According to Kierkegaard, infinite resignation is the final step before faith, so that anybody who has not reached this movement has no faith. It is only in infinite resignation does one become conscious of his or her eternal validity; and only then can he or she speak of existence through the virtue of faith. For instance, the knight of faith infinitely renounced the love or the substance of his life and reconciled in pain. However, the marvel was that he made one more movement that was more amazing than all the others. He nonetheless had faith that he would get her by virtue of absurdity – the fact that with God nothing is impossible (Kierkegaard, 46). The knight was persuaded of the impossibility when he implemented the act of resignation, which, humanly speaking was the conclusion of his understanding. The knight of faith realized that he could only be saved by the absurd, which he grasped by faith. As a result, he acknowledged the impossibility, and at the same time, believed the absurd, because if he imagined that he had faith without keenly acknowledging the impracticality with his entire soul and heart, then he would be deceiving himself. Besides, his testimony would neither be here nor there, because he would not have achieved infinite resignation.
One’s identity is as essential as a definition. However, even though the identity is fixed, it fails to dictate a rigid way of acting as though it were an inflexible compulsion, obsession or infatuation. This does not symbolize an expression of freedom. Kierkegaard calls everybody who could sustain the threat of an unconditional obligation a‘Knight of faith’. According to Kierkegaard, the Knight was free to forget the entire thing, though in so doing, the Knight would disagree with himself. In the story of Abraham, he climbed the mountain; and even when the knife gleamed, he still believed that God would not claim Isaac. The faith of Abraham is regarded as a product of the second level in a double-movement, which begins in his decision to comply with the command of sacrificing Isaac. Abraham was keen to receive and obey this command, and this marked him a knight of faith. Though he was astonished by the outcome, he came back to his former position via a double movement, and thus, he received Isaac more gladly than the first time.
The author uses Abraham to reveal a deeper point on the insufficiency of the Hegelian system, as well as the significance attached to an individual’s radical freedom. In Kierkegaard terms, Abraham had faith that if he sacrificed his son Isaac, God could grant him a new son. This could have happened because he believed that ‘everything is possible’, which meant that even the inconceivable was possible. In Abraham’s story, God is praised that he gave back Isaac and that the entire experience was just an ordeal. All along, Abraham had faith and believed that God could not demand Isaac from him, though he was still willing to sacrifice him if needed of him. He had faith in the absurd strength, as there was no question of human calculation (p. 69).
Considering that resignation is a precursor, faith is not an esthetic feeling, but something far high – it is not a spontaneous inclination of one’s heart, but a paradox of existence. For instance, if in the face of difficulties a young girl still continues to have conviction that her desires would be fulfilled, this reassurance is in no way the reassurance of faith, notwithstanding that she has grown up in a Christian family. In all her innocence and naiveté, she is convinced that she has a supernatural magnitude, which can help her raise the limited powers of existence.
Kierkegaard notes that faith has different movements. Whereas he made the movements of infinity, faith causes opposite movements; subsequent to making the movements of infinity, it also makes the movements of finitude. However, the person who is able to make these movements is the fortunate one. He does the amazing, and will always be admired. For instance, from Abraham’s reaction to Isaac’s question, there was a demonstration of double-movement in his soul. His first movement involved infinite resignation, and he, at every moment built the subsequent movement of faith through absurdity. Abraham did not speak an untruth, because by virtue of absurdity, it was certainly possible that God would do something quite different (p. 119).
Kierkegaard also notes that faith is required for one to renounce everything. Faith is another matter, though no one has a right to lead others into believing that it is something inferior or an easy matter because in contrast, it is the most difficult and the greatest of all. It is important to discover the unusual paradox of faith – a paradox that made a murder into a God-pleasing and holy act; a paradox that gave Isaac back to Abraham – something no one can embrace, because faith starts precisely where thought ends (p.53).
He presents the Hegelian philosophy, which is a rational and conceptual enterprise. According to Hegel, both religion and philosophy are concerned with similar material, whereas religion appeals to faith, revelation, philosophy and authority. It goes further than the figurative and pictorial representations, symbolic language of religion to deal with a similar issue in the form of concepts and thoughts. Kierkegaard’s objection to the Hegelian contemporary is that when philosophy aspires to reflect on the issue of religion and faith, it misrepresents and misunderstands it.
