Real Estate Graduate School

Abstract

This admission essay indicates my professional goals, the reasons why the graduate program is right for me both academically and professionally, and the contributions that I will make to the university and the program as a student and afterward. My main professional goals that guide my career actions are:

  • To become a senior manager in an established real estate company
  • To become an entrepreneur in the real estate sector and incorporate my own company
  • To take charge in the construction of a monumental structure of a historical significance in the country

Also, the master’s degree program in real estate in the university is the right option for me due to the following reasons:

  • I am passionate about real estate, and I am keen to succeed in the field
  • My prior educational background renders the master’s program in real state to be a suitable option to progress further academically
  • My work experience in real estate makes the master’s program compatible with my professional goals and aspirations

I will also make immense contributions to the schools both directly and indirectly. I will contribute to the degree program and the school in the following ways:

  • The school would get a leader who will not only focus on academic excellence but also channel immense efforts towards creating a united student fraternity
  • The school will acquire a committed and hardworking individual who thrives amid challenges
  • I will be a good alumnus of the school to give back to the institution and guide the students where appropriate

 

Admission Essay: Real Estate Graduate School

Growing up, I have always wondered which career path would be suitable for me. Will I be an entrepreneur? Will I major in one of the formal sectors such as banking, real estate, insurance? These are some of the fundamental questions that motivated me to seek clarity and closure at my tender age and develop a clear vision and plan that would bring order in my academic journey to fulfill my future career goals. It is in the midst of the uncertainty that I realized my passion for real estate and the potential to thrive in the sector. Things became more transparent in the 7th grade when I was motivated to seek leadership positions in school not only to lead the students but also to advocate for their rights for decent buildings and academic infrastructure to make the learning process conducive. On several occasions, I found myself at the podium, addressing my seventh-grade class seeking their support in the upcoming presidential election in the eighth grade. I instinctively knew that the current buildings were old and needed substantial renovations to make the learning environment not only inclusive but also presentable to the eye. Therefore, my campaign portfolio was based on the commitment of representing the student’s body in the advocacy efforts to add and renovate the school buildings, parts of which dated back to 1891. My charge was to save the facades of the present buildings, which had historical significance and unique architecture, at all costs, and make sure the project was harmonious as a whole. Writing this personal statement presents me the opportunity to reflect on the impactful moments of my life, understand my career goals and objectives, gauge the significance of the master’s graduate program, and determine my contribution to the graduate program.

Ever since I discovered my passion for real estate, I developed viable professional goals to guide me in my quest to succeed in my career. My father and brothers are my inspiration because they thrive in their respective professions and other activities. I learned the criticality of objectivity from my interactions with my father and siblings. My father always used the term “hold all the aces” to challenge and motivate me to overcome the barriers in life and professional development. The phrase is unique, and it is used to encourage people to be objective and create positions of advantage relative to others. Therefore, my career goals and objectives are an outcome of the nourishing environment that I grew in, with supportive and encouraging family members. My first professional goal is to work in an established real estate company at a senior managerial position. Currently, I have been working in supporting roles in different companies in the financial market. However, my aspiration is to progress smoothly in a reputable real estate company and occupy a senior managerial position that will grant me access to expand my real estate networks further. However, as my father says, I will need to “ace up my sleeve” to make the goal a reality. My second professional goal is to become an entrepreneur in the sector and incorporate my own company. I believe that with the right exposure, networks, and motivation, I will be in a prime position to manage a real estate company. Similarly, I will use my father’s advice of “acing up my sleeve” to attract and retain a reasonable clientele to make the business sustainable. My last professional goal is to take charge of the construction of a monumental structure of a historical significance in the country. Growing up in New York, I have been fortunate enough to see high caliber buildings and infrastructures. I plan to be the mastermind of one of the monumental buildings in New York or any other city in the country. I believe that my hard work, passion, and determination will enable me to realize the goals.

I believe that this graduate program (Masters in real estate) is suitable for me both academically and professionally. First, I am passionate about real estate, and I am keen to succeed in the field. From a tender age, I developed a passion for buildings, and I was thrilled by the architectural layout of most of the buildings in New York City. Also, I belong to a community of passionate and objective-oriented professionals, who encouraged me to persist in my aspiration to become a successful real estate entrepreneur in the future. The support system from my family and community members who thrived in the real estate market and other professions reinforced my passion for real estate. Therefore, the innate drive would guide me to focus on the master’s program and obtain the necessary academic accolades to progress in my career. Second, my prior educational background renders the master’s program in real state to be a suitable option to advance further academically. Notably, I pursued short real estate courses and programs at the University of Michigan. The courses enabled me to acquire fundamental knowledge about the real estate industry. Also, I was an active member of the real estate club at the University of Michigan, which enabled me to participate in real estate networking events and acquire knowledge of the industry. Therefore, the prior theoretical knowledge about real estate makes the master’s program to be a viable academic option for my professional progress. Finally, my work experience in real estate makes the masters program compatible with my professional goals and aspirations. The most recent endeavor in my career progress has been working with D3 development in North Carolina. My experience thus far has been nothing but exceptional. I have been tasked to analyze different lucrative financing options for the development project that adheres to the state order within this specific opportunity zone and in congruence with the new historical rehabilitation tax credit program adopted in 2016. Therefore, practical exposure would enable me to relate well with the real estate theoretical frameworks in the master’s program. Also, the master’s program will nourish me further with the requisite real estate knowledge that would be instrumental in my professional growth and development.

Besides personally gaining from the master’s program, I believe that the institution would benefit immensely from me. I simple terms, a mutual relationship will exist between the institution and me. First, the school would get a leader who will not only focus on academic excellence but also channel immense efforts towards creating a united student fraternity that would liaise with the administration to foster academics and other co-curricular activities. It is critical for the student leadership to have a vision and share its plans with the school administration to promote cooperation and limit cases of disagreements that lead to the disruption of the scheduled programs. I have been a leader all through my academic journey. I looked up to my father and brothers, who possess excellent leadership skills, such as interpersonal and problem-solving capabilities. I plan to join the student leadership once my application for the master’s degree program is accepted. Second, the school will acquire a committed and hardworking individual who thrives amid challenges. I have been nicknamed “the doer” at home because of my conviction and ability to accomplish tasks that were initially deemed impossible. Therefore, I am confident that I will perform exemplarily well in my academics, which will, in turn, bolster the image of the institution. Students usually apply for programs in universities and colleges that perform well. Also, I will use my gift to assist my fellow students in achieving academic excellence and bolstering the image of the school. Third, the university will get an athlete. Though not naturally gifted, I have been learning from my brother, Zach, who is a great athlete. Zach taught me the significance of discipline and hard work in sports. He usually uses the phrase “hard work beats talent” to encourage me not to give up and consider sports as an alternative option. I was inspired, and I am currently thriving in Basketball. I believe that I can be an important member of the basketball team in school. Finally, I will be a good alumnus of the school and give back to the institution and guide the students with aspirations to succeed in life. I will be offering financial support to the needy students annually once I realize my professional goal of owning a real estate company. Also, I will mentor the students who want to venture into real estate in the future. Therefore, I believe that I can be a real asset to the school during and after my course.

To conclude, I believe that I have the passion, drive, dedication, educational background, and experience to be considered for the real estate master’s program in your institution. This university has an excellent reputation for producing successful real estate professionals, which makes me keen to join the course and be part of the institution’s success. I am looking forward to hearing from you soon.

General Motors

 

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Objectives

General motors has been a driving force in the economy since its creation in 1908. By researching General Motors, a successful organisation not just in the united states but globally. I understood that the company has a firm stance on ethics and contributes to the social economic situations in countries the organisation operates in.

I chose general motors as they are a large global organisation. One factor that interests me specifically is that the General Motors board is comprised of 55% woman. (Stanisic. 2018) The company is the only vehicle manufacturing organisation which has a majority female board. I would like to determine if this influences the organisations decision making. In 2020 general motors was named as one of the world’s most ethical companies due to their revised vision statement announced in 2017. The organisation has committed to a zero emissions future. (Leader. 2018)

Introduction

William C Durant is the mastermind that consolidated a number of car manufactures. Producing vehicles like Buick, Oldsmobile, Cadillac, Oakland/Pontiac to name a few. The company was the world’s largest vehicle manufacturing for most of the 20th and 21st centuries. The company’s primary products are cars and trucks, automotive components, and financial services. By 1914 the company was producing 44% of all new cars sold in the United States. The company changes with the times and this is demonstrated by the vision statement the organisation released in 2017.

General motors has pledged to be emissions free and a hundred percent electric in the future. The ethics they demonstrate is the preservation of the environment and fighting co2 emissions. (Sortello. 2019) The vision statement is “to create a future with zero crashes, zero emissions and zero congestion. We have committed ourselves to leading the way toward this future”. (Grey. 2020). Like any large corporation GM has faced a number of obstacles that has forced them to change. For example, Durant being forced out of the organisation in 1920.  Or GM receiving a bailout from the Bush administration due to the economic down turn and the foreign vehicle manufactures encroaching on GMs market share in the United States.

Code of ethics

General motors code of conduct, orientation, and direction states that the organisation will win with integrity, conduct business practices with honesty. They further state they are committed to core values, customers, relationships, and excellence. (Danigelis. 2018) GM has pledged to always act with integrity and put the safety of its workers and customers as its number one priority. This is due primarily to the backlash GM faced in the past. The company covered up defective parts.

It is presumed that the cover up lasted almost ten years and is responsible for more than 120 deaths. (Sarhello, 2017). GM places transparency as paramount. (Okne. 2020) GM’s perspective is that if they maintain their code of ethics and work hard to improve the safety of their vehicles, they can be more successful. Primarily GM stands for the safety of its stakeholders.

These would include their employees, investors, and CEO internally. External stakeholders are vendors, consumers, clients, competitors, and the governments of the countries they operate in. (Khatter,2017).  In my opinion GM is both value and compliance based. The company has to comply with a number of rules and regulations in order to operate in the United States. By complying with these regulations, they transition into being a value-based organisation giving their consumers the best possible products. (Barra, 2019).

Corporate social responsibility

GM has a corporate social responsibility strategy that supports business growth objectives in the global automotive industry. The strategy is based on stakeholder interests in the manufacture sale and use of their vehicles. GM rates their priorities as employees, customers, communities, suppliers and lastly investors.

GMs social responsibility is demonstrated by the company producing personal safety screens in light of the coronavirus epidemic. And in 3rd world countries engineering staff have been repairing ventilators to aid the communities they operate in. (Green, 2019).

The new revised social policies were implemented after one of the biggest issues GM had to overcome. The ignition switch scandal in 2014. It was revealed that some cars featured faulty ignitions, resulting in the engines being switched off. GM covered up the fault for a decade. It is believed the fault resulted in more than 120 deaths.

After it was exposed by the media GM recalled 2.6 million cars. It is theorised that cost was the reason for the cover up. GM was investigated by congress and the federal government. CEO Mary Barra took over during the controversy and pledged that the organisation would go from a cost culture to a customer culture. (Barra. 2015)

Diversity and technology

GM believes that different cultures shape today’s global economy. “We believe that working on inclusion will strengthen our understanding of customer needs and help us solve todays toughest transportation challenges.” (Wang. 2015) GM strives on bringing together diverse teams so the organisation can have multiple perspectives. GM gas achieved this by having a workforce that is comprised of 40% woman and minorities. The organisation is one of the only companies in manufacturing that has a board made up of 55% woman. (Okne. 2020)

Marketing

GM’s social agenda is partnering with lifestyle brands. Partnering with these unique brands substantiate that GM products are premium products. Additionally, GM has appointed internal acquisition teams to reach out to prospective employees. GM offer unique made for employee value propositions and partner with universities to recruit the best possible candidates. (GM, Diversity. 2020) The organisation partners with a personal finance company to help restructure employees student loans.

When considering the four Ps GM has a multi layered approach. This approach allows the organisation to tailor product offerings to regional needs and desires of the communities they to serve. (Rosen. 2018) Because the strategy is tailored to specific regions and markets the strategy is sustainable and the organisation can create its own unique opportunities.

In their vision statement GM highlights that the opportunities the organisation aims for is the development of new technologies, cleaner running cars and moving towards zero emissions. These new technologies will increase the safety and ease the everyday headaches of consumers. (Gregg. 2018)

Environmental responsibility

The organisation made a promise when Mary Barra took over in 2014. GM was going to be a responsible corporate citizen with a global environmental policy to help manage the impact of their carbon footprint has on the environment. For example, GM has pledged to reduce the organisations waste by committing to reduce waste and pollutants while conserving resources and recycling materials. (Rosen. 2018).

The code of conduct spells out what the organisation is doing to reduce waste, save water and recycle. GM is extremely focused on developing energy efficient cars which is a sustainable marketing practices which can be turned into a business opportunities. (Green. 2019)

GM has a combination of a regulatory approach and market-based approach. The American government has extremely strict rules and regulations in regard to manufacturing and selling vehicles in the United States. This would be the regulatory approach the market-based approach is where GM considers the benefits and features and prices of the competitions products. GM needs to have a market-based approach if they want to be competitive. (Wang. 2015).

Corporate governance

The companies ethics affects its governance we circle back to the GM mission statement. “seeing a world with zero crashes, zero emissions and zero congestion; our core values are our customers, excellence, relationships and truth; and our seven core behaviours, think customer, innovate now and look ahead.”  Mary Barra has from the start emphasized that the organisation will be people based under her leadership focusing on the safety and wellbeing of the employees and consumers. (Gregg. 2018).

The governance of the organisations completely depends on how the decisions will affect the stake holders positively or negatively. The board of directors has almost absolute power when it comes to the governance of the organisation. They oversea standing committees that look after audits, finance, governance, and corporate responsibility etc. As for conflicts of interests the organisation produces different brands of vehicles, these vehicles all have different brands, but similar models might compete against each other in the market. For example, the Chevrolet Trax and the Buick encore.  (Alberta, 2020).

A prime example of a company that is not effectively managed is AB InBev. The organisation is one of the largest beer producers in the world. The brewery has acquired a number of breweries around the world in an attempt to grow its market share quickly. But due to growing too fast and the mis management AB InBev had to liquidate all its assets in Australia. The same is happening in south Africa were trainees are appointed as managers to save money and the organisation is losing money due to lack of experience. (Grant. 2019)

Conclusion

Yes, GM is a company I would work for as they seem to value their staff and go to great lengths to make sure they are comfortable, happy, and taken care of.  I also completely agree with the policies Mary Barra has put in place making GM a more caring and compassionate organisation. For example, after the scandal of 2014 broke it was with the leadership of Mary Barra that millions of dollars was set aside to compensate families for loved ones lost. But what makes GM an attractive employer is their policies ranging from looking after their stakeholders to the relationship the company has with the environment. These are all brought together in the mission and vision statements of the organisation. Rather than other large global organisations that make statements but act to the contrary GM practices what it preaches. Constantly doing research. Asking questions and finding means in which to improve. (Porta, 2010)

 

 

 

 

 

 

References.

