Ibn Khaldun by Taha Hussein and Islamic History

 

 

Table of Contents

Table of Contents. 2

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION.. 2

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW… 7

  1. Ibn Khaldun SOCIAL IDEAS. 7
  2. Taha Hussin SOCIAL IDEAS. 14
  3. Arabic Literature with Social Ideas Found in Taha Hussin SOCIAL IDEAS. 16
  4. Ottoman Empire and its Influence with the Ibn Khaldun SOCIAL IDEAS. 17

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY.. 20

Research Design. 21

Data Analysis and Findings. 22

Ethical Issues. 23

Research Questions. 25

Chosen Research and Literature. 25

CHAPTER 4: PRESENTATION OF RESULTS. 26

CHAPTER 5: DISSUASION.. 31

CHAPTER 6: REFERENCES. 37

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ibn Khaldun by Taha Hussein and Islamic History

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Ibn Khaldun was a 14th century Arab historian who has been associated with the development of theories in various fields. He was considered wide ahead of his times and has been credited with casting influences in the subjects of history, literature, economics, sociology, philosophy and demographics. What has remained substantial to his powerful concepts is that he was a realist and concentrated on presenting his views in simplistic yet understandable ways (“Ibn Khaldun,” 2018). What was known about him in the 14th century provides little insight into his life and personality. His work was given attention in the 16th and 17th centuries, when a number of Egyptian and Turkish historians came across his theories. His writings were critically analyzed, with regards to the theoretical frameworks that explained the works of societies and civilizations as a whole.

Ibn Khaldun was an Arab historiographer and student of history. He is broadly considered as a trailblazer of the cutting edge orders of historiography, humanism, financial aspects, and demography. He is best known for his book, Muqaddimah or Prolegomena. Additionally, the nineteenth century European researchers recognized the centrality of the book and considered Ibn Khaldun to be one of the best scholars of the middle ages. Ibn Khaldun’s epistemology endeavored to accommodate supernatural quality with philosophy by isolating science into two distinct classifications, the religious science that respects the sciences of the Qur’an and the non-religious science. He further ordered the non-religious sciences into scholarly sciences, for example, rationale, number juggling, geometry, stargazing, and so on and helper sciences, for example, dialect, writing, verse, and so forth. He additionally proposed that perhaps more divisions will show up later on with various social orders.

Ibn Khaldun believed that the state was a need of human culture to control bad form inside the general public, however the state implies is constrain, along these lines itself a treachery. All social orders must have a state overseeing them so as to build up a general public. He endeavored to institutionalize the historical backdrop of social orders by recognizing omnipresent wonders present in all social orders. He believed that development was a wonders that will be available as long as people exist. Similarly, Ibn Khaldun portrayed the satisfaction of essential needs as the start of human progress. Based upon the literature review the foundations of this study are based upon two important and integral congruent sections of history and literature. The first section is based upon the life and works of Taha Hussain as the founding father of Arabic literature (“The life of Taha,” 2018). He received recognition for being one of the most influential histographers who discovered the works of the late 14th century philosopher and sociologist Ibn Khaldun. The bounding grounds have significantly remained Arabic literature and its various branches.

Social ideas of Ibn Khaldun were based on collective utilization of religion and socialism to define modern approaches towards evolution and progress. These approaches were further explored by the Egyptian scholar Taha Hussein, whose largest contribution to the Arabic literature has been the introduction of Ibn Khaldun’s work. This research is consistent with the ideas of the philosopher and theorist Taha Hussein as an influence on the Arabian literature. Ibn Khaldun holds symbolic importance since his work was found at a time when the devastation regarding the decline of the ‘Ottoman Empire’ was ruefully being faced. The main attempts made by Ibn Khaldun have been to re-define the religious aspects and the social aspects (Al-Jubouri, 2018). He is considered one of the greatest philosopher minds who categorized theories under two main dimensions; religious perspectives and non-religious perspectives. In addition, he was one of the most knowledgeable intellectual theorists of his times with expertise in subjects of mathematics and basic sciences, apart from humanitarian and social sciences. He predicted in the 14th century that the future societies will introduce new subjects that may be based upon the foundations of the past. Therefore in the 21st century, he is known to have knowledge in the fields of politics, sciences, philosophy, sociology, economics and humanities. His main aim, although, was to form a primitive theory that would cover all the basic humanities subjects’ and would define the cultural behaviors of people in societies.

The social ideas of Ibn Khaldun regarding the state were of considerable importance. He attempted to adjust to every single conceivable society’s social conduct and impact in training, financial aspects and governmental issues. In any case, he didn’t surmise that laws were picked by only one pioneer or a little gathering of individual however for the most part by most of the people of a society. To Ibn Khaldun, the state was a need of human culture to control foul play inside the general public, yet the state implies is compel, in this way itself a treachery (Hozien, 2018). All social orders must have a state overseeing them so as to build up a general public. He endeavored to institutionalize the historical backdrop of social orders by recognizing pervasive marvels present in all social orders.

The majority of Taha Hussein’s significant assemblage of works are worried about Arabic writing. The experience of organization, open administration, governmental issues and culture all shaped and reinforce Taha Hussein’s idea and add profundity to his vision. Egypt has done all through its long history, to make a powerful commitment to human development. Against this foundation of patriotism Taha Hussein, drawing on an abundance of sources, composed ‘The Future of Education in Egypt’ (Hussein, 2018). Although he would keep on distributing articles on instruction and to give open addresses after the production of this book, examination of his later work uncovers no new, extensive vision or scholarly structure, but instead critique on different angles, resistance of some position, or assaults on contradicting perspectives.

Ibn Khaldun believed that development was a marvels that will be available as long as people exist. He described the satisfaction of fundamental needs as the start of human advancement. Toward the starting, individuals will search for various methods for expanding profitability of essential needs and extension will happen. Later the general public begins winding up progressively stationary and concentrates more on making, expressions and the more refined attributes. Before the finish of a general public, it will debilitate, enabling another little gathering of people to come into control.

In The Muqaddimah, the most vital work of Ibn Khaldun, he mindfully and conscientiously examined an acquaintance of logic with history in a general way, in view of recognizable examples inside a hypothetical structure of known chronicled occasions of his time. He depicted the beginnings, improvement, social patterns and the fall all things considered, prompting the ascent of another general public which would then pursue similar patterns in a persistent cycle. Ibn Khaldun did not make an ideal model for a general public amid his life, yet he thought there was a requirement for another model to oversee society to guarantee its nonstop financial development (Dale, 2015). Likewise, he prescribed the best political ways to deal with build up a general public as indicated by his insight into history. He intensely underlined that a decent society would be one in which a custom of instruction is profoundly established in its culture. Ibn Khaldun trusted that an excessive amount of administration, for example, assessments and enactments, would prompt the decay of a general public, since it would oblige the advancement of increasingly concentrated work increment in researchers and improvement of various administrations.

Ibn Khaldun believed that officials can’t comprehend the universe of trade and don’t have indistinguishable inspiration from a businessman. In his work The Muqaddimah, Ibn Khaldun underscored public opinion to think as what decides human conduct and universal examples. This workforce likewise motivates individuals to shape into a social structure to co-work in division of work and association. As per Zaid Ahmand in Epistemology and the Human Dimension in Urban Studies, the fikr thinking is the supporting column for every single philosophical part of Ibn Khaldun’s hypothesis identified with individuals’ otherworldly, learned, physical, social and political propensities (Ahmad, 2010). Similarly, another essential idea Ibn Khaldun accentuates the authority of specialties, propensities, and abilitiesin his readings. These happen after a general public is built up and as indicated by Ibn Khaldun, the dimension of accomplishment of a general public can be dictated by simply examining these three ideas. A general public in its most punctual stages is traveling and principally worried about survival, while a general public at a later stage is inactive, with more noteworthy accomplishment in artworks. A general public with a stationary culture and stable governmental issues would be required to have more noteworthy accomplishments in specialties and technology.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

A.    Ibn Khaldun SOCIAL IDEAS

Gibb (2009) brought attention to one of the recent findings in terms of theoretical grounds, where the name of Ibn Khaldun has received critical attention in the last decade. Although, dedication has been given by researchers, publishers and the notable Dr. Taha Hussain. Since the early 1900’s the works of Ibn Khaldun are being studied, and his worth as a potential socialist and economist are being recognized. The most important aspects of his works includes his socialist theories in relation with the historical notions as well. But, the writer argues, that the pace for publishing and popularizing his work have made slower progress than anticipation. The author of this paper clearly remarks that even the published works of the historian deal more with the analysis of his character and his intellectual abilities rather than focusing on his theoretical frameworks. Therefore, there is a need for a deeper and more investigative analysis for the historian’s efforts and clearly hypothesizing the practicality of his theories.