Recent philosophy, as Kierkgaard notes, has allowed itself to replace the ‘immediate’ for faith. If this is done, then it becomes ridiculous to refute that there has been faith always. This puts faith in rather a commonplace company of moods, idiosyncrasies, and feelings. Faith is preceded by an infinity movement; and only then, does it commence by virtues of absurdity. This does not mean that the ethical must be invalidated. Rather, it receives an absolutely different expression, for instance, that love to God could make the knight of faith, to give his or her love to the neighbor. If this does not happen, then faith lacks a place in life; faith becomes a spiritual trial; and Abraham becomes a loser, inasmuch as he conceded to it.
The knight of faith understands that it is encouraging to renounce himself for the universal; and that it takes courage to achieve it; but that there is also a security in it specifically because it is surrender for the universal. Faith is precisely a paradox that the sole individual is greater than the universal, and this determines his or her relationship to the universal through his or her relationship to the absolute. This can also be expressed in a different view that there is an unconditional (absolute) duty to God, for in such a relationship of duty, an individual relates himself or herself as the sole individual completely to the absolute (p. 70). Faith is a wonder, and yet no person is left out from it; because what unites all beings is passion, and faith is passion (p. 67). Faith is a paradox that interiority is greater than exteriority – the uneven number is greater than even. This means that there is some kind of interiority, which is incommensurable with exteriority.
Kierkegaard, Søren, Howard V. Hong, Edna H. Hong, and Søren Kierkegaard. Fear and Trembling: Repetition. , 1983. Print.
Summary: Preface, Exordium, and Eulogy
In the preface, Johannes de Silentio who is Kierkegaard’s pseudonym starts a discussion about doubt and faith. He compares two sets of accounts regarding what it takes to achieve doubt. The first account is of modern world which subscribes to the notion that doubt is something that is easy to achieve and can be achieved by anyone. The other account is of the Greek skeptics who were of the opinion that doubt is something that easy difficult to develop and can take one an entire lifetime to achieve. Similarly, faith follows the exact argument as doubt both in the modern world as well as in traditional Greek. From his own perspective, Johannes considers the subject of faith and doubt as something incomprehensible which emboldened by the fact that he is not a philosopher. He is thus pessimistic about the impact of his writings as he regards his writing as a luxury.
To put the preface into perspective, Johannes de Silentio can be interpreted as John of Silence. The author chose this pseudonym in response to the underwhelming reception of his writings which can be compared to a silent treatment or just being ignored. In the text, Silentio regards his writing as a luxury which means that he does not expect it to overwhelmingly emote reactions. On the subject of faith and doubt, the author refutes the Hegelian point of view that regarded faith as something that has to be pushed aside if at all one is to fully understand the universe. It holds a similar view regarding doubt and this what the author refutes. In his view, the Hegelian point of view underestimates the effort it takes believers and doubters to attain their status.
Doubters hold the opinion that nothing can ever be certain in the world. As such, there cannot be a final judgment on anything. The art of aligning one’s mind in such way that one cannot judge anything takes time or lifetime so to speak. This is especially difficult to achieve as it is a normal occurrence for people to pass judgement on anything and everything. Managing to detach oneself from the vast majority to the minority that can suspend its judgement not only takes time but also dedication. On faith, as demonstrated by Abraham in the Bible, the author believes is no mean feat. Moreover, the author considers the understanding of faith and doubt as more of a reflection than passion which is what the Hegelians used to base their arguments.
Exordium is the section that follows the preface. In the Exordium, the author writes about his deep admiration for Abraham due to his faith. From the Bible, Abraham follows God’s request to sacrifice his son Isaac which was a test of his faith. This comes after Abraham had undergone other tests on his faith in God. The manner in which Abraham delivered the message to his son was meant to put blame on him rather on God. This would act to shield Isaac’s faith in God. There are four different scenarios that the author uses to break down the aspects of faith. According to the author, from the scenarios, Abraham’s faith in God made his son to lose faith in him while it took his joy away. As such, the author finds it challenging to understand Abraham.
To expound on the Exordium, the interpretations that can be drawn from the story of Abraham and his son Isaac are not as straight forward as one would think. Possible courses of action that Abraham could have taken included questioning God regarding his request to sacrifice his only son, grieving for losing his son, and not travelling to the mountain to sacrifice his son. The difficulty of understanding why Abraham did not choose any of the aforementioned courses of action while they may seem obvious underlines how faith is set up. By considering the said alternatives and the course of action that Abraham took, the author manages to bring out the sophistication of faith which he himself cannot explain.
Additionally, it is difficult to understand faith since it exists between an individual and God. As such, an individual acting in accordance with his faith may seem incomprehensible but that is how faith is. From Abraham’s story, one can deduce the following possible outcomes: he either lost faith in God after failing to understand the motive behind the request or Isaac lost his faith in him but was drawn closer to God as a result. These possible deductions only acted to submerge the author into more confusion as he could not comprehend the reasons behind Abraham’s reasons to act the way he acted. This is in agreement with the author’s earlier stand on faith as an inexplicable concept.