Barra, M. (2019). General motors. A message from our chairman and chief executive officer retrieved from investor.com/static-files/265a1dco-

Britannica contributors. (2017). General motors and competition retrieved from britanica.com/topic/general-motors-corporation.

Danigelis, A. (2018). General motors social and environmental issues inseparable retrieved from environmental leader.com/2018/05/general-motors-social/

Green, J. (2019). Mary Barra will lead the auto industry’s first majority female board retrieved from Bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-04-18/gm.s.barra-barra-to-lead

Gregg, T. (2018). GM builds winning culture with diversity retrieved from diversity.com/gm-builds-winning-culture-with-diversity/

Grey, S. (2020). Business.com/articles/6-lessons-in-corporate-ethics-from-the-gm-recall

Hult, T. (2010). Stakeholder marketing: a definition and conceptual framework retrieved from danielsethics.mgt.unm.edu-pdf/hult%20and%20ferrolpdf

Khatter, J. (2017). The real reason GM has given up on the Indian consumer retrieved from economictimes.indiantimes.com/why-general-motors-has-given-up

Leader, E. (2018). How GM ties daily sustainability to biz value retrieved from environmental leader.com/2018/03/how-gm-ties-daily-sustainability

Okne, S. (2020). How GM and Ford switched out pickup trucks for breathing machines retrieved from the verge.com/2020/04/212222222219/general-motors-vhecile-ventilators.

Plumer, B. (2015). The GM recall scandal of 2014 retrieved from vox.com/2014/10/03/18073485/gm-car-recall

Porta, M. (2010). How to define your target market retrieved from inc.com/guides/2010/06/defining-your-target-market.html.

Rosen, M. (2018). General motors: achieving and maintaining world-class leadership in worker health and safety in the automotive industry retrieved from researchgate.net/publication/228593355-general-motors-achieving

Sarhello, A. (2017). General motors, mission statement analysis and vision retrieved from astrogrowth.com/blog/generalmotors-mission-statement

Sortello, A. (2019). General motors mission statement analyses retrieved from astrogrowth.com/general-motors-mission-vision-statements/

Stanisic, B (2018). General motors CEO Mary Barra – leadership style analysis individual assignment – critical essay retrieved from researchgate.net/publication/392316366-generalmotors.

Reynolds, K. (2019).13 benefits and challenges of cultural diversity in the workplace retrieved from hult.edu/benefits-challenges-cultural-diversity-workplace/

Wong, W. (2015). Top ten sustainability initiatives of general motors retrieved from clean techies.com/2012/02/02/top-ten-sustainability-initiatives-of-general-motors/

water in oil emulsion stability that is used in oil drilling

 

 

 

 

 

Water in Oil Emulsion Stability that is used in Oil Drilling

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Water in Oil Emulsion Stability that is used in Oil Drilling

Introduction

Background

The water-in-oil emulsion formation plays a vital role on the industry of oil. The activity of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion occurs at different phases in the course of drilling, processing, production, as well as transportation of crude oil. Crude oil refers to a blend of aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur that has compounds of asphaltenes and resins. In some cases, water-in-oil emulsions are the products of oil spillage. Spill workers often refer the emulsions to as “mousse” or “chocolate mousse,” because cleaning up the spilt oil appear to be challenging. During the formation of the emulsion of this nature, a dramatic change occurs in the physical characteristics of oil. It is worth to realize that asphaltenes and resins of crude oil produces the components that are interfacially active. Numerous studies have confirmed that the core mechanism of W/O emulsions’ asphaltenes is via the creation of the viscous film network that is cross-connected with an elevated mechanical rigidity (Nour & Yunus, 2006; Fingas & Fieldhouse, 2015). The oil viscosity often shifts from some few hundred mPa.s to 100,000mPa.s, and rise by a factor of between 500 and 1000 (Fingas & Fieldhouse, 2015). This scenario indicates the liquid product changing from a heavy and semisolid material. This foundational background results in the need to carry out this study that investigates the W/O emulsion stability that is used in oil drilling, focusing on how to get a stable water in oil emulsion and how to make a stable water in oil emulsion using mineral oil, SPAN 80, and oil EDC 95/11.

Problem Statement

The formation of water in oil emulsion has emerged to be an interesting activity in today’s oil industry because of the environmental and economic issues that come with it. The fact that the emulsions take place at different stages results in an increase in the production cost as well as the costs of transporting oil. There have been environmental issues that have occurred as a result of the hectic process of cleaning up the surrounding after the oil has spilled using methods like pumping, burning, use of sorbants, as well as the use of dispersants (Nour & Yunus, 2006). This problem has made emulsions hard to recover using the traditional recovery equipment of spillage, which has, in turn, made the process of drilling difficult. Undoubtedly, drilling is presently occurring in the environments that are harsh, associated with weather conditions that cannot be predicted as well as the complex geographical structures. The fields that have heavier deposits present further environmental issues when it comes to the extraction of oil.

Contamination resulting in drilling have also presented another problem that the oil refineries needs to deal with to have quality oil. Drilling of the wells into the ground is necessary prior to reaching the actual layer that contains oil. The product of this process is always contaminated oil, making it not suitable for transportation via pipelines. The solution to this issue called for the invention of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions to get the pure oil for easy transportation (Saad et al., 2019). The most commonly used types of emulsions in the oil industry to clean oil comprise inverted and direct emulsions. While direct emulsions have been popular with extremely deviated wells and horizontal wells, stabilized indirect emulsions have gained wider applications in oil industry. Such emulsions have the features of enormous volumes of surfactants, which can cause destructions in the well. The solution to this problem has been the use of direct emulsion, though they have a limitation when it comes to drilling horizontal sections moving for distances that are longer. It also a drawback of having the difficulty in controlling the shales’ stability. These varied issues have compelled the majority of the oil refinery firms to consider changing from oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion methods to better techniques such as W/O emulsions to achieve the desired quality of oil during the drilling process.

Literature Review

The General Theory of the Formation of Emulsions

There are numerous theories that have explained the creations of emulsions. The most prominent theory argue that emulsion occurs when the fluid droplets completely disperse in the other fluid that acts as a phase, and the two liquids must be immiscible under normal circumstances (Abdulredha et al., 2018). The emulsification of water and oil occurs successfully via shear motion. This process produces pure emulsification that is unstable and temporary because the liquids begins to form nearly immediately once the motion is halted. The prior researcher has suggested two distinct techniques for emulsification of oil and water, O/W and W/O, which rely on the phase of emulsion (Abdulredha et al., 2018). O/W arises when emulsion takes place in water where the droplets of oils are dispersed in water phases, while W/O is the product of the emulsion occurring in oil, with the molecules of water being dispersed in oil phase. The process of emulsion has helped in the generation of complex mixtures of emulsion such as oil-water-oil (O/W/O) or water oil water (W/O/W) emulsions.

Some theories have established the different types of emulsions in their investigations of the creation of W/O emulsions. Fingas and Fieldhouse (2014) established there are four W/O types resulting from the mixture of crude oil with water. They name these forms of emulsions as stable, unstable, meso-stable, and entrained W/O emulsions. These types came about after water resolution that was conducted over time with several rheological measurements. They were also discovered by the visual appearance of W/O products, both on the day during which the emulsions are formed and a week later (Fingas, 2014). The four types are extremely different from each other based on two or more measurements of water content, as well as the five rheological measurements.

The formation of emulsions have been studied based on the roles of the asphaltenes. Several researchers have noted that asphaltenes are the primary factors for the creation of W/O emulsions over four decades ago (Fingas, 2014). Undoubtedly, it was until recently that the specific asphaltenes roles in emulsions were defined. At the present, the basic concepts of W/O emulsions can be understood clearly because of the existence of numerous studies that have suggested numerous roles of asphaltenes. Fingas and Fieldhouse (2015) argue that the stabilization of W/O emulsions is paramount during the formation process. Research assert that the films of high-strength visco-elastic asphaltene form around the droplets of water in oil. It has also been evident that resins can also help in the formation of emulsions, though resins do not give the emulsions that are stable. Resins are used to increase the stability of asphaltene emulsion, where it serves as solvents of asphaltene and offers temporary stability when slow migration of asphaltene occurs. In general, numerous scientists have confirmed that the composition of oil forms a core factor in the formation of emulsion of W/O, which comprise the types as well as the amounts of resin, asphaltenes, together with the contents of the saturate.

High quantity of water that accompanies the crude oil extraction is among the key issues affecting the oil industry. The formation of emulsions has an immense contribution to some theories that regulate the cost of pumping, production, and transportation of crude oil. Abdulredha et al. (2018) argue that emulsions are formed three primary reasons. They name the first reason as to bring about diffusion of a liquid into the other liquid because of the existence of mixing energy or turbulent flow. The second reason could be the enhancement of the interactions between two liquids that are immiscible, including water and oil. Moreover, the emulsifying agents present in the crude oil such as resins and asphaltenes calls for the formation of emulsions. Therefore, understanding the different reasons for forming emulsions is necessary in the development of the appropriate method than can help in cleansing the unpolished oil.

The aspect of turbulence plays a significant role in the emulsion formation. Notably, the mixing energy or disturbance as the initial factor that led to the creation of emulsions. According to Abdulredha et al. (2018), the existence of turbulence in the pipeline flow assists in the formation of emulsion because of the two flow system that is similar to that of the fluid, where crude oil mixes with water. The authors point out that turbulence influences break-up as well as coalescence of emulsions (Abdulredha et al., 2018). During the flow of the oil in the pipeline, the suppression of turbulence also takes place as a result of the contact between the droplets of emulsion and other fluids at a constant stage. In scientific perspective, turbulence suspension arises as a result of the kinetic energy of one fluid, which has a single stage, turns out to be higher as compared to other two-phase liquid at the flow rate of the fluid. Moreover, there is the transfer of part of the kinetic energy to emulsions from the stream that is two-phased, making this kind of energy less as opposed to single-phased kinetic energy. Similarly, the turbulent strength decreases when the kinetic energy or power flows from single-phased to the particle. This article is relevant in this research because it provides an understanding of the impact of turbulence on emulsion to help in the selection of the method that can match it to solve the issues associated with oil in the course of drilling.

Resins and asphaltenes and other elements, which are also known as functional molecules, have an influence on the creation of emulsions. The molecules of this nature have heteroatoms, like oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. According to Subramanian et al. (2017), these components lead to basic and acidic characteristics in the fluids that petroleum-based, which result in the stabilized W/O emulsions. This article regards alphaltenes as the components with the strongest stability of W/O emulsion since they possess polycyclic aromatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The knowledge of the fact that alphaltenes contribute to the stability of W/O emulsions begun more than four decades ago (Abdulredha et al., 2018). In general, this argument explains the reason for the increased usage of the W/O emulsions as compared to the traditional techniques such as O/W.

Stability of Water in Oil Emulsion

The study of rheology of emulsions seek to examine the stability in W/O. As argued earlier, asphaltenes and resins have been established as the strongest stabilizers of emulsions (Abdulredha et al., 2018). According to Fingas and Fieldhouse (2014), the emulsions that have stabilized using surfactant films, including and asphaltenes and resins act in a similar manner as the hard-sphere dispersions, depicting viscoelastic behavior. In the formation of emulsion, the relaxation time is determined, which appears to be increasing as the volume fraction of the discontinuous stage increases. The authors observed that the stability of emulsion heavily relies on the rheological features of the interface of water–oil, where an elevated elasticity also leads to an increase in the stability level (Fingas & Fieldhouse, 2014). These findings resonate with the previous studies suggesting that the W/O emulsions are stabilized using both resins and asphaltenes, though there is a need for ensuring that the content of resin slightly exceeds the asphaltene content for greater stability.

The emulsions that have proved to be stable are the semi-solid substances (reddish to brown type).  The stable emulsions have an average content of water of between 70 percent and 80 percent on the day during which they are formed and nearly one week later (Fingas, 2014).  Notably, steady emulsions continue being in stable state for four or more weeks under conditions of the laboratory. The stable emulsions that have been previously studied have remained to be stable of over one year (Fingas, 2014). On the other hand, Meso-stable emulsions, start at almost 65 percent, but they lose a larger amount of this water within a short periods (in days). The entrained types of W/O then collect only approximately 40 percent of water, which merely loses this water at a slow rate in at least 12 months. However, the W/O types that are not stable pick up only a small water percentage, where no much variation occurs within a year. In this case, the viscosity of stable emulsion rises within one year, while others decrease or can only grow by small amounts. Fingas (2014) further argue that the unstable W/O types products undergo change and turn out to be more viscous as compared to being elastic. The research evidence indicate that the unchanging emulsion possesses the viscous similar to the elastic components within one year. Furthermore, all other types of W/O depict a higher component of viscosity as compared to the element of elasticity.

The study also establishes the characteristics of W/O types in providing the understanding the stability of emulsions. Research has identified a variety of properties when using oil in the formation of W/O types of emulsion during the start as compared to other three W/O forms. As an illustration, viscosities may be extremely high or low. The light fuels such as diesel fuel while heavy and viscous oil products include heavy residual oils. The entrained W/O types are black viscous liquids, having the water content of averagely between 40 percent and 50 percent on the first day when the formation starts, with the content of below 28 percent one week later (Fingas, 2014). The viscosity of this type of emulsions rise in a day of formation, with averages obtained in of two weeks and the other week later. Unstable W/O types of emulsions, on the other hand, have the oil that does not contain large amounts of water because of blending with water.

Destabilization of Emulsion

The theory explaining the concept of destabilization focuses on coalescence, which means the process through emulsions are completely disintegrated. It splits emulsified fluids into initial immiscible water and oil as suggested by Fingas (2014). This process works under the mechanism of destabilization, comprising creaming and aggregation. The process of aggregation relates to flocculation. Creaming, on the other hand, is regarded as sedimentation, which is the product of the density variations between the emulsified liquids. In this scenario, the lighter liquid settles on top of the liquid that is denser, resulting in the layers of liquids that are immiscible (Fingas, 2014). The researcher also makes an observation that flocculation occurs when clumping of at least two droplets of immiscible liquids is done together with no occurrence of coalescence, and thus all droplets maintaining their integrity. As the coalescence process takes place, there is fusion of at least droplets of liquids together to form one droplet that bigger as compared to the first droplet, and losing their integrity. Therefore, all these processes of sedimentation, coalescence, and flocculation lead to destabilization of emulsions.