Soofi (1995) observed the works of the 14th century theorist Ibn Khaldun, to understand the knowledge of the intellectuals of the previous centuries. Ibn Khaldun has been notified to be a diplomat, a jurist, historian, a contemporary sociologist and economist. Ibn Khaldun favored a significantly different perspective than the rest of his peers for the frameworks of the political economy on a macro level. His traditional ideas influenced the contemporary cycle of the economy with rational approaches for the execution of power, economic reasoning and the models that guided why some nations develop and others don’t. In pursuit, the logic behind the ideas of the theorists of those times, Ibn Khaldun had a much wider perspective when it came to explaining the functions of an economy as a whole. The socialist theorization linked the economics of the subcontinent again and again, as shown in his works.

Mohammad (1998) analyzed and compared the socialist ideas of Ibn Khaldun as a historical socialist with the theorists; Hegel, Karl Marx, and Durkheim. In this comparison the ideas, philosophical lessons and the primary directives of Ibn Khaldun’s social drafts were critically analyzed. The comparison was also done as an ode to the western diaphragms of sociology and boundaries of philosophy, religion and economics. In essence, Ibn Khaldun was a social thinker who was much ahead of his time in pointing out the implications of the social changes happening around him, in his times. He did not live to see whether his hypothesized verdicts were much closer to reality. His works remained particularly unrecognized because of some preliminary reasons. The first reason is the evolution of the industrial revolution introduced in the 15th century which affected the cultural dimensions of the social structure of the society. While Ibn Khaldun remained traditional and it seemed that his narratives were more focused on the human potential. Empirically, the investigation also found that despite traditional ideas, he had a more modern approach towards the societal dialects. One of the major interpretations about Ibn Khaldun has been expressed in terms of how he was a pioneer amongst the free thinkers of the society in those times. He believed that humans were neither subject to the current traditions and practices, nor were they encompassed in the surroundings of the past decades. The civil lines seldom defined how the individuals reciprocated their knowledge, execution of their behaviors and their general day to day agreements and disagreements with the societal laws and enforces. He believed that man was the subject of his own thinking that develops from the social and economic constructs and the metaphysical incidences they experience in their lives and those of others around them.

According to Dhaouadi (1990), the western sociological researchers have often ignored or paid little attention to one of the earliest social theorists of the 14th century such as Ibn Khaldun. This may have been possible because of contrasts between the Arab and the western philosophers. However, others have dignified that Ibn Khaldun lived in a time where the Arab-Muslim conflict of the rulings of civilizations were evident. Although, it is seldom believed that the Middle Eastern, Arab and the Muslim nations have shifted away from their religious and social dilemmas, what can be particularly said is that Ibn Khaldun was ahead of his times. In his attempt to define the stature of the society, law and peripheral perspectives about social laws and elements of economics, he became a central figure in theorizing history and linking it with the frameworks of sociology. He focused on defining and clearing the conflicts between the Arabian peninsulas and the rest of the world. For this purpose, he worked on the modern agenda of showing a positive and more realistic side of the Arabian and the Muslim world. He worked on showing the common fundamental principles that looked same in both the Arabian and the Western worlds. In his account, Muqaddimah, he subjected the concept of ‘supernatural’ to define why these beliefs existed in the Muslim world and what importance did they hold. On the other hand his account, Al Assabiyya, concentrated on the dynamics of the economy as a process that is in continuous transformation. In this particular account he predicted the rationale and the possibility that Arabs would dominate the oil producing domains of the world as a cultural pursuit. Therefore, Ibn Khaldun is regarded more of as a realist sociologist who identified things as they were and defined the rationality behind things that make sense.

Sidani (2008) introduced a very early social philosopher known by the name of Ibn Khaldun as a former historian and interpreter of sociology and domestic economics. The main focus of this paper is central to the attention given to his concept of leadership as a dominant factor in the grouping theorization. The paper focuses on the post modern developments found in the world of Ibn Khaldun and his early assessment of the social dynamics of society. His central focus on the quality and power vested by a leader and his power have remained the center of anarchy. His works also bring attention of the western world towards the definition of power and domination held in the west and the possible contrast between the systems of the western and the Arabian worlds. The writer of the paper concluded his analysis, that Ibn Khaldun was a keen observer of situations as to how and why they existed. He wasn’t interested in questioning and finding the answers. What he was interested in was defining how things existed and what common elements they shared with others on a general level. The writer of this paper believes that if the theories of Ibn Khaldun are brought into practical power, then the cultures and variations in power can benefit from his explanation of the core values of all systems.

Baali (2018) defined the works of Ibn Khaldun under four major categories. Firstly he established that Muqaddimah, as an explanation, was a fine masterpiece that aimed to surprise the world over how the Arabian world functioned in general. Without the existence of the work of Ibn Khaldun, the Arabian region would have been left devastated and cut off from the entire world. His efforts can be recognized for aiming to define that the main conditions were not met with jurisdiction, but the Muslims and Arabs were only obliged to their heritage and cultural directives. He rationalized that the Muslim world would not change or accept the Arab philosophy not because they disliked the western ideas. But they would not dissuade from their own ideas because they seemed logically acceptable to them. Secondly, the lower side remains that his work did very little to change the perspective of the western theology of the Arabs. However, he is still credited for his lean attempt to clear the image of the Arabs. Thirdly, his work has been judged less and very little opinions have been formed about his work. As a result on the positive side, his work has not been manipulated with. Fourthly, as a downside again, his work has been interpreted by many researchers who may have called him the inventor or creator of many theories.

Alatas (2006) laid emphasis on a very serious social issue. He questioned as to how an important and central figure in the modern sociology and economics has not been kept under the radar. He talks about the theorist Ibn Khaldun who was a modern pioneer of the incorporator for many different elements in the sociological contexts. Upon much anticipation, the writer reveals that the main reason why Ibn Khaldun has been excluded from the earlier theorists is because of his Arabic origins. The westerners may disagree, but even in the 21st century, the western world gives little acknowledgement to any other theorists other than their own intellectual historians. The perspective is wide in terms of how the world may view preliminary ideas of philosophers from other parts of the world. According to the perspective of Ibn Khaldun the Muslim history has only been studied by the westerners for establishing contrasts between the two phenomenons. While, what Ibn Khaldun did was to point out the common elements amongst both the western and the Arab cultures.

Rosenthal (1983) argued that the historian Ibn Khaldun is not celebrated much, not only in the western world, but he is often given little importance in the Arab and Muslim world as well. The more research that has been done about Ibn Khaldun, the more theories and number of subjects have been found in his works. It seemed that his ideas were not limited to the dimensions of one theory, rather he was accustomed to bring a wider depth to his work again and again. His recognized work has been aligned with the fields of economics, political sciences, humanism, philosophy, religion and more importantly his social ideas. Socialism tends to be the most powerful base that he adopted for the practices and adoption of cultural values in the Muslim world. Political thought in the Islamic ideology if often inferred as being harsh, hierarchical and based upon relationships drawn from the pre-islamic eras. It has been analyzed that although Ibn Khaldun was an intellectual thinker who preferred to be a realist, despite his modernistic views he was in alignment with the environment and the existent thoughts of his times. And this is the most genius attribute of his personality.

Chapra (2008) believed that Ibn Khaldun presented a very dynamic and sultry manner in his theory that raised the bars for other theorists of those times. What he refers to as Ibn Khaldun’s theory of development, is one of the most versatile explanations of how things are presumed to be in the Arab parts. The main aim of the theory is to provide an argument that defines the shape that an economy undertakes when nearing decline. The theory contrasts the involvement of factors such as economics, sociology, societal norms, and political, historical and philosophical memorandums. Another important connection that has been made in the theory is that all these factors overlap and symbolize important events in the function of a society, an economy or overall what we may call a dynasty or civilization. The major counterparts of this study involve assessing the ideology of Ibn Khaldun in terms of the Muslim nations function differently, how they work and what possible explanation is alluded to the performance of the Middle Eastern, Arab and the Muslim nations.

Mahdi (1957) related the concepts of Ibn Khaldun with those of the other Muslim philosophers including Aristotle and Plato. Historically, the theories of Ibn Khaldun proved to reach the counterparts of philosophical thought that may have revolutionized the traditional norms of humanism. Even in the 14th century, Ibn Khaldun devised that history and philosophy, in essence, were only the study of humans and how they interacted with their societies. Therefore, his theories deal with the actual understanding of how individuals behave in their cultural settings. It was further discovered, that Ibn Khaldun believed that philosophers before his time had not given ‘human sciences’ the status of a separate field. Therefore, he felt inclined to fill this gap and state clearly why he believed that individualistic philosophies needed to receive attention. An interesting notion that is attributed with Ibn Khaldun is that his philosophies have not only been limited to one subject. Rather he has connected his theories and philosophies in ways that shows his ideas for every separate subject. The expertise of Ibn Khaldun in various sciences, proves that his knowledge and practical assumptions were evitable for providing accurate explanations of the political and social powers held by the Arab states. These assumptions have been proved through this book, where the author has highlighted major Islamic trends and downfalls that were predicted by Ibn Khaldun long before in the 14th century. His theories proved to be true when examining the historical basis of states, nations and civilizations suffered.

Lastly, Caksu (2018) argued that by depending on the perceptions, hypotheses and remarks that are referenced in al-Muqaddimah, Ibn Khaldun saw some Islamic goals, how he moved toward the connections between the standards and the substances, how he managed the holes, pressures and logical inconsistencies among them, and what sort of arrangements he found. This can be trailed by an exchange of the effect of ‘asabiyyah on the understanding of a few marvels, improvements and questionable occasions that showed up in early Islamic history. As an end to the investigation, it was advanced that Ibn Khaldun included extravagance and profundity to such ideas as ‘asabiyyah and mulk, conveying an elective point of view to their jobs in history and monotheist religions, and also utilizing them as amazing yet adaptable applied apparatuses.

B.     Taha Hussin SOCIAL IDEAS

Taha Hussein was an Egyptian Arabic and the most compelling twentieth century author, scholar, philosopher, and a nonentity for The Egyptian Renaissance and the pioneer development in the Middle East and North Africa. His sobriquet was “The Dean of Arabic Literature”. He was designated for a Nobel Prize in writing multiple times. Taha Hussein was a scholarly of the Egyptian Renaissance and a defender of the belief system of Egyptian patriotism alongside what he called Pharaonism, trusting that Egyptian human advancement was oppositely restricted to Arab development, and that Egypt would just advancement by recovering its antiquated pre-Islamic roots. Hussein composed on Ibn Khaldun, a Tunisian student of history, guaranteed by some to be the author of human science.

Mahmoudi (1998) described the life and thought of Taha Hussein, who is regarded as the pioneer and the father of the modern Arabic literature guides. His most recognized contributions are in the world of the Arabic literature and providing recognition to the 14th century thinker and theorist Ibn Khaldun. However, Hussein has set his own cultural and intellectual influence in the fields of social and economic constructs. Most of his elementary thoughts have been focused around the humanitarian and modern social cultural attributions. He regards the social frameworks of a society as positive elements that can be traced back to history, the very nature of humans and the older and traditional concepts of how the society works in general.

Kalpakian (2008) explained the importance of Ibn Khaldun amongst the earlier progenitors of the concepts of realism and social constructive norms whose theories are still applicable in the fields of international relations, today. According to this paper, the theories of Ibn Khaldun received attention in the 90’s in terms of management of the international and global crisis strategies. Various attempts have been made to decipher how Ibn Khaldun has related the theologies of science and religion.

Galal (2000) embarked on how the ideal theory of Taha Hussein was dictated, presented, formatted, and presented in front of the world. The writer believes that it is important to cater that although Taha Hussein was influenced from the earlier theories of Ibn Khaldun, he did not fully become a disciple of his theories. Rather he formulated and devised his own view of philosophy, sociology and history works together to bring about the workings of an economy. His main influence can be denoted in terms of the Egyptian society where he came across some important sociological and cultural barriers.

C.    Arabic Literature with Social Ideas Found in Taha Hussin SOCIAL IDEAS

Brugman (1984) in his book mentioned Taha Hussein as one of the greatest contributors for introducing and highlighting the name of Ibn Khaldun in the history of Arabic literature. He contributed vastly in the fields of history, psychology, economics, philosophy and most importantly sociology. The sociological contexts have often been named as the most conflicting pieces of work in terms of presenting the Arabian view of politics and power.  Similarly, Hourani (2013) explained how Ibn Khaldun came into existence through his literature narratives from his book Muqadimmah; in which he has presented a very clear dissection and analysis of the Arabian cultures and societies. His writings brought the attention of the Arabs and Muslims to a new concept of ‘clans’ and subjective groupings in their society, which they were not aware of before.

Taha Hussein exhibited that from the earliest starting point of the nineteenth century, Egypt, similar to Europe, received the pleasantries of present day life entire heartedly and with no feeling of unease. All parts of Egyptian life, regardless of whether material or good, progressed toward becoming Europeanized (Alatas, 2006). He referred to numerous instances of this in Egypt, from the working of railroads and the laying of transmit and phone lines to the presentation of bureau government and the parliamentary framework. Also, it was the equivalent with the cutting edge training framework. Be that as it may, there is another type of patriotism and enthusiasm which has emerged in this cutting edge age and which supports the life and relations of countries (Rejwan, 2008). It has been brought into Egypt together with the results of present day civilization. He contended that legislative issues are not quite the same as religion and that the arrangement of government and the structure of the state are established on utilitarian concerns.

Tomar (2018) examined social interpretations of Taha Hussin regarding Ibn Khaldun, who is the most examined scholars in the cutting edge Arab world. The most vital purposes behind this is that he lived in a period of emergency that looks like the one that Muslims have wind up in right now, that his musings have discovered endorsement from Western researchers and that they have present day qualities. It is for these reasons that the works of Ibn Khaldun, from the nineteenth century on, have offered ascend to a wide assortment of understandings, including skillet Islamism, patriotism, communism and other philosophies that have discovered enthusiasm for the Arab world. In this article, subsequent to analyzing the legacy of thought handed down by Ibn Khaldun to Arab culture, beginning from the time in which he lived.

D.    Ottoman Empire and its Influence with the Ibn Khaldun SOCIAL IDEAS

According to Rahman (1958), it is observed in the first volume of Muqaddimah that Ibn Khaldun being the social historian he was, already had understood how the economics of the dynasties worked. According to the understanding presented by the author of this book, Ibn Khaldun theorized that the functions of every kind of dynasty can be categorized in the parts of a cycle. This cycle continues to move in time periods and until the cycle of every dynasty remains the same. A dynasty begins by being powerful, with the front led by a leader. This dynasty then flourishes and reaches its peak. This peak can be analyzed in terms of socialism, economics and political attainment. When these factors are peaked, the political power is weakened internally and then the dynasty moves towards a decline. These periods of decline are marked with weakened hold of the governmental authorities over the economic and social demographics of the community. Internal and external flaws correlate and assemble in unique orders to create chaos and loss of control in terms of political hold.

Baali (2018) believed that Ibn Khaldun considered the most successful dynasties of the world as some way or the other meet this fate in the end, especially the Arab and the Muslim dynasties. The significance of his theory in the real world is that centuries later, the Ottoman Empire met the same fate and diminished from being one of the largest and most successful dynasties in the world, officially. Another eminent problem that led to the decline of the Ottoman Empire was found to be explained exactly in the works of Ibn Khaldun i.e. the behavior of the political power groups. He believed that the more scattered and uncivilized the groups, the more they will focus on adopting behaviors of the powerful and mighty rulers. Since they would have no strategy of their own, they would be willing to adopt and practice the earlier examples of rulers set before them. As a result, during the declining stage it would seem that some political groups and leaders would be holding the stage. But in reality, it would only be an imitation to cover the weakness and flaws of the system. The efforts of these groups can be regarded as examples of taking one last step to restore power. Therefore, it is often said that Ibn Khaldun was genius enough to forecast and predict the end of the Ottoman Empire as an empirical example that would transform the shape of the world.

Gorkun (2018) examined the presence of Ibn Khaldun in social metaphysics. This investigation had numerous critical qualities for both current Turkey and the Islamic world, and it is felt that it is required in the look for Social Metaphysics. Similarly as this examination accommodates the foundation of an exact association among religion and life, as there is additionally an association between the individual and society, society and organizations and sciences and reasoning, it is a less demanding to-comprehend and progressively satisfactory examination than those made to date.

Okumus (2018) studied the historical period of the decline of the Ottoman Empire. As the Ottoman Empire melted away the statesmen, researchers, masterminds and students of history started to focus on the foundations for this disintegration and began to examine the conceivable approaches to end it. A social scholar, Ibn Khaldun’s verifiable and social perspectives were an essential source to which scholars turned so as to discover an answer for the disintegration and crumpling of the Ottoman State. There is no uncertainty that Ibn Khaldun had and keeps on importantly affecting different scholars, both Western and Eastern, non-Muslim and Muslim. The main aim of this paper is to assess the impact and accuracy of Ibn Khaldun’s idea on the decline of the Ottoman era.

Kaplan (2018) used an inter-disciplinary procedure, including the social hypothesis, comprises primarily of two sections. In the initial segment, by taking its sign from social humanities, it handles one of the more troublesome inquiry of the ‘understandability and translatability of societies’. It contends that it is extremely hard to completely and completely get it the emanation of Ibn Khaldun’s state of mind by simply utilizing the hypothetically constrained and generally molded methodologies of the mainstream western sociologies, and accordingly it inspects these methodologies and systems fundamentally and logically. Thus, it brings up that one can just comprehend and decipher completely and accurately Ibn Khaldun’s projections through taking the conceptualization of the entire custom of Islamic idea and human progress into thought. In the second part, it demonstrates the creativity and the splendid commitments of Ibn Khaldun’s speculations for the production of a progressively inventive and imaginative Islamic idea. Lastly it researches the topic of how Ibn Khaldun’s idea can give new potential outcomes and openings in making another origination of human advancement.

Azadarmaki (2018) examined Ibn Khaldun’s quality, contemplations, and works. Regardless of the way that he lived in the fourteenth and fifteenth hundreds of years, his musings are fitting for discourse in the twentieth century and have turned into a wellspring of logical and political decisions. The scholar analyzed the development and significance of two scholarly customs: Iranology and Returning to Self-Ego. In the main stage, the portrayal of his considerations emerges from the normal and political worldview and the convention of Iranology through a communication with Western improvement. Consequently, Ibn Khaldun’s considerations were made as to Western improvement.

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

The literature review of this research has been divided into four literary segments. Each section provides information about the existing research about Ibn Khaldun and Taha Hussein and their recognition in the theoretical world. The main focus of this paper is to provide a consensus on how the 14th century historian influenced many later researchers in using his theories as a fundamental framework. Taha Hussein is credited with his interest found in the works of Ibn Khaldun and his contribution to the world. In a common demeanor both the researchers and historians have received attention for their contribution towards the Arabian literature and showing the world the importance of Arab and Muslim scholars and theorists. In essence the works of Ibn Khaldun were studied in the 16th and 17th centuries by Egyptian and Turkish researchers (Al-Jubouri, 2018). They later centuries marked the end of one of the largest civilizations of the world, known as the Ottoman Empire. It was analyzed that even 2-3 centuries later, the predictions and concepts of Ibn Khaldun were accurate and they were used as the final attempts to look for a solution to save the empire from falling. On the other hand, Taha Hussein was influenced from the theories and the concern that Ibn Khaldun showed towards depicting a more natural and positive image of the Arab and Muslim nations.

The very complicated scenario is that although Ibn Khaldun is a popular theorist in his domestic nations and literature, the westerners have long since ignored his existence and has attributed little importance to his attempts. The west still does not regard Ibn Khaldun as a genius and a former inventor of the sociological, philosophical and economics’ concepts. In this regard, many scholars have raised questions as to whether the lack of importance has something to do with his religion and his origins. On the offset, the Arab, Muslim and African boundaries continue to use his theories and concepts as part of sociology, philosophy, humanity and the study of societies, civilizations and dynasties. The main aim of this paper is to present the works of Ibn Khaldun with references to the social thoughts that formed a basis for the study of the decline of the Ottoman Empire. Ibn Khaldun’s concepts are explained as a part of the research by Taha Hussein in his contributions towards the Arab literature. However, no new theory or concept has been derived from the basis of this study. Rather, the author has concentrated on the existence, content and development of the previously derived theories that have relevant in this case scenario.

Research Design

Qualitative analysis has been used for the purpose of this study. The primary and secondary research investigations have been used to analyze the content and theoretical frameworks from the research done by previous scholars and researchers. Since the findings mainly concern the Arab literature and the history of the Arabian and Muslim subcontinents, the data is not readily available. The same texts and same theories have been studied and re-phrased again and again, it may be said that the originality of the concepts and theories has been preserved.

This chapter mentions the main research methodologies used by the author and the main research design used for this study. The ‘coding system’ has been mainly used for this study to analyze the concepts, theories and the analytical data for this study. The study uses qualitative research data for identifying the previous researchers for conceptual framework. There is no actual hypothesis of the paper to provide a counter argument for the analysis. The methodology used in the context of this study is limited to the research provided by Arab scholars and researchers in the previous centuries. The concept of coding uses the technique of breaking down words and concepts from the analysis of the theories. The process of coding has been utilized to infer the Arabian literature, the theories used in the practical situations such as that of the Ottoman Empire, the educational relevance of the theories and the application in the real world. It was also analyzed that how important were the concepts in depicting a truer Arabic picture for the western world.

Data Analysis and Findings

The main aim of the research is to correlate the concepts of the theories of sociology of Ibn Khaldun with regards to the importance that Taha Hussein attaches to the theorist. And to find how accurate are the theories in real societal scenarios. The latter part has been proven in the 16th and the 17th centuries, the other question was to prove the existence and practical application of these theories in the 21st century. It was found that the works of Ibn Khaldun have been deciphered as accurate even today, but more support and research is needed to firstly, translate his works and secondly, to apply the theories in practical cases of the 21st century. The notion however, is still not popular amongst the western theorists. Therefore, the final goal of this paper is to present material in a manner that is acceptable for the western world to view. The coding process was analyzed under certain divisions and constituent parts:

  • The coding process maintained consistency;
  • The coding process ensured reliability for future research patterns; and
  • The coding process was conducting by different themes. These researchers belonged to different time frames, time lengths, centuries, and had different purposes for researching.

Overall, it can be concluded that the concepts and theories used in this paper have been analyzed from different angles, therefore there is no contradiction in the findings. The findings from these concepts have traditionally been used twice; firstly it was used by the Muslim scholars in the frameworks of the Ottoman Empire and then again by Taha Hussein to implicate an image of the Arabian Peninsula. Other researchers and observers have used the theories and concepts for educational purposes in bringing awareness to the western world.  

Ethical Issues

Some problems associated with conducting the research have been identified in terms of the content analysis of the process. Firstly, the missing information regarding the exact date of the development and presentation of theory did not prove whether the theories were identified in the life of Ibn Khaldun or after his death. Similarly, the links between different philopshies and theories as well as with concepts and ideologies were also missing as that may not make rational sense. Additionally, records and historical evidence that seems to contradict with the provided literature. Hence, the fundamental question remains that whether all the theories and concepts provisioned by Ibn Khaldun have been defined or there is are still some areas that are left? Since the theorist belongs from the 14th century, it is hard to say whether all of his work has been found and studied. It may also be that some of his works have still remained unturned and this may define the lack of links between some of the theoretical concepts.

The second most important problem that has often been pointed out when reviewing literature, is the issues in translations. Since Ibn Khaldun was of the Arabic and African origins, his works have been preserved in the Arabian forms. However, since it has been studied on an international level, his work has been translated into several other languages for the purpose of inquiry. Therefore, the ethical dilemma remains that historians may have interpreted the meaning of theories and concepts in contexts, which originally may not have been presented by the author.

The third issue is that the works of Ibn Khaldun have and will remain contradictory because they have been based on the Arabic establishments. The Muslim and the Western worlds have always remained segregated for the religious and racial basis. More importantly, what has given heed to the differentiation is that the two have remained culturally different from each other. The practices adopted by the West and the Muslim communities have opposing implications and this is further enlarged by the societal and social inferences. Therefore, it will be difficult for the Western theorists to take into account the findings of the historian and give him the due importance. Lastly, the historian Taha Hussein is not to be confused as being a disciple of Ibn Khaldun. It should be remembered that Taha Hussein only came across the historian when investigating for his own research. Therefore, his theories and concepts are not initiated or influenced by the works of Ibn Khaldun. His main attempt was only to bring importance to Ibn Khaldun’s name and his analysis of the society in the 14th century.

Research Questions

The research analysis and research design focused the concept of linking the social and cultural norms of the West with those of the Muslim world by the works of Taha Hussein and Ibn Khaldun. The given paper will answer following research questions in this study.

  • What is the link between the social ideas of IBen Kaldun introduced by Taha Husian and social ideas that influenced the Islamic Empires such Ottoman Empire or Arabic Literature?
  • Why did Taha Hussein consider it important to highlight the works of a 14th century theorist?
  • What were the main characteristics of the works and social ideas of Ibn Khaldun?
  • Define the religious and non-religious perspectives of Ibn Khaldun’s social ideas?
  • Define the social ideas of Ibn Khaldun from Western approach and explore its weaknesses.

Chosen Research and Literature

Through my research, I found that very little research and material is available to provide a substantial guide to the works of Ibn Khaldun. The 14th century historian has developed a number of theories in the fields of economics, sociology, cultural studies, philosophy, history, humanitarian studies, and the existence of beliefs, politics and the government studies. Therefore, the argument of the 21st century historians is valid, that the works of Ibn Khaldun should receive due attention. The reliability of this research can be proved with the statement that this paper is only a reflection of the previously introduced studies. This paper is an accumulation of the historical theories and concepts found through research.

CHAPTER 4: PRESENTATION OF RESULTS

To present the results, coding and frequency system will be used. For this purpose, particular themes and their relevant codes were separated from the literature review and their frequency was used to answer the research questions asked in Chapter 3. Given below are the themes acknowledged from the literature review.

Theme Code
14th Century Historians #CH
Ottoman Empire #OE
Theology #T
Dynasties #D
Social humanities #SH
Iranology and Self-Ego #IS
Islamic Revolution #IR
Western Approach #WA
Rationalization #RN
Social Conduct and Behaviors #SCB
Religion #R
Arabic Literature #AL

The codes of these themes were searched from the library database of resources used in this research and the frequency was used to answer the research questions.

What is the link between the social ideas of IBen Kaldun introduced by Taha Husian and social ideas that influenced the Islamic Empires such Ottoman Empire or Arabic Literature?

Social ideas of Ibn Khaldun were based on collective utilization of religion and socialism to define modern approaches towards evolution and progress. These approaches were explored by the Egyptian scholar Taha Hussein, who studied their influence on the Arabian literature and later on the Ottoman Empire. According to Al-Jubouri (2018), Ibn Khaldun re-defined the religious aspects and the social aspects and explored sociology from religious and non-religious perspectives. The primary themes used to answer this question were religion, Ottoman Empire, social humanities, and social conduct and behaviors. Research showed that the theories of social ides presented by Ibn Khaldun held symbolic importance centuries later when the decline of the ‘Ottoman Empire’ was ruefully being faced Baali (2018). His social ideas to connect religion with socialism proved right when the Ottoman Empire did not follow this approach and diminished from being one of the largest and most successful dynasties in the world.

Similarly, Ibn Khaldun’s description regarding the behavior of the political power groups was another eminent problem that led to the decline of the Ottoman Empire (Azadarmaki, 2018). He believed that the more scattered and uncivilized the groups, the more they will focus on adopting behaviors of the powerful and mighty rulers. Moreover, the absence of personal strategy could force them to adopt and practice the earlier examples of rulers set before them. Eventually, it would seem that some political groups and leaders are holding the stage during the declining phase (Mohammad, 2018). Hence, it can be concluded that Ibn Khaldun was genius enough to forecast and predict the end of the Ottoman Empire as an empirical example that would transform the shape of the world.

Why did Taha Hussein consider it important to highlight the works of a 14th century theorist?

This was another quite comprehensive question and it required ample research work for answer. Five themes used to answer this question were 14th century historians, theology, religion, Arabic literature, and rationalization. The 14th century is full of a wide range of literary works from diverse nations and distinct approaches. Most of the historians and philosophers of this era focused on intellectuality and its connection to human life practices. A similar description of social ideas was presented by Ibn Khaldun, who connected socialism to religion and defined the most pertinent dimensions of Islamic socialism that are common in today’s world (Al-Araki 2006). Besides, the majority of Taha Hussein’s significant assemblage of works are worried about Arabic writing. The experience of organization, open administration, governmental issues and culture all shaped and reinforce Taha Hussein’s idea and add profundity to his vision. Hence, Taha Hussein chosen the 14th century as this era offered foundation to modern philosophy and provided valuable descriptions of evolution in Arabic literature.

The work of Ibn Khaldun and his relevant studies are still being taught at various universities. His perspective and analysis of the art of humanism, his division of its fields, his exchange of its issues and establishments, his dialect and wording are as yet legitimate in contemporary social science (Caksu, 2018). The theory, which propelled this examination, asserts that there is not really any rational or far reaching picture among the counseled articles and books on Ibn Khaldun’s Muqaddimah (Brugman, 1984). Hence, it is concluded that Ibn Khaldun’s technique for examination, his agent idea of human progress, and his new investigation of social science are of critical importance for studying evolution and sociology.

 

What were the main characteristics of the works and social ideas of Ibn Khaldun?

Three main characteristics of Ibn Khaldun’s work were cohesiveness, relativity, and transparency. He offered comprehensive description of Islamic socialism and defined how religion can be practically implemented in routine life premises (Baali, 2018). Moreover, social theories presented by Ibn Khaldun were relevant to socialistic concepts of pre and post-colonial era. He linked religion to life in such a way that both concepts jointly present a system based on prosperity and evolution of a progressive life (Tomar, 2018). Similarly, Ibn Khaldun was quite clear in his approach while defining socialistic values of religion and offered a transparent description of social theories that can still be executed in modern world. According to Ibn Khaldun, the state is a need of human culture to control bad form inside the general public and all social orders must have a state overseeing them to build up a general public (Rejwan, 2008).

His, social ideas of regarding the state were of considerable importance. He attempted to adjust to every single conceivable society’s social conduct and impact in training, financial aspects and governmental issues.

Define the religious and non-religious perspectives of Ibn Khaldun’s social ideas?

The relevant themes considered while answering this question were Religion, theology, Arabic literature, Islamic revolution, and the western approach. According to Al-Jubouri (2018), Ibn Khaldun was one of the greatest philosopher minds who categorized theories under two main dimensions; religious perspectives and non-religious perspectives. His ideas were based on collective utilization of religion and socialism to define modern approaches towards evolution and progress. His recognized work has been aligned with the fields of economics, political sciences, humanism, philosophy, religion and more importantly his social ideas. In his opinion, the legislative issues are not quite the same as religion and that the arrangement of government and the structure of the state are established on utilitarian concerns. Gorkun’s (2018) examination of Ibn Khaldun’s presence in social metaphysics accommodated the foundation of an exact association among religion and life. The study showed that there is an association between the individual and society, society and organizations and sciences and reasoning. However, it it is a less demanding to-comprehend and progressively satisfactory examination than those made to date.

On the other hand, the western sociological researchers have paid little attention to Ibn Khaldun because of contrasts between the Arab and the western philosophers (Dhaouadi, 1990). Ibn Khaldun worked on showing the common fundamental principles that looked same in both the Arabian and the Western worlds. He predicted in the 14th century that the future societies will introduce new subjects that may be based upon the foundations of the past. His works also bring attention of the western world towards the definition of power and domination held in the west and the possible contrast between the systems of the western and the Arabian worlds (Sidani, 2008).

Define the social ideas of Ibn Khaldun from Western approach and explore its weaknesses.

Finally, this question was answered by exploring six main themes including Dynasties, iranology and self-ego, western approach, religion, Arabic literature, and social conduct and behaviors. According to Rosenthal (1983), Ibn Khaldun is not celebrated in the western world and is given little importance in the Arab and Muslim world as well. Ibn Khaldun who was a modern pioneer of the incorporator for many different elements in the sociological contexts. However, the main reason why Ibn Khaldun has been excluded from the earlier theorists is because of his Arabic origins (Alatas, 2006). The westerners may disagree, but even in the 21st century, the western world gives little acknowledgement to any other theorists other than their own intellectual historians. According to the perspective of Ibn Khaldun, the Muslim history has only been studied by the westerners for establishing contrasts between the two phenomenons (Okumus, 2018). However, there is no uncertainty that Ibn Khaldun had significantly affected different scholars, both Western and Eastern, non-Muslim and Muslim. The portrayal of his considerations emerges from the normal and political worldview and the convention of Iranology through a communication with Western improvement. Consequently, Ibn Khaldun’s considerations played a key role in Western improvement.

One major weakness found in the work of Ibn Khaldun is that his work remained particularly unrecognized because of some preliminary reasons. The first reason is the evolution of the industrial revolution introduced in the 15th century which affected the cultural dimensions of the social structure of the society. While Ibn Khaldun remained traditional and it seemed that his narratives were more focused on the human potential. Despite traditional ideas, he had a more modern approach towards the societal dialects and had a much wider perspective when it came to explaining the functions of an economy as a whole. To cover this weakness, Taha Hussein connected the unrecognized theories of Ibn Khaldun to the advanced western philosophies presented before and after the industrial revolution. The similarities and differences in their definitions were examined from literary perspective to draw logical conclusions.

CHAPTER 5: DISSUASION

The main focus of the paper has been to present the Arabian literature in a more decisive manner that would change the western perspective. This paper analyzes the contributions of the Egyptian writer and historian Taha Hussein who has been credited to transform the image of education, sociological and literature narratives through his efforts. Taha Hussein is regarded as a modern day prose analyst who not only added to the Arabian literature value but also brought the attention of the world towards the long lost theorists and their works (Hussein, 2018). Amongst the most influentially observed pieces are the works of the 14th century historian and economist Ibn Khaldun (Muslimphilosophy, 2018). Taha Hussein, in his attempt, to search for the basis of Arabic literature, came upon the prose generated by Ibn Khaldun. Although, his central focus was on education and improving the stature through Arabic and Islamic principles, he has helped provide a status to the Arabic literature field. His major arenas have been in the fields of literary studies, social and societal studies, autobiographical and historical studies and religious studies.

Similarly, Taha Hussein is one of the highly recognized Egyptian scholars who have contributed immensely to Arabian literature, the foundations of prose, poetry, and translations. His main investigations led him to study the Islamic and Arabic schools of thought in detail and to understand the differences that existed between the Western and the Muslim nations (“Anatomy of a Dynamic,” 1998). His name has been attached with the stigma of being the first modern century sociologist to become the first Arabic scholar to study poetry analytically. Any reasonable person would agree that Taha Hussein was a genuine pioneer in instructive and educational methods and that numerous countries including Egypt, redeem to receive his recommendations.

The social and societal aspects of his work focused on the diversions and issues of the society that are symmetrically different from those of the western worlds. His research highlighted the weaker dimensions of the society that need economic and sociological progress for improving the cultural status. His work holds significance for portraying a rational image of the problems of the poor, poverty crisis and its humanitarian influence on the society (Hussein, 2018). His work also holds significance for the Egyptian society as a depiction of the beliefs and cultural practices of the empire. The beginning stage for Taha Hussein’s meaning of Egyptian personality was his investigation of traditional, medieval and current history where the new Egypt will be innovative or inventive just in so far as it is established on the interminable Egypt of its past (al-Hakim, 2018). Thus, he thought of things to come of training in Egypt just in the light of its remote vestige. In this way, Egypt’s antiquated past was taken to be one mainstay of the nation’s social future and one of the fundamental highlights of its national character. A second mainstay of Egyptian culture taken from history was its human progress.

The third mainstay of Egyptian culture was Islam and the Arabic dialect where Islam, which came and spread all through the world, was warmly gotten in Egypt where it was quickly held onto as the national religion and Arabic, the dialect of Islam, was embraced as the national dialect. The determination of these mainstays of Egyptian culture plainly showed the impact of Taha Hussein’s shifted foundation and a mind shaped (“Reviewing Ibn Khaldun,” 2018). A similar impact might be found in his scholarly and regulatory endeavors to create Egyptian instruction. He closed from these mainstays of culture that the Egyptian and the European personality are indistinguishable. Similarly, given the significance of Ibn Khaldun as a thinker of history and a social scholar, it is amazing that the principal full evaluation of his social thought in a Western dialect was composed by a visually impaired Egyptian trade understudy.

Taha Husayn’s 1918 doctoral paper at the Sorbonne dissected the Muqaddimah, with a hypothetical introduction to Ibn Khaldun’s colossal Book of Examples and Archive of History, which endeavors a widespread history of the world (Tomar, 2018). Husayn’s perusing was ahead of schedule, as well as likewise interesting, for he was a generally instructed Muslim concentrate an extraordinary work of his own legacy yet in oral and interpreted frame, and for a French paper administrator who was like Ibn Khaldun convinced that he had imagined the genuine and all inclusive exploration of parties. It is maybe unavoidable that so bold a youthful researcher would in the long run move toward becoming fundamental to his nation’s political, instructive, and artistic life.

Although this work has held the data made in the previous one to his movement to Egypt, he made numerous increments which demonstrate that Ibn Khaldun amended his life account amid the stay in Egypt. Ibn Khaldun was the first Muslim mastermind who sanctified for himself a long life story which filled an entire book and who let us know honestly a considerable lot of his demonstration and affaires that he ought not have uncovered (Azadarmaki, 2018). Indeed Ibn Khaldun’s depiction of his very own life is a nitty gritty history in the medieval Muslim writing. It ought to be recalled that Ibn Khaldun’s ethical uprightness ‘couldn’t be questioned upon the premise of setback he had endured in his open issues (Okumus, 2018). The ascent and fall of rulers and even lines had turn into a course of the day and Ibn Khaldun was not an exception to the general principle. The political insecurity in Maghrib was expected to such huge numbers of chronicled and sociological variables.

In the meantime, what makes Ibn Khaldun remarkable is the way that he was profoundly engaged with the befuddled and temperamental advancements of the states and administrations in Maghrib and Spain (Rejwan, 2008). Besides, he was nearly viewing with that sharp interest of a social researcher the course of the occasions around him and attempting to drive at the principal reasons for the setbacks to which he himself had been oppressed. Along these lines the association of Ibn Khaldun in the befuddled legislative issues of the day was especially not quite the same as that of his peers. It was for this equivalent reason that he could deliver an interesting work like Muqaddimah. Moreover, Ibn Khaldun, as he demonstrates in his Mukaddirna, was an incredibly perceptive person and a notable theorist in the earlier Muslim civilizations. The Ottoman letters confirm that the dynasty was somewhat following his theory as a solution to the failing political scenario of Turkey (Al-Araki, 2006).

The second discovery is that the Muslim empires such as the Ottoman began adopting the solutions and methods prescribed by Ibn Khaldun long before the Europeans became aware about it (Caksu, 2018). Since, Ibn Khaldun is also associated with a North African origin, he is said to have inspired the culture of the political scenarios in the subcontinent as well. His contributions have made significant changes for the cultural practices of Islamic and the Arabian communities. Ibn Khaldun’s considerations are of significance in that they clarify the explanation behind Iran’s moving far from the recorded point of view as opposed to their following their advancement, improvement and hence accomplishing a better status. As to the normal convention of coming back to the self-conscience, it very well may be asserted that Ibn Khaldun’s contemplations are connected for the reintroduction of the authentic past as opposed to an advance towards what’s to come.

Ibn Khaldun is frequently portrayed as a predecessor of humanism, despite the fact that he doesn’t seem to have applied any constitutive effect on any of the originators of the cutting edge sociologies. He is the writer of a voluminous world history, some portion of which is an annal of the different neighborhood traditions, a significant number of them in Northern Africa (Kalpakian, 2008). Another piece of this work manages other Muslim terrains, and even with the non-Muslim world, making it one of the principal Islamic endeavors at world history. By a long shot the most renowned piece of this book, in any case, is The Muqaddimah, or presentation, in which Ibn Khaldun figures the standards of what he himself portrayed as another science filling in as an assistant for historiography (Hassan, 2018). This investigation of human progress as he called it, endeavors to figure general laws of history, as a principled methods for setting up the veracity of chronicled reports. The most critical of these laws is the roundabout development between country or ancestral social orders and urban civic establishments.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 6: REFERENCES

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Al-Araki, A. M. (2006). The Muqaddimah: an appraisal. Retrieved from edu hioa no : http://edu.hioa.no/arabase/ibn/khald005.html

Alatas, S. F. (2006). Ibn Khaldūn and Contemporary Sociology. International Sociology , 782-795.

al-Hakim, M. A. (2018). Taha Husayn and the fundamentalism/secularism struggle. Almuslih. Retrieved from http://www.almuslih.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=218:taha-husayn-and-the-fundamentalismsecularism-struggle&catid=45:islamism&Itemid=243.

Al-Jubouri, I. (2018). Ibn Khaldun and the Philosophy of History. Philosophynow. Retrieved from https://philosophynow.org/issues/50/Ibn_Khaldun_and_the_Philosophy_of_History.

Azadarmaki, T. (2018). Ibn Khaldun’s social theory and Iranian society. Isam. Retrieved from http://www.isam.org.tr/documents/_dosyalar/_pdfler/Etkinlikler/ibnhaldun_abstracts.pdf.

Baali, F. (2018). Society, State, and Urbanism: Ibn Khaldun’s Sociological Thought. SUNY Press .

Brugman, J. (1984). An Introduction to the History of Modern Arabic Literature in Egypt. BRILL.

Caksu, A. (2018, December 8). An analysis of ibn khaldun’s approach to the disparity between ideal and reality. Isam. Retrieved from http://www.isam.org.tr/documents/_dosyalar/_pdfler/Etkinlikler/ibnhaldun_abstracts.pdf.

Celarent, B. (2013). La philosophie sociale d’Ibn-Khaldoun by Taha Husayn. Chicago Journals , 894-902.

Chapra, M. U. (2008). Ibn Khaldun’s theory of development: Does it help explain the low performance of the present-day Muslim world? The Journal of Socio-Economics, 836-863.

Dale, S. F. (2015). Review: Return to Ibn Khaldun—Again. Middle East Studies Association of North America (MESA).

Dhaouadi, M. (1990). Ibn Khaldun: The Founding Father of Eastern Sociology. International Sociological Association, 319-335.

Fleischer, C. (1983). Royal Authority, Dynastic Cyclism and “Ibn Khaldunism” in Sixteenth Century Ottoman Letters. Journal of Asian and African Studies , 198.

Galal, A. F. (2000). Taha Hussein . International Bureau of Education, 1-17.

Gibb, H. A. (2009). The Islamic Background of Ibn Khaldūn’s Political Theory. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 23-31.

Gorkun, T. (2018). The applicability and importance of Ibn Khaldun’s social metaphysics in contemporary social studies. Isam. Retrieved from http://www.isam.org.tr/documents/_dosyalar/_pdfler/Etkinlikler/ibnhaldun_abstracts.pdf.

Hassan, F. H. (2018). Ibn Khaldun and Jane Addams: The Real Father of Sociology and the Mother of Social Works. Citeseerx. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.510.3556&rep=rep1&type=pdf.

Hourani, A. (2013). A History of the Arab Peoples. Faber & Faber .

Hozien, M. (2018). Ibn Khaldun: Studies on His Contribution in Economy. Muslimheritage. Retrieved from http://www.muslimheritage.com/article/ibn-khaldun-studies-his-contribution-economy.

Hussein, T. (2018). A Study of the Prose Works of Dr. Taha Husayn and the Contemporary Literary Trend. Shodhganga. Retrieved from http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/66664/11/11_chapter%204.pdf.

Hussein, T. (2018). Taha Hussein. Arabphilosophers. Retrieved from http://www.arabphilosophers.com/English/philosophers/modern/modern-names/eTaha_Hussein.htm.

Hussein, T. (2018). Taha Hussein. Republique. Retrieved from https://republique-des-lettres.fr/10822-taha-hussein.php.

Kalpakian, J. (2008). Ibn Khaldun’s influence on current international relations theory. The Journal of North African Studies, 363-376.

Kaplan, Y. (2018). The western interpreters and ibn khaldun’s concept/ion of civilization. Isam. Retrieved from http://www.isam.org.tr/documents/_dosyalar/_pdfler/Etkinlikler/ibnhaldun_abstracts.pdf.

Khaldun, A. a.-R. (1958). The Muqaddimah : an introduction to history ; in three volumes. 1. Princeton University .

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A blind dean of Arabic literature: the legacy of Taha Hussein. Leiden. (2018, 4 11). Retrieved from leiden islam blog : https://www.leiden-islamblog.nl/articles/a-blind-dean-of-arabic-literature-the-legacy-of-taha-hussein.

Mahdi, M. (1957). Ibn Khaldun’s Philosophy of History . London : Routledge .

Mahmoudi, A. (1998). Taha Hussain’s Education. London : Taylor & Francis Group .

Mohammad, F. (1998). Ibn Khaldun’s Theory of Social Change: A Comparison with Hegel, Marx and Durkheim . American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences , 25.

Ibn Khaldun, ‘Abd al-Rahman (1332-1406). (2018). Muslimphilosophy. Retrieved from http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/ip/rep/H024.htm.

Okumus, E. (2018). Ibn Khaldun’s influence on the Ottoman thought. Isam. Retrieved from http://www.isam.org.tr/documents/_dosyalar/_pdfler/Etkinlikler/ibnhaldun_abstracts.pdf.

Rejwan, N. (2008). Arabs in the Mirror. University of Texas Press.

Rosenthal, F. (1983). Ibn Khaldun in his Time. Journal of Asian and African Studies , 166.

Ibn Khaldun – Life and Career. (2018). Shodhganga. Retrieved from http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/37947/7/07_chapter%202.pdf.

Sidani, Y. M. (2008). Ibn Khaldun of North Africa: an AD 1377 theory of leadership. Journal of Management History, 73-86.

Soofi, A. (1995). Economics of Ibn Khaldun Revisitied. History of Political Economy , 387-404.

Tomar, C. (2018). Between myth and reality: debates on Ibn Khaldun in the Arab world. Isam. Retrieved from http://www.isam.org.tr/documents/_dosyalar/_pdfler/Etkinlikler/ibnhaldun_abstracts.pdf.

Reviewing Ibn Khaldun An Important Figure And Icon Religion Essay. (2018). UKessays. Retrieved from https://www.ukessays.com/essays/religion/reviewing-ibn-khaldun-an-important-figure-and-icon-religion-essay.php.

 

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Negotiation Techniques in Economic Diplomacy

BREXIT Negotiations

The purpose of tis paper is to demonstrate why BREXIT is essentially a bad move and will leave the UK at a worse position in the long run.  In essence the main reasons given by BREXIT advocates such as Nigel Farage and Boris Johnson for the reason why the UK should disassociate from the EU are the huge payment to the EU, and the erosion of UK sovereignty. The leave group took both of these issues out of context and hence the justifications for leave are inherently flawed. The following is a SWOT analysis showing the situation in the UK following the win by the leave group and the botched ‘divorce’ between the UK and the EU.

How Leaving will Impact the UK: SWOT Analysis

Shrinking of the Economy

It is very likely that the BREXIT will lead to the contraction of the UK economy. The EU relies heavily on exports to the EU and hence leaving will jeopardize the economy. The weakening of the pound will also have a significant adverse impact on the economy.

Loss of Talent

The UK will also loose significant talent and skilled workforce as a result of the restriction of EU citizens’ movement. Cities like London rely heavily on expatriate finance experts while the healthcare system has employed thousands of EU nurses (Busch and  Matthes, 2016). The restriction of movement will lead to significant losses in these areas.

Tax Losses

Leaving the EU trade agreement will lead to significant losses in tax revenues. The UK relies heavily on trade with the EU and the loss n trade will lead to significant losses unless the government gets new deals immediately after leaving (Ebell & Warren, 2016).

Economic Losses

The London stock exchange and the pound are expected to continue losing value as a result of Brexit. The LSE lost over £130 billion in the short period after Brexit while the pound weakened.

Reduced Bargaining Power

The UK is currently attractive to international businesses because entering the UK allows access to the entire EU market (Ebell & Warren, 2016). Leaving will make the UK less attractive.

Argument

As demonstrated above, the UK is very likely to loose significantly following the decision to leave the EU. From the SWOT analysis conducted above, it is evident that the UK will loose more than it will gain from Brexit. The only major advantages of Brexit are cost savings, which will be offset by the losses in taxation and a worse off economic performance and increased autonomy. Regardless, the UK still has significant sovereignty and leaving will reduce its influence internationally, which means that the UK will be in a worse off position. To win the argument for the EU, I would make a persuasive argument that is based on the assessment of the opportunities and costs of Brexit.

In essence, it is in the interest of the UK to maintain ties with the EU to avoid the contraction of its economy, protect its main export market and source of most of its important and maintain its standing in the world. In addition, Brexit will complicate the UK’s foreign relations especially with Ireland and Spain. The UK and Ireland boarder is one of the most contentious negotiation issues and keeping the free movement of people and goods across the boarder will be instrumental for the people of Northern Ireland and the Ireland Republic. Allowing free movement of people and goods is a key tenet of the EU and hence remaining in good terms would be in the best interest of both parties. As shown in the SWOT analysis above, a hard Brexit would compromise all this and is hence not preferable.

 

 

References

Busch, B., & Matthes, J. (2016). Brexit-the economic impact: A meta-analysis (No. 10/2016). IW-Report.

Ebell, M., & Warren, J. (2016). The long-term economic impact of leaving the EU. National Institute Economic Review236(1), 121-138.

Hantrais, L., Stewart, K., & Cooper, K. (2019). Making sense of the social policy impacts of Brexit. Contemporary Social Science, 1-14.

 

 

ROLE OF CHINA IN GLOBAL TRADE GOVERNANCE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

  1. CHAPTER THREE.. 3

ROLE OF CHINA IN GLOBAL TRADE GOVERNANCE AFTER APPROBATION TO WTO.. 3

  1. 1 China’s aim of joining WTO?. 3

3.1.1 Initiatives to launch economic reforms. 3

  1. 1. 2 Integration with world economy. 6

3.2 China leading roles in Africa. 8

3.2.1 Improved economic ties through the Sino-African Trade. 8

3.2.2 China’s energy footprint in African countries. 10

3.3 China leading roles in Latin America. 12

3.3.1 China’s commercial links. 12

3.3.2 China’s contribution to Latin-America’s economy. 14

3.4 China leading role in Asia. 16

BIBLIOGRAPHY.. 21

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ASEAN          the Association of Southeast Asian Nations

CELAC           the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States

DRC                Democratic Republic of Congo

EU                   European Union

FDI                 Foreign Direct Investment

FIEs                Foreign Invested Enterprises

FOCAC          Forum on China-Africa Cooperation

GDP                Gross Domestic Product

UNHCR          United Nations High Commission for Refugees

WTO               World Trade Organization

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. CHAPTER THREE

ROLE OF CHINA IN GLOBAL TRADE GOVERNANCE AFTER APPROBATION TO WTO

3. 1 China’s aim of joining WTO?

China joined the World Trade Organization on the 11th of December, 2011. The accession of China to WTO was materialized following a lengthy negotiation process that required the Chinese economy to undergo significant changes. This step symbolized the integration of China into the global economy.

3.1.1 Initiatives to launch economic reforms

Economic reasons were the primary motivating factors of China joining the WTO. Based on the agreement establishing the WTO, a key function of the organization is to facilitate the implementation, operation, administration and furthering the objective of the Agreement as well as Multilateral Trade Agreements. The WTO also provides a negotiation forum for its members regarding multilateral trade relations. WTO shall also provide a mechanism for Trade Policy Review. According to the definition derived from Merriam- Webster dictionary, World Trade Organization (WTO) plays the role of establishing trade rules among its member countries[1]. The WTO also has the responsibility of handling trade disputes, providing technical help for developing nations, cooperating with other trade organizations and monitoring trade policies. From China’s perspective, an economic concern was the possibility that other nations might close their markets since China’s economy was more export-oriented. Joining the WTO was a means of proving trade relations that were more stable, which means that China could trade goods with other member states such as the United States of America. The accession to WTO was also expected to improve China’s accessibility to new capital markets as investors developed confidence in the nation’s ability to formulate and implement decisions based on internationally applicable rules[2]. For China joining WTO meant that all sides would settle disputes under the same rule of law. Therefore, China’s incorporation into WTO was seen as a way of improving national economy following Asia’s financial turmoil.

Another objective that China hoped to achieve by joining WTO was to change its economic management practices. As such, the impact of the accession was the implementation of pro-market strategies that the government would use to manage national economy. Prior to the accession, the Chinese government intervened in virtually all economic aspects through different administrative means. For instance, the government mandated guidelines and regulations for setting price ceilings, it provided permits for imports and exports, set quotas, and controlled the participants of foreign trade. The accession to WTO meant that the market would play a significant role in managing the national economy[3]. Based on the Chinese description, the government’s mandate is to serve and not to manage the economy.

China joined the WTO so that it could implement domestic reforms. From the view of Chinese elites and leaders, China’s domestic reform overpowers the economic progress achieved. One of the key reforms is increased level of transparency in all Chinese governmental levels. In particular, the central government has become more market-oriented, which means that its operations are in line with economic governance. The government of China started embracing the popular rule of law once it joined WTO[4]. According to policy makers, China’s move to join the WTO meant that the government was subject to the requirements and rules of WTO. In congruence with WTO’s rule-based spirit, China experienced mobilization of huge amounts of resources, with over 3,000 national regulations and laws abolished, promulgated and revised.

Additionally, China joined WTO with the aim of increasing transparency in its government. The fundamental principle of WTO’s rules and regulations is transparency. Hence, China committed itself to transparency as stipulated in its joining protocol. In line with the provisions in different WTO agreements, all levels of Chinese governments experienced greater transparency. Prior to accession into the WTO, China’s legislative process was closed. However, after joining the WTO, the process became open to participation by the general public. Some of the laws that led to the development of a legal framework encouraging public participation include 2003’s Administrative Licensing Law, 2002’s Ordinance Concerning the Procedures for the Formulation of Administrative Regulations, and 2000’s Legislation Law[5]. According to these laws, it is mandatory for channels like seminars, hearings, symposiums and written comments to be available for the public’s contribution to legislation process. The Internet and media are significant platforms through which the public can participate. The requirements in question are also applicable to local legislation.

3. 1. 2 Integration with world economy

            China has been keen on joining a multilateral trading system. Since the People’s Republic of China was established in 1949, the country has shown a consistent engagement in building the nation through internal planning and Soviet Union’s support. Following the 1950s Sino-Soviet rift, the relationship between China and Soviet Union turned sour. