Blockchain as A Tool To Check Credibility

Resume padding is a consistent problem that consumes talent acquisition efforts for most employers. The ability of recruits to state incorrect facts on their resumes was noted by Duffus (2016) as a plague in the record management practices in the Jamaican public sector. Other researchers have extended similar sentiments, quantifying the fact that human resource practitioners have to change how they recruit employees (Smith, 2016). Such changes must occur in the realm of document verification to ensure the information presented by potential employment candidates are accurate and reliable. The traditional recruitment software used in HRM processes are not adequate for the fulfilment of this role. In fact, the software contributed to the rampant increase in undetected errors in accuracy in resumes owing to the fact that the software has no means of confirming the validity of the information provided by a potential candidate.

Background of the Problem

The management of human resource information in the current job market is constantly under attack by the possibility of inauthentic information. As a result of the proliferation of technology, human resource information is prone to inaccuracy as a result of employees lying in their resumes. However, the current tools used by human resource practitioners are not sufficient to address this problem. Recruitment software lack the capability of ascertaining the validity of documents beyond reasonable doubt. Consequently, new technology needs to be leveraged for purposes of proving identity and achievements in human resource information.

Objectives

The objectives of the study include the demonstration of the efficacy and efficiency of blockchain technology in proving the reliability of human resource information across all industries. The paper will demonstrate that blockchain technology has all the characteristics to act as a trust checker in relation to the details employees include in their resumes. The second objective of the study will be to demonstrate that current measures in human resource information management are lacking. That is, through the findings of the paper, evidence will be presented to demonstrate that human resource management and the recruitment of talent is subject to the whims of employees owing to the fact that they have no reliable way of affirming the validity of resumes. As a consequence, organizations are unable to achieve their objectives to stakeholders due to the fact that they are inadequately staffed.

Hypothesis

Consequently, this paper proposes the use of blockchain technology in the assurance of resume accuracy. Blockchain technology allows for the recording of data on a distributed and encrypted digital leger, thereby eliminating the requirement for a middle man in a vast number of every day applications, such as finance. The ledger is immutable, meaning that once information is recorded, it cannot be changed. The above characteristic of the blockchain makes it a desirable avenue for addressing the challenges occasioned by resume padding. This paper aims to demonstrate the efficacy of blockchain technology in the assurance of resume credibility.

The use of blockchain technology in the management of human resource information is also hypothesized as a means through which organizations can staff their ranks with personnel who can help them achieve objectives. Thus, the use of the blockchain is expected to help organizations better meet their objectives.

 

Literature Review

In a study conducted by Chen & Zhu (2017), blockchain technology was noted for its ability to provide proof of identity, ownership, and achievements. The authors noted that the novel technology could therefore be used for the establishment of a decentralized, transparent, and immutable record of personal achievement. These findings are relevant to the current study as they are demonstrative of the fact that blockchain technology can be used to assure that information contained in resumes is both accurate and relevant. Recruits, for instance, could enter verifiable information into the blockchain together with their personal identification details. The information would be recorded on a blockchain such that HR practitioners would only need to look up transactions concerning the recruit to confirm the validity of his or her resume. Such deployment of blockchain technology would make it easier for employers to confirm the validity of information presented by a recruit, without having seek arbitration from a third party.

The fact that blockchains hold immutable records means that for a record to change, a person would have to make changes to the entire blockchain. Such a tasks is not feasible as the blockchain ledger is held by different independent computer systems as Chen & Zhu () elaborate. Owing to that capability, blockchains can provide the sufficient technological capability required for the assurance of resume credibility.

Crosby, Nachiappan, Pattanayak, Verma & Kalayanaraman (2016) provided discourse on the applicability of the blockchain in other transactions apart from financial transactions. The authors noted that while the blockchain was predominantly developed to provide a decentralized way for concluding financial and economic transactions, it has numerous applications outside the financial sphere. To this end, the authors noted that the public ledger found characteristic of the blockchain can be used to record numerous digital events (Crosby et al., 2016). As such, the authors devoted themselves towards the exploration of how the public ledger, and the consensus mechanism, also characteristic in the blockchain, can be used to verify identity. Their findings further support the hypothesis of the current paper. According to Crosby et al. (2016), the consensus mechanism used by blockchain technology to record data in the ledger is of imperative importance in the assurance of data integrity and accuracy. Consensus negates the possibility of the occurrence of double spending in a blockchain. Double spending here can be interpreted to refer to a situation where two pieces of information with different data are recorded in the ledger. That is, in relation to resumes, a candidate cannot have two copies of her or his resume each with different information, existing on the blockchain network. The end nodes in the network have to come to a consensus as to which piece of data to store, and which piece of data to disregard. This inherent capability of blockchain technology therefore servers as an independent verification mechanism that can be used to ascertain the information presented in a resume. Human resource practitioners can rely on the resume information presented by the blockchain as the identity and achievements of the potential candidate, without having to result to a third-party arbitrator.

The necessity of blockchain technology in human resource was expounded on by Wang, Feng. Zhang, Lyu, Wang, & You (2017). The authors noted that the authenticity of human resource information is progressively becoming a determinant of the cost of operations in organizations as well as the efficiency of human resources in these organizations (Wang et al., 2017). Due to the proliferation of technological gadgets, the asymmetry of information possessed by human resource departments and that possessed by employees is skewed. Due to the lack of reliable and efficient methods for confirming the veracity of resumes, for instance, human resource managers are continuously subjected to trial and error when engaging a potential recruit. To avoid the above situation and its accompanying challenges, Wang et al. (2017) proposed the use of blockchain technology for purposes of assuring the authenticity of human resource information that can facilitate effective organizational decision making.

Duffus (2017) elaborated on a similar challenge in the localized jurisdiction of Jamaica. The author found that human resource information in Jamaica’s public sector was subject to padding where either employees lied about their educational achievements, work experience, or capabilities. Owing the above situation, it is plausible that Jamaica’s public service sector routinely fails to deliver its mandate as the personnel employed are not qualified for their position. As such, it is clear that the human resource practices in the sector are unable to verify the authenticity of the claims published by recruits in their resumes. Consequently, an efficient way for verifying and validating resumes is required. The paper, in connection to the findings presented in the literature review proposes blockchain technology as the most efficient and reliable mechanism for verifying the authenticity of resumes.

Methodology

The paper will largely adopt a qualitative approach to investigate and validate the hypothesis. A qualitative approach is preferred as it qualitative methodologies have been demonstrated as efficient in allowing researchers to grasp a phenomenon. Therefore, the study proposes to carry out observations as well as interviews in several local companies. The human resource departments will form the nucleus of the study population as they are best placed to provide information on their experiences in resume authenticity.

The study population will be afforded questionnaires detailed with questions meant to provide insight as to their experiences with authenticating information provided by employees. Additionally, the author will anonymously interview employees in these organizations with the aim of uncovering if they presented false information in their resumes. These two sources of data will be sufficient to demonstrate the need for better validation mechanisms in human resource management.