Models of Water-in-Oil Emulsion Formations

Old Frameworks

The processes of emulsification examined above were not in existence until the past one and a half decades, which have since been transformed into equations of modelling. The diverse W/O types determine that one simple equation does not sufficiently forecast the formation of emulsions. In earlier years, the data on the kinetics of creation at the sea, among other modeling information was not adequate (Fingas, 2014). Today, the formation of emulsion stems from surfactant-like activity of the resin compounds and polar asphaltene. The old models depict that asphaltenes formed much more stable emulsions as the similar compounds behaved like surfactants when not in solution. It was realized that the emulsions start forming when the desired viscosity and chemical conditions were achieved and sea energy was sufficient. It was further observed that the formation of three different water-in-oil types occur based on the type of oil together with its constituents. Nevertheless, some oils canton form any W/O types, resulting in a fourth type of W/O that has called for further exploration.

In ancient days, the emulsion formation rate was presumed to be of the first-order nature as time advanced. The logarithmic or exponential curve was used to approximate this rate (Fingas, 2014). One of the assumptions was the physical one, stating that all oils pick up water on a basis of the first-order. This assumption was widely employed in oil spill frameworks despite not being consistent with the knowledge of how formation of emulsions takes place. The study reveals that the old models proved not to be reliable and offer the formation predictions that are not accurate.

New Frameworks

The new models were invented to address the limitations that were encountered in the old models. Current researchers have recently developed some latest models to predict the formation of W/O emulsions. These frameworks have proved to be efficient since they utilize empirical data in the formation prediction of emulsions by use of a nonstop function, which also utilize the chemical and physical characteristics of oil (Fingas, 2014). The properties of emulsifications of more oils were also determined, while the properties of some oils in the current set of oil measured once again. This series of measurements resulted in the recalculations of the old models with because of obtaining reliable data on a given set of discrete samples.

The latest models have resulted in the formation of stabilized W/O emulsions using asphaltenes, where the resin participation also occurs. Fingas (2014) present the evidence of this type and other types which indicate that the whole distribution effects of Saturates, Aromatic, Resins, and Asphaltene (SARA) on the emulsions of formation. Asphaltenes have been used as prime stabilizers while resins are the secondary agents in the emulsion formation, especially where the concentration of the aromatics and saturates occur at some level and when the accurate viscosity and density are used. Most importantly, the empirical information that encompasses the data on the oil content, density, viscosity, as well as the W/O type stability that is formed were utilized in the development of mathematical correlation.

The current models suggest the need for a transformation for the adjustment of the information to one decreasing or increasing role. The model suggested by Fingas (2014) show that regression techniques do not respond rightly to a function that change both inversely and directly with the parameter that is targeted. The majority of parameters possess an optimal value associated with class, implying that the values possess a peak function based on class or stability. The new model has made the rectifications in the values of the old models leading to an increase in the regression coefficient. The framework also employs arithmetic approach which helps in the conversion of the values ahead of the peak to the values that appear at the back of the peak, leading a simple decreasing function (Fingas, 2014). These adjustments has made the optimal value to utilize a peak function, where the fit of the peak function fit is obtained from software called TableCurve.

The transformed values have immensely contributed to the development of new model proceeding where a multiple linear equation has been fit to the information. The model has been able to attain the functionalities of logarithmic, exponential or square curves through the correlation to the actual value of the input features in addition to their expanded values. In this case, the functionalities are treated as the exponential of the initial figure, together with their expanded values, using ln (the natural log). Every parameter relates to the index of stability in five different sets of mathematical accounts, which resembles the method of standard Gaussian expansion regression (Fingas, 2014). This technique involves the expansion of the regression to functionalities below and above the linear relationship until the whole unit is optimized. As an illustration, there would be an inclusion of a linear function, followed by a square and a square root, etc. These steps are followed until the complete regression tests indicate that no more gains occurs in the expansions that have increased. The method results in six input parameters, which omprise ln (natural log) of viscosity, density exponential, content of resin, content of the saturate, the asphaltene/resin ratio (A/R), and content of asphaltene.

Methodology

This study employed a qualitative research method where the secondary data was collected from the sources such as journal articles and books that have been published on the topic of W/O emulsion stability used in drilling. The review of the literature from the secondary sources was conducted based on the technique that Gupta et al (2018) recommended, though with some small adjustments. The adjustments on the review of literature entailed searches for the keywords, the selection of the journals to be used, abstract reviews, as well as full-text reviews in accordance with the approach proposed by Saad et al. (2019). During the search, there was a keen selection of the keywords to shun the unintentional restriction of the research sources that the investigator sought to retrieve. Some of the keywords included crude oil, emulsifications, emulsions, emulsion stability, oil-in-water emulsions, and water-in-oil emulsions, among others. The qualitative data collected from the secondary sources was thematically analyzed. This section, thus presents the comprehensive approaches to the preparation of emulsions; emulsion type determination; calculation of stability; and measurement of stability.

Emulsion Preparation

In the preparation of emulsions, material selection was a crucial activity. The experiment used in this study was performed by Fateev (2014). It utilized Tween 80 and Span 80 as emulsifiers to prepare both O/W and W/O emulsions, though this study has made some modifications to include mineral oil, and oil EDC 95/11. Tween 80 was soluble in water but insoluble in oil. The modifications occurred as a result of the preparation of various emulsifiers in different proportions of weight of Tween 80 and Span 80 by blending them. At this stage, it was necessary to determine the average HLB (Hydrophilic-lipophilic Balance) number using the following equitation suggested by Shrestha (2011):

…………………………………. Eq.1.

The description of the parameters used in the equation are as follows:

: The compound value of HLB

, : The surfactants’ HLB values.

: The surfactants’ weight fractions.

The HLB numbers obtained were as shown in Table 1 below:

Table 1: HLB Number obtained.

Number Span 80: Tween 80 HLB
 
1 1:00 4,3
2 4:01 6,4
3 2:01 7,8
4 4:03 8,9
5 2:03 10,7
6 1:04 12,9
7 0:01 15,0

 

The preparation of emulsions entailed the mixture of 0.01% of emulsifier with either proportion of weight of 80% (65 ml) of oil/20% (17 ml) of water or 80% of water/20% of oil. Surfactants were pre-blended with one of phase, with the other phase added later to obtain the full picture of how emulsion behaves. Homogenization of all phases took place continuously for a period of 5 minutes at a speed of 400 rpm by use of Silverson L4RT-A mixer as represented in Figure 1. The emulsified liquid was left to settle for 2 hours. The emulsions were named S1-28) based on the weight proportions of W/O as indicated in Figure 2.

 

Figure 1: The setup of the experiment

Figure 2: Water-based and EDC 95/11 mineral oil emulsions: a) S1-S4 (HLB 4.3); (b) S5-S8 (HLB 6.4); (c) S9-S12 (HLB 7.8); (d) S13-S16 (HLB 8.9); (e) S17-S20 (HLB 10.7); (f) S21-S24 (HLB 12.9); (g) S25-S28 (HLB 15)

The formed emulsions were observed for two hours at room temperature. The any of the formed emulsions failed to reveal any destabilization sign, the emulsions were then as stable. The prepared emulsions were also observed nonstop for the next 3 days to see if destabilization occurred. Also, if destabilization never took place after this long time, the formed emulsion was stable. Therefore, emulsions that were resistance to destabilization within the initial two hours were viewed as short-term stable, while long-term stability was realized when this condition took longer period, at least 72 hours.

During the preparation of the emulsion, EDC 95/11 base-oil was also used as described in the experiment performed Rismanto and van der Zwaag (2007). This base-oil had the viscosity 2.65 cp at the temperature of 40. At 35°C, the viscosity computed through extrapolation to obtain 2.96 cp, where 35° C was the working temperature of the magnet in the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) instrument. In a study that Fateev (2014) carried out, he selected the mineral oil EDC 95/11 as oil phase with having some properties. These features included the density of 815 kg/m³ and viscosity of 3.4 mm²/s. The creation of stable emulsion utilized Versavert SE and Versavert PE as the emulsifier (Rismanto & van der Zwaag, 2007). EDC 95/11 was measured at the beginning of the process without emulsifying water. The emulsions of different samples of varying rations of water/oil were used as shown in Table 2 below:

Table 2: Data for different samples of emulsions

Sample Mean T2 (ms)
EDC 95/11 – 100/0 504
EDC 95/11 – 85/15 612
EDC 95/11 – 80/20 633
EDC 95/11 – 75/25 747
EDC 95/11 – 70/30 750

 

The process utilized the water drawn directly from the tap. The investigators chose to premix Lisamine red with water in dying the water because of the transparence of both of phases, and thus helping in differentiating the phases.

Determination of the Type of Emulsion

The tests on dye solubility were carried out by Fateev (2014) on the long-term stable emulsified liquids with the aim of establishing the type of an emulsion, where Lisamine red as a dye indicator was used. The W/O type emulsion was expected to float on the surface of the emulsion when Lisamine red was used. If this observation did not occur, it could mean that the dye had dissolve, resulting in a shift in the emulsion color from white to purple.

 

Determination of Stability

The calculations of stability were based of the indices of stability. Fingas and Fieldhouse (2011) conducted a series of tests stability indices, which referred to a single value that could give the desired separation between the types of W/O even on the first day the formations started to take place. It was crucial to perform these tests because the r content of water alone could not lead completely lead to separation since some of the water was lost in hours or days, and particularly where meso-stable emulsions were formed. All of the indices were used to a certain extent to distinguish the four types of W/O emulsions. The steps and equations used to compute the stability index are as follows:

The first step was to conduct rheological research on the W/O product to determine the complex modulus as well as the modulus of elasticity. Then, the cross product (Xpr) of the elastic modulus and complex modulus was calculated by dividing them with the viscosity of the initial oil as indicated in the equation below:

…………………….. Eq.2.

The cross product (Xpr) was then rectified to obtain stability, also known as Stability C based on the following equation:

……………………………. Eq.3.

Measurements of Viscosity

The literature on emulsions indicated that stabilization of droplets as a result of agitation of the systems of two liquids by the viscous forces of surface as well as dispersed-phase, which are then broken by forces that result from incessant phase turbulence. Fateev (2014) performed the rotational method tests on the emulsified liquids to establish rheological properties of the W/O type emulsions. He tested all samples under the rate of shear between the speed of 400 rpm and 1400 rpm, with incremental intervals of 200 rpm. During the experiment, several issues of rheological measurement occurred as a result of phase discrimination, making the measurements to be non-reproductive. Therefore, it was necessary to keenly observe the behavior of this phenomenon to establish such problems.

Measurements of the pH

It was also vital to measure the pH of the formed emulsions during the study. A digital pH meter (Orion Research Model 201) was used to determine the changes in the pH values of the created emulsions (Fateev, 2014). The values were measured within the time intervals of 12 hours for three consecutive days (72 hours). The pH meter used is shown in Figure 1 below:

Figure 3: Orion Research 201type pH meter

Methods of PVM and FBRM measurement

Fateev (2014) used PVM and FBRM measurement probes in the experiment he conducted. The selection of the probes was based on the fact that they are of the latest equipment that makes it possible to measure real-time distribution, as well as the microstructure of droplets of the emulsions.

Results and Discussion

Emulsion Formation

The compositions of the emulsions were as recorded in Table 3 below:

Table 3: Results of the compositions of emulsions

 

Figure 2 and Table 3 reveal that all the emulsions having the weight fractions of water to mineral oil of 80%:20% were S3,4,7,8,11,12,13,15,16,20,23, and 24, which did not form emulsions of long-term stability and discriminated immediately once stirring was complete. It was also observed that the emulsified liquids S1, 5, 10, 14, 18, 22, and 25 having weight proportion of the water to mineral oil of 20%:80% underwent destabilization instantly after stirring. The emulsions that involved the all HLB number indicated no formation of O/W emulsions. The occurrence of destabilization of emulsions may have resulted from the emulsion separations. The reason behind this situation could be the merging of the small droplets merge to procreate bigger species, leading to the discrimination of the unceasing phase from the emulsified liquid. This happening led to the surfactant barrier breaking with incessant coalescence of the droplets that were smaller in size. The destabilization of this nature was viewed as such small amounts of surfactant failing to form a physical barrier that was sufficiently strong near the droplets that prevented the droplet from coming close to each other to merge (Fateev, 2014). The presence of destabilized emulsion indicated the occurrence of short-term stable emulsions. Only four emulsified liquids appeared to be stable for 2 hours, and were subsequently remained settled at room temperature for up to at least 72 hours (3 days). These results resonate with the evidence in the earlier research explaining that coalescence is a likely mechanism that led to the destruction of the emulsified liquids (Nour & Yunus, 2006). The destabilization has taken place because the larger adhesive energy between two droplets as opposed to the turbulent energy that causes the separations of emulsions.

During the tests, it was observed that a combination of low and high HLB emulsifiers gave better results as opposed to the use of only one emulsifier. Thus, the mixtures of Span 80 and Tween products, such as mineral oil, formed stable W/O emulsions of different types. The stability of emulsions was an indicator of the presence of the components like asphaltenes and resins, which were obtained from the crude oil. It was also realized that the temperature change affected the stability of the W/O emulsions. Substantial temperature changes lead to the shift in the interfacial tensions, the nature of HLB of the surfactant, viscosities, molecule thermal integrations, and the pressures of vapor the liquid phases. Stable emulsions were found where the temperatures approached the point of the least solubility of emulsions. Therefore, a combination of Span 80, mineral oil EDC 95/11 could be best suggestion for formation of stable W/O emulsions in drilling.

Water stability was determined using the percentage of the separated water, expressed in percentage. The determination of the amount of water separation was calculated using the following relationship:

………………. Eq.4.

The water content obtained in one week after the creation of emulsions was used as the basis of the determining the stability index of the emulsions. The component was different among all the four types of W/O emulsions (Fingas & Fieldhouse, 2011). The results of the calculated stability were recorded in Table 4 below based on different types of W/O emulsion. The findings indicate that the index of stability could be simply computed based on the rheological information, which can also be employed together with certain primary property data like viscosity and density in pursuit of classifying the W/O type emulsions.

Table 4: Computed Stability of W/O type emulsions

 

Figure 4: Stability indices of different W/O type emulsions

The minimum, average, as well as the maximum indices of stability for every type of W/O emulsion have been presents in Figure 4 and Table 4. It was observed that the averages varied based on the W/O type, with a small overlap between the peak and minimum values.

 

Emulsion Type Determination

 

pH Determination

The data obtained from the measurement of the changes in the pH of emulsified liquids was used to construct the plots as shown in Figures 5 below:

Figure 5: The values of pH of emulsions: (a) short-term stable emulsion, and (b) long-term stable emulsion

The data of the values of pH of emulsions taken for 3 days was used to draw the graphs as indicated in Figure 5(a) and (b). The long-term stable emulsion (S9, 13, 17, and 21) had the pH values that slightly fluctuated near the starting point of pH value, where a small rise was noted in the value of pH after one and a half days (36 hours). The short-stable emulsions (S1, 5, and 25), on the other hand, depicted pH values that were continuously declining. Fingas (2014) provided similar results indicting that long-stable emulsions are associated with an increase in pH values leading to an increase in coalescence. After 36 hours, the pH values begun to slightly rise, resulting in an increase in coalescence as well as the more separation of the emulsions.