In the Eulogy on Abraham, the author brings forward the concept that life is meant to be meaningful and reiterates that a meaningless life is a despair. In this regard, the author provides examples of how men can become great and make their lives meaningful. These examples include one becoming great by virtue of loving themselves, by virtue of loving other men, and by virtue of them loving God (Kierkegaard et al, 1983). He, however, believes that he who loves God is the greatest of them all. Abraham, who loved God, is thus the greatest of all men according to the author. The tribulations that Abraham underwent while following God’s command yet he still kept his unwavering faith in him makes Abraham the greatest man as per the author.
The author brings afore the aspect of ethics in a bid to explain the incomprehensibility of faith. Considering the available courses of action that Abraham could have taken; all of which are ethically sound, he chose the least comprehensible. If Abraham considered ethics when God was testing his faith, he would not have acted the way he acted. It is from this point of view that the author remarks that faith cannot be explained on an ethical level. He thus manages to bring out the deeper aspects of faith that the Hegelian school of thought overlooked and as a result prematurely concluded on the simplicity of faith. The author thus holds Abraham with high regards.
To conclude, the author points out that in describing religion, it can only be described by what it is not rather than what it is. In the author’s view, there are no words that can describe religion. His admiration for Abraham is so strong that he compares it to the analogy of a hero and a poet. From his perspective, he is the poet while Abraham is the hero. Abraham’s heroism is, however, limited to the religious universe. It cannot traverse into the ethical universe. If Abraham could have chosen the ethical route, the author predicts that he would probably still be a hero but he would not be regarded as father Abraham.
Kierkegaard, Søren, Howard V. Hong, and Edna H. Hong. “Repetition, Fear and Trembling/Repetition.” Trans. Howard V. Hong, Edna H. Hong. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press (1983).
Mozambique is one of the countries in Africa located in Southeast part of the continents. The country is bordered by Tanzania on the northern side, Indian Ocean on the east, South Africa to the southwest, and Zimbabwe on the west side. The capital city of Mozambique is Maputo while the largest city is Matola. Mozambique has wide range of natural resources with the economy of the country depending significantly on agriculture. Additionally, the industry sector is still growing with key developments noted in beverages and food sector, chemicals industries as well as petroleum and aluminum sectors. Another sector that plays a primary role in the economic growth of Mozambique is tourism. The major economic partners of the country include Portugal, Belgium, South Africa, and Brazil. The major source of foreign domestic investment in Mozambique is South Africa. This paper seeks to discuss the Mozambique economic development by looking at the major sectors that impact on the economy.
More inequality and Less Poverty
In 2018, Mozambique began to surface from an economic recession, even though the World Bank warned that the fiscal outlook of the country still remained fragile. According to the Mozambique Economic Update, the country appeared to be more stable than what was experienced in 2016, when the economic slump emanated from debt crisis in the country. The Gross Domestic Product of Mozambique as reported by the World Factbook was $37.09 billion in 2017 while in 2016 it stood at $35.76 billion (World Bank Forecasts for Mozambique, 2018). The growth opportunities in Mozambique are also improving due to recovery in relation to consumer spending. As the result of households’ income remaining the same while the costs increase, the consumer purchasing power has continued to reduce. On the other hand, the high-income households have been able to enhance their purchasing power notwithstanding the rising costs, leading to more inequality.
Prior to the colonization of most Mozambique and other African countries, their economic development was based on commodities such as cowries. The relevance of African market principles was thus understood using these commodities. To understand this notion we can use Ralph Austen view point: “First of all, it can be demonstrated that the movement of cowries and slaves across a complex international market operated according to predictable patterns of supply and demand” (Ralph, 1993, 270).
Mozambique Economic Update indicates that as the result of macroeconomic policies adopted by the government, there has been a reduction in poverty level. Nevertheless, due to the economic progress becoming less inclusive, the level of inequality has been rising. Between 2008 and 2014, poverty level reduced from 59% of the Mozambique population to 48% as the result of various positive developments established by the government. Despite these gains, there was been a widening gap between the poor and better-off. As a result, the economic disparity has acted as an obstacle towards Mozambique achievement of shared prosperity. This has made the country to be of the region with highest inequality among the nations in Sub-Saharan Africa. The strategy of moving from agricultural based jobs to service oriented opportunities such as retail and catering has resulted in declined productivity of Mozambique economy labor.
After Mozambique gained independence in 1975 from Portuguese, the economic performance of major sectors including finance, manufacturing, tourism, and agriculture declined sharply. However, after the Mozambican Civil War, the sectors picked even though their performance is still below potential. The section below discusses the performance of major sectors in Mozambique.
Oil and Gas Reserves
The cent discoveries of gas and oil within East Arica, especially in Tanzania and Mozambique, have made the region to become a new player in the international gas and oil industry. Oil discoveries are expected to generate billions of dollars in yearly investment over the next 10 years. BMI notes that the discoveries emerge as the biggest globally and they are expected to continue in future. Nonetheless, the reducing oil prices at the global market act as major threats to commercial viability of the oil prospects an aspect that may negatively impact on the economic performance of Mozambique.
Forestry, Agriculture and Fishing
Agriculture is the main economic activity that drives Mozambique economy. This is based on the fact that the sector hires more than 80% of the country’s labor force making it to provide livelihood to over 23 million people. In 2009, Agriculture sector contributed 31.5% to Mozambique GDP. In the same year, Mozambique’s 20% of its total exports was derived from agriculture industry mainly through export of tobacco and tea, fish such as prawns and shrimps, cotton, copra, coconuts, and cashew nuts. The potential of agriculture in Mozambique is significantly high particularly in the northern region that is regarded as fertile. The major cash crops that have positively impacted on the economic growth of Mozambique are tobacco, sugar, tea, and cashew nuts.
The privatization of refineries and plantations is also a strategy that has made the country’s economy to expand (Pitcher 2002). This is based on the increased marine resources even though full exploitation is yet to be achieved. The end of Mozambican Civil War, made the displaced person to return to their lands resulting in the expansion of rural markets making Mozambique to dramatically expand its agricultural production.
Mining, Semi-Processing and Manufacturing
Poor infrastructure and Mozambique Civil War that took place between 1977 and 1992 constrained the exploitation of huge mineral deposits in Mozambique. According to the World Bank, by 2005, Mozambique had the capability to provide exports worth at $200 million but this was just standing at $3.6 million in 1990s. The major minerals that are mined in Mozambique include gemstones, marble, titanium, coal, granite, and gold. In 2011, the country exported the first batch of coal and with continued exploration of this mineral; the country focuses on becoming global leader in coal exportation.
In 1960s and 1970s, manufacturing sector in Mozambique was quite developed, but this declined sharply after the country gained independence from Portugal. Nevertheless, as the result of Mozal aluminum smelter expansion in 2001, industrial production increased by 33%. Even though Mozal is the biggest foreign investment in Mozambique, it has insignificant impact on the level of employment, but the investor is playing a key role in establishing a balance of payment of the country based on the taxes generated. In the 1st quarter of 2001, the manufacturing sector was worth $85 leading to 172% increase in total exports for Mozambique.
Telecommunication and Tourism
Mozambique telecommunication sector experienced a major reform after the end of civil war in 1992. For example, as the result of introduction of competition between mCell and Vodacom Mozambique in 2003, the mobile sub-sector experienced a major growth that impacted on the business operations in the country. The ongoing introduction of 3G and 4G mobile services, fibre backbone network, and EASSy, will make the country to improve the telecommunication system in the country ultimately impacting on the economic performance of the country.
In reference to tourism sector, the industry was negatively affected when the country gained independence. The strategy by Mozambique government is to enhance the development of low-volume and high-value tourism through the promotion of Peace Park that is focused on linking it with Gonarezhou and Kruger Park in Zimbabwe and South Africa respectively. Mozambique has also adopted the strategy of commodification to expand its tourism sector just like approach use in Kenya. We can use the contribution of George Meiu to emphasize this strategy: “The eroticized silhouette of the moran had become a popular commodity of Kenya’s tourist industry” (George, 2017, 4).
After the end of 1992 civil war, Mozambique was faced with high level of poverty and it was ranked as one of the poorest nations globally. However, the country has experienced a significant economic recovery in the last decade (Blanchard 2011). As noted by the World Factbook, Mozambique GDP in 2015 stood at $34.46, $35.76 in 2016 while in 2017 it was $37.09 million. GDP-real growth rate was 6.6% in 2015, 3.8% in 2016, and 3.7% in 2017. The GDP –per capita stood at $1,200 in 2015, $1,200 in 2016, and $1,300 in 2017. GDP composition by sector in 2017 was 23.9% for agriculture, 56.6% for services, and 19.3% for industry (The World Facebook).