Lastly, the author will seek out industry experts in the application of blockchain technology. The experts will serve to demonstrate the efficacy of blockchain technology as a means of validating resumes, and avoiding resume padding.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Chen, Z., & Zhu, Y. (2017, June). Personal Archive Service System using Blockchain Technology: Case Study, Promising and Challenging. In AI & Mobile Services (AIMS), 2017 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 93-99). IEEE.

Crosby, M., Pattanayak, P., Verma, S., & Kalyanaraman, V. (2016). Blockchain technology: Beyond bitcoin. Applied Innovation2, 6-10.

Duffus, K. (2017). Recruitment of records management practitioners in Jamaica’s public sector and its implications for professional practice. Records Management Journal27(2), 205-222.

Smith, M. (2016). Chapter Ten: A Pragmatic Approach To Project Manager Selection Matthew Smith in Project Management Research: Asia-Pacific Perspectives, 147.

Wang, X., Feng, L., Zhang, H., Lyu, C., Wang, L., & You, Y. (2017, April). Human resource information management model based on blockchain technology. In Service-Oriented System Engineering (SOSE), 2017 IEEE Symposium on (pp. 168-173). IEEE.

 

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BSUCoin White Paper

Introduction

This paper will give details about BSU Coin that is currently being used and to describe the various opportunities that blockchain is bound to introduce to both BSU and all that clients attached to this institution. The immediate beneficiaries of these opportunities are staff members, students, and all faculty members. A blockchain has so far been developed which makes use of Ethereum which will enable the university to accurately store the grades for the students and at the same time offering a cryptocurrency for use by all stakeholders of the university. Ethereum is a high-profiled programming language that has a decentralized platform that is effectively used mostly in autonomous systems. This programming language has the capability of storing data, program the available scripts and at the same time execute the processed script using the nodes. This is a technological improvement which has advanced computation in that it is has become both transparent and verifiable.

Bitcoin which was developed in 2008 by Satoshi is an electronic cash system which happens to be a cryptocurrency. Bitcoin source code is a product of blockchain technology which took up to 2009 to have the Bitcoin software released (Satoshi Nakamoto, 2008). It is at this time that the mining and use process of the Bitcoin started. On the same note, Ethereum depends on blockchain technology in its use to allow for open-source services meant to introduce trading contacts for the cryptocurrency.  This eliminates the requirement for a third party in the transactions that are involved.

Previous Work

Through blockchain technology, Whalecoin has since been developed which is a decentralized social network which is the type of a cryptographic blockchain. There exist several roles that are attached to this concept and it is required that the user has a total of 1000 tokes to be able to participate in these roles. The user ends up with one coin for a complete block which starts at 1000 blocks. It is after achieving this that the reward is increased to reach 15 coins for every completed block. My.EtherWallet.com happens to be an open-source wallet where the subscribed clients can end up revealing the transactions in a manner that make use blockchain’s full nodes (Giungato, Rana, Tarabella & Tricase, 2017). Through this, clients are able to generate wallets in and interact with the entire system in a very secure way.

Geth happens to be a multi-purpose tool that is used to offer different interfaces that are known to run on Ethereum node. Gwhale happens to be to be the actual version of WhaleCoin that is utilized in the making of WhaleCoin wallets that acts as the desktop. Ethereum Network has also succeeded in developing Pirl which is another form of cryptocurrency that is being used to make transactions that connect buyers. It is in this decentralized platform that users can end up buying and selling products in a manner that is completely automated. This method is known to be highly profitable in that the ethash coin makes uses of master nodes to engage the community. Nautilus is another market platform that has been developed using Pilr as the supporting element which allows the users to end up buying and selling products, services, and skills in a manner that is completely safe and secure. The security of the transactions that are carried out is achieved through the use of small contracts.

The Problem

The process of recording and processing students data is a university is always at tiresome undertaking which is both times consuming and costly in the long run. It is also an involving process when employers require confirming the education qualification of a new employee as they are required to use a third party to make the confirmation to make direct calls to the management of the universities. Employers are more interested to determine the academic qualification of their employers and thus the need to have a system that allows them to undertake this with a lot of eases. On the other hand, the universities are bound to have a secure system that allows sharing of such information with employers while at the same time making sure that the information is safeguarded. The security of this information is meant to make sure that the stored data is not changed or manipulated in any way.

Up to the moment, the universities act as the only custodian of students’ information and thus it becomes hard for either the student or employers to share the information at their own will. For them to have access to this information, they are introduced to a complicated process which is bound to take time and costly in the long run. With this in mind, there is a need to come up with a more efficient system to facilitate for this kind of access and exchange of information.

The Solution

BSU Coin happens to be one of the introductions that are as a result of blockchain technology and that has the capability of recording and storing all educational details of students in a secure manner and making the retrieval process by interested parties to be cheap and faster. Through this, the system will be able to keep updating the student’s achievements on a routine basis and this would be a good way to make sure that performance of the students is posted and made available to interested parties after undergoing the required authentication.

The high technological input that is vested in blockchain technology makes BSU Coin platform a good choice that the universities should use for processing students’ academic data and making it available on the global network for use and retrieval without zero cases data manipulation. This is a good way the university will be able to save on the amount of money that is spent to outsource data processing services which are in most cases very expensive because of the regular updating that is always done. The security of these systems is ensured through the use of digital certificates that are required to confirm the authenticity of those trying to access the information stayed in the system. This would end up with a suitable global infrastructure system where academic recording would be a global thing with high levels of security.

Catalysts and Network

The blockchain coin incentives are powerful. Currently, for instance, there are a few people who opt to provide funding for movie ideas while they know at the back of their minds that all return there is, is gratitude. Such individuals, in the blockchain world, would be having shares in a movie. Consequently, the number of potential investors and individuals wanting to put their shares in the movie swells all of a sudden. The idea stems from the fact that it is a human tendency to support things an individual loves especially if there is a chance to reap from the support.

Tokens

Blockchain technology creates information networks. The underlying rule of any network is that there is a potential for exponential growth when a new individual joins. This means that the network will grow even bigger with each instance of a new member joining thereby maintaining a competitive advantage over other peer networks. A perfect instance is individuals joining Facebook and other social media platform because their friends are already on the network. Similarly, it would be difficult to join another platform when one’s friends are not members. So, the dominance of giant social networks like Facebook and WeChat is indicative of the way the networks business is a winner-take-it all.

A similar trend is expected for the blockchain technology. Currently, there are innumerable blockchain coins in the blockchain market ecosystem and the trend is expected to rise steadily in the foreseeable and distant future. Even so, the expectation is that a few of these coins will gain prominence over most of the coins. The ones that do not have the privilege of setting foot on the global stage will ultimately lose value and fade out. The foreseeable trend is that there might emerge two of the most powerful cryptocoins to become global currencies. There may also be a third one acting as a global store of value and several others to be a global platform for smart contracts (Zhang & Wen, 2017). That the potential blockchain has and worth considering as an investment opportunity at the moment.