Viscosity of Emulsions

The data on the viscosity of emulsions was analyzed as shown in Figures 6 and 7.

Figure 6: The relationship between the viscosity of the blend and the rate of shear (a) water proportion of 20% (b) Water fraction of 80%

Figure 7: The association between the viscosity of the apparent combination and the rate of shear (a) water proportion of 20% (b) water proportion of 80%

The Figures 6 (a) and (b) present the viscosity of plastic mixture in relation to the shear rate. The results reveal that all emulsions were formed under rotational tests of the measurements of viscosity, which helped in the determination of the association between the shear rate and plastic mixture viscosity. The figures show that the rate of shear rises with an increase in mixture viscosity. According to Fingas (2014), such behavior may have occurred as a result of the emulsion systems being shear-thickening or dilatants. It was further noted that the emulsions with high content of water (80%) possessed lower values of viscosity as compared to those with low water content (20%). This phenomenon indicated the occurrence of phase inversion occurrenc in the water proportion from 20% to 80% (Fateev, 2014). These results were also consistent with other studies, which demonstrated the HLB values increase with the emulsions’ viscosity. Therefore, this evidence indicates the existence of adequately firm barrier to coalescence, leading to stable emulsion emulsions.

Limitations

This study had several limitations that are worth to mention. First, it was impossible to perform all the test because of inadequate availability of these units. Despite this limitation, the key emulsion behavior states were also verified and thus utilized as the states of reference for the whole work. This study also relied on the secondary data, which was obtained from the studies conducted by other researchers for the analysis of W/O emulsions stability.

Conclusion and Recommendations

Conclusion

The study performed on the stability of W/O emulsions has used the secondary data to analyze the several methods and features for getting stable emulsions. The experiments utilized Span 80 and the mineral oil EDC 95/11, where the emulsions where left undisturbed for at least three days and results taken. The study has established both short- and long-term emulsions. The most stable emulsions were formed by the combination of Span 80 and EDC 95/11, indicating that the objective of this study was successfully attained. Therefore, the stable W/O emulsions have been suitable for use in the drilling industry cleanse crude oil.

Recommendations

Several recommendations were made on how the limitations associated with this study would be addressed in the future study. The first suggestion is that the researcher needs to ensure that the he increases the units used in the research to attain reliability and validity of the data. It was also observed that the studied used purely secondary data. This problem would be addressed by conducting a survey to collect the primary data that is up-to-date. This step would in getting the results and analysis that are effective in determining the methods to get stable W/O emulsions utilized in drilling.

References

Abdulredha, M.M., Hussain, S.A. & Abdullah, L.C. (20180. Overview on petroleum emulsions, formation, influence and demulsification treatment techniques. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2018.11.014.

Fateev, G.V. (2014). Effect of small amounts of surfactants on oil-water dispersion. Master’s Thesis.

Fingas, M. & Fieldhouse, B. (2011). Studies on Water-in-oil Products from Crude Oils and Petroleum Products. Marketing Pollution. Bulletin, 64: 272-283.

Fingas, M.F. (2014). Water-in-oil emulsions: formation and prediction. Spill Science, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.14355/jpsr.2014.0301.04.

Gupta, S., Rajiah, P., Middlebrooks, E.H., Baruah, D., Carter, B.W., Burton, K.R., Chatterjee, A.R., & Miller, M.M. (2018). Systematic review of the literature: best practices. Academic Radiology.

Nour, A. & Yunus, R.M. (2006). Stability investigation of water-in-crude oil emulsion. Journal of Applied Sciences, 6(14):2895-2900.

Rismanto, R. & van der Zwaag, C. (2007) Explorative study of NMR drilling fluids measurement. Department of Petroleum Technology: University of Stavanger.

Saad, M.A., Kamil, M., Abdurahman, N.H., Yunus, R.M., & Awad, O.I. (2019). An overview of recent advances in state-of-the-art techniques in the demulsification of crude oil Emulsions. Processes, 7(240): 1-26. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7070470.

Shrestha, A. (2011). Effect of Span 80 – Tween 80 mixture compositions on the stability of sunflower oil-based emulsions emulsions. Department of Biotech & Medical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Rourkela.

Subramanian, D., May, N., & Firoozabadi, A. (2017). Functional molecules and the stability of water-in-crude oil emulsions. Energy Fuels, 31(9): 8967–8977.

 

 

 

 

water in oil emulsion stability that is used in oil drilling

 

 

 

 

 

Water in Oil Emulsion Stability that is used in Oil Drilling

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Water in Oil Emulsion Stability that is used in Oil Drilling

Introduction

Background

The water-in-oil emulsion formation plays a vital role on the industry of oil. The activity of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion occurs at different phases in the course of drilling, processing, production, as well as transportation of crude oil. Crude oil refers to a blend of aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur that has compounds of asphaltenes and resins. In some cases, water-in-oil emulsions are the products of oil spillage. Spill workers often refer the emulsions to as “mousse” or “chocolate mousse,” because cleaning up the spilt oil appear to be challenging. During the formation of the emulsion of this nature, a dramatic change occurs in the physical characteristics of oil. It is worth to realize that asphaltenes and resins of crude oil produces the components that are interfacially active. Numerous studies have confirmed that the core mechanism of W/O emulsions’ asphaltenes is via the creation of the viscous film network that is cross-connected with an elevated mechanical rigidity (Nour & Yunus, 2006; Fingas & Fieldhouse, 2015). The oil viscosity often shifts from some few hundred mPa.s to 100,000mPa.s, and rise by a factor of between 500 and 1000 (Fingas & Fieldhouse, 2015). This scenario indicates the liquid product changing from a heavy and semisolid material. This foundational background results in the need to carry out this study that investigates the W/O emulsion stability that is used in oil drilling, focusing on how to get a stable water in oil emulsion and how to make a stable water in oil emulsion using mineral oil, SPAN 80, and oil EDC 95/11.

Problem Statement

The formation of water in oil emulsion has emerged to be an interesting activity in today’s oil industry because of the environmental and economic issues that come with it. The fact that the emulsions take place at different stages results in an increase in the production cost as well as the costs of transporting oil. There have been environmental issues that have occurred as a result of the hectic process of cleaning up the surrounding after the oil has spilled using methods like pumping, burning, use of sorbants, as well as the use of dispersants (Nour & Yunus, 2006). This problem has made emulsions hard to recover using the traditional recovery equipment of spillage, which has, in turn, made the process of drilling difficult. Undoubtedly, drilling is presently occurring in the environments that are harsh, associated with weather conditions that cannot be predicted as well as the complex geographical structures. The fields that have heavier deposits present further environmental issues when it comes to the extraction of oil.

Contamination resulting in drilling have also presented another problem that the oil refineries needs to deal with to have quality oil. Drilling of the wells into the ground is necessary prior to reaching the actual layer that contains oil. The product of this process is always contaminated oil, making it not suitable for transportation via pipelines. The solution to this issue called for the invention of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions to get the pure oil for easy transportation (Saad et al., 2019). The most commonly used types of emulsions in the oil industry to clean oil comprise inverted and direct emulsions. While direct emulsions have been popular with extremely deviated wells and horizontal wells, stabilized indirect emulsions have gained wider applications in oil industry. Such emulsions have the features of enormous volumes of surfactants, which can cause destructions in the well. The solution to this problem has been the use of direct emulsion, though they have a limitation when it comes to drilling horizontal sections moving for distances that are longer. It also a drawback of having the difficulty in controlling the shales’ stability. These varied issues have compelled the majority of the oil refinery firms to consider changing from oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion methods to better techniques such as W/O emulsions to achieve the desired quality of oil during the drilling process.

Literature Review

The General Theory of the Formation of Emulsions

There are numerous theories that have explained the creations of emulsions. The most prominent theory argue that emulsion occurs when the fluid droplets completely disperse in the other fluid that acts as a phase, and the two liquids must be immiscible under normal circumstances (Abdulredha et al., 2018). The emulsification of water and oil occurs successfully via shear motion. This process produces pure emulsification that is unstable and temporary because the liquids begins to form nearly immediately once the motion is halted. The prior researcher has suggested two distinct techniques for emulsification of oil and water, O/W and W/O, which rely on the phase of emulsion (Abdulredha et al., 2018). O/W arises when emulsion takes place in water where the droplets of oils are dispersed in water phases, while W/O is the product of the emulsion occurring in oil, with the molecules of water being dispersed in oil phase. The process of emulsion has helped in the generation of complex mixtures of emulsion such as oil-water-oil (O/W/O) or water oil water (W/O/W) emulsions.

Some theories have established the different types of emulsions in their investigations of the creation of W/O emulsions. Fingas and Fieldhouse (2014) established there are four W/O types resulting from the mixture of crude oil with water. They name these forms of emulsions as stable, unstable, meso-stable, and entrained W/O emulsions. These types came about after water resolution that was conducted over time with several rheological measurements. They were also discovered by the visual appearance of W/O products, both on the day during which the emulsions are formed and a week later (Fingas, 2014). The four types are extremely different from each other based on two or more measurements of water content, as well as the five rheological measurements.

The formation of emulsions have been studied based on the roles of the asphaltenes. Several researchers have noted that asphaltenes are the primary factors for the creation of W/O emulsions over four decades ago (Fingas, 2014). Undoubtedly, it was until recently that the specific asphaltenes roles in emulsions were defined. At the present, the basic concepts of W/O emulsions can be understood clearly because of the existence of numerous studies that have suggested numerous roles of asphaltenes. Fingas and Fieldhouse (2015) argue that the stabilization of W/O emulsions is paramount during the formation process. Research assert that the films of high-strength visco-elastic asphaltene form around the droplets of water in oil. It has also been evident that resins can also help in the formation of emulsions, though resins do not give the emulsions that are stable. Resins are used to increase the stability of asphaltene emulsion, where it serves as solvents of asphaltene and offers temporary stability when slow migration of asphaltene occurs. In general, numerous scientists have confirmed that the composition of oil forms a core factor in the formation of emulsion of W/O, which comprise the types as well as the amounts of resin, asphaltenes, together with the contents of the saturate.

High quantity of water that accompanies the crude oil extraction is among the key issues affecting the oil industry. The formation of emulsions has an immense contribution to some theories that regulate the cost of pumping, production, and transportation of crude oil. Abdulredha et al. (2018) argue that emulsions are formed three primary reasons. They name the first reason as to bring about diffusion of a liquid into the other liquid because of the existence of mixing energy or turbulent flow. The second reason could be the enhancement of the interactions between two liquids that are immiscible, including water and oil. Moreover, the emulsifying agents present in the crude oil such as resins and asphaltenes calls for the formation of emulsions. Therefore, understanding the different reasons for forming emulsions is necessary in the development of the appropriate method than can help in cleansing the unpolished oil.

The aspect of turbulence plays a significant role in the emulsion formation. Notably, the mixing energy or disturbance as the initial factor that led to the creation of emulsions. According to Abdulredha et al. (2018), the existence of turbulence in the pipeline flow assists in the formation of emulsion because of the two flow system that is similar to that of the fluid, where crude oil mixes with water. The authors point out that turbulence influences break-up as well as coalescence of emulsions (Abdulredha et al., 2018). During the flow of the oil in the pipeline, the suppression of turbulence also takes place as a result of the contact between the droplets of emulsion and other fluids at a constant stage. In scientific perspective, turbulence suspension arises as a result of the kinetic energy of one fluid, which has a single stage, turns out to be higher as compared to other two-phase liquid at the flow rate of the fluid. Moreover, there is the transfer of part of the kinetic energy to emulsions from the stream that is two-phased, making this kind of energy less as opposed to single-phased kinetic energy. Similarly, the turbulent strength decreases when the kinetic energy or power flows from single-phased to the particle. This article is relevant in this research because it provides an understanding of the impact of turbulence on emulsion to help in the selection of the method that can match it to solve the issues associated with oil in the course of drilling.

Resins and asphaltenes and other elements, which are also known as functional molecules, have an influence on the creation of emulsions. The molecules of this nature have heteroatoms, like oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. According to Subramanian et al. (2017), these components lead to basic and acidic characteristics in the fluids that petroleum-based, which result in the stabilized W/O emulsions. This article regards alphaltenes as the components with the strongest stability of W/O emulsion since they possess polycyclic aromatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The knowledge of the fact that alphaltenes contribute to the stability of W/O emulsions begun more than four decades ago (Abdulredha et al., 2018). In general, this argument explains the reason for the increased usage of the W/O emulsions as compared to the traditional techniques such as O/W.

Stability of Water in Oil Emulsion

The study of rheology of emulsions seek to examine the stability in W/O. As argued earlier, asphaltenes and resins have been established as the strongest stabilizers of emulsions (Abdulredha et al., 2018). According to Fingas and Fieldhouse (2014), the emulsions that have stabilized using surfactant films, including and asphaltenes and resins act in a similar manner as the hard-sphere dispersions, depicting viscoelastic behavior. In the formation of emulsion, the relaxation time is determined, which appears to be increasing as the volume fraction of the discontinuous stage increases. The authors observed that the stability of emulsion heavily relies on the rheological features of the interface of water–oil, where an elevated elasticity also leads to an increase in the stability level (Fingas & Fieldhouse, 2014). These findings resonate with the previous studies suggesting that the W/O emulsions are stabilized using both resins and asphaltenes, though there is a need for ensuring that the content of resin slightly exceeds the asphaltene content for greater stability.

The emulsions that have proved to be stable are the semi-solid substances (reddish to brown type).  The stable emulsions have an average content of water of between 70 percent and 80 percent on the day during which they are formed and nearly one week later (Fingas, 2014).  Notably, steady emulsions continue being in stable state for four or more weeks under conditions of the laboratory. The stable emulsions that have been previously studied have remained to be stable of over one year (Fingas, 2014). On the other hand, Meso-stable emulsions, start at almost 65 percent, but they lose a larger amount of this water within a short periods (in days). The entrained types of W/O then collect only approximately 40 percent of water, which merely loses this water at a slow rate in at least 12 months. However, the W/O types that are not stable pick up only a small water percentage, where no much variation occurs within a year. In this case, the viscosity of stable emulsion rises within one year, while others decrease or can only grow by small amounts. Fingas (2014) further argue that the unstable W/O types products undergo change and turn out to be more viscous as compared to being elastic. The research evidence indicate that the unchanging emulsion possesses the viscous similar to the elastic components within one year. Furthermore, all other types of W/O depict a higher component of viscosity as compared to the element of elasticity.

