Retrieved from https://www.thethirdpole.net/en/2018/04/09/plastic-chokes-dhakas-drainage/

Zeitlin, M. (2019, August 27). Do plastic bag taxes or bans curb waste? 400 cities and states tried it out. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/the-highlight/2019/8/20/20806651/plastic-bag-ban-straw-ban-tax

 

HOPE AND DESPAIR IN KIERKEGAARD` “FEAR AND TREMBLING” AND NIETZSCHE`S “ON THE GENEALOGY OF MORALITY”

Introduction

The mental state of a subject inextricably links hope and despair as aspects of the human condition. Where hope reigns, the subject bears an unexplainable amount of faith in their ability to accomplish or overcome a particular task or hurdle. Interestingly enough, despair is the same, but in reverse, the lack of faith in ability renders the subject incapable of facing the task or obstacle ahead of them. In the four renditions of the story on Abraham’s intended sacrifice of Isaac, Soren Kierkegaard in Fear and Trembling explains faith as a matter beyond human experience and instead belonging to the realm of the metaphysical. Ethics and hope are separated in Kierkegaard’s mind because where ethics reigns, one requires substantial evidence as proof of the morality of their action, while the hopeful, like Abraham, only require faith to act due to their belief in an omnipotent authority (Kierkegaard, 2012, p. 19). On the other hand, Friedrich Nietzsche, in On the Genealogy of Morality, frames the subject of ethics within the scope of faith in the individual rather than an unsubstantiated belief in a supreme authority (Nietzsche, 1998, p. 161). A comparison of the two foundations of faith reveals that while faith in a supreme being is powerful, faith in the self is more secure because hope extinguishes when faith in the supreme fails.

Anxiety and Despair

Of all the human conditions man faces, mortality is the most sinister and evil of states that man faces. It is not the mortality that comes from a terminal illness or facing the death sentence. Instead, it is the inevitable finality that faces all beings from the moment of birth. It is the entropy of the worst kind because regardless of whatever efforts one commits to, they are guaranteed that someday, they will meet their end.

Mortality’s greatest effect is that it renders meaningless everything that the person did or would ever do. The feeling that a person’s achievements will someday leave them behind is depressing. One day you celebrate a great personage, laud their efforts, expound on their contributions to society. Next, you lament their death for the things they will never get to accomplish or experience because their time was up. Death is the saddest part of the ‘happily ever after’ tale because whatever great love the couple transcend in their lifetime, time will end-all.

Kierkegaard on Hope and Despair

Kierkegaard, writing on the issue of faith and ethics, notes that sometimes belief in an infallible concept is better than the lack of belief or the failure of belief. In the first problemata that Kierkegaard poses, Abraham tells Isaac that the series of actions he had perceived stemmed from Abraham himself, rather than as a directive from God (Kierkegaard, p. 2). He writes, “When the child must be weaned, the mother blackens her breast, it would indeed be a shame that the breast should look delicious when the child must not have it. So the child believes that the breast has changed, but the mother is the same, her glance as loving and tender as ever (Kierkegaard, p. 2).” Kierkegaard’s inference in the above quotation is that the foundation of faith is essential and nothing must be allowed to pose threats to them. The child needs to know that their belief in their mother is untainted by uncertainty and that their relations remain the same.

For Kierkegaard, the problem of mortality can thus be framed within the context of hope or faith in an absolute or ordained future as opposed to an uncertain one. He writes, “for the act of resignation faith is not required, for what I gain by resignation is my eternal consciousness, and this is a purely philosophical (Kierkegaard, p. 22).” Kierkegaard posits that sometimes faith does not require a foundation in evidence but rather one in belief. He notes that philosophy would require that faith be demonstrated through proofs while theology manipulates the faithful into doctrinal practices (Kierkegaard, p. 22). That said, the core elements of belief in faith remain that the person renounces all other beliefs to retain a core concept that can be used as their life principle. In this regard, the anxiety one holds over the question of death and the beyond resolves through belief in a life after death. “A purely human courage is required to renounce the whole of the temporal to gain the eternal (Kierkegaard, p. 22).” The problem of death, to put the question into perspective resonating with Kierkegaard’s writing, is that it is a physical or temporal matter. It cannot be overcome through human activity; thus, people must look beyond the physical into the metaphysical. In this way, Kierkegaard observes, can hope be preserved and made to work for the human condition.

Nietzsche on the Proper Foundation of Faith

An interesting point that defines Kierkegaard’s writing on the value of faith presents a conflicting viewpoint to Nietzsche’s essay on the question of hope. Kierkegaard writes, “what every man has a right not to do, is to make others believe that faith is something lowly, or that it is an easy thing, whereas it is the greatest and the hardest (Kierkegaard, p. 24).” Kierkegaard’s meaning was that the absolutism with which faith establishes itself as hope is a precious and sacred thing. However, he already notes that faith is easy to circumscribe. Abraham preserved Isaac’s faith in God by lying about the origins of his actions. Kierkegaard inferences how religious bodies and persons “would sell out faith at a bargain price (Kierkegaard, p. 22),” making it clear that faith in a supreme authority might itself prove dangerous to the person. So the question that comes to mind is whether a different path may exist that is not only subject to manipulation, but can withstand the test of time.

As Kierkegaard mentions, faith is the “greatest and hardest” thing to accomplish (Kierkegaard, p. 24). What matter is greater than faith in the self when faced with the prospect of having everything one ever achieved – or hoped to achieve – be destroyed by the single act of death? Nietzsche writes, “Those who from the outset are failed, downcast, broken—they are the ones, the weakest are the ones who most undermine life among humans, who most dangerously poison and call into question our confidence in life, in man, in ourselves (Nietzsche, 2012, p. 161).” The strong individual does not depend on the false faith of an eternal realm where everything becomes resolved to one’s satisfaction. Indeed, the very concept of an afterlife that resolves all conflict is prone to idiosyncratic fallacies. For instance, it assumes that all disputes are binary and have solutions. What happens when two modes of human thought, irredeemably unresolvable, meet in that eternal realm that Kierkegaard imagines to be the reservoir of all peace?

Faith in the Self

Nietzsche avers that slave morality stands at the root of improper foundations of faith such as the hope in a supreme being that stands at the core of Kierkegaard’s writing. Nietzsche writes, “slave-morality always needs an opposite and external world; it needs, psychologically speaking, external stimuli to be able to act at all, – its action is, from the ground up, reaction (Nietzsche, p. 76).” The meaning is that those who found their beliefs in a concept such as a supreme being or God may be harboring problems too deeply-seated to recognize internally. Their model of the universe looks inwards rather than outwards; thus, rather than solving the problems that they encounter, they push the issues outwards to be resolved by others. What does this mean for us with our problem of mortality?

Nietzsche’s Solution to the Problem of Mortality

In as far as we can ascertain, death is final; it is the absolute end of life. We may hold on to the hope that an afterlife exists but, with this regard, faith becomes a deception. It is not to say that deception lacks strength; as Nietzsche observes in Beyond Good and Evil, “Happiness and virtue are not arguments…unhapp[iness]and evil are not counter-arguments either. Something could be true even if it is harmful and dangerous to the highest degree (Nietzsche, 2002, p. 39).” The idea behind faith, as Kierkegaard imagines, is that it acts as a counter to the apathy and despair that the absence of faith presents. The problem here is that the idea of hope such as established through faith is that it creates a false dichotomy between death and an afterlife. We can approach Nietzsche’s inference to mean that perhaps death does not have the opposite. Instead, it is part of life thus must be embraced as part of the human condition.

Conclusion

The problem of faith is that it might present a false hope. Worse, its foundations are not provable and instead require a suspension of belief to proceed. Why self-deception may work in pushing the individual into performing beyond their capacity, it ultimately fails them as people because it limits the human potential. Here, as Nietzsche observes, the individual must be honest with themselves so that they may discover their limits. Once done, they may then exceeding them rather than placing self-imposed caps on their abilities. Consequently, death should be approached as part of the human condition. Consequently, if death cannot be overcome, then it becomes crucial that we seek ways to accept death as part of life and find ways to make life meaningful.

References

Nietzsche, F. (2002). Nietzsche: Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future. Cambridge, UK.: Cambridge University Press.

Nietzsche, F. (2012). On The Genealogy of Morality. (M. Clark, & A. J. Swensen, Trans.) Indianapolis: HAckett Publishing Co., Inc.

Silentio, J. (. (2012). Fear and Trembling. (D. Nikolic, Ed., & W. Lowrie, Trans.) New York: Lulu.com.

Memorandum

TO: Rich Brown

FROM:

CC: Rob Brown; Speedy Brown; Dick Brown; Brown Family Trust

DATE: 7 DECEMBER 2019

SUBJECT: IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS OF TAX CONSEQUENCES

This memo serves to address all the concerns raised by the shareholders that will actively remain in Brown Brothers’ Construction Inc (BBC) as well as those raised by Rob Brown, regarding the tax consequences to all aforementioned parties. It will go on to cover the matter of the Retained Earnings Balance post-redemption of shares by Rob and provide alternatives and suggestions that may bring about better tax consequences for all stakeholders. The in-depth analysis will cover both the quantitative and qualitative consequences of the redemption of shares by Rob.

Firstly, for a section 8, 1982 SEC redemption of shares, from a logical standpoint would imply a price to be paid. In this case we have got the information on hand on the payment arrangement that has been proposed. A key factor that will have a role to play is the time value of money of which this has been mentioned as a 15-year installment financing deal with interest. We will return to this at a later stage. Also. to set the tone, IRS Publication 544 speaks on gains and losses from sales of a capital item, so it must be noted that the stocks being redeemed after a long holding period of 15 year are a long-term capital item thus, there is implied long-term capital gains tax.

From a taxation point of view, the redemption of the shares would be treated as a disposal of the shares (Correa, 2003) and with a disposal of shares, we can expect either a capital gain or loss, for which Capital Gains Tax is charged but only in the instance of a gain. The redemption of shares in this case would give rise to Capital Gains Tax. The capital gain will be the difference between the Tax Base amount which is what the shares cost and the amount the shares are being redeemed at. The reason is that there is an assumption that the shares will be sold to again to one of the other shareholders or a few of the shareholders may look to purchase more shares. The subsequent sale of shares is what would trigger this tax. The difference between amount received for shares less costs incurred, and price paid for redemption would then constitute the Capital Gain or Loss which can then be taxed at an effective rate.

For Rob, the sale of his shares back to BBC would constitute a disposal of shares. As a result of the deal he has been offered where payment will happen in the form of installments with interest accruing each year end and being payable, I would suggest that Rob proportionately defer payment of Capital Gains tax, if there is any after we have determined that, and then match this with the time period in which the redemption payments occur or when the redemption obligations have been fully recognized. His Capital Gain would fall under the Long-Term bracket (IRS, 2018), if there is one, as the shares have been held by Rob for more than a year. To gauge the rate at which the Capital Gain would be taxed, we would need to look to see which Income Tax Bracket Rob would fall under. We have been given further information which takes us one step closer to determining whether there is a gain or loss, in the form of the tax base for Rob’s 300 shares, which is 575 000. To calculate his tax bracket, we have to sum up his income for the 2019 taxation year which would be as follows, contingent on whether he agrees to the deal or not:

  • Initial Redemption Amount                  200 000
  • Redemption Amount Accrued                  2 400 000       -Earlier of receipt or accrual-
  • Interest Accrued (Table 1)                        –
  • Pro-rata shares of Dividends earned  58 500
    • 325/1000 x 180000
    • Attribution rules applied here
      • (Cohen, 2017)
    • Total                  2 658 500

Rob is also married so his bracket would be slightly different as a result of this. With the redemption, regardless of marriage in community of property or not, the amount he would have earned would be above the last threshold for long-term gains meaning that a rate of 20% would be used. Also, the attribution rules of section 318 of the Income Tax Regulations apply as Rob has an option to indirectly purchase 5 shares from Rich and also due to the partnership, means Rob has indirect ownership stakes in BBC which would remain post redemption at 2.5%.

The calculation for Capital Gains would be as follows:

  • Proceeds       2 600 000
  • Tax Base Cost -575 000
  • Capital Gain 2 025 000
  • Capital Gains Tax @ 20%= 506 250
  • This amount will be the amount taxed on Rob for the disposal of the shares if he accepts the deal.