Team Member

The success in the acquisition of BSU Coin and its implementation would require collaboration all stakeholders ranging from management staffs, computer experts and contribution by third parties that are currently being used for academic data processing.

Risk

With the recent trends in of cybercrimes, the use of global academic digital records is prone to a number of security breaches which might compromise the integrity of education standards in the society. Should the systems be attacked, there are high chances that academic fraud will increase and this would mean that the job market will be prone to incompetent professionals. This is a risky undertaking that would end up lowering productivity in all sectors of life.

 

 

References

Satoshi Nakamoto.(2008). Bitcoin: A Peer-to-peer Electronic Cash System.

October 2008, from https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf

Giungato, P., Rana, R., Tarabella, A., & Tricase, C. (2017). Current Trends in Sustainability of Bitcoins and Related Blockchain Technology. Sustainability9(12), 2214.

Zhang, Y., & Wen, J. (2017). The IoT electric business model: Using blockchain technology for the internet of things. Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications10(4), 983-994.
Giungato, P., Rana, R., Tarabella, A., & Tricase, C. (2017). Current Trends in Sustainability of Bitcoins and Related Blockchain Technology. Sustainability9(12), 2214.

 

 

 

 

 

Advice I would give to my 15-Year-Old Self

Up to this point, I am pretty happy with the way I have lived my life. Nevertheless, I must admit that I have struggled along the way and have had some difficult moments. Paradoxically, such struggles and difficult moments only make me appreciate my achievements even more. All the same, I have not been perfect; I have my regrets and would perhaps do some things better if I could go back to my 15-year-old self.

One of the things I would say to my 15-year-old self is that you do not have to be popular at school or in your neighborhood to succeed in life. Teenagers often strive to earn popularity within their peer circles, which often drive them to unpopular behavior such as bullying. Therefore, avoid such pressures as they may eventually lead you to failure or condemn you to a life of regret. Always strive to be yourself in every circumstance as this is what will make you discover your strengths and weaknesses and thus focus on achieving your goals and dreams.

Another piece of advice I would give to my younger self is that do not take family for granted but rather make the most of it. This is because a time will come when you will not have much time to share with your loved ones. Do not argue when your parents ask you to accompany them to church because you want to hang out with friends. At home, do not remain glued on your smartphone chatting with your friends instead of conversing with your parents and siblings. A time will come when they too will not be available for you. When you grow up, such family meetings could become increasingly rare, and your smartphone could become your closest companion not out of choice but due to circumstances.

I would also warn myself against inappropriate relationships. Flirting may sound like fun during teen age, but its consequences may ruin your whole life. At your age, you will be tempted to form romantic relationships with your peers, but you should always resist that urge as this is not the right time to do so. You will have a lot of time to do this when you grow up. As an adult, you will have a better sense of self-control, which will make it easier for you to steer clear of inappropriate relationships. You will also be better able to judge your relationships with others and determine the genuine ones.

Additionally, I would tell myself that do not listen to your haters and those who discourage you from doing the right thing. The greatest weapons to success in life is determination and believing in yourself. What people say or think about you does not have much bearing on your life unless you allow it to erode your confidence and to take over your inner believe. The best thing to do is to surround yourself with people who at you and invoke positive thoughts in you. Such people will always help you to fight off any discouragement that you may face as you nurture your dreams.

Lastly, I would tell myself to always listen and heed to the advice of my parents and teachers. At times, you will feel as if their advice does not make sense, but such advice will make sense to you in the end. Heeding to their advice will not only steer you to success, but will also impact your morals positively.

The Handmaidens Tale

Margaret Atwood’s The Handmaid’s Tale is a novel that provides an account of a fictitious authoritarian government of Gilead that came to power after overtaking the U.S. government. The novel explores the theme of misogyny to women subjugation while using flashback to provide details of what life was before and after the revolution. Understanding the proceedings in the novel requires identification of these events to comprehend the position of the narrator.

Life Before and During Gilead

Offred, the novel’s protagonist and a handmaid to Frederick Waterford, provide a scintillating explanation of the ordeals that occur before and after Gilead. At one moment she describes a garden at the rear lawn of the house, which is filled with beautiful flower and grass. The garden belongs to Serena Joy, the Commander’s wife. The narrator explains that women during Gilead owned flower gardens as their domain to care and order (Atwood 010). Offred explains that before the revolution, she also had a garden of her own and used to tend it herself (Atwood 010). This means that even before the new regime came, women used to have such flower gardens behind their houses as a place for relaxation and passing time.

The first time she entered the Commander’s wife, she saw her smoking cigarettes even though they were forbidden at the time (Atwood, 013). The narrator insinuates that the Commander’s wife might have gotten the cigarettes from the black market. The black market was a means by which people could get commodities that were banned or prohibited. Offred believes that the black market exists and becomes hopeful, knowing that she could get whatever she needs as long as the black market exists (Atwood, 013). It seems like the illegal business did not end with the coming of the Gilead government, which seems to restrict many things that people, especially women, did.

There are certain aspects of the society that the narrator notices that still remained the same even after the revolution. She notices Nick’s car, a sleek and expensive Whirlwind model, which the driver controls lovingly as typical to men before and during the time of Gilead (Atwood 017). She notices Nick has a cigarette and becomes aware that the black market was active even during Gilead as before. The narrator sees the streets are the same, and the sidewalks are also cemented as happened before the revolution (Atwood 027). Though there have been changes in how men treat women, there is still freedom for women, only this time they are being provided freedom from being harassed by men (Atwood 028).

Another aspect of the society that has not changed since the revolution is how the women behaved.  The narrator states that during the days of anarchy they use to be ignorant, dressing up the way they like and gossiping other people as much as they like (Atwood 063). She used to get drunk and a smoke cigarette when in college, which she narrates was a life of ignorance (Atwood 064). However, ignorance still exists and women live the way they want, only that these days they have to strive to ignore each other. Ignorance still exists only that it has changed its approach.

In the novel, the narrator states that before the revolution they used to read stories in the newspapers about bodies of men and women found dead in the forest or left on ditches (Atwood 064). These people were bludgeoned to death by other men and women who they did not know. However, during the revolution, the death of men and women were still reported. These, however, were perceived rebels killed by the authorities for committing treason, performing abortions or defiling women (Atwood 038).

The care accorded to women during the time of Gilead has remained the same, except that there are some restrictions. Offred states that once in a month she has to go to see a doctor for a medical check-up. The check-up included such things as cancer smear, urine, blood test, and hormones among other tests (Atwood 067). Women used to receive these tests before but it became mandatory during Gilead. The women take these tests to check whether one is pregnant, which is their obligation as they are supposed to bear children for their masters (Atwood 069).  Getting pregnant is a dream for most of the handmaids as their masters are old and need children since they do not have any. Getting pregnant is freedom.