The study also establishes the characteristics of W/O types in providing the understanding the stability of emulsions. Research has identified a variety of properties when using oil in the formation of W/O types of emulsion during the start as compared to other three W/O forms. As an illustration, viscosities may be extremely high or low. The light fuels such as diesel fuel while heavy and viscous oil products include heavy residual oils. The entrained W/O types are black viscous liquids, having the water content of averagely between 40 percent and 50 percent on the first day when the formation starts, with the content of below 28 percent one week later (Fingas, 2014). The viscosity of this type of emulsions rise in a day of formation, with averages obtained in of two weeks and the other week later. Unstable W/O types of emulsions, on the other hand, have the oil that does not contain large amounts of water because of blending with water.

Destabilization of Emulsion

The theory explaining the concept of destabilization focuses on coalescence, which means the process through emulsions are completely disintegrated. It splits emulsified fluids into initial immiscible water and oil as suggested by Fingas (2014). This process works under the mechanism of destabilization, comprising creaming and aggregation. The process of aggregation relates to flocculation. Creaming, on the other hand, is regarded as sedimentation, which is the product of the density variations between the emulsified liquids. In this scenario, the lighter liquid settles on top of the liquid that is denser, resulting in the layers of liquids that are immiscible (Fingas, 2014). The researcher also makes an observation that flocculation occurs when clumping of at least two droplets of immiscible liquids is done together with no occurrence of coalescence, and thus all droplets maintaining their integrity. As the coalescence process takes place, there is fusion of at least droplets of liquids together to form one droplet that bigger as compared to the first droplet, and losing their integrity. Therefore, all these processes of sedimentation, coalescence, and flocculation lead to destabilization of emulsions.

Models of Water-in-Oil Emulsion Formations

Old Frameworks

The processes of emulsification examined above were not in existence until the past one and a half decades, which have since been transformed into equations of modelling. The diverse W/O types determine that one simple equation does not sufficiently forecast the formation of emulsions. In earlier years, the data on the kinetics of creation at the sea, among other modeling information was not adequate (Fingas, 2014). Today, the formation of emulsion stems from surfactant-like activity of the resin compounds and polar asphaltene. The old models depict that asphaltenes formed much more stable emulsions as the similar compounds behaved like surfactants when not in solution. It was realized that the emulsions start forming when the desired viscosity and chemical conditions were achieved and sea energy was sufficient. It was further observed that the formation of three different water-in-oil types occur based on the type of oil together with its constituents. Nevertheless, some oils canton form any W/O types, resulting in a fourth type of W/O that has called for further exploration.

In ancient days, the emulsion formation rate was presumed to be of the first-order nature as time advanced. The logarithmic or exponential curve was used to approximate this rate (Fingas, 2014). One of the assumptions was the physical one, stating that all oils pick up water on a basis of the first-order. This assumption was widely employed in oil spill frameworks despite not being consistent with the knowledge of how formation of emulsions takes place. The study reveals that the old models proved not to be reliable and offer the formation predictions that are not accurate.

New Frameworks

The new models were invented to address the limitations that were encountered in the old models. Current researchers have recently developed some latest models to predict the formation of W/O emulsions. These frameworks have proved to be efficient since they utilize empirical data in the formation prediction of emulsions by use of a nonstop function, which also utilize the chemical and physical characteristics of oil (Fingas, 2014). The properties of emulsifications of more oils were also determined, while the properties of some oils in the current set of oil measured once again. This series of measurements resulted in the recalculations of the old models with because of obtaining reliable data on a given set of discrete samples.

The latest models have resulted in the formation of stabilized W/O emulsions using asphaltenes, where the resin participation also occurs. Fingas (2014) present the evidence of this type and other types which indicate that the whole distribution effects of Saturates, Aromatic, Resins, and Asphaltene (SARA) on the emulsions of formation. Asphaltenes have been used as prime stabilizers while resins are the secondary agents in the emulsion formation, especially where the concentration of the aromatics and saturates occur at some level and when the accurate viscosity and density are used. Most importantly, the empirical information that encompasses the data on the oil content, density, viscosity, as well as the W/O type stability that is formed were utilized in the development of mathematical correlation.

The current models suggest the need for a transformation for the adjustment of the information to one decreasing or increasing role. The model suggested by Fingas (2014) show that regression techniques do not respond rightly to a function that change both inversely and directly with the parameter that is targeted. The majority of parameters possess an optimal value associated with class, implying that the values possess a peak function based on class or stability. The new model has made the rectifications in the values of the old models leading to an increase in the regression coefficient. The framework also employs arithmetic approach which helps in the conversion of the values ahead of the peak to the values that appear at the back of the peak, leading a simple decreasing function (Fingas, 2014). These adjustments has made the optimal value to utilize a peak function, where the fit of the peak function fit is obtained from software called TableCurve.

The transformed values have immensely contributed to the development of new model proceeding where a multiple linear equation has been fit to the information. The model has been able to attain the functionalities of logarithmic, exponential or square curves through the correlation to the actual value of the input features in addition to their expanded values. In this case, the functionalities are treated as the exponential of the initial figure, together with their expanded values, using ln (the natural log). Every parameter relates to the index of stability in five different sets of mathematical accounts, which resembles the method of standard Gaussian expansion regression (Fingas, 2014). This technique involves the expansion of the regression to functionalities below and above the linear relationship until the whole unit is optimized. As an illustration, there would be an inclusion of a linear function, followed by a square and a square root, etc. These steps are followed until the complete regression tests indicate that no more gains occurs in the expansions that have increased. The method results in six input parameters, which omprise ln (natural log) of viscosity, density exponential, content of resin, content of the saturate, the asphaltene/resin ratio (A/R), and content of asphaltene.

Methodology

This study employed a qualitative research method where the secondary data was collected from the sources such as journal articles and books that have been published on the topic of W/O emulsion stability used in drilling. The review of the literature from the secondary sources was conducted based on the technique that Gupta et al (2018) recommended, though with some small adjustments. The adjustments on the review of literature entailed searches for the keywords, the selection of the journals to be used, abstract reviews, as well as full-text reviews in accordance with the approach proposed by Saad et al. (2019). During the search, there was a keen selection of the keywords to shun the unintentional restriction of the research sources that the investigator sought to retrieve. Some of the keywords included crude oil, emulsifications, emulsions, emulsion stability, oil-in-water emulsions, and water-in-oil emulsions, among others. The qualitative data collected from the secondary sources was thematically analyzed. This section, thus presents the comprehensive approaches to the preparation of emulsions; emulsion type determination; calculation of stability; and measurement of stability.

Emulsion Preparation

In the preparation of emulsions, material selection was a crucial activity. The experiment used in this study was performed by Fateev (2014). It utilized Tween 80 and Span 80 as emulsifiers to prepare both O/W and W/O emulsions, though this study has made some modifications to include mineral oil, and oil EDC 95/11. Tween 80 was soluble in water but insoluble in oil. The modifications occurred as a result of the preparation of various emulsifiers in different proportions of weight of Tween 80 and Span 80 by blending them. At this stage, it was necessary to determine the average HLB (Hydrophilic-lipophilic Balance) number using the following equitation suggested by Shrestha (2011):

…………………………………. Eq.1.

The description of the parameters used in the equation are as follows:

: The compound value of HLB

, : The surfactants’ HLB values.

: The surfactants’ weight fractions.

The HLB numbers obtained were as shown in Table 1 below:

Table 1: HLB Number obtained.

Number Span 80: Tween 80 HLB
 
1 1:00 4,3
2 4:01 6,4
3 2:01 7,8
4 4:03 8,9
5 2:03 10,7
6 1:04 12,9
7 0:01 15,0

 

The preparation of emulsions entailed the mixture of 0.01% of emulsifier with either proportion of weight of 80% (65 ml) of oil/20% (17 ml) of water or 80% of water/20% of oil. Surfactants were pre-blended with one of phase, with the other phase added later to obtain the full picture of how emulsion behaves. Homogenization of all phases took place continuously for a period of 5 minutes at a speed of 400 rpm by use of Silverson L4RT-A mixer as represented in Figure 1. The emulsified liquid was left to settle for 2 hours. The emulsions were named S1-28) based on the weight proportions of W/O as indicated in Figure 2.

 

Figure 1: The setup of the experiment

Figure 2: Water-based and EDC 95/11 mineral oil emulsions: a) S1-S4 (HLB 4.3); (b) S5-S8 (HLB 6.4); (c) S9-S12 (HLB 7.8); (d) S13-S16 (HLB 8.9); (e) S17-S20 (HLB 10.7); (f) S21-S24 (HLB 12.9); (g) S25-S28 (HLB 15)

The formed emulsions were observed for two hours at room temperature. The any of the formed emulsions failed to reveal any destabilization sign, the emulsions were then as stable. The prepared emulsions were also observed nonstop for the next 3 days to see if destabilization occurred. Also, if destabilization never took place after this long time, the formed emulsion was stable. Therefore, emulsions that were resistance to destabilization within the initial two hours were viewed as short-term stable, while long-term stability was realized when this condition took longer period, at least 72 hours.

During the preparation of the emulsion, EDC 95/11 base-oil was also used as described in the experiment performed Rismanto and van der Zwaag (2007). This base-oil had the viscosity 2.65 cp at the temperature of 40. At 35°C, the viscosity computed through extrapolation to obtain 2.96 cp, where 35° C was the working temperature of the magnet in the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) instrument. In a study that Fateev (2014) carried out, he selected the mineral oil EDC 95/11 as oil phase with having some properties. These features included the density of 815 kg/m³ and viscosity of 3.4 mm²/s. The creation of stable emulsion utilized Versavert SE and Versavert PE as the emulsifier (Rismanto & van der Zwaag, 2007). EDC 95/11 was measured at the beginning of the process without emulsifying water. The emulsions of different samples of varying rations of water/oil were used as shown in Table 2 below:

Table 2: Data for different samples of emulsions

Sample Mean T2 (ms)
EDC 95/11 – 100/0 504
EDC 95/11 – 85/15 612
EDC 95/11 – 80/20 633
EDC 95/11 – 75/25 747
EDC 95/11 – 70/30 750

 

The process utilized the water drawn directly from the tap. The investigators chose to premix Lisamine red with water in dying the water because of the transparence of both of phases, and thus helping in differentiating the phases.

Determination of the Type of Emulsion

The tests on dye solubility were carried out by Fateev (2014) on the long-term stable emulsified liquids with the aim of establishing the type of an emulsion, where Lisamine red as a dye indicator was used. The W/O type emulsion was expected to float on the surface of the emulsion when Lisamine red was used. If this observation did not occur, it could mean that the dye had dissolve, resulting in a shift in the emulsion color from white to purple.

 

Determination of Stability

The calculations of stability were based of the indices of stability. Fingas and Fieldhouse (2011) conducted a series of tests stability indices, which referred to a single value that could give the desired separation between the types of W/O even on the first day the formations started to take place. It was crucial to perform these tests because the r content of water alone could not lead completely lead to separation since some of the water was lost in hours or days, and particularly where meso-stable emulsions were formed. All of the indices were used to a certain extent to distinguish the four types of W/O emulsions. The steps and equations used to compute the stability index are as follows:

The first step was to conduct rheological research on the W/O product to determine the complex modulus as well as the modulus of elasticity. Then, the cross product (Xpr) of the elastic modulus and complex modulus was calculated by dividing them with the viscosity of the initial oil as indicated in the equation below:

…………………….. Eq.2.

The cross product (Xpr) was then rectified to obtain stability, also known as Stability C based on the following equation:

……………………………. Eq.3.

Measurements of Viscosity

The literature on emulsions indicated that stabilization of droplets as a result of agitation of the systems of two liquids by the viscous forces of surface as well as dispersed-phase, which are then broken by forces that result from incessant phase turbulence. Fateev (2014) performed the rotational method tests on the emulsified liquids to establish rheological properties of the W/O type emulsions. He tested all samples under the rate of shear between the speed of 400 rpm and 1400 rpm, with incremental intervals of 200 rpm. During the experiment, several issues of rheological measurement occurred as a result of phase discrimination, making the measurements to be non-reproductive. Therefore, it was necessary to keenly observe the behavior of this phenomenon to establish such problems.

Measurements of the pH

It was also vital to measure the pH of the formed emulsions during the study. A digital pH meter (Orion Research Model 201) was used to determine the changes in the pH values of the created emulsions (Fateev, 2014). The values were measured within the time intervals of 12 hours for three consecutive days (72 hours). The pH meter used is shown in Figure 1 below:

Figure 3: Orion Research 201type pH meter

Methods of PVM and FBRM measurement

Fateev (2014) used PVM and FBRM measurement probes in the experiment he conducted. The selection of the probes was based on the fact that they are of the latest equipment that makes it possible to measure real-time distribution, as well as the microstructure of droplets of the emulsions.

Results and Discussion

Emulsion Formation

The compositions of the emulsions were as recorded in Table 3 below:

Table 3: Results of the compositions of emulsions

 

Figure 2 and Table 3 reveal that all the emulsions having the weight fractions of water to mineral oil of 80%:20% were S3,4,7,8,11,12,13,15,16,20,23, and 24, which did not form emulsions of long-term stability and discriminated immediately once stirring was complete. It was also observed that the emulsified liquids S1, 5, 10, 14, 18, 22, and 25 having weight proportion of the water to mineral oil of 20%:80% underwent destabilization instantly after stirring. The emulsions that involved the all HLB number indicated no formation of O/W emulsions. The occurrence of destabilization of emulsions may have resulted from the emulsion separations. The reason behind this situation could be the merging of the small droplets merge to procreate bigger species, leading to the discrimination of the unceasing phase from the emulsified liquid. This happening led to the surfactant barrier breaking with incessant coalescence of the droplets that were smaller in size. The destabilization of this nature was viewed as such small amounts of surfactant failing to form a physical barrier that was sufficiently strong near the droplets that prevented the droplet from coming close to each other to merge (Fateev, 2014). The presence of destabilized emulsion indicated the occurrence of short-term stable emulsions. Only four emulsified liquids appeared to be stable for 2 hours, and were subsequently remained settled at room temperature for up to at least 72 hours (3 days). These results resonate with the evidence in the earlier research explaining that coalescence is a likely mechanism that led to the destruction of the emulsified liquids (Nour & Yunus, 2006). The destabilization has taken place because the larger adhesive energy between two droplets as opposed to the turbulent energy that causes the separations of emulsions.

During the tests, it was observed that a combination of low and high HLB emulsifiers gave better results as opposed to the use of only one emulsifier. Thus, the mixtures of Span 80 and Tween products, such as mineral oil, formed stable W/O emulsions of different types. The stability of emulsions was an indicator of the presence of the components like asphaltenes and resins, which were obtained from the crude oil. It was also realized that the temperature change affected the stability of the W/O emulsions. Substantial temperature changes lead to the shift in the interfacial tensions, the nature of HLB of the surfactant, viscosities, molecule thermal integrations, and the pressures of vapor the liquid phases. Stable emulsions were found where the temperatures approached the point of the least solubility of emulsions. Therefore, a combination of Span 80, mineral oil EDC 95/11 could be best suggestion for formation of stable W/O emulsions in drilling.

Water stability was determined using the percentage of the separated water, expressed in percentage. The determination of the amount of water separation was calculated using the following relationship:

………………. Eq.4.

The water content obtained in one week after the creation of emulsions was used as the basis of the determining the stability index of the emulsions. The component was different among all the four types of W/O emulsions (Fingas & Fieldhouse, 2011). The results of the calculated stability were recorded in Table 4 below based on different types of W/O emulsion. The findings indicate that the index of stability could be simply computed based on the rheological information, which can also be employed together with certain primary property data like viscosity and density in pursuit of classifying the W/O type emulsions.

Table 4: Computed Stability of W/O type emulsions

 

Figure 4: Stability indices of different W/O type emulsions

The minimum, average, as well as the maximum indices of stability for every type of W/O emulsion have been presents in Figure 4 and Table 4. It was observed that the averages varied based on the W/O type, with a small overlap between the peak and minimum values.

 

Emulsion Type Determination

 

pH Determination

The data obtained from the measurement of the changes in the pH of emulsified liquids was used to construct the plots as shown in Figures 5 below:

Figure 5: The values of pH of emulsions: (a) short-term stable emulsion, and (b) long-term stable emulsion

The data of the values of pH of emulsions taken for 3 days was used to draw the graphs as indicated in Figure 5(a) and (b). The long-term stable emulsion (S9, 13, 17, and 21) had the pH values that slightly fluctuated near the starting point of pH value, where a small rise was noted in the value of pH after one and a half days (36 hours). The short-stable emulsions (S1, 5, and 25), on the other hand, depicted pH values that were continuously declining. Fingas (2014) provided similar results indicting that long-stable emulsions are associated with an increase in pH values leading to an increase in coalescence. After 36 hours, the pH values begun to slightly rise, resulting in an increase in coalescence as well as the more separation of the emulsions.

Viscosity of Emulsions

The data on the viscosity of emulsions was analyzed as shown in Figures 6 and 7.

Figure 6: The relationship between the viscosity of the blend and the rate of shear (a) water proportion of 20% (b) Water fraction of 80%

Figure 7: The association between the viscosity of the apparent combination and the rate of shear (a) water proportion of 20% (b) water proportion of 80%

The Figures 6 (a) and (b) present the viscosity of plastic mixture in relation to the shear rate. The results reveal that all emulsions were formed under rotational tests of the measurements of viscosity, which helped in the determination of the association between the shear rate and plastic mixture viscosity. The figures show that the rate of shear rises with an increase in mixture viscosity. According to Fingas (2014), such behavior may have occurred as a result of the emulsion systems being shear-thickening or dilatants. It was further noted that the emulsions with high content of water (80%) possessed lower values of viscosity as compared to those with low water content (20%). This phenomenon indicated the occurrence of phase inversion occurrenc in the water proportion from 20% to 80% (Fateev, 2014). These results were also consistent with other studies, which demonstrated the HLB values increase with the emulsions’ viscosity. Therefore, this evidence indicates the existence of adequately firm barrier to coalescence, leading to stable emulsion emulsions.

Limitations

This study had several limitations that are worth to mention. First, it was impossible to perform all the test because of inadequate availability of these units. Despite this limitation, the key emulsion behavior states were also verified and thus utilized as the states of reference for the whole work. This study also relied on the secondary data, which was obtained from the studies conducted by other researchers for the analysis of W/O emulsions stability.

Conclusion and Recommendations

Conclusion

The study performed on the stability of W/O emulsions has used the secondary data to analyze the several methods and features for getting stable emulsions. The experiments utilized Span 80 and the mineral oil EDC 95/11, where the emulsions where left undisturbed for at least three days and results taken. The study has established both short- and long-term emulsions. The most stable emulsions were formed by the combination of Span 80 and EDC 95/11, indicating that the objective of this study was successfully attained. Therefore, the stable W/O emulsions have been suitable for use in the drilling industry cleanse crude oil.

Recommendations

Several recommendations were made on how the limitations associated with this study would be addressed in the future study. The first suggestion is that the researcher needs to ensure that the he increases the units used in the research to attain reliability and validity of the data. It was also observed that the studied used purely secondary data. This problem would be addressed by conducting a survey to collect the primary data that is up-to-date. This step would in getting the results and analysis that are effective in determining the methods to get stable W/O emulsions utilized in drilling.

References

Abdulredha, M.M., Hussain, S.A. & Abdullah, L.C. (20180. Overview on petroleum emulsions, formation, influence and demulsification treatment techniques. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2018.11.014.

Fateev, G.V. (2014). Effect of small amounts of surfactants on oil-water dispersion. Master’s Thesis.

Fingas, M. & Fieldhouse, B. (2011). Studies on Water-in-oil Products from Crude Oils and Petroleum Products. Marketing Pollution. Bulletin, 64: 272-283.

Fingas, M.F. (2014). Water-in-oil emulsions: formation and prediction. Spill Science, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.14355/jpsr.2014.0301.04.

Gupta, S., Rajiah, P., Middlebrooks, E.H., Baruah, D., Carter, B.W., Burton, K.R., Chatterjee, A.R., & Miller, M.M. (2018). Systematic review of the literature: best practices. Academic Radiology.

Nour, A. & Yunus, R.M. (2006). Stability investigation of water-in-crude oil emulsion. Journal of Applied Sciences, 6(14):2895-2900.

Rismanto, R. & van der Zwaag, C. (2007) Explorative study of NMR drilling fluids measurement. Department of Petroleum Technology: University of Stavanger.

Saad, M.A., Kamil, M., Abdurahman, N.H., Yunus, R.M., & Awad, O.I. (2019). An overview of recent advances in state-of-the-art techniques in the demulsification of crude oil Emulsions. Processes, 7(240): 1-26. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7070470.

Shrestha, A. (2011). Effect of Span 80 – Tween 80 mixture compositions on the stability of sunflower oil-based emulsions emulsions. Department of Biotech & Medical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Rourkela.

Subramanian, D., May, N., & Firoozabadi, A. (2017). Functional molecules and the stability of water-in-crude oil emulsions. Energy Fuels, 31(9): 8967–8977.

 

 

 

 

Project Management

  1. Online shopping and home delivery system – Walmart

Customers can shop online, make payments, and have their goods delivered to their homes.

  1. Online donation service – Owner Red Cross

An online system where residents can leave donations outside their doors and fill into a system. A Red Cross staff member can then collect the donations and distribute to the vulnerable people.

  1. Self-Marking E-learning examinations system – Owner: A school in the district.

A system where learners can do exams unsupervised with a timer and minimal opportunity for cheating.

CRITICALLY DISCUSS CLINICAL LEADERSHIP WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF IMPROVING SAFE, EFFECTIVE AND PERSON-CENTRED CARE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CLINICAL LEADERSHIP WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF IMPROVING SAFE AND PERSON-CENTRED CARE

 

Author’s Name:

 

Tutor:

Course/Class:

Institutional Affiliation

Department

City/State:

 

Date:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

Clinical Leadership within the Context of Improving Safe Effective and Person-Centered Care. 2

Introduction. 2

The Case for Clinical Leadership. 3

Defining Clinical Leadership. 4

The Role of Leadership in Contemporary Healthcare. 4

Advanced Nurse Practitioners. 6

Advance Nurse Practitioners and Clinical Leadership. 6

Leadership Styles in the Scotland NHS. 6

Policy Issues Relating to Barriers and Facilitators of Leadership. 8

Barriers. 8

Facilitators. 9

Conclusion. 10

Bibliography. 10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clinical Leadership within the Context of Improving Safe Effective and Person-Centered Care

Introduction

Throughout the world, contemporary hospital care has continued to struggle with numerous challenges amidst rising demand, changing consumer expectation and then need to ensure patient-centred care. Clinical leadership has become apparent in the provision of quality and safe care. Healthcare systems have continued to change. While some progress and change have been achieved so far, many experts expound on the need for further changes in the healthcare system in order for more people and more individuals to access quality and affordable care into the future (Daly et al. 2014 p.75). Many stakeholders in the healthcare sector agree that leadership must be experienced from the doctors and other clinicians, in their informal or informal capacities.

The Case for Clinical Leadership

The urge for leadership in the clinical context has not always been existent. However, nurses and other clinician have continued to offer leadership and managerial service. The need for more engagement into leadership has, however, been fuelled by many developments in a few decades ago. In the last few decades, healthcare systems globally have been the subject to regulation and accountability aimed at driving change and exercising control over clinical activities. Despite the increase in regulation and control, there have been specific imbalances between clinical power and financial power. Anderson (2018 p.14) writes that clinical power entails the authority and mandate that is held by clinicians in decision making. On the other hand, the financial power entails the power of the government has the sole provider of public health, hence mandated with the provision of resources required in the clinical setting.

The influence of financial power over clinical power has seen to be ineffective. Top-down approaches to management have since been ignored, for several reasons. Doctors and other caregivers occupy a special position in relation to the care receivers and the general public. Doctors always tend to have an important position to play in the implementation of policies and other changes that have rather been developed by non-experts in the clinical setting. However, over the years, the role of doctors and clinicians in policy implementation has been incremental. In that, nurse and other experts are now seen as important in the coordination of care that is system-wide and focused on the needs and expectations of the care receivers (Joseph & Huber, 2015).

Due to the economic burden of care, there has been an absolute need to engage caregivers.  Indeed, the provision of healthcare has become expensive, and the need to improve the quality of care is challenged with the provision of limited resources. Caregivers have shown the capability to provide workers with a limited resource through patient advocacy. Equally, patients have shown the desire to engage clinicians in the rationalisation and allocation of resources. Doctors and other caregivers today have been provided with an incentive to engage in leadership directly. Clinical leadership has become an important and integral part of the nursing practice.

Defining Clinical Leadership

Just like leadership, the concept of clinical leadership can be described in varying ways.  There lacks a standard definition of leadership. Literature review on clinical leadership tends to focus on what may be the difference between effective clinical leadership and ineffective clinical leadership, relative to offering optimal care and overcoming care barriers in the clinical environment. Lamb et al. (2018) explored some of the forms of ineffective leadership through secondary research. Three forms of ineffective leadership were identified. They include the placating avoidance, in which a leader shows concerns but fails to act; equivocal avoidance, in which leader are docile in response and hostile avoidance; where the leaders tend to become hostile towards the subject.

The Role of Leadership in Contemporary Healthcare

Contemporary healthcare is built around hospitals. In Scotland, hospital and other care facilities have continued to experience increased strain and scrutiny. Anderson (2017 .31) notes that increased demand and fiscal requirement have continued to pressure hospitals. Hospitals have been required to increase their accountability, scrutiny and visibility relative to care. One of the inquiries from the Francis (2013) report was gross incompetency in NHS leadership.

In the contemporary healthcare sector, the roles and responsibilities place on leaders have become more and more complex; thus, the need for different forms of leadership has become an apparent urgency. To ensure that cost efficiency is achieved, and to improve productivity, immense changes in the reorganisation of leadership style has been experiencing. Joseph & Huber (2015 p.56) notes that coupled with related financial goals is growing attention towards improving safety and quality. Hence some of the common assumptions of leadership have been ignored as they are not well suited in delivering the changes expected in point of care. Accordingly, there have been calls for a transition into a new approach of hospital leadership as a major transformational shift in the conceptualisation of leadership. This shift has been in part in response to the growing recognition that having designated leaders that assume a position of leaders is fundamental feature of clinical practice and ensuring that demand-driven change in enacted.

Some of the issues that have led to shifts in leadership approaches include overwhelming evidence that nurses and other clinicians may experience dissatisfaction within their working environments (Shariff, 2014 p.10). The strained relationship between the administration and clinical practices are well evidenced in the NHS, writes (Shariff, 2014). In the last few decades, different forms and layers of leadership have been developed to overcome such disparities, with consensus towards the need to enact leadership that will meet the needs and expectations of clinicians rather than meeting the traditional managerial function. These include the advancement of leadership within the area of Advanced Nurse Practitioners.

Advanced Nurse Practitioners

The role of the Advanced Nurse Practitioner has been in existence, as early as the 1960s in the United States. In the United Kingdom, the need to create a clear career progression led to the development of the ANP. To this day, the function and role of the ANP and its definition varies from one country to another. In Scotland, the 2015 report of Pulling Together; Transforming Urgent Care for the People of Scotland as reported in RCN (2012) highlighted the need to adopt a consistent definition of ANPs relative to the description of their roles, competencies, education needs and compensation (Scottish School of Primary Care, 2019). Hence ANPs were defined as highly experienced, educated registered nurses who are engaged in the management of complete clinical care of patients and not focusing on any sole factor.  ANPs are additionally described by their the advanced –level-capability in four major domains clinical practice facilitating learning leadership and evidence, research and development. On qualification, ANP’s are expected to have attained education at Master Degree Level; be non-medical prescribers and demonstrate competence in their level of practice following assessment. One of the key competencies of an ANP is leadership. The other three include clinical practice, facilitating learning, evidence, research and development (Anderson 2018). The ANP works at this experienced level of practice characterised by a degree of autonomy and complex decision making higher than usually expected, (Chief Nursing Officer Directorate, Scottish Government (CNOD) 2017). The role focuses on preventative care, health promotion and disease prevention as well as the management of patients with acute and chronic health issues.

Advance Nurse Practitioners and Clinical Leadership

Leadership Styles in the Scotland NHS

Before the advent of advanced nurse practitioner, various leadership styles have shown to the prevalent in the NHS.  Joseph & Huber (2015, p.59) notes that these forms of leadership are rigid and do not meet the dynamic needs of healthcare today. One such kind of leadership is the heroic leadership. Transactional leadership is the most heroic form of leadership, explains Lamb, et al. (2018) It is a leadership style in which the leader leads without forming any form of leadership and expected others to follow. Transactional leadership has been criticised for various limitations, especially when applied in the clinical setting. One is that it fails to take into consideration the role of culture. Secondly, this form of leadership is more poised towards attaining results more of managerial rather than leadership.

Transformational leadership is one style of leadership that is based on vision. Transformational leadership is described as a partnership between the leader and the subjects towards attaining an intended change. Transformational leadership is based on evidence-based practice theory that is used as a strategy and deployed as a style for realising change within the complexity of care and the use of interdisciplinary teams. The relational nature of transformational leadership style has been deemed a vital management practice for clinical leadership education and development (Lamb et al. 2018).

The healthcare context is always complex, and thus, certain leadership styles may not serve the intended purpose of patient-centred care. Hence a number (hence and a number are used repetitively) of other strategies have been used to complement leadership approaches in the provision of safe and effective care. One such approach is multi-disciplinary or inter-professional working (RCN, 2012). Royal college of nursing should be written in the full first time. This entails persons from different backgrounds like nurses, physicians and doctors working together in a manner that brings about collaboration. This style has, however, been challenged, since different professional tend to manifest values within their profession as opposed to working collaboratively. On the other hand, inter-professional approaches have been deemed vital in environments that require the input of various discipline. Multi-professional teamwork has been deemed as a means towards rendering teams more effective and meeting the care need of individual and communities within a single framework. When applied within the concept of community care, multi-disciplinary approaches have shown exemplary success. Where is the evidence of this – needs reference?

Frontline leadership is another form of leadership that has been adopted in the Scotland NHS to resolve several issues (RCN, 2012). Several issues promoted the adoption of the frontline leadership style. One was to ensure that competencies and skills of frontline nurse and midwives are supported to assume a central role in the promotion of healthcare. Another important aspect was to identify the potential and benefits for nurses and midwives. A report filed by the RCN (2012) outlined that the public was not aware of the role of the ANP, especially those that had not received any care before.  The public perception of the nurse as just caregivers had been shown to undermine their role as leaders, a major barrier facing ANP nurses.

Policy Issues Relating to Barriers and Facilitators of Leadership

Barriers

The role of the ANP has always remained controversial, in most times leaving them exposed to the criticism of their actual roles. Existing policies have contributed towards the role and function of the ANP has a leader. The ANP is viewed to offer sets of function patient-centred leadership and organisational leader. As noted earlier, the ANP role has been developed around the role of a clinical practitioner. The ANPs attachment to their nursing identity has indeed become a major barrier. For instance, when working in a multi-disciplinary team, their leadership competencies are often overlooked (Cardiff et al., 2018 p.20).  Due to the nature of their professional focusing on clinical care, ANPs are often assumed to lack competence in managerial aspects integral to leadership like finance and healthcare policy, note McGuirre et al. (2016)

Existing policies surrounding the hierarchy of power between ANP nurse and doctors have resulted in collaborative issues, hence undermining their function as leaders (Anderson, 2018). A follower can only be supportive of the course of the leader if he or she is subordinate (Joseph & Huber, 2015).  In those cases, rather than serving as subordinates to ANPs, doctors are more likely to look down on the ANPs as mere clinician notes Shariff (2014). Such hierarchical issues remain unresolved even as the NHS seeks to mainstream the leadership function of ANPs.  Studies have shown that doctors will tend to achieve full authority while ANPs are struggling to remain relevant to the hybrid roles.

Facilitators

The Scottish government, just like other governments, have sought to resolve some of the issues surrounding the role of ANP as leaders. Some of the policy changes have been realised. These include the adoption of the ANP definition that recognises leadership as their function and an area that they ought to achieve competence prior to placement. The defined scope is also in line with the level of education and skills that nurse leaders are accorded (Scottish School of Primary Care, 2019). The development of tools like The Healthcare and Leadership Model, (National Health Service (NHS) 2013), is one example of a self-directed tool designed to highlight areas requiring further development. It is a user-friendly and evidenced-based program that suggests nine dimensions of leadership behaviour and expectations that accentuates the importance of personal qualities and personal awareness.

It is debatable that nine dimensions are enough as many external factors can affect the outcome such as locality, finance and isolation.  It is, however, a useful tool in that it is clear on ‘what it is,’ and ‘what it is not.’ (NHS 2013). The intention, as with any leadership tool, is to assist nurse leaders in developing an understanding of their strengths and weaknesses, through self -awareness, critical reflection and role modelling, (NHS 2013). Nurse leaders are prepared to take charge of disciplinary and multi-professional team function. Equally, they have been actively involved in developing strategies and policies for health care. The current educational provisions of ANPs have been developed to reflect the complex leadership needs (Shariff, 2014 p.14). The development of the doctoral nurse program (DNP) is one of the attempts to ensure that they are well equipped and prepared in the leadership and mange of organisation as a business within the practice of healthcare. NHS Scotland has created frameworks that outline leadership requirements that nurse leaders should fulfil, discusses Anderson (2017). Additionally, the fulfilment of leadership resource needs is dependent of the patient-centred care approach has been deemed vital in promoting the function of ANPs in their leadership and clinical role (Scottish School of Primary Care, 2019)

Conclusion

Due to the ongoing changes in the clinical setting, the need for clinical leadership has become an integral part of the provision of care. The literature review shows the ongoing changes, issues, challenges and opportunities facing ANP nurse leaders. ANP nurse leadership has been aimed at bridging leadership gaps that have been existing in healthcare. Despite the advancement of the specialised role of ANPs, their leadership function is still not well fitted.  ANPs ought to function as both clinical nurse and leaders. The increased scope of practice in clinical and leadership roles also dawns with complexities. The role of the ANP leader still overlaps other leadership position in the healthcare setting. This undermines approaches like multi-disciplinary practices that should promote patient-centeredness. Primarily this and several other barriers have been identified, and policies changes have been enacted to promote the function of leadership.

Bibliography

Anderson, C., 2017. Leadership experiences of London-based Advanced Nurse Practitioners: A Case Study, s.l.: University College London.

Anderson, C., 2018. Exploring the role of advanced nurse practitioners in leadership. Nursing Standards, 33(2), pp. 29-33.

Cardiff, McCormack & McCance, 2018. Person-centred leadership: A relational approach to leadership derived through action research. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 1(2), pp. 15-26.

Daly et al., 2014. The importance of clinical leadership in the hospital setting. Journal of Healthcare and Leadership, 1(3), pp. 75-83.

Joseph, L. & Huber, D. L., 2015. Clinical leadership development and education for nurses: prospects and opportunities. Journal of Healthcare Leadership, p. 55–64.

Lamb, A., Martin‐Misener, R., Bryant‐Lukosius, D. & Latimer, M., 2018. Describing the leadership capabilities of advanced practice nurses using a qualitative descriptive study. NursingOpen, 1(4), pp. 1-9.

McGuire, Russel & Matthews, 2016. Facilitators and barriers to the increased supervisory role of senior charge nurses: a qualitative study. Journal of Nursing Management, 2(4), p. 366–375.

RCN, 2012. Frontline First; Congress 2012 Update, s.l.: Royal College of Nursing.

Scottish School of Primary Care, 2019. Advanced Nurse Practitioner Case Study, s.l.: Scottish School of Primary Care.

Shariff, N., 2014. Factors that act as facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders’ participation in health policy development. BMC Nursing, 1(2), pp. 1-20.

 

Nursing Practice

Applicant’s Name: ________________________________________

Date____________________________________________________

Nurse Example
Scope: The Nurse at this level demonstrates leadership in delivering and improving holistic care through collaborative strategies with others. I focused on rallying my fellow nursing staff to assume a leadership approach in ensuring healthcare is administered by upholding patient-centeredness. As such, the patients were more involved on their healthcare.
Practice: Demonstrates ability to function effectively in charger nurse, team leader or other leadership role which requires problem solving skills at the unit or team level.  Uses team approaches to identify, analyze and resolve problems/issues. In regard to some of the problems that arise such as long processing hours for patients, I used communication and dependability as the problem-solving skills as a team in the nursing fraternity.
Ethics:  Supports & enhances client treatment wishes.  Serves a s a resource for clients & staff in addressing ethical issues. In ensured to uphold patients’ wishes in regard to issues such as privacy and treatment wishes, even though they created a dilemma as to what is right or wrong.
Resource Utilization: Identifies potential problems involving resources and/or safety issues and takes  appropriate action. In regard to resource utilization, my focus was on the intangible resources, which are crucial in delivery of care. For instance, I strived to ensure that I rally employees to perform task within standard acceptable time. I also strive to ensure the inventory space such as storage of medication was done optimally to avoid redundancy.
Education/Career Development: Seeks knowledge and skills to maintain/improve expertize in area of practice.   Participated in educational activities to improve clinical knowledge and enhance role performance I have acquired a number of certifications that will out me in a better position in terms of experience and expertise to administer care. I have also attended seminars and conferences to be more aware of current practices.

 

 

 

Performance: Evaluates practice of self and others using professional standards, and regulations.  Takes action to improve performance. I have strived to emphasize on the acceptable professional standards such as ethics, nursing education, use of evidence-based practice, leadership, and collaboration.
Collaboration: Consults with other members in the unit/work group and uses group process to identify, analyze and resolve problems affecting care. In my practice in nursing, I have continually strived to establish collaboration among nurse staff members in problem-solving and providing patients with holistic care

 

Collegiality: Educates colleagues and/or students either in formally in-service or informally as a resource person.  Serves as a preceptor and/or mentor. Based on the knowledge of evidence-based practice, I have strived to relay such knowledge to fellow staff members in a required capacity as a preceptor.

 

 

Quality of Care: At the unit level participates in quality improvement activities that result in improved outcomes.

 

At the unit level I focused on the importance of appropriate documentation of patient events as well as schedule for administering medication. This had the effect of reducing errors in the institution.
Research:  Uses a body of research to validate or change group practice:

1. Identifies clinical problem

2. Reads & evaluates research based literature related to problem.

3. Incorporates knowledge from literature into critical thinking/problem solving

4. Uses knowledge to validate or change practice at the unit, team or group level.

A problem that I have encountered is medication errors. There is a wide body of knowledge on this matter, which I read from peer-reviewed research with the intention of incorporating recommendations. A crucial recommendation is the use of electronic health records to reduce possible errors when administering medication.

 

Nursing Practice

Applicant’s Name: ________________________________________

Date____________________________________________________

Nurse Example
Scope: The Nurse at this level demonstrates leadership in delivering and improving holistic care through collaborative strategies with others. Example: Promoting positive relations with staff. The issue was poor communication, which I enhanced by encouraging open communication with staff members. This led to improved work engagement to the benefit of patients.
Practice: Demonstrates ability to function effectively in charger nurse, team leader or other leadership role which requires problem solving skills at the unit or team level.  Uses team approaches to identify, analyze and resolve problems/issues. Example: Delegation of nursing assignments. The issue at hand was overlapping roles and redundancy in the unit. I prepared schedules, which helped nurses to understand their specific roles during shifts. This led to efficiency in patient care.
Ethics:  Supports & enhances client treatment wishes.  Serves a s a resource for clients & staff in addressing ethical issues. Example: Privacy and Confidentiality. Issue was inadequate protection of private information. I ensured patients’ medical information was store securely. This led to public confidence in healthcare services at the facility.
Resource Utilization: Identifies potential problems involving resources and/or safety issues and takes  appropriate action. Example: Helping patients discharged from the hospital. Lack of access to appropriate services and medications. I explained patient options in details to make them aware of medical choices at appropriate and low costs.
Education/Career Development: Seeks knowledge and skills to maintain/improve expertize in area of practice.   Participated in educational activities to improve clinical knowledge and enhance role performance Example: Further education as a telemedicine nurse. Poor exchange of information, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. I took a course in Telehealth to be more conversant in the use of technology in administering care, which in turn reduced cases of medical errors leading to better patient outcomes.

 

 

Performance: Evaluates practice of self and others using professional standards, and regulations.  Takes action to improve performance. Example: Adoption of a performance improvement plan. Issue at hand was performance deficiencies. I set clear objectives and learned to plan and prioritize patients’ tasks. This enabled me to attend to almost all of my patient and staff responsibilities in an orderly fashion.
Collaboration: Consults with other members in the unit/work group and uses group process to identify, analyze and resolve problems affecting care. Example: Participating in interdisciplinary conferences. I have attended conferences and workshops with healthcare practitioners in different fields. This has led to an all rounded approach in administering holistic care to patients.

 

Collegiality: Educates colleagues and/or students either in formally in-service or informally as a resource person.  Serves as a preceptor and/or mentor. Example: Engaging in orientation programs for newly recruited nurses. Based on the knowledge of evidence-based practice, I have strived to relay such knowledge to fellow staff members in a required capacity as a preceptor. This has led to improved patient care.

 

 

Quality of Care: At the unit level participates in quality improvement activities that result in improved outcomes.

 

Example: Documentation of patient events. I focused on the importance of appropriate documentation of patient events as well as schedule for administering medication. This had the effect of reducing errors in the institution.
Research:  Uses a body of research to validate or change group practice:

1. Identifies clinical problem

2. Reads & evaluates research based literature related to problem.

3. Incorporates knowledge from literature into critical thinking/problem solving

4. Uses knowledge to validate or change practice at the unit, team or group level.

Example: Research on issue of medication errors. There is a wide body of knowledge on this matter, which I read from peer-reviewed research with the intention of incorporating recommendations. A crucial recommendation is the use of electronic health records to reduce possible errors when administering medication.

 

Problem

As a nursing leader in the healthcare institution, I have noticed with concern an increase in incidences of hospital acquired infections, which threaten the safety of patients. Hospital acquired infections tend to have unintended effects on other aspects of healthcare, such as cost, extended stay within the healthcare institution, and cases of disability. As a result, I have identified that a major cause is unhygienic hospital practice causing bloodstream infections, catheter-induced urinary tract infection, ventilator-linked infection, and surgical site infections.

Goal:

To enhance standard principles of practice for all healthcare practitioners, which will act as control precautions against hospital-acquired infections.

Action

The first step that I will take in this regard to carry out a sensitization initiative across the board focusing on knowledge and experience level regarding hospital acquired infections. As such I will provide the following prevention strategies:

Effective hand washing practices for all healthcare practitioners as well as patients.

Frequent cleaning of surfaces with disinfectants to kill bacteria.

Re-training of staff members on the insertion and maintenance of catheters.

Ensuring patients take a shower before surgery.

Restricting unnecessary movement, especially in the operating room.

Minimizing risk of infections by setting up isolation rooms for hospital acquired infections.

Effective management of healthcare workers who are feeling unwell.

Championing for a system that reduces instances of congestion within the emergency room.

Ensuring staff members involved in the maintenance of hospital hygiene are involved in training and education focusing on hospital-acquired infections.

Outcomes

Implemented new policies on hospital hygiene, which allows for a significant paradigm shift in the mode of operation.

Organized and efficient patient processing, which leads to an increase in patient satisfaction.

The desired reduction in hospital-acq

CRITICALLY DISCUSS CLINICAL LEADERSHIP WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF IMPROVING SAFE, EFFECTIVE AND PERSON-CENTRED CARE.

Clinical Leadership Within the Context of Improving Safe and Person-Centred Care

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Summary

As the demand for clinical care continues to increase, healthcare organization throughout the world are struggling with financial and other forms of limitation. Hence, different models of care have been adopted to ensure that, despite the underlying limitation, quality, effective and safe care is provided to those in need. Such models include the person centred care model. The need for further changes has even become more apparent. Hence, the need for leadership styles that can drive change amidst of existing complexities.