Mozambique economic development has been impacted by various factors. The inequality and poverty level are major issues that have created disparities that have further affected the economy. Most of the sectors of Mozambique were highly performing during the Portuguese colonial rule possible due to effective management of resources in the country. If properly managed, the country’s main sectors including agriculture and mining will have positive impact on the economy thus making Mozambique to emerge as a country with a very strong economy within Sub-Sahara region. Mozambique should adopt stable macroeconomic frameworks that will enhance the advancement of economy by making financial instruments more accessible. Additionally, there is need to make Mozambican companies competitive in order to increase expert capacity besides focusing on creation of broad-based organizations with institutional capacities in order to create opportunities and enhance productivity.
Blanchard, Olivier 2011 “Macroeconomics Updated.” Englewood Cliffs. Prentice Hall. 24-56.
George, Meiu 2017 “Ethno-erotic Economies: Sexuality, Money, and Belonging in Kenya.” Chicago and London. The University of Chicago Press, 1-39.
Pitcher, Anne 2002 “Transforming Mozambique: The politics of privatization.” Cambridge. Cambridge University Press, 27-68.
Ralph, Austen 1993 “The Moral Economy of Witchcraft: An Essay in Comparative History”, Modernity and its Maleontents, edited by Jean Comaroff and John Comaroff, 89-110. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
The World Facebook. Mozambique-Economic Overview. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mz.html
World Bank Forecasts for Mozambique, June 2018. World Bank .Retrieved 13 May 2019. https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/mozambique/overview
Armenian National Movement
The middle part of the 19th century is often considered to be an ‘awakening’ moment by the Armenian nationalists within the dormant Armenian state. The theory here creates an emphasis on the role of Persian and Turkic misrule for centuries led to the awakening of the Armenian nation and their formation of a political strategy aimed at achieving independence. Nonetheless, this understanding overlooks other processes, which did pave the way for other Armenian societies to undergo a transformation and become a cohesive and modern nation. The barbaric years of oppression and colonization are never ‘lost’ years as most Armenians perceive them to be, but with the Ottoman leadership starting from 1453 to some harsh years, the communities in diaspora and other Armenian leaders took it to be a moment of establishing an ethno-religious character which made a foundation for the Armenian nationalist to establish a nation (Panossian, 2002).
During the dictatorship of Ottoman, the Nakharar system vanished due to the many years of repression and war under Islamic rule. Instead of the honorability, religion and a vendor class called Khojas and Chelebis catch political power. These elements don’t have a particular political structure to which they stand yet share a comparative desire to advance Armenian character, though through various ways. For example, in Ottoman-Armenia, the congregation accept authority works in accordance to the millet system. Even though Armenians are as yet subject to Footrest rule, this millet framework recognizes the Armenian individuals by its religion, no matter where its individuals live in the domain. Through this mainstream arrangement of government, these communities structure a distinct culture. Distributions of religious writings ingrain religious perspectives into their character. Consequently, the Armenian character depends on religion and is formally separated from an area, just as language.
This ethno-religious character permits the vendor Khojas to keep up their Armenian personality outside the country. While the diasporan dealer communities don’t hold fast to an Armenian political structure, they are liable to neighborhood rule. In spite of this, the Khojas keep up much self-sufficiency and further their ethnic relations to the country through financial matters and tight-weave communities. For instance, when settling in a region, for example, Tiflis, these Khojas would quickly open an Armenian church and school to build up their locale. Well off Khoja’s likewise advance Armenian patriotism through sponsorship of Armenian foundations. For instance, numerous Khoja people group will support printing presses for the country to advance instruction and the Armenian language for the more youthful ages.
In spite of this exertion, numerous ethnic Armenians acclimatize into nearby communities. Notwithstanding, as these Khoja people group relentlessly decrease into the nineteenth century, their financial aspects commitments help the Armenian country considered as a flood of taught radicalized Armenian patriots set out to coordinate another political motivation. In contrast to a considerable lot of the prior endeavors by patriot, endeavors in the nineteenth century are exceptionally organized and further the Armenian political motivation (however an ultimate goal of National freedom flops because of the great genocide (Tachjian, 2009).
Even though achievement causes an ‘enlivening’ of patriotism and an overall feeling of Armenian national character, their multilocal contrasts endure. Outside of Ottoman guideline, the administration is part between the ‘west’ and ‘east’ diasporas. Even though these communities share objectives for freedom and other national issues, they contrast in their substance and activity, which results in contrasts in the development of personality. For example, the western diaspora is vigorously affected by realism (Melson, 2017). Their political populace understands the proletariat and distributes writings that amplify Armenian mistreatment, estrangement, and abuse under remote formulation and structure.
As per the national will, erudite western people start to distribute works that call for freedom. Then again, Eastern people group are affected by a gathering of savvy people who advance sentimental literature. They put out writing that promotes the national history and an aggregate national personality. The style and its substance are intended to teach and activate individuals around the possibility of the Armenian country and its battle for freedom. This writing commands until the finish of the nineteenth century and moves progressive intensity inside the network. While the national character is built on various structure obstructs, the multi-neighborhood populace is brought together through a feeling of nationhood.
Because of the extensiveness of the Armenian populace, the general population varies in discourse as vernacular Armenian language trumps established Armenian. For instance, the western Armenian talk with a Constantinople vernacular while the eastern communities talk a Yerevan vernacular. Luckily, the Armenian ‘arousing’ did not have an obvious political philosophy. Armenian people group seek after political objectives on various stages. Also, these communities are not segregated from one another, which makes different components and ideas to frame a heterogeneous arrangement of thoughts. This variety of thoughts make three overwhelming ideological positions which sway the Armenian character: the liberal constitutionalism of the west; the extreme leftism of the east and; the insubordinate thoughts and exercises radiating from Armenia itself.
At first, the preservationist amira’s impact Armenian governmental issues in western diasporan communities through its control of the millet framework. Focused in Constantinople, these amira’s advance national character through religion and wish to keep up the present state of affairs of the Ottoman policies. Be that as it may, another type of youthful erudite people starts to develop in the second piece of the nineteenth century to challenge this preservationist vanguard. These Armenian savvy people, who examine in Europe, bring their ‘progressive’ thoughts, for example, the fairness of people, delegate government, protected standard, scholarly edification, the secularization of legislative issues with them. The Ottoman-Armenians were living in conditions of dire need. They were hopeless and found themselves in real poverty. Upon getting a chance to face a new liberation, most of them found the need to join the movement and make it stronger. They considered it to be a moment to change their lives and bring more light. Sure enough, they were ready to abide by the set rules to quench their thirst for freedom.
These people set some these dynamic thoughts in motion inside their Armenian millet and before long legitimize an inward constitution in the millet framework. This demonstration assists their character as an advanced country and eventually moves the Armenian National Constitution. On the eastern side of the Armenian Diaspora, works in Europe likewise impacts youthful, educated people. These youngsters are responsive to the sentimental and edification development and are prevalent in their perspective on the Armenian country. After educating in schools and colleges, this gathering enters the political field to lead Armenians amid this season of enlivening. They advance sentimental writing, thoughts of the illumination and different topics of restoration so as to separate Armenian personality from religion. Rather, they advance language, a feeling of having a place with a country and statehood; anyway dissimilar to the western coalition, these intelligent people, in the long run, activate to shape a progressive gathering, The Federation of Armenian Revolutionaries (ARF), situated in Tiflis. Their definitive objective is the freedom of Ottoman-Armenia; anyway, they comprehend their restrictions and along these lines point approaches to amend poor conditions for Armenians in Ottoman-Armenia.
Nevertheless, the radicalization of the freedom bunches prompted occurrence of genocides from the Turks. These genocides at last lead to the aggregate Armenian abhorrence of Turkish individuals. Following the Russo-Turkic war, The Armenian Question turned into the worry of Armenian patriots in Armenia. In spite of the fact that the Berlin Convention did not prompt national self-governance, it moved the populace toward Russian-Armenia and had nationalistic ramifications. This polarity that exists before the massacre is acknowledged as a major aspect of Armenian national personality, it keeps on affecting the post-decimation period by getting to be the foundations of the diasporan/country division. After the massacre, Armenian diasporan communities can keep up and shape Armenian national personality through exceptionally incorporated activities. Armenian patriots structure a firm national-personality dependent on long-standing establishments, similar to the Armenian Church, and new improvements, similar to the contempt of Turks. Their country building approach likewise lectures the evasion of assimilation into the diasporan communities “home” state.
These community leaders were often members of ARF (Armenian Revolutionary Federation) and stipulated that the definition of a “true Armenian” was a person who did abide by given ideologies. These eight ideologies include the vernacular language and the knowledge and pride in the history of the people. Besides, the show of commitment through the liberation of the community lost lands, from the Soviet yokes and Dashnaks as a defined to be ‘Armenian Cause,’ they had a common idea of ever going back to western Armenia, their perceived homeland. It was needed to remain an active activist and a participant with the community organizations. Also, every member of the community had to fellowship at Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian Catholic, or even Protestant gatherings in that order (Guroian, 1994). All the Armenian were supposed to believe in socialism, and lastly, they were supposed to be antiTurkish.
This understanding homogenizes the majority. ARF individuals before long begin schools to energize Armenian culture and language to the adolescent. In further western networks, the plan is more diligently to execute, because of absorption into host countries. In any case, the patriot’s pioneers adjust their belief system to fit the difficulties of absorption in Europe and America. For instance, rather than concentrating on enduring the Armenian language, the Western networks place a huge accentuation on the Armenian Apostolic Church. Despite the fact that this adaptability enrages numerous traditionalist Armenians, nationhood is a progressing element.
The political belief systems of diaspora alliances give an obviously verbalized articulation regarding Armenian patriotism, anyway it is the Armenian country that eventually rules the political motivation of Armenia through the twentieth century. Following WWI, the USSR controls Armenia under the common framework. The commonplace framework is an ethnically based organization framework that is subordinate to the Kremlin. It goes about as a bringing together body that homogenizes minority individuals under Soviet-socialist ideology. Although the Kremlin uses control over all territories, Armenians acquire high positions in the Soviet levels of leadership for appearing amid World War I and WWII. A significant number of these people become pioneers of the Armenia SSR. Beginning, Soviet approaches plan to ‘Russify’ and politicize the Armenian individuals along socialist lines.
These strategies breed hatred against the Soviet authority, who fail to understand that a long way from destroying nearby patriotisms, the Soviet way to innovation was in actuality fortifying republic-based identity. Before long Armenian patriots utilize existing Soviet organizations to advance nationalistic thoughts. Compassionate Soviet-Armenian gathering pioneers encourage this Armenian patriot purposeful publicity by permitting leaflets, commemorations and other Armenian things. Spot naming, the demonstration of changing a spots name for political purpose, ends up crucial in revitalizing Armenian national-personality in Soviet Armenia. For example, Soviets had renamed numerous Armenian tourist spots to accommodate their philosophies and names of the socialist rulers’ nationals. With the assistance of institutional initiative, Armenian patriots start to recover tourist spots they partner with recorded Armenia.
These activities gave the general population of Armenia SSR an association with their past culture in a generally ethnically oppressive society. These cutting edge powers, at last, legitimize the “Armenian-ness” of the land when looking for statehood. Regardless of these hindrances and millenniums of persecution, Armenians can beat their immense contrasts to pronounce freedom from the Soviet Union in 1991. Right up ’til the present time, divisions stay from the different divisions ever of Armenian country. The ARF keeps on being an ideological group and the significance of “being Armenian” keeps on being raised. Today, numerous Armenians outside the nation seek after globalist objectives while Armenians in the country manage the battles of a corrupt first class and modernization. The community is more of religious oriented.
Guroian, V. (1994). Religion and Armenian national identity: Nationalism old and new. Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe, 14(2), 3.
Melson, R. (2017). Provocation or nationalism: a critical inquiry into the Armenian Genocide of 1915. In The Armenian genocide in perspective (pp. 61-84). Routledge.
Panossian, R. (2002). The past as nation: Three dimensions of Armenian identity. Geopolitics, 7(2), 121-146.
Tachjian, V. (2009). Gender, nationalism, exclusion: the reintegration process of female survivors of the Armenian genocide. Nations and Nationalism, 15(1), 60-80.
TAKE HOME EXAM: SOC302
Commensality “means eating with other people” (Fischler, 2011). It entailed a ritualistic and sacrificial process where it provided insight on the variations seen in the attitudes given towards food. I believe it is a useful concept in addressing the aspect of food and matters of society while eating together. Commensality is a major issue and its cultural variability indicates of the possible relationships between western and modern attitudes towards food. However, cultural attachment helps in the understanding of the the prevalence of diet-based diseases between these two societies. Health problems in such societies affect the ability of individuals to work on their health as well as their individual bodies. However, commensality as described by Fischler focuses on eating and food as being unaffected by the ability of individuals to come and eat together or engage in eating within a gathering. The history provided reflects on the evolution of food production towards manufacturing in large quantity and branding of products leading to massive advertising to encourage mass consumption.
The Consumers Republic focuses on the connection between citizenship and consumerism, where freedom involves the consumption of the latest modern homes, fashion, and appliances (Cohen, 2004). It is also a useful concept as it helps in the understanding of the origin of mass consumption witnessed in early societies from the 1930s to the present. Consumers republic identifies the need to build new homes, buy new vehicle and focus on the process of creating a new economy that is based in spending among individuals in the society. However, Cohen attempts to understand the moral aspect of the Consumers Republic through looking at the America’s political and economic fortunes overtime. It is an aspect of the society that helps in understanding the need for food.
Food insecurity involves the lack of access to food, limitation towards safe, sufficient and nutritious food as well as reliable supply. According to Riches (2002), absolute deprivation can result in food insecurity when there is the presence of food banks. It is a useful concept in understanding how charitable assistance works and addressing the basic food needs among people. Food banks have been established to help in the problem of food insecurity. Among the first world societies, food banks are considered to be among the fastest-growing charitable industries. Food insecurity identifies that food inequality and poverty results to dire situations among people hence the need for surplus food being donated to food banks. Riches, (2002) has identified the commodification of food backs within the Canadian society that impact the objectivity of such institutions. Distribution of such food and social assistance accorded to persons in need help in solving societal food insecurity. However, state obligations are negatively impacted when commodification of social assistance occurs as it is unable to fulfil its mandate of fulfilling the human right to food.
Culinary modernism involves processed food, novel, industrial, preservable, and considered affordable among the elite. Laudan (2001) identifies that the concept explains the availability of modern food leading to populations becoming stronger and living longer. It is a useful concept from my opinion as it describes the idea of people eating in the modern era. It is sad that modern food is identified as a disaster since its is conveyed in newspapers and media because of the diseases associated with dieting on fast food and highly processed food. However, culinary modernism should focus on the importance of fast and processed food that are mass produced and consumed among nationals across the globe. Industrialized food has been scorned by various critics but focus should e placed on the homogeneity and fast production among other positive aspects of modern food. Natural food was considered even in the traditional. Preserved and processed food are often well kept and easier to digest despite being delicious as illustrated by Laudan (2001).
DeSoucey, (2010) describes gastronationalism as the application of food production, consumption as well as distribution in sustaining and demarcating the emotional power of the sentiments among nationalists in the production and marketing of food. It is a useful concept that explains the forces within the marketing and production of food in society. The aspect of contemporary food is identified within the article and produces some of the concerns involved in the contemporary food politics. DeSoucey focuses on the macro-level dimensions of market protections that is witnessed among nations that seek to protect their traditional foods from external influence. Such discussion is essential in the understanding of such protectionism. Food politics within the society is viewed as an identity that is accepted by individuals and entails culture with authenticity that is associated with sociological interests. The symbolic boundary associated with food politics within gastronationalism helps in providing insight on the complexities of globalization. Therefore, food has become a symbol of cultural identities among protectionists and European integrationists.
Cohen, L., 2004. A Consumers’ Republic: The politics of mass consumption in postwar America. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(1), pp.236-239.
DeSoucey, M., 2010. Gastronationalism: Food traditions and authenticity politics in the European Union. American Sociological Review, 75(3), pp.432-455.
Fischler, C., 2011. Commensality, society and culture. Social Science Information, 50(3-4), pp.528-548.
Laudan, R., 2001. A plea for culinary modernism: why we should love new, fast, processed food. Gastronomica, 1(1), pp.36-44.
Riches, G., 2002. Food banks and food security: welfare reform, human rights, and social policy. Lessons from Canada? Social Policy & Administration, 36(6), pp.648-663.
Objectives of Research
The primary objective of the research is to explore the present-day management strategies of municipal solid waste collection. In particular, the research focuses on beverage container collection issues based on the case study of Lagos. The research aims to investigate the ratio between disposal of beverage drinks and recycling processes of beverage containers (Mobolaji, 2017). In addition, the study pursues an objective to compare waste collection statistics in developed and developing countries.
The present study aims to respond to the following questions:
- How is it possible to define reverse logistics in regard to the waste generated by beverage containers?
- How do consumers impact reverse logistics?
- In what way do government policies impact reverse logistics in Lagos?
- How is reverse logistics impacted by government campaigns or public awareness efforts?
The present study relies on a number of case studies including Lagos, and Helsinki. The primary data was collected from a questionnaire survey, while secondary data was retrieved from academic journals, websites of companies, articles, regulations, government publications, as well as EU directives.
The data retrieved from the Lagos-based survey of consumers was analyzed using a demographic composition. In addition, a waste management-themed documentary was also incorporated in the analysis. The empirical data was analyzed with the help of IBM SPSS software alongside descriptive statistical methods.
Research findings show that the government plays a pivotal role in reverse logistics. To ensure effectiveness in reverse logistics, there should be used a collaborative process involving multiple supply chain stakeholders. Consumers, in turn, should also recognize their responsibility for waste management. The author concludes that a lot of work needs to be accomplished so that material suppliers accept their new role in the context of waste management in Lagos.
Mobolaji. D. (2017). The Reverse Logistics of Beverage Containers. (A case study of Lagos,
Nigeria): A thesis in Economics and Business Administration (master’s thesis). Alto University School of Business, Helsinki, Finland