The narrator provides the changes in the society after the revolution, where most of the institution s and cultures that were perceived as creating immorality or controversial were removed. For instance, colleges, universities and even churches were closed down as they did not represent the spirit of the revolution (Atwood 039). The revolution has not, however, killed religion as we see the family of the Commander still maintaining religious activities at home (Atwood 107). This may mean other families that were religiously performed the same thing, even though it was forbidden.

Conclusion

The Novel The Handmaid’s Tale by Atwood provides an interesting account of a maid in a fictitious time after the toppling of the U.S. government. The author details how an authoritarian government removed religious freedom and robbed women freedom of movement and expression. There are several flashbacks that the author uses to show a reflection of what life was before the revolution and currently. These themes show that although the revolution brought a lot of change, there are still a lot of cultural elements that are preserved such as religion, the love of cars by men, ignorance by women and entertainment among others.

Works cited

Atwood, Margaret. The handma

Evidence-based Practice

From the onset, the article offers a discussion regarding the life of an innovative researcher, Maurizio Vignola. He is a writer of various biology papers relating to the condition of asthma, and most of his writings relate to the methods of remodeling and asthma inflammation conducted on individuals suffering from asthma. The current asthma definition was developed out of most of his observations about the allergic condition, and thus, he is also a contributor to the various methods of asthma treatment. For instance, he contributed to the development of clinical concepts of bronchial asthma, as per the biomarkers interests in monitoring the disease and employment of appropriate therapeutic methods of treatment. The article by Bonsignore et al. (2015) focuses on identifying the pathophysiological concepts of asthma, the development of the condition, clinical processes involved, insights and treatment of the condition.

The concept of pathophysiology relates to the medical conditions associated with a certain disease, physiological processed involved in the development of the condition, diagnosis and treatment. It explains the diverse processes and mechanisms of treatment of a stated condition, including the adverse impacts it generates on a person. For instance, the article offers clear insights into the development of asthma as an inflammatory condition which has a characteristic intrusion of the t-helper cells, eosinophils and mast cells. Eosinophils develop from chemical gradients that are emitted from chemotactic agents, and if a patient experiences prolonged processes of detecting the condition, it damages the epithelial (Bonsignore et al., 2015). Because asthma is an allergic disorder, its damages to the immune system can be adverse. Wherever a person inhales those allergens, there results bronchial hyper-reactivity before they invade other cells. They end up causing damages to the lower and upper airways. The outcomes include triggered inflammatory cascade and a comprised body functioning system that cannot adequately control the allergic reactions. From the clinical viewpoint, monitoring such occurrences as the remodeling and inflammation of the patient’s airways is essential in promoting appropriate diagnosis, treatment and control of asthma. Noninvasive approaches can be employed in achieving this, and such methods include blood samples and induced sputum among others.

According to Bonsignore et al. (2015), asthma phenotypes have to be controlled on time before they adversely impact an individual. they are the ones that describe bronchial asthma, with longitudinal assessments employed to describe their stability in adults. An ideal method to use in identifying the phenotypes is induced sputum as they are not too stable in their physiological variables. Thus, using phenotyping mechanisms has to be a long-term approach and integrate repeated measures to produce various outcomes. To control the development of bronchial asthma in the body, the upper airways should be continually involved in the inflammation process. Individuals affected by asthma condition show the symptom of inflammation of their upper airways, enhancing the need to control their eosinophils and epithelium activities. And, since most of these patients are likely to develop a chronic condition known as rhinosinusitis, which progresses due to the topographic scans, clinicians employ surgical treatment methods to control the condition. The outcome of the process includes improved symptoms of asthma as well.

The reality is that the pathophysiology of asthma is complex, and requires the inflammation of airways and bronchial responsiveness among other measures to control and treat the condition. However, the airway smooth muscle is integral in the treatment of the condition. It is involved in acute bronchoconstriction, which enhances impaired relaxation and hyper-responsiveness. And, Glucocorticosteroids are currently employed in the treatment of allergic conditions such as asthma through use of inhaled glucocorticosteroids. They are mostly administered to children and adults as the first-line treatment. Main actions of glucocorticosteroids include switching off the activated inflammatory genes responsible for encoding the receptors, inflammatory enzymes, cytokines, and adhesion molecules. By understanding the molecular mechanisms associated with suppression of corticosteroids, it explains how glucocorticosteroids can inhibit the inflammatory pathways, thus suppressing the pro and anti-inflammatory genes like correlated kinase proteins.

There are proposed new therapeutic approaches to the treatment of asthma. For instance, a humanized anti-IgE known as Omalizumab can be introduced into the treatment, and it reacts by interrupting the allergic cascade to prevent it from binding with the receptors on target cells. It is a clinically proven method that advanced from clinical trials and can be used to patients with moderate and severe allergic asthma. Advanced biotechnology has also enhanced the development of other therapeutic measures such as the use of synthetic hypoallergenic fragments. It is more of a personalized therapeutic approach that targets specific features of the disease. And finally, the use of non-pharmacological therapies can aid in treatment. Such approaches include engaging in physical exercises, which promote human health and prevent the development of the asthma condition (Bonsignore et al., 2015). The treatment process requires careful diagnosis and following appropriate treatment processes as prescribed by the physician. Since it is a chronic condition, the treatment should be based on clinical interventions discussed by a professional physician.

 

 

 

References

Bonsignore, M. R., Profita, M., Gagliardo, R., Riccobono, L., Chiappara, G., Pace, E., & Gjomarkaj, M. (2015). Advances in asthma pathophysiology: stepping forward from the Maurizio Vignola experience. European Respiratory Revie

Discrimination and Employment Law

For a long time in history, it has been a norm in the society to experience injustices varying from age, race, religion and even native background. Basically, discrimination and employment law has been the most current concern for most governments, activists and human rights associations.[1] Owing to this, most governments have enacted laws that govern and prescribe ethical practices at workplaces. In particular, the UK has been so concerned about the public outcry on the need to protect employees regardless of their origin. The law protects people against discrimination in recruitment of jobs, dismissals, payment, and benefits, training, redundancy and employment terms and conditions.[2] However, some organizations have been given freedom to work according to their norms and values, irrespective of the current law. For instance, a Muslim women center employs only nurses of the female gender.

Many activists and researchers have always come up with reports on the constitution of the workplace by men and women and their respective ratios.[3] From this, it can be deduced that women are far much lagging in the workforce of several nations including the UK. For instance, the reports presented by National Board of Statistics over the influence on job-determination by gender showed that Britain was ranked 11th out of the 18 countries taken into consideration. It was way behind US and France. Further, the data obtained showed that sex was a determinant of the salary of employees. It estimated that since 1975, the salary of women in the UK has been and is still is 19.8% less than that of men.[4] Evidently, the right to receive equal pay in the workplace has not been heeded seriously by the employers in the UK.

Many employers still have the retrogressive ideas that workplaces are not suited for women.[5] Women have been disregarded for so long in the promotion opportunities and employers have failed to take into consideration that almost all women have other caring commitments apart from their jobs. In fact, it has been a common phenomenon for many women to retire and languish in poverty afterward for the rest of their lives. UNISON has been very instrumental in championing the rights of women and gender differences in employment and have engaged a plethora of campaigns that advocate for women all-inclusivity at the workplaces and community undertakings.[6] Despite their efforts, there has been a criticism of the championed system with claims that employ many women but do not compensate them fairly compared to the male workers in their organization. The failure of UNISON to address this issue has since provided the basis to establish that the issue of sex discrimination in the workplace has not been fully engaged in the society.[7]

The Equality Act 2010 states that all individuals have the rights not to be discriminated against because of gender difference. The law enacted, which works in relation to the Equality Act in the UK, defines sex discrimination according to four aspects.[8] First, direct discrimination entails the gender bias that one receives directly in terms of treatment whenever in workplaces or at social gatherings. It can be attributed to chances of a person of a certain gender fails to be accorded while opposite gender receives.[9]

Second, harassment has been stated to be behaviors that are not desired or are intended to violate someone’s dignity. It may be a way of intimidating, humiliating, offending, degrading or creating a hostile environment for an individual. The third aspect is that indirect discrimination is an unethical practice where employers institute rules that are intended to jeopardize the rights of men or women in the workplace.[10] The final aspect that defines sex discrimination is the act of victimization that applies to people who are treated less favorably owing to their criticism and complains about the way other people are treated. For more than three decades, the UK has engaged legislation against the aforesaid instances of discrimination. The number of cases increases by the day and the statutory organ persists to proliferate. More than any other state, the UK, arguably, has had a great effect in defining the European Courts (EC) with respect to the issue of discrimination. UK has participated in a myriad of dialogues with EC institutions via a process of legislation, and the European Court of Justice (ECJ) via references supported and funded by the former Equal Opportunities Commissions.

According to Lord Davey who oversaw the 1898 case of Allen v. Flood, a manager may refuse to hire an employee for the most mistaken and morally reprehensible motives that can be thought of. However, they do have the right of action against him or her.[11] Historically, this has been the original position with regards to the common law that was not controlled or defined by any constitutional right to equality given the fact that the UK does not have any written Constitution. Over time, this, and other common law positions have been changed with a major one being the Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act of 1919 which removed restrictions on the female gender by reason of sex from being, for instance, civil servants, students, solicitors as well as holding other judicial or civil office. The Sex Disqualification Act was later repealed by the important piece of legislation against discrimination, the Sex Discrimination Act (SDA) in 1975.[12]

SDA prevented discrimination based on sex with respect to employment matters especially those that had not been engaged by the Equal Pay Act of 1970 such as in promotion, firing, hiring and non-contract compensation matters.[13] To expound, the Act adopted the conventional negative rights model in order to gain equality. Via the Act, persons with issues would be able to present their matters to the tribunals supported by the protection from victimization. The enforcement of provisions was left to the Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC) which has since been replaced by the Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC).[14] SDA also introduced the idea of indirect discrimination and positive action. In doing this, the legislation transcended beyond a formal model of equality and engaged aspects of substantive equality. Essentially, the Act sort to establish a playing ground that was level for all genders and that operated on the grounds of merit.

Since its passing, SDA has been altered and changed in a number of occasions in a bid to bring the elements of its provision in line with the laws of EC.[15] The 1996 Equality Act imposed a responsibility on the public authority not to discriminate because of gender and to promote equal opportunities to all people. This can potentially achieve the much-needed sex equality in the UK. The Trades Union Congress (TUC) engaged in campaigns for more than a century to promote equal pay for both genders which led to the introduction of EPA in 1970.[16] It demanded equality in matters of contracts compensation for both genders in the same jobs. Though the first Act had no general right to equal compensation for same work, the proceedings that were engagement by the EC commission led to the subsequent changes facilitated by the Equal Pay Amendment Regulation in 1983.[17] There was a further amendment of the Equal Pay Act 1970 (Regulations 2003) to increase the time limit for presenting 6 months old claims in addition to allowing backdating claims for 6 years.

Another amendment with respect to the issue of gender was the EC Part-Time Work Directive 97/18/EC that was effected by the Part-Time Workers Regulation 2000 (Prevention of Less Favorable Treatment),[18] and the Fixed-Term Work Directive 99/70/EC that was effected by the Fixed Term Employees Regulation 2002 to ban unfavorable treatment that applies to both fixed and part-time contract employees. Notably, individuals who work for agencies find themselves in unfair situations. For some time, the EC has not been in a position to engage a Directive in the equal treatment of employees working in agencies. As a result, the employees have been forced to count on the protection presented by domestic law that is limited in scope.[19] There exist no Constitutional right to equal treatment that supports them and in a myriad of cases, they fail to enjoy even the most basic job rights due to the triangulated position they persist where control is with the user but obligation, in the cases where it exists, lies with the agency. This means that there exists no relationship for the worker with the agency with respect to employment matters.[20]

Other than Northern Ireland, there was no ban against discrimination with respect to religion in the UK until the EC’s Framework Directive 2000/78 in Article 13 Directives that also banned discrimination due to gender.[21] The aforesaid obligation has currently been incorporated in the British Law by the Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) regulation 2003 that became effective in December 2003.[22] However, it is important to note that the law in Britain has not been exclusively consistent on this point. Various strands cover discrimination on religion whereas others, such as those related to gender, do not.

In the UK, it is challenging to describe the common cases of discrimination or at least reporting them. Evidently, there are myriad of critical issues with respect to equal pay. There has also been a rise in litigation with regards to the new strands of discrimination. An example of a controversial case is the Azmi v. Kirkless MBC[23] which entailed a British Muslim Class teacher who presented literacy and mathematics lessons to children in primary school. The teacher insisted on keeping her face fully covered especially around male colleagues. The institutions, at first, agreed that the teacher could cover her face when there was male presence. However, the agreement came to an end after it was established that by covering her face, she was not in apposition to communicate correctly with her students.[24] The teacher was then suspended and then presented a case that she had suffered direct and indirect discrimination due to harassment not only with regards to religion but also sex. Although she lost the case, she was awarded $1,100 for victimization.

There are no provisions in Britain law that allow reverse discrimination in the favor of groups that are protected. Reverse discrimination is also termed as positive discrimination and describes the discrimination against individuals from a dominant group in favor of those from minority groups.[25] Group, in this context, can be defined as gender or any other factors such as race. In British law, however, positive action is permitted. This is because it can be engaged to encourage individual from a given gender to take advantage of opportunities for employment experience or training. However, it can only be performed when a certain group, in this case, the female gender, has been identified as under-represented in a given area of employment. Positive action may entail procedures of selection that are considerate including targeted advertisements or training programs at a given gender.[26] It is important to note that positive action is dissimilar to positive discrimination and does not concern treating a given gender more favorably during recruitment than the female gender. The employer must understand that workers are hired and promoted only on the basis of merit alone. Still, EC Law can permit states to engage further and possibly practice limited positive discrimination. The UK has, however, not assumed advantage of this possibility with regards to gender, race, nationality, and religion.

Before the directives of 2000 by EC, ‘unwanted’ sexual attentions fell within Race Relations Act (RRA) and Sex Discrimination Act (SDA) if they entailed negativity to the victim.[27] This approach was not well received due to the fact that it depended on females proving that they had been mistreated or treated less favorably than their male counterparts. If a woman could not show this, she lost her claim. The negative consequence of this approach is evident in the Stewart v Cleveland and Guest Engineering Ltd[28] case, where the court ruled out a show of woman pun-ups, was not a treatment that was less favorable since she had not proved that a typical male would be treated differently in the case he had presented a complaint. Nonetheless, the aforesaid challenge has been contained by the fact that harassment is not perceived as a type of discrimination but a lawful act that is illegal on its own under EC Law.

Indirect discrimination has also been controversial under UK law.[29] Article 13 directive, however, introduced a rather related test for indirect discrimination which has been extended to sex discrimination. One of the components in this regard is that an employer should apply to a female a provision or a criterion of practice (PCP) that they would apply to a man. In a certain case involving British Airway v Starmer,[30] a female pilot challenged the decision by the company to disregard her request to work 50% of full-time hours. This ad hoc management decision was perceived as a criterion of practice and not a requirement. Another component in Article 13 directive on indirect discrimination shows that criterion for practice applies or would apply equally to a man but which places females at a disadvantage. Still, there is need to show the individuals the female is particularly disadvantaged followed by proving her disadvantage.

Article 141 concentrates on whether equal compensation directly or indirectly discriminates against females. Though indirect discrimination can be justified, the lack of derogation to the principle of equal compensation in Article 141 has led to various challenges. In the Equal Pay Act, the plaintiff has to establish the provision that there is an individual of the opposite sex who has or who is engaged in equal work and who have to be employed in the same organization. When all aforesaid provisions are availed, the case can be objectively justified.

There is a lack of effective regulations in the UK of contingent employment.[31] The questions have been engaged chiefly via judicial or administrative interpretations of the existing legislation. Contingent workers except independent contractors are protected under the laws against discrimination. However, it is clear that the UK lags behind other developed nations that have definite laws that protect workers. A number of nations are at different starting points in the creation of restrictions on contingent employment with spectrum being, for example, banning against temporary employment, the requirement of equal compensation and benefits, and health and safety protection among others. While safeguarding workers, these legislations accept the legitimacy of the triangular employment relationship.[32] There is also need for both the government and the employees including contingent workers to take unionization seriously. Collective bargaining and unionization are particularly important as a way of resisting the tactics of employers such as disregarding provisions of equal pay.

The employment laws are mostly realized through legislation in the UK. The employment laws are used to protect workers and employees. Self-workers usually have limited protection. The contracts of employment usually do not have to be in writing, hence contemporary and standard laws may be used, only if the employer is governed by a collective agreement. Other terms and conditions may be subject to employers’ discretion and government regulation. Many employers still have the retrogressive ideas that workplaces are not suited for women. In fact, some even allow women harassment or place rules that ‘allow’ gender discrimination.

On the same note, women have been disregarded for so long in the promotion opportunities. Employers do not take into consideration that almost all women have caring commitments apart from their jobs.[33] In fact, it has been a common phenomenon for many women to retire and languish in poverty afterward for the rest of their lives. In particular, UNISON considers sex discrimination so much in their undertakings. Often, they have been involved in various campaigns that advocate for women all-inclusivity at the workplaces and community undertakings. Despite their efforts, there has been a criticism of their system that they have a high number of women employees but of low pay rates as compared to the male workers in their organization.[34] Their failure to address the issue has since provided the basis to establish that the issue of sex discrimination has not been fully covered in the society.

Decades after the Equal Pay Act was enacted, the gender gap in pay still persist. While this can be explained by the wide social structures such as occupational segregation, the undervaluation of the work of women and the unequal division of family duties, it is basically accepted among policy circles that the activities of discrimination by workers contribute to the raging unequal compensation. While gender discrimination may be deliberate, it is likely to be systemic in practice and therefore can only be identified via systemic analysis of the systems of payment used by employers. These individuals, however, do not appreciate the idea of systemic evaluation practices of their organizations.[35]

From the above explicated, it is crystal that is need for fundamental reforms in the UK laws protecting women and girls from discrimination, sexual harassment and even violence in the workplace and employers must assume duty in protecting these individuals. Gordon explains that the Fawcett Society performed a study on law on sex discrimination in the UK. The researchers found that there was evidence of increasing abuse, harassment and violence against the female gender. This ca be in part attributed in part to the lack of access to justice for women and girls. The research conducted by Fawcett Society established that more than half of all employed females suffered sexual harassment at their work places. One in every five women aged 16 years and above had suffered sexual assault and in various instances, evidence of the sexual history of the victim was used inappropriately in court.

The review recommended various changes in the legal system such as strengthening the laws on sexual harassment at places of work to protect females from being discriminated against and harassed by third parties and extending the protection from pregnancy discrimination to 6 months after the end of maternity leave. The review also called for employers to have increased responsibility for the female workers and be proactive. The review also recommended for large corporations to be subject to new duty to contain discrimination. The Fawcett Society calls for introduction of civil penalties when organizations fail to comply with the rules on gender pay, and a further enhancement of the powers provided by the Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) to engage enforcement measures and offer an immediate impact on organizations that do not comply with reporting on Gender Pay Gap.[36] Fawcett also champions that the provisions be changed to break down the gender pay gap by age, impairment, sexuality, and ethnicity and that by 2020, the provisions should apply to organizations with more than 50 workers.[37]

Fawcett Society has also championed other reforms such as the reintroduction of Equal Pay Questionnaires and the introduction of mandatory equal compensation audits every three years for organizations with more than 250 workers. According to the Society, the equal compensation claims and equal value claims should be effected by the Employment Tribunals and that class actions should be engaged for same compensation claims. This should also comprise pension contributions while not diminishing the right of females to pursue individual claims. With regards to the harassment in the place of work, the reviews notes that there should be a reintroduction of Section 40 of the Equality Act 2010 in order to ascertain the legal protection of female workers against harassment by third parties, and a further extensions of protection from harassment under Section 25 (5) to maternity and pregnancy.[38] Although there has been various indications by critics on the practicability of effecting some provisions, the report, to great extent, adds to the discussions on gender equality on the places of work and advances and promotes the agenda and discussion on equality and the immediate need for reforms.