Where it gets tricky is with regards to the fact that Rob and Rich also have a mutual fund, R & R Investments which has a shareholding of 50 shares in BBC, with an equal shareholding of 25 shares each. If these were to also be disposed by Rob, the method to make use of for the mutual fund would become a factor to consider. I would advise trying out all methods applicable as per IRS regulations and gauging to see which one would reap the most in tax benefits. The four methods available would be Actual Cost using FIFO, Actual Cost using Specific Identification, Average Cost with Singular Category and Average Cost with Double Category. I would also suggest exploring the option as it has been 15 years, and the concerning matter would be of the disinterest in the corporation which could still be felt through R&R Investments’ involvement. A tax base for those shares would then need to be determined as well and a selling price that matches the market. If they were to continue operations as a partnership of equal standing, this would mean that any interest that Rob earns as will be seen in Table 1, per year will be apportioned according to the agreement. If Rob decides to use his option to buy the extra 5 shares in the Investment fund, then that would subsequently change what Rich would get from Rob’s accrued interest. If any disposal were to occur of these shares in the foreseeable future, the interest carried would also be included in the calculation for Capital Gains or losses as deferral is allowable making that fall under the same rules as other usual amounts for Capital Gains Tax purposes.

We must also address the actual receipt of the shares from the redemption. If there is a share split distribution as part of the redemption, then BBC must expect it to be treated as a dividend distribution (Correa, 2003). This would equate to the market value on the date of the redemption of which in this case, would be the earlier of payment of the first installment and accrual of payment of the first installment to Rob, which would be the 31st of December 2019. The 15-year installment plan effectively means that the share redemption can be fully recognized on fulfillment of each obligation. Thus, a payable is created at the beginning of the installment period in 2019 which is equal to the full fair value of the redemption from which we would treat this as a financial instrument and as a result, an amortization table would be drawn up to show how much interest would be allocated along with the coupon payments each year. Since there is a 5% interest charged yearly on the unpaid balance, this will also form part of the amortization table. This is Table 1, shown below:

Year Opening Balance Coupon Payment Interest accrued-5% Closing Balance
0 2 600 000 (200 000) 2 400 000
1 2 400 000 (160 000) 112 000 2 352 000
2 2 352 000 (160 000) 109 600 2 301 600
3 2 301 600 (160 000) 107 080 2 248 680
4 2 248 680 (160 000) 104 434 2 193 114
5 2 193 114 (160 000) 101 656 2 134 770
6 2 134 770 (160 000) 98 739 2 073 509
7 2 073 509 (160 000) 95 675 2 009 184
8 2 009 184 (160 000) 92 459 1 941 643
9 1 941 643 (160 000) 89 082 1 870 725
10 1 870 725 (160 000) 85 536 1796 261
11 1796 261 (160 000) 81 813 1 718 074
12 1 718 074 (160 000) 77 904 1 635 978
13 1 635 978 (160 000) 73 799 1 549 777
14 1 549 777 (160 000) 69 489 1 459 266
15 1 459 266 (160 000) 64 963 1 364 229

An example of the interest accrued calculation would be for year 1, (5% x (2 400 000- 160000)) which would give us an interest of 112 000. This amount of 112 000 constitutes the amount charged on the unpaid balance for year 1 after the yearly payment of 160 000 has been made. The amount for interest unlike the coupon payments, will change for each year but the method in which it is calculated will remain consistent. This accrued amount for interest is then added to the carrying amount after the coupon deduction to then form the closing balance, which is then carried forward to the next year as the opening balance for the next calculation until the 15th installment for which, the redemption then concludes. The amortization table above shows the interest amounts for each year that accrue to what has to be paid to Rob over and above the coupon payments for each year right up until the last year of installments. A payable remains after year 15 of 1 364 229. BBC could opt to factor that into their yearly payments so as to avoid accrual of the mammoth payable at the end of year 15 or they could come up with a new payment plan for that amount which may lead to more interest being accrued in the future. Debt or retained earnings could be used to cover the finance part of the deal. Reserves show that Retained Earnings as of 2018 were at 2 480 000 post dividend distributions. Reserves show that BBC would have the capacity to pay the arrears to Rob. The interest accruals each year would attract tax deductions for BBC on the earlier of payment or accrual.

When it comes to the usual Income Tax for 2019, the calculation that BBC will come up with will highly likely differ to the one the IRS will have meaning that there would be deferred tax which would have to be accounted and provided for. This will most likely be gained due to the fact that BBC is funding a redemption of shares from Rob through it’s reserves. The Income Tax as per the Income Statement for Financial Reporting Purposes would be:

  • 1 211 217 x 21% = $254 356 (Profits after tax)
  • This will differ from the amount from the IRS in respect to how some items are treated for tax purposes and changes that occur yearly. Post-year adjustments for amounts that will be discovered in 2020 will also have an effect on the amount leading to the amount differences that will lead to deferred tax adjustments having to be done.
  • There are amounts which will be subject to deductions on the Income Tax Statement for Tax purposes, like Charitable Donations, Dividends which are exempted after inclusion as Income for shareholders and for Rob, interest earned, which is also exempt. Some expenses incurred will also be subject to deductions.

For BBC, there is no taxable effect of the redemption being done by Rob up until the point whereby his shares have been issued once again at which now potentially a gain or loss can arise from this point. The Base Cost would be appended to what was paid to Rob and the Proceeds would equal the Open Market Value.

Lastly, I will calculate what will remain in the reserves of BBC regarding Retained Earnings or Accumulated Earnings and Profits immediately after the redemption has occurred. The calculations are as follows:

  • Opening Balance- Retained Earnings 2 480 000
    • As of 01/01/19
  • Profits earned in 2019 after tax         254 356
  • Dividend Distributions -180 000
  • Redemption of shares – W1 2 289 288
  • Closing Balance- Retained Earnings                                     265 068
  • W1-The amount that will affect the Retained Earnings is dependent on how much has been redeemed from Rob by BBC. In this case, BBC has only redeemed the 300 shares which are separate from the partnership. This means that the 25 shares from the partnership remain signifying a 92.31% redemption of shares. This portion is the same one that will be financed through Retained Earnings instead of the full amount as this is capital in nature. Hence, 92.31% x 2 480 000 = 2 289 288.
  • Therefore, what would remain in Retained Earnings would be $265 068. This complies with the requirement of having adequate retained earnings to finance a redemption under section 3 (1) of the SEC Rules Governing Redeemable and Treasury Shares of 1982.