The role of Advanced Nurse Practitioners has emerged over the years for a number of reasons. One major issues are that traditional managerial roles do not meet the needs of nurses as care givers and patients as care providers. Adoption of visionary and heroic leadership models have not proved effectiveness in the healthcare sector. Advanced Nurse Practitioner includes both clinical care leadership and organizational management leadership. The adoption of Advance Nurse Practitioners leadership is yet to be fully realized.

ANPs face a number of barriers and challenges in their provision for both care and leadership.  This include the lack of authority with the current structuring of the healthcare sector. ANPs also explicitly lack the skills and resource to provide organizational leadership. Such barriers result from policy implications. With the acknowledgement of the role of ANPs, a number of policies have been adopted to enhance their leadership roles. They include provision of doctoral program, adoption of the scope of practice and function and the urge to meet their skill needs through active engagement in policy formulation.

 

 

 

Clinical Leadership within the Context of Improving Safe Effective and Person-Centred Care

Introduction

Throughout the world, contemporary hospital care has continued to struggle with numerous challenges amidst of rising demand, changing consumer expectation and then need to ensure patient-centred care. Clinical leadership has become apparent in the provision of quality and safe care. Healthcare systems have continued to change. While some progress and change have been achieved so far, many experts expound on the need for further changes in the healthcare system in order for more people and more individuals to access quality and affordable care into the future. While the need for change into the near future has become apparent in the healthcare system, many point out to certain aspect that should be fulfilled to experience an effective change in the healthcare system. One of the things that is highly required in the healthcare transformation is leadership (Daly et al. 2014 p.75). Many stakeholders in the healthcare sector agree that leadership must be experienced from the doctors and other clinicians, in their informal or informal capacities. While the definition of leadership in the clinical setting, as well as its function, may be disputed, its relevance cannot be downplayed. Hence leadership in the clinical setting has been studied and practised alongside other aspects like patient-centred care, provision of safe and quality care and the role of different forms of clinicians towards clinical leadership.

The Case for Clinical Leadership

The urge for leadership in the clinical context has not always been existent. However, nurses and other clinician have continued to offer leadership and managerial service. The need for more engagement into leadership has, however, been fuelled by a number of developments in a few decades ago. In the last few decades, healthcare systems globally have been subject of regulation and accountability that are aimed at driving change and exercising control over clinical activities. Despite the increase in regulation and control, there has been explicit imbalances between clinical power and financial power. Anderson (2018 p.14) writes that, clinical power entails the authority and mandate that is held by clinicians in decision making. On the other hand, the financial power entails the power of the government has the sole provider of public health, hence mandated with the provision of resources that are required in the clinical setting.

The influence of the financial power over the clinical power has seen to be ineffective. Top-down approaches to management have since been ignored, for a number of reasons. Doctors and other caregivers occupy a special position in relation to the care receivers and the general public. Hence, they always tend to have an important position to play in the implementation of policies and other changes that have rather been developed by non-experts in the clinical setting. However, over the years, the role of doctors and clinicians in policy implementation has been incremental. In that, nurse and other experts are now seen as important in the coordination of care that is system-wide and focused on the needs and expectations of the care receivers.

Due to the economic burden of care, there has been an absolute need to engage caregivers.  Indeed, the provision of healthcare has become expensive, and the need to improve the quality of care is challenged with the provision of limited resources. Caregivers have shown the capability to provide work with limited resource through patient advocacy. Hence, patients have shown the desire to engage clinicians in the rationalisation and allocation of resources.  As opposed to the traditional approaches of managers, doctors, and other caregivers today have been provided with an incentive to directly engage in leadership. Hence, clinical leadership has become an important and integral part of the nursing practice.

 

Defining Clinical Leadership

The definition and description of clinical leadership is vital in determining who can be a leader and what is expected of a leader. The study area of clinical leadership is rather young. However, substantial work has been compiled in the exploration of clinical leadership and yet numerous definitional issues on clinical leadership.  McGuirre et al. (2016 p.367) highlights that, within the clinical context, it is widely accepted that anyone can become a leader and that clinical leadership is not a domain that can only be assigned to a particular group of persons. Hence, the definition of leadership or its description is not tied to particular clinical specialities, but rather anyone that can offer service in the healthcare system can also provide leadership.

Just like leadership, the concept of clinical leadership can be described in varying ways.  Hence, there is no standard definition of leadership. Literature review on clinical leadership tend to focus on what may be the difference between effective clinical leadership and ineffective clinical leadership, relative to offering optimal care and overcoming care barriers in the clinical environment. Lamb, et al. (2018) explored some of the forms of ineffective leadership through secondary research. Three forms of ineffective leadership were identified. They include the placating avoidance, in which a leader shows concerns but fails to act; equivocal avoidance, in which leader are docile in response and hostile avoidance; where the leaders tend to become hostile towards the subject.  Ineffective leadership and leadership failures have long been recorded and documented in the National Health Services. Important lessons have been drawn from these experiences, and the means of achieving effective leadership have been further advanced.

 

 

The Role of Leadership in Contemporary Healthcare

Contemporary healthcare is built around hospitals. In Scotland, hospital and other care facilities have continued to experience increased strain and scrutiny. Anderson (2017 .31) notes that increased demand and fiscal requirement have continued to press hospital. As opposed to the near past when the hospital was viewed as lifesavers, today, hospitals are viewed as potential sources of harm. Hence, hospitals have been required to increase their accountability, scrutiny and visibility relative to care. The increased scrutiny has led to an enhanced emphasis on the role of the health professional, which include nurses in developing, monitoring and evaluating better strategies in providing care like the use of evidence-based practice and the advancement of person-centred care as the primary model of providing care in the hospital setting.

In the contemporary healthcare sector, the roles and responsibilities that are place on leaders have become more and more complex; hence the need for different forms of leadership has become an apparent urgency. To ensure that cost efficiency is achieved, and to improve productivity, immense changes in the reorganisation of leadership style has been experiencing. Joseph & Huber (2015 p.56) notes that, coupled with financial related goals is a growing attention towards improving safety and quality. Hence some of the common assumption of leadership have been ignored as they are not well suited in delivering the changes expected in point of care. Accordingly, there have been calls for a transition into a new approach of hospital leadership hence a major transformational shift in the conceptualisation of leadership. This shift has been in part in response to the growing recognition that having designated leaders that assume a position of leaders is limiting in capacity in meeting the fundamental feature of clinical practice and ensuring that demand-driven change in enacted.

Some of the issues that have led to shifts in leadership approaches include overwhelming evidence that nurses and other clinicians may experience dissatisfaction within their working environments (Shariff, 2014 p.10). Hence, issues like emotional exhaustion and burnout have continuously emerged, with the conceptualisation of work experience affecting the quality of care that clinicians may offer to their clients. Hospitals, just like any other workplace are filled with complex socio-political issues that may undermine the process of engagement and leadership among clinicians with power dynamics, disciplinary issues and competing discourses within and organisation coming into play. The strained relationship between the administration and clinical practices are well evidenced in the NHS.  Hence, over the last few decades, different forms and layers of leadership have been developed to overcome such disparities, with consensus towards the need to enact leadership that will meet the needs and expectations of clinicians rather than meeting the traditional managerial function. These include the advancement of leadership within the area of Advanced Nurse Practitioners.

Advanced Nurse Practitioners

The role of the Advanced Nurse Practitioner has been in existence, as early as the 1960s in the United States. In the United Kingdom, the need to create a clear career progression led to the development of the ANP. To this day, the function and role of the ANP, hence its definition varies from one country to another.  In Scotland, the 2015 report of Pulling Together; Transforming Urgent Care for the People of Scotland highlighted the need to adopt a consistent definition of ANPs relative to the description of their roles, competencies, education needs and compensation (Scottish School of Primary Care, 2019). Hence ANPs were defined as highly experienced, educated registered nurses who are engaged in the management of complete clinical care of patients and not focusing on any sole factor. ANPs are additionally defined by the advanced –level-capability in four major domains; clinical practice facilitating learning leadership and evidence, research and development. On qualification, ANDs are expected to have attained education ins Master Degree Level or a minimum of Postgraduate Diploma; aligned to the level seven of the NHS career framework and agenda for change band; be non-medical prescribers and demonstrate competence in their level of practice following assessment.

Advance Nurse Practitioners and Clinical Leadership

Leadership Styles in the Scotland NHS

Before the advent of advanced nurse practitioner, a number of leadership styles have shown to the prevalent in the NHS.  Joseph & Huber (2015 p.59) notes that these forms of leadership are rigid and not meet the dynamic needs of the healthcare today. One such kind of leadership is the heroic leadership. Transactional leadership is the most heroic form of leadership. It is a leadership style in which the leader leads without forming any form of leadership and expected others to follow. Transactional leadership has been criticised for a number of issues, especially when applied in the clinical setting. One is that it fails to take into consideration the role of culture. Secondly, this form of leadership is more poised towards attaining results hence more of managerial rather than leadership.

 

Visionary leadership styles have also been adopted in the NHS for so long. Transformational leadership is one style of leadership that is based on vision. Transformational leadership is described as a partnership between the leader and the subjects towards attaining an intended change. Transformational leadership is based on evidence-based practice theory that is used as a strategy and deployed as a style for realising change within the complexity of care and the use of interdisciplinary teams. The relational nature of transformational leadership style has been deemed a vital management practice for clinical leadership education and development.

 

The healthcare context is always complex, and thus, certain leadership styles may not serve the intended purpose of patient-centred care. Hence a number of other strategies have been used to complement leadership approaches in the provision of safe and effective care. One such approach is the multi-disciplinary or inter-professional working (RCN, 2012). This entails persons from different backgrounds like nurses, physicians and doctors working together in a manner that brings about collaboration. This style has, however, been challenged, since different professional tend to manifest values that are within their profession as opposed to working in a collaborative manner. On the other hand, inter-professional approaches have been deemed vital in environments that require the input of various discipline. Multi-professional teamwork has been deemed as a means towards rendering teams more effective and meeting the care need of individual and communities within a single framework. When applied within the concept of community care, multi-disciplinary approaches have shown exemplary success.

Frontline leadership is another form of leadership that has been adopted in the Scotland NHS to resolve a number of issues (RCN, 2012). There are a number of issues that promoted the adoption of the frontline leadership style. One was to ensure that competencies and skills of frontline nurse and midwives are supported to assume a central role in the promotion of healthcare. Another important aspect was to identify the potential and benefits for nurses and midwives. A report filed by the Frontline Care Commission Report outlined that the public was not aware of the role of the ANP, especially those that had not received any care before.  The public perception of the nurse as just caregivers had been shown to undermine their role as leaders, a major barrier facing ANP nurses.

 

Policy Issues Relating to Barriers and Facilitators of Leadership

Barriers

The role of the ANP has always remained controversial, in most times leaving them exposed to the criticism of their actual roles. Existing policies have contributed towards the role and function of the ANP has a leader. The ANP is viewed to offer sets of function; patient-centred leadership and organisational leader. As to the earlier, ANP role has been developed around the role of a clinical practitioner. The ANPs attachment to their nursing identity has indeed become a major barrier. For instance, when working in a multi-disciplinary team, their leadership competencies are often overlooked (Cardiff, et al., 2018 p.20).  Due to the nature of their professional focusing on clinical care, ANPs are often assumed to lack competence in managerial aspects that are integral to leadership like finance and healthcare policy.

Existing policies surrounding the hierarchy of power between ANP nurse and doctors have resulted in collaborative issues, hence undermining their function as leaders. A follower can only be supportive of the course of the leader if he or she is subordinate. In those cases, rather than serving as subordinates to ANPs, doctors are more likely to look down on the ANPs as mere clinician. Such hierarchical issues remain unresolved even as the NHS seeks to mainstream the leadership function of ANPs.  Studies have shown that doctors will tend to achieve full authority while ANPs are struggling to remain relevant to the hybrid roles.

Facilitators

The Scottish government, just like other government, have sought to resolve some of the issues that are surrounding the role of ANP as leaders. Hence, some policy changes have been realised. These include the adoption of the ANP definition that recognises leadership as their function and an area that they ought to achieve competence prior to placement. The defined scope is also in line with the level of education and skills that nurse leaders are accorded (Scottish School of Primary Care, 2019). Nurse leader have been prepared to take charge in multi-disciplinary and multi-professional team function. Equally, they have been actively involved in developing strategies and policies for health care. The current educational provisions of ANPs have been developed to reflect the complex leadership needs (Shariff, 2014 p.14). The development of the doctoral program for nurse leaders is one of the attempts to ensure that they are well equipped and prepared in the leadership and mange of organisation as a business within the practice of healthcare.

Most importantly, the current policies have sought to challenge the gender association attached with the nursing practice and thus the ANP program. The female gender is largely perceived to occupy junior roles while the male gender assumes leadership roles. NHS Scotland has created frameworks that outline leadership requirements that nurse leaders should fulfil. Additionally, fulfilment of leadership resource needs relative to the patient-centred care approach has been deemed vital in promoting the function of ANPs in their leadership and clinical role.

Conclusion

Due to the ongoing changes in the clinical setting, the need for clinical leadership has become an integral part to provision of care. The literature review shows the ongoing changes, issues, challenges and opportunities facing ANP nurse leaders. ANP nurse leadership has been aimed at bridging leadership gaps that have been existing healthcare. Despite the advancement of the specialised role of ANPs, their leadership function is still not well fitted. ANPs ought to function as both clinical nurse and leaders. The increases scope of work also dawns with complexities. In the Scotland NHS, the role of nurse leaders is unclearly defined. Hence, they may be overlooked by other professionals like doctors. This undermines approaches like multi-disciplinary practices that should promote patient-centeredness. Largely this and several other barriers have been identified and policies changes have been enacted to promote the function of leadership. They include the development of a clear educational need-based curriculum for ANPs. ANP is also able to pursue further studies, including a doctoral program, which can prepare them for organisational leadership functions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

List of References

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Anderson, C., 2018. Exploring the role of advanced nurse practitioners in leadership. Nursing Standards, 33(2), pp. 29-33.

Cardiff, McCormack & McCance, 2018. Person-centred leadership: A relational approach to leadership derived through action research. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 1(2), pp. 15-26.

Daly et al., 2014. The importance of clinical leadership in the hospital setting. Journal of Healthcare and Leadership, 1(3), pp. 75-83.

Joseph, L. & Huber, D. L., 2015. Clinical leadership development and education for nurses: prospects and opportunities. Journal of Healthcare Leadership, p. 55–64.

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Scottish School of Primary Care, 2019. Advanced Nurse Practitioner Case Study, s.l.: Scottish School of Primary Care.

Shariff, N., 2014. Factors that act as facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders’ participation in health policy development. BMC Nursing, 1(2), pp. 1-20.