Nevertheless, sex discrimination has a wide range of areas that should be probed and solutions provided. For instance, the issue of pregnancy and maternity has to be critically analyzed and described in order to attain the most acceptable and standard ways to handle them. Others pertaining to gender are, recruitment, part-time working, and relationships at work, redundancy and dress codes. In conclusion, the laws enacted in the UK are aimed at attaining the most desirable terms of work that are gender sensitive to avoid discrimination. It is, therefore, the duty of each employer to follow the speculations of the law, unless otherwise. The UNISON has been known to champion equal pay for both genders with same designated jobs.[39] Other gender-related organizations and activists should also team up in the fighting of gender-based discrimination.

Discrimination is a non-ethical aspect that has to be dealt with, in and out, in the journey to realizing the best societal practices.[40] Various policies and sets of rules have been enacted and geared towards the realization of a harmonious society in the UK. These rules, however, have to be enforced by the relevant authorities and judicial system in order to attain a good living and conformity to world standards. More so, being part of the UN makes a compulsory note to the UK on the need to adopt the world set standards on employment.[41] Employment laws, on the other hand, have been instituted and manifested to each employer. It is the duty of all the employers and employees to conform to the contemporary workplace expected moral ethics and standards found in the law.[42] Specifically, the UK should enact, implement and improvise laws pertaining to discrimination and employment laws in the society. Ultimately, the desired workplace practices are set to increase productivity and innovation if these laws are heeded.[43]

 

 

Bibliography

  1. Blanpain, Roger, and Jim Baker. Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations in Industrialized Market Economies. The Hague: Kluwer Law Internat, 2004, p.116.
  2. Gold, Michael Evan. An Introduction to the Law of Employment Discrimination. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001 p.2.
  3. Risman BJ. Gender as a social structure: Theory wrestling with activism. Gender & society. 2004 Aug;18(4):429-50.
  4. org.uk (2018.)
  5. Gazso, A., 2004. Women’s inequality in the workplace as framed in news discourse: Refracting from gender ideology. Canadian Review of Sociology/Revue canadienne de sociologie, 41(4), pp.449-473.
  6. Gregory A, Milner S. Trade Unions and Work‐life Balance: Changing Times in France and the UK?. British Journal of Industrial Relations. 2009 Mar 1;47(1): p.122-46.
  7. Manthorpe, J., & Moriarty, J. Equality Act 2010. p.16.
  8. Hepple, B., 2010. The new single equality act in Britain. The Equal Rights Review, 5, pp.11-24. Lindemann, Barbara, Paul Grossman, and C. Geoffrey Weirich. Employment Discrimination Law. Washington, DC: BNA Books, 2007.
  9. Lindemann, Barbara, Paul Grossman, and C. Geoffrey Weirich. Employment Discrimination Law. Washington, DC: BNA Books, 2007
  10. DeNisi, Angelo S. HR: (with Online Printed Access Card). 2017. p.202.
  11. [1898] A.C. 1 at p.172
  12. McCrudden, Christopher. Equality in Law between Men and Women in the European Community: United Kingdom. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1994.p.10
  13. Fredman S. Reforming equal pay laws. Industrial Law Journal. 2008 Sep 1;37(3):193-218.
  14. JILPT Comparative Labor Law Seminar, R. Blanpain, Hiroya Nakakubo, Takashi Araki, and Catherine Barnard. New Developments in Employment Discrimination Law. Austin: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business, 2008.p.40.
  15. S41(3) SDA 1975.
  16. Stevenson G. The Forgotten Strike: Equality, Gender, and Class in the Trico Equal Pay Strike. Labour History Review. 2016 Jul;81(2):141-68.
  17. SI 1983/1794.
  18. SI 2000/1551.
  19. Forde C, Slater G. Agency working in Britain: character, consequences, and regulation. British Journal of Industrial Relations. 2005 Jun 1;43(2):249-71.
  20. James v. Greenwich [2007] IRLR 168 (EAT); [2008] EWCA 35.
  21. The other Directive was Dir. 200/43 on race and ethnic origin
  22. R (Amicus – MSF Section) v. Secretary of State for trade and Industry [2004] IRLR 430.
  23. [2007] IRLR 484
  24. Wainwright, The Guardian, 20 October 2006
  25. Macdonald, Lynda A. C. Managing Equality, Diversity and the Avoidance of Discrimination. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2004.p.12.
  26. SDA, ss.47 and 48, RRA. ss.37 and 38, and the EOC Code of Practice paras.37-40 and CRE Code of Practice paras.1.33 to 1.37.
  27. SDA s.6 (2) (c); RRA, s.4 (2)(c)
  28. [1994] IRLR 440
  29. Duncan C, Loretto W. Never the right age? Gender and age‐based discrimination in employment. Gender, Work & Organization. 2004 Jan 1;11(1):95-115.
  30. [2005] IRLR 862
  31. Clement, Wallace, and Vivian Shalla. Work in Tumultuous Times: Canadian Perspectives. Montreal [Que.]: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2007. p.68.
  32. Vosko, supra note 230, at 70-73; Raday, supra note 232, at p.420-422
  33. Padfield M, Procter I. Young adult women, work, and family: Living a contradiction. Routledge; 2014 Jan 14.p.161
  34. Dijkstra AG, Plantenga J. Gender, and economics: a European perspective. Routledge; 2013 Oct 11. p.92.
  35. Deakin S, McLaughlin C, Chai DH. Gender inequality and reflexive law: the potential of different regulatory mechanisms for making employment rights effective. Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge; 2011.p.2
  36. Sarah Gordon, “Review Finds UK Discrimination Law Requires Fundamental Reform | Financial Times”, Ft.Com, Last modified 2018, https://www.ft.com/content/eea9d4ae-ffc8-11e7-9650-9c0ad2d7c5b5.
  37. Sarah Gordon, 2018.
  38. Morgan Lewis, “UK Diversity Matters: The Gender Pay Gap And Gender Equality At Work | Lexology”, Lexology.Com, Last modified 2018, https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=36e7baa5-a1bb-465f-b3e6-ef114846a16b.
  39. Thornley C. Working Part‐Time for the State: Gender, Class, and the Public Sector Pay Gap. Gender, Work & Organization. 2007 Sep 1;14(5):454-75.
  40. Colloquium on Promoting Ethics in the Public Service. Promoting Ethics in the Public Service. New York: United Nations, 2000. p.33
  41. Gross, James A. Workers’ Rights As Human Rights. Ilr Pr, 2006.p.226.
  42. Tricker B, Tricker G. Business Ethics: A Stakeholder, Governance and Risk Approach. Routledge; 2014 Jan 3. p.318.
  43. Green, Francis. Demanding Work The Paradox of Job Quality in the Affluent Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013.p.147.