I hope that this clarifies and demystifies all parties with regards to the redemption and all the consequences thereafter. My suggestion would be to try and restructure the redemption to just over a significant level (over 50%) like 51% redemption or to a point where Rob has minimal but significant interest in the company so that the Retained Earnings reserves are kept sufficient enough so as to keep the company operating as a going concern in the foreseeable future and still be able to transition management to keep the company’s best interests at heart.

Yours Sincerely

References

 

Deputy Commissioner of Internal Revenue; US Treasury:  https://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Documents/final.pdf

Correa C. ;The SEC: http://www.sec.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/2019OpinionNo19-20-2.pdf

Cohen K. ; The IRS: https://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-wd/201805011.pdf

Memorandum

TO: Rich Brown

FROM:

CC: Rob Brown; Speedy Brown; Dick Brown; Brown Family Trust

DATE: 7 DECEMBER 2019

SUBJECT: IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS OF TAX CONSEQUENCES

This memo serves to address all the concerns raised by the shareholders that will actively remain in Brown Brothers’ Construction Inc (BBC) as well as those raised by Rob Brown, regarding the tax consequences to all aforementioned parties. It will go on to cover the matter of the Retained Earnings Balance post-redemption of shares by Rob and provide alternatives and suggestions that may bring about better tax consequences for all stakeholders. The in-depth analysis will cover both the quantitative and qualitative consequences of the redemption of shares by Rob.

Firstly, a redemption of shares from a logical standpoint would imply a price to be paid. In this case we have got the information on hand on the payment arrangement that has been proposed. A key factor that will have a role to play is the time value of money of which this has been mentioned as a 15-year installment financing deal with interest. We will return to this at a later stage. Also to set the tone, it must be noted that the relative interest of Rob will have significantly changed after the redemption meaning that this will not be treated as a deemed dividend redemption meaning that the Retained Earnings/ Accumulated Earnings and Profits will not be affected as these reserves deal with amount that are revenue expenditure in nature not capital in nature for which this deal is the latter. This is backed by the fact that Rob’s shareholding reduces to 25 shares in BBC through R&R coming from a point of 325 shares which is a 92.31% reduction which goes over the share sale threshold of 50% to be deemed capital in nature. So now that we have determined this, we can move onto the next step which is the actual sale of the shares and treatment thereafter.

From a taxation point of view, the redemption of the shares would be treated as a disposal of the shares and with a disposal of shares, we can expect either a capital gain or loss, for which Capital Gains Tax is charged but only in the instance of a gain. The redemption of shares in this case would give rise to Capital Gains Tax. The capital gain will be the difference between the Tax Base amount which is what the shares cost and the amount the shares are being redeemed at. The reason is that there is an assumption that the shares will be sold to again to one of the other shareholders or a few of the shareholders may look to purchase more shares. The subsequent sale of shares is what would trigger this tax. The difference between amount received for shares less costs incurred, and price paid for redemption would then constitute the Capital Gain or Loss which can then be taxed at an effective rate.

For Rob, the sale of his shares back to BBC would constitute a disposal of shares. As a result of the deal he has been offered where payment will happen in the form of installments with interest accruing each year end and being payable, I would suggest that Rob proportionately defer payment of Capital Gains tax, if there is any after we have determined that, and then match this with the time period in which the redemption payments occur or when the redemption obligations have been fully recognized. His Capital Gain would fall under the Long-Term bracket, if there is one, as the shares have been held by Rob for more than a year. To gauge the rate at which the Capital Gain would be taxed, we would need to look to see which Income Tax Bracket Rob would fall under. We have been given further information which takes us one step closer to determining whether there is a gain or loss, in the form of the tax base for Rob’s 300 shares, which is 575 000. To calculate his tax bracket, we have to sum up his income for the 2019 taxation year which would be as follows, contingent on whether he agrees to the deal or not:

  • Initial Redemption Amount                  200 000
  • Redemption Amount Accrued                  2 400 000       -Earlier of receipt or accrual-
  • Interest Accrued (Table 1)                        –
  • Pro-rata shares of Dividends earned  58 500
    • 325/1000 x 180000
    • Attribution rules applied here
  • Total                  2 658 500

Rob is also married so his bracket would be slightly different as a result of this. With the redemption, regardless of marriage in community of property or not, the amount he would have earned would be above the last threshold for long-term gains meaning that a rate of 20% would be used. Also the attribution rules apply as Rob has an option to indirectly purchase 5 shares from Rich and also due to the partnership, means Rob has indirect ownership stakes in BBC which would remain post redemption at 2.5%.

The calculation for Capital Gains would be as follows:

  • Proceeds 2 600 000
  • Tax Base Cost -575 000
  • Capital Gain 2 025 000
  • Capital Gains Tax @ 20%= 506 250
  • This amount will be the amount taxed on Rob for the disposal of the shares if he accepts the deal.

Where it gets tricky is with regards to the fact that Rob and Rich also have a mutual fund, R & R Investments which has a shareholding of 50 shares in BBC, with an equal shareholding of 25 shares each. If these were to also be disposed by Rob, the method to make use of for the mutual fund would become a factor to consider. I would advise trying out all methods applicable as per IRS regulations and gauging to see which one would reap the most in tax benefits. The four methods available would be Actual Cost using FIFO, Actual Cost using Specific Identification, Average Cost with Singular Category and Average Cost with Double Category. I would also suggest exploring the option as it has been 15 years, and the concerning matter would be of the disinterest in the corporation which could still be felt through R&R Investments’ involvement. A tax base for those shares would then need to be determined as well and a selling price that matches the market. If they were to continue operations as a partnership of equal standing, this would mean that any interest that Rob earns as will be seen in Table 1, per year will be apportioned according to the agreement. If Rob decides to use his option to buy the extra 5 shares in the Investment fund, then that would subsequently change what Rich would get from Rob’s accrued interest. If any disposal were to occur of these shares in the foreseeable future, the interest carried would also be included in the calculation for Capital Gains or losses as deferral is allowable making that fall under the same rules as other usual amounts for Capital Gains Tax purposes.

We must also address the actual receipt of the shares from the redemption. If there is a share split distribution as part of the redemption, then BBC must expect it to be treated as a dividend distribution. This would equate to the market value on the date of the redemption of which in this case, would be the earlier of payment of the first installment and accrual of payment of the first installment to Rob, which would be the 31st of December 2019. The 15-year installment plan effectively means that the share redemption can be fully recognized on fulfillment of each obligation. Thus, a payable is created at the beginning of the installment period in 2019 which is equal to the full fair value of the redemption from which we would treat this as a financial instrument and as a result, an amortization table would be drawn up to show how much interest would be allocated along with the coupon payments each year. Since there is a 5% interest charged yearly on the unpaid balance, this will also form part of the amortization table. This is shown below:

Year Opening Balance Coupon Payment Interest accrued-5% Closing Balance
0 2 600 000 (200 000) 2 400 000
1 2 400 000 (160 000) 112 000 2 352 000
2 2 352 000 (160 000) 109 600 2 301 600
3 2 301 600 (160 000) 107 080 2 248 680
4 2 248 680 (160 000) 104 434 2 193 114
5 2 193 114 (160 000) 101 656 2 134 770
6 2 134 770 (160 000) 98 739 2 073 509
7 2 073 509 (160 000) 95 675 2 009 184
8 2 009 184 (160 000) 92 459 1 941 643
9 1 941 643 (160 000) 89 082 1 870 725
10 1 870 725 (160 000) 85 536 1796 261
11 1796 261 (160 000) 81 813 1 718 074
12 1 718 074 (160 000) 77 904 1 635 978
13 1 635 978 (160 000) 73 799 1 549 777
14 1 549 777 (160 000) 69 489 1 459 266
15 1 459 266 (160 000) 64 963 1 364 229

An example of the interest accrued calculation would be for year 1, (5% x (2 400 000- 160000)) which would give us an interest of 112 000. This amount of 112 000 constitutes the amount charged on the unpaid balance for year 1 after the yearly payment of 160 000 has been made. The amount for interest unlike the coupon payments, will change for each year but the method in which it is calculated will remain consistent. This accrued amount for interest is then added to the carrying amount after the coupon deduction to then form the closing balance, which is then carried forward to the next year as the opening balance for the next calculation until the 15th installment for which, the redemption then concludes. The amortization table above shows the interest amounts for each year that accrue to what has to be paid to Rob over and above the coupon payments for each year right up until the last year of installments. A payable remains after year 15 of 1 364 229. BBC could opt to factor that into their yearly payments so as to avoid accrual of the mammoth payable at the end of year 15 or they could come up with a new payment plan for that amount which may lead to more interest being accrued in the future. Debt or retained earnings could be used to cover the finance part of the deal. Reserves show that Retained Earnings as of 2018 were at 2 480 000 post dividend distributions. Reserves show that BBC would have the capacity to pay the arrears to Rob. The interest accruals each year would attract tax deductions for BBC on the earlier of payment or accrual.

When it comes to the usual Income Tax for 2019, the calculation that BBC will come up with will highly likely differ to the one the IRS will have meaning that there would be deferred tax which would have to be accounted and provided for. This will most likely be gained due to the fact that BBC is funding a redemption of shares from Rob through it’s reserves. The Income Tax as per the Income Statement for Financial Reporting Purposes would be:

  • 1 211 217 x 21% = $254 356 (Profits after tax)
  • This will differ from the amount from the IRS in respect to how some items are treated for tax purposes and changes that occur yearly. Post-year adjustments for amounts that will be discovered in 2020 will also have an effect on the amount leading to the amount differences that will lead to deferred tax adjustments having to be done.
  • There are amounts which will be subject to deductions on the Income Tax Statement for Tax purposes, like Charitable Donations, Dividends which are exempted after inclusion as Income for shareholders and for Rob, interest earned, which is also exempt. Some expenses incurred will also be subject to deductions.

For BBC, there is no taxable effect of the redemption being done by Rob up until the point whereby his shares have been issued once again at which now potentially a gain or loss can arise from this point. The Base Cost would be appended to what was paid to Rob and the Proceeds would equal the Open Market Value.

Lastly, I will calculate what will remain in the reserves of BBC regarding Retained Earnings or Accumulated Earnings and Profits immediately after the redemption has occurred. The calculations are as follows:

  • Opening Balance- Retained Earnings 2 480 000
    • As of 01/01/19
  • Profits earned in 2019 after tax   254 356
  • Dividend Distributions                         -180 000
  • Redemption of shares – W1 2 289 288
  • Closing Balance- Retained Earnings                                     265 068
  • W1-The amount that will affect the Retained Earnings is dependent on how much has been redeemed from Rob by BBC. In this case, BBC has only redeemed the 300 shares which are separate from the partnership. This means that the 25 shares from the partnership remain signifying a 92.31% redemption of shares. This portion is the same one that will be financed through Retained Earnings instead of the full amount as this is capital in nature. Hence, 92.31% x 2 480 000 = 2 289 288.
  • Therefore, what would remain in Retained Earnings would be $265 068.

I hope that this clarifies and demystifies all parties with regards to the redemption and all the consequences thereafter. My suggestion would be to try and restructure the redemption to just over a significant level (over 50%) like 51% redemption or to a point where Rob has minimal but significant interest in the company so that the Retained Earnings reserves are kept sufficient enough so as to keep the company operating as a going concern in the foreseeable future and still be able to transition management to keep the company’s best interests at heart.

Yours Sincerely

World Religion

According to the teachings of Prophet Muhammad, Islam was established on five essential pillars. The pillars are the basic foundation constructs of Islam, and they touch on various aspects such as devotion worship and the structure of the Islamic faith. The Five Pillars are the Shahada, which is a testimony that no other individual has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is His Messenger; the obligatory charity that all Muslims must pay to the living poor (giving alms) (zakat) (Abdullah & Suhaib, 2011); the establishment of prayer (Salat); fasting in the holy month of Ramadan (Sawm), and paying pilgrimage (Hajj). Despite the declaration that Islam was founded on these five pillars, there is no ambiguity that the most significant of the five is the Shahada.

The Shahada pillar holds that every individual must bear witness or declare that there is no other god except Allah, and Muhammad is his Messenger (Kamal-ud-Din, 2010). The declaration that there is no other god besides Allah encapsulates the whole Islamic faith because there cannot be any tranquility, comfort, or happiness either in this life or in the afterlife if one does not acknowledge the giver and creator of everything in the world, Allah, the most beneficent, the most merciful. Therefore, the Shahada is a declaration in the belief of Islam as a true religion for any individual reluctant or unable to recite it cannot be considered to be a true Muslim. In addition, the significance of the Shahada is that it is impossible to practice or even declare the other four pillars if one has not declared the eminence or the superiority of Allah and His Messenger, Prophet Muhammad. It is also easily visible that besides the Shahada, the other four pillars can be categorized as “rites of worship,” and it is impossible to practice these rights without the principal declaration and profession of the Islamic faith through the Shahada.

References

Abdullah, M., & Suhaib, A. Q. (2011). The impact of zakat on social life of Muslim society. Pakistan Journal of Islamic Research8, 85-91.

Kamal-ud-Din, K. (2010). Five pillars of Islam. Nabu Press.

Research Question(s) and Methods

Research Question(s) and Methods

In social science, one of the significant choices one has to make when conducting research is to determine the best research method to use in answering the research question. The most likely option a researcher has is to determine between qualitative and quantitative to determine the best model that best suits a study. One of the essential elements that are generally used to determine the type of research method is determining whether research will use data or words. Most of the social science topics primarily studies in history, use documented works to come up with an answer to the research question. However, the determination of the research methods should not be exclusively based on whether the research uses statistics or relying on documented material. For instance, in qualitative research, one can convert the text into numerical for purposes of quantitative analysis. On the other hand, one can change quantitative data for purposes of qualitative analysis. In some cases, a mixed-method approach is used, which is referred to as methodology pluralism. It involves the use of quantitative and qualitative methods in collecting and analyzing data. The mixed-method approach is used after determining the type of data collected, as well as how data is analyzed. The paper will describe the research method to answer the question: When did American Political Development (APD) emerge? How is it different from institutionalism?

Qualitative research methods will be best to collect data that will be used in answering the research question. The primary purpose of qualitative research methodology is to generate theory from observation, or it is oriented to discovery through exploration. The research has the opportunity to discover what other scholars have discussed on the topic. Most of the research topics in social science are based on social aspects that do not require much of analytical data analysis. It is vital to ensure that the research method used provides a comprehensive understanding of the view of scholars on the topic, and as a result, the research question is answered comprehensively. Moreover, qualitative research focuses on merging data collection and analysis. It is a significant framework in research since it ensures the researcher understands the data collected and at the same time coming up with the necessary conclusions.

The use of qualitative research is essential for the research question since it emphasizes on meaning and interpretation. When analyzing the work of other researchers, the main focus is to have a better understanding of the meaning they create within their studies. One of the primary purposes of qualitative research is that it tries to understand the perspective of others regarding a particular topic. For instance, the research aims at exploring when APD emerged and how it differs from institutionalism. Such a topic has been researched by a variety of others, and each provides a comprehensive understanding of the topic. Some begin by critiquing the work of others and then providing an overview of how they believe APD emerged (Gerring, 2003). Qualitative research methodology becomes a favorable research method since it will ensure data is collected from a variety of writers. Additionally, having an understanding of the viewpoints of many authors that have written about the topic plays a central role in developing an informed study. Conclusions will be made as a result of a comprehensive analysis of the available data that has different viewpoints regarding the topic. Such an approach will ensure that the data collected and the analysis conducted are effective in answering the research questions based on a variety of viewpoints.

The procedures involved in the research process are excellent and would have a positive impact on ensuring the question has been addressed appropriately. The researcher is directly involved and is close to the data, which is one of the vital elements that the research method ensures is followed in the process of addressing the research questions. The researcher is the research instrument; hence, he or she does not rely on other tools to understand the data. The possibility of accuracy is high since the researcher is the main person that is involved in making the deduction based on the materials used for research. In research, the procedure is crucial since it determines the outcome of the data collected. The researcher is in control of the interpretation of the data collected. In such research methods, there is no possibility of deviating from the research questions. The data collected and analyzed is based on the research problem that has been identified (Gerring, 2003). Moreover, since the researcher is in control of the collection of data, he or she determines the appropriate data to use in answering the research questions. It is an important aspect of the research method because most of the data collected will be relevant to the topic. Moreover, it will be sufficient enough to discuss the different perspectives of various authors interested in the topic.

The use of qualitative research will have a positive impact on developing new knowledge on the topic or identifying a research gap that has not been addressed before. The role of research is to ensure that it pushes the frontiers of knowledge forward and provides a platform for other researchers to use and develop informative conclusions. Researchers are expected to develop an exploratory approach to the world. For instance, Desmond King and Rogers Smith (2005), in their work “Racial Orders in American Political Development,” provide an analysis of the APD in relation to racial orders. It is one aspect of the broader topic of APD. Understanding such a source of data would require establishing elements of interrogation for new patterns that the work has not addressed. It is the role of the researcher to determine the best research methods that will provide a new analysis of the topic and identify gaps that ought to be addressed. An exploratory research method is part of a qualitative method that would be vital in collecting data for use in answering the research question. In this case, the exploration of similar sources of information as that of King & Smith (2005) would be of great importance in ensuring the topic has been discussed comprehensively. Exploration is an aspect that requires critical engagement and aggressiveness to be able to identify any biases that may have been experienced in the collection of data by the initial researchers. As a result of the critical engagement, it becomes easy to identify the gaps in the different sources. The research method is vital in ensuring a comprehensive analysis of the sources discussing the topic. Moreover, the research method will play a role in providing a new perspective in understanding the topic.

In developing research, one of the critical aspects is truth and precision. A qualitative research method is a vital strategy of ensuring the data collected is accurate and valid; hence, it provides a truthful answer to the research question. Qualitative research allows the researcher to collect information that is valid and accurate in addressing the topic. Moreover, the precision that qualitative research allows is vital in ensuring the information described in the research is correct and addresses the concerns of the research. For instance, the article by Mettler & Milstein (2007) provides a chronology of political development in America. How the authors outline the events is vital for the study since it helps in addressing the main question. The precision of the information provided in the article would make it a significant source of data. It is through qualitative research method that such precise information can be used to address the research question and at the end of the research, come up with a comprehensive conclusion. Moreover, qualitative research allows for the generality of information, which is vital in generating theory. Most of the scholars in social science rely on different theories in making assumptions or describing various observations (Gerring, 2003). A theory may describe or explain different phenomena on social issues. Qualitative research is effective in providing a new method or theory in understanding the same phenomena. Therefore, the research methodology will play a role in providing a new perspective on the topic and enhancing a better understanding of APD.

In answering the research question, there is a need for coherence of the information provided by previous researchers. One part of an argument should be linked to the other, and there should not be any inconsistencies evident. Qualitative research is the best research method to point out any inconsistencies evident in similar studies. Since the researcher has the opportunity to read a variety of sources and come up with a comprehensive conclusion, it would be easy to determine any challenge regarding coherence and as a result adopting the necessary measures to address the anomaly (Gerring, 2003). Moreover, the qualitative research method is useful in addressing the research question since it determines the commensurability of data collected. In social science research, a theory needs to be in sync with other theories. It plays a significant role in aiding the accumulation of knowledge in the field of study. Qualitative research method helps determine whether a theory adopted in understanding an aspect in social science effectively relates to other social theories (Gerring, 2003). Since qualitative research borrows data from other researches that have had an interest in the field, it is easy to link different sociological theories to the research question. It forms a critical way of providing a better understanding of the research question based on new theories.

A qualitative research method is one of the most effective strategies used to collect and analyze data in social science. It proves to be effective since it provides an understanding of different perspectives to the researcher interested in the same field. Different authors provide a different analysis of a similar topic, which is a critical element in providing a better understanding of the topic. It becomes easy to identify the gaps in the previous researches and as a result coming up with conclusions that address the gaps.

References

Gerring, J. (2003). APD from a methodological point of view. Studies in American Political Development17(1), 82-102.

King, D. S., & Smith, R. M. (2005). Racial orders in American political development. American Political Science Review99(1), 75-92.

Mettler, S., & Milstein, A. (2007). American political development from citizens’ perspective: Tracking federal government’s presence in individual lives over time. Studies in American Political Development21(1), 110-130.

Lesbians and Transgender

Name:

Instructor:

Course:

Date:

Lesbians and Transgender

The sampled article sourced from a Vanguard Issue of 1967 centers its discussion on dissecting the problems plaguing the youth living in the mentioned timeline. In particular, the newspaper anchors its analysis on the topic of gay rights, lesbianism and oppression of the transgender community. Herein, the reader obtains worthwhile information about the tribulations faced by the aforementioned group of people, especially those who were underprivileged and impoverished. The Vanguard issue serves as a historical source for providing in-depth information about the evolution of the gay rights movement (Vanguard, 1967). It enables one to appreciate the strides made in championing for same-sex unions and the enforcement of their rights and liberties.

In the first section of the San Francisco Youth magazine, the author delves into the subject matter of equality and its relevance to the field of law. Considering the volatile nature of gay rights during the 1960s, this deliberation can be deemed a courageous one since it triumphs all openings of fear or retribution (Vanguard, 1967). The writer is obviously bold and daring in his or her quest to make it known that gays, lesbians, transgender and queer people were constantly deprived of their human rights. Under the topic of equality, the writer begins by acknowledging that people who identify with the “sexually different group” tend to be subjected to various forms of humiliations.

Moreover, they are hardly treated with dignity with the law often denying them the right to adequate sexual satisfaction (Vanguard, 1967). What is more, the legal stipulations of this historical era seem prejudiced for failing to accord people the freedom of expressing their sexual preferences. Therefore, one would understand why the author is quite vocal in advocating for the rights of the LGBTQ movement. In the second paragraph, he or she states that homosexuality lacks any relationship with a person’s self-worth or individual qualities (Vanguard, 1967). A person can identify as gay or lesbian, but still possess the most admirable qualities in academics, research or professionalism. To this end, the author asserts that one’s sexual orientation should not be used as a deterrent to any of their constitutional rights.

The equality article instead insists that all members of the LGBTQ movement should rally against the “dark ages” that subject them to inhumane treatment simply because of their sexuality. The article continues to substantiate claims that gays, lesbians or transgender individuals are incapable of executing their professional or personal obligations like their heterosexual counterparts (Vanguard, 1967). The entire piece vehemently condemns the prejudiced and biased treatment of gays, simply because they contravene the normal code of sexual inclinations. In subsequent articles such as “Loneliness in the Tenderloin” and “Horace Horny Tells All,” similar sentiments are raised by the respective authors. More specifically, “Loneliness in the Tenderloin” sheds light on the importance of intimate relationships in the life of every human being.

Interestingly written by a reverend, the article truthfully affirms that every person craves to have an honest love relationship. The yearning that comes with it drives people to search for that one person with whom they can share their lives with for eternity. It is therefore not surprising that lonely people tend to be bitter about their situation (Vanguard, 1967). The utterance of loathing  remarks or subtle accusations about others is often used by lonely people to mask their feeling of rejection or being alone. The reverend goes ahead to express his concerns about the casual nature that the youth treat and handle religion. For most of the young generation, religion is merely an outdated concept that does not align itself with their priorities or daily activities (Vanguard, 1967). For this reason, most people will find themselves in meaningless and superficial relationships, devoid of value or importance. To avoid such circumstances, the writer urges his readers to pray for understanding of God’s love. In so doing, they can be able to tolerate the lonely phase while waiting for the most compatible partner. “Horace Horny Tells All” tackles the issue of relationships differently from the other authors. The section assumes a question-answer format with the public seeking replies to pressing issues in their relationships. From most of the questions, one can tell that bisexuality, extramarital affairs and gay relations were some of the most popular problems plaguing the 1960s youth. Together, the three pieces selected for close analysis demonstrate that gay and transgender oppression was quite rampant during this timeline (Vanguard, 1967). People identifying with either category often found themselves at the receiving end of torture, humiliation or abuse.

The language, ideas and phrases used to articulate the issues affecting gay youth who lived in the 1960s shows that homosexuality was quite a volatile subject at the time. The Vanguard article allows readers to appreciate the significant strides made in championing for equal treatment of gays, lesbians, transgender and queer individuals. Undoubtedly, enormous achievements have been accomplished in the LGBT community in the present decade, with most of them being made possible by the selfless efforts of gay rights crusaders living in the 1960s.

 

Works Cited

Vanguard. (1967). The magazine of the San Francisco Youth Movement, Inc. Analyze ISSUE 4.

http://www.glbthistory.org/Vanguard/VanguardMagazine_PDF/Vanguard_Volume4_we  b.pdf. Accessed 11 December 2019

 

The political movement for lesbians, gay ans trans

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Political Movement for LGBT

Introduction

The modern world continues to register massive achievements as far as diversity across communities continues to be embraced and also incorporated organizational, national, and global policies. Nonetheless, there still remain major setbacks to the realization of diversity especially on the emerging issues such as the rights of the lesbians, gays, bisexual and transsexual (LGBT) communities. The demand for equality among these and the general population is met with major divides from a political perspective regarding the best way to integrate the LGBT community without any form of discrimination. One of the major divides the assimilation versus embracing the differences and freedom of the LGBT community. As far as the assimilation political approach to diversity regarding the LGBT community is concerned, the policymakers aim at promoting the integration of these populations in the general public to create a homogenous population. On the other hand, the differentiation policy aims at embracing the differences between the general population and the LGBT communities. In this paper, the two schools of thought and approaches to promoting LGBT welfare will be reviewed by employing major developments and reviewing their impacts on this cause.

The 1950s and 1960s homophile movement

The 1950s and 1960s homophile movement were led by organizations that were advocating for gay rights in major institutions such as media, medicine, law, and religion among others. The majority of individuals who led in this movement were college-educated middle-class professionals, most of whom were gay. The use of the term homophile (Loving the same) by these organizations to drive their agenda was meant to shift the attention of the public from the sex entity of homosexuality (Jackson, 57), and this points to an inclination towards conservatism as far as interpersonal relationships are concerned. This implies that the activists in this era were inclined towards assimilation where they may have wanted the public to perceive them as equals with regard to sexual behavior.

AIDS and the bathhouse controversy

The emergence of HIV/AIDS had a huge impact on the general American population and it prompted researchers to establish the factors and health determinants of its prevalence and incidence. One of the major findings has been the high-risk population that is men who have sex with men (MSMs). This led to a public health versus gay rights controversy that resulted from the increase in the number of gay bathhouses in the USA that Rabin (1986) observes were more than 200. The bathhouses facilitated the privacy of gays in the USA in a period when homosexuality was still considered repugnant compared to today’s perception. The public health officials proposed tougher regulations to reduce the spread of the virus in the US population while the city administrators proposed the closure. The pro-gay-bathhouses activist, on the other hand, were fighting for the houses to remain open as a way of protecting gay rights. This points to an inclination towards embracing the respectability of the LGBT community built around their differences from the general society.

Efforts to legalize gay marriage

The gradual embracement of diversity along the sexual orientation and gender lines has seen gay marriages become more popular and legal in many regions. However, this has not been the case historically as, despite the acknowledgment of the existence of same-sex relationships, marriages were not considered for homosexuals. Until 2004, gay marriage was illegal in the USA but the supreme judicial court in Massachusetts ruled in favor of same-sex marriages, and by 2015, same-sex marriages are legal in the USA (Smith, 65). The pro-gay marriage activists saw it as an infringement of human rights to abridge marriage on the basis of the sex of the participants, and this points to their need for assimilation as opposed to differentiation from the general population.

Who stood to gain and who stood to lose from the two different approaches?

Both approaches towards protecting the interests of the LGBT communities are associated with both challenges and benefits. It is a matter of weighing the significance of either approach by the activists and adopting it in the most beneficial way. The developments described in the previous part were experienced at times when diversity along the sexual orientation and gender lines was an emerging phenomenon, and it is likely that either approach was not informed by research, but rather the face value. In the first development regarding the homophile movements, activist organizations tried to deviate the element of sex pertaining to same-sex relationships. This approach may have worked against them in the long run, since sexual orientation and preference for a same-sex partner is a fundamental element of the LGBT community. Instead, the advocates should have employed a strategy that would show the world that same-sex relationships are a right.

In AIDS and the bathhouses controversy, the public health officials stood to lose by abolishing these facilities. According to Rabin, the presence of bathhouses would help in reaching the LGBT communities and preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS, since these facilities helped to contain its spread in the public space. It also would serve to the advantage of the gay persons that visited the houses as it would serve as a form of promoting positive behavior such as the use of condoms, a fete that would be hard to achieve while the individuals were spread across the country. The assimilation approach adopted by the LGBT activists in advocating for the legalization of gay marriage worked fully in their favor. The assimilation policy as Johnson observes is based on the principles of the LGBT community enjoying equal rights and this means engaging in the daily life activities as the general population. Without the legalization of gay marriage, the relationships would be somewhat meaningless, and this implies that the LGBT community would not be in a position to explore happiness in full.

Benefits and setbacks of the politics of difference and assimilation for the LGBT people

The politics of assimilation have had more benefits for the LGBT people compared to the politics of difference. Under the policies of assimilation, society tends to realize that the LGBT community does not choose to be in that category more than the general population chooses to be heterosexual. On the other hand, special treatment that is likely to result from the politics of difference has been and can be easily exploited against the interests of the LGBT persons. For example, building washrooms that are special for the transsexual persons implies that they become more vulnerable to targeted abuse compared to when they are allowed to integrate with the general population. The politics of difference, having been employed in other special populations such as persons with disabilities, have helped in the establishment of special policies, laws and regulations that address some of the challenges that the LGBT people are faced with. Nonetheless, the politics of difference are more likely to dehumanize the LGBT community than would assimilation, making assimilation more effective as far as the interests of LGBT people are concerned.

 

 

Works Cited

Jackson, Julian. “The homophile movement.” The Ashgate research companion to lesbian and gay activism. Routledge, 2016. 47-60.

Johnson, Genevieve Fuji. “Deliberative Democracy Now: LGBT Equality and the Emergence of Large-Scale Deliberative Systems. By Edwina Barvosa. New York: Cambridge University Press. Perspectives on Politics 17.2 (2019): 543-544.

Rabin, Judith A. “The AIDS epidemic and gay bathhouses: a constitutional analysis.” Journal of health politics, policy and law 10.4 (1986): 729-747.

Smith, Miriam. “Historical institutionalism and same-sex marriage: A comparative analysis of the USA and Canada.” Global Perspectives on Same-Sex Marriage. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2018. 61-79.