 

 

 

 

[1] Blanpain, Roger, and Jim Baker. Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations in Industrialized Market Economies. The Hague: Kluwer Law Internat, 2004, p.116.

[2] Gold, Michael Evan. An Introduction to the Law of Employment Discrimination. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001 p.2.

[3] Risman BJ. Gender as a social structure: Theory wrestling with activism. Gender & society. 2004 Aug;18(4):429-50.

[4] Ageuk.org.uk (2018.)

[5] Gazso, A., 2004. Women’s inequality in the workplace as framed in news discourse: Refracting from gender ideology. Canadian Review of Sociology/Revue canadienne de sociologie, 41(4), pp.449-473.

[6] Gregory A, Milner S. Trade Unions and Work‐life Balance: Changing Times in France and the UK?. British Journal of Industrial Relations. 2009 Mar 1;47(1): p.122-46.

[7] Manthorpe, J., & Moriarty, J. Equality Act 2010. p.16.

 

[8] Hepple, B., 2010. The new single equality act in Britain. The Equal Rights Review, 5, pp.11-24.

[9] Lindemann, Barbara, Paul Grossman, and C. Geoffrey Weirich. Employment Discrimination Law. Washington, DC: BNA Books, 2007.

[10] DeNisi, Angelo S. HR: (with Online Printed Access Card). 2017. P.202.

[11] [1898] A.C. 1 at p.172

[12] McCrudden, Christopher. Equality in Law between Men and Women in the European Community: United Kingdom. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1994.p.10.

[13] Fredman S. Reforming equal pay laws. Industrial Law Journal. 2008 Sep 1;37(3):193-218.

[14] JILPT Comparative Labor Law Seminar, R. Blanpain, Hiroya Nakakubo, Takashi Araki, and Catherine Barnard. New Developments in Employment Discrimination Law. Austin: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business, 2008.p.40.

[15] S41(3) SDA 1975

[16] Stevenson G. The Forgotten Strike: Equality, Gender, and Class in the Trico Equal Pay Strike. Labour History Review. 2016 Jul;81(2):141-68.

[17] SI 1983/1794.

[18] SI 2000/1551

[19] Forde C, Slater G. Agency working in Britain: character, consequences, and regulation. British Journal of Industrial Relations. 2005 Jun 1;43(2):249-71.

[20] James v. Greenwich [2007] IRLR 168 (EAT); [2008] EWCA 35.

[21] The other Directive was Dir. 200/43 on race and ethnic origin

[22] R (Amicus – MSF Section) v. Secretary of State for trade and
Industry [2004] IRLR 430.

[23] [2007] IRLR 484

[24] M.Wainwright, The Guardian, 20 October 2006

[25] Macdonald, Lynda A. C. Managing Equality, Diversity and the Avoidance of Discrimination. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2004.p.12.

[26] SDA, ss.47 and 48, RRA. ss.37 and 38, and the EOC Code of Practice paras.37-40 and CRE Code
of Practice paras.1.33 to 1.37.

[27] SDA s.6(2)(c); RRA, s.4(2)(c)

[28] [1994] IRLR 440

[29] Duncan C, Loretto W. Never the right age? Gender and age‐based discrimination in employment. Gender, Work & Organization. 2004 Jan 1;11(1):95-115.

[30] [2005] IRLR 862

[31] Clement, Wallace, and Vivian Shalla. Work in Tumultuous Times: Canadian Perspectives. Montreal [Que.]: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2007. p.68.

[32] Vosko, supra note 230, at 70-73; Raday, supra note 232, at p.420-422

[33] Padfield M, Procter I. Young adult women, work, and family: Living a contradiction. Routledge; 2014 Jan 14.p.161

[34] Dijkstra AG, Plantenga J. Gender, and economics: a European perspective. Routledge; 2013 Oct 11. p.92.

[35] Deakin S, McLaughlin C, Chai DH. Gender inequality and reflexive law: the potential of different regulatory mechanisms for making employment rights effective. Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge; 2011.p.2

[36] Sarah Gordon, “Review Finds UK Discrimination Law Requires Fundamental Reform | Financial Times”, Ft.Com, Last modified 2018, https://www.ft.com/content/eea9d4ae-ffc8-11e7-9650-9c0ad2d7c5b5.

[37] Sarah Gordon, 2018.

[38] Morgan Lewis, “UK Diversity Matters: The Gender Pay Gap And Gender Equality At Work | Lexology”, Lexology.Com, Last modified 2018, https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=36e7baa5-a1bb-465f-b3e6-ef114846a16b.

[39] Thornley C. Working Part‐Time for the State: Gender, Class, and the Public Sector Pay Gap. Gender, Work & Organization. 2007 Sep 1;14(5):454-75.

[40] Colloquium on Promoting Ethics in the Public Service. Promoting Ethics in the Public Service. New York: United Nations, 2000. p.33

[41] Gross, James A. Workers’ Rights As Human Rights. Ilr Pr, 2006.p.226.

 

[42] Tricker B, Tricker G. Business Ethics: A Stakeholder, Governance and Risk Approach. Routledge; 2014 Jan 3. p.318.

[43] Green, Francis. Demanding Work The Paradox of Job Quality in the Affluent Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013.p.147.

Derivatives and Risk Management Assignment

ASX Price of Call Option
Strike Price K= 6289.7
Stock Price S= 6194.6
Premium Call Option= 40
Stock Price Value of Call Option Profit
6150 0 -40
6160 0 -40
6170 0 -40
6180 0 -40
6190 0 -40
6200 0 -40
6210 0 -40
6220 0 -40
6230 0 -40
6240 0 -40
6250 0 -40
6260 0 -40
6270 0 -40
6280 0 -40
6290 0.3 -39.7
6300 10.3 -29.7
6310 20.3 -19.7
6320 30.3 -9.7
6330 40.3 0.3
6340 50.3 10.3
6350 60.3 20.3
6360 70.3 30.3
6370 80.3 40.3
6380 90.3 50.3
6390 100.3 60.3
6400 110.3 70.3
6410 120.3 80.3
6420 130.3 90.3
6430 140.3 100.3
6440 150.3 110.3
6450 160.3 120.3
6460 170.3 130.3
6470 180.3 140.3
6480 190.3 150.3
6490 200.3 160.3
6500 210.3 170.3
6510 220.3 180.3
6520 230.3 190.3
6530 240.3 200.3
6540 250.3 210.3
6550 260.3 220.3
6560 270.3 230.3
6570 280.3 240.3
6580 290.3 250.3
6590 300.3 260.3
6600 310.3 270.3
6610 320.3 280.3
6620 330.3 290.3
6630 340.3 300.3
6640 350.3 310.3
6650 360.3 320.3
6660 370.3 330.3
6670 380.3 340.3
6680 390.3 350.3
6690 400.3 360.3
6700 410.3 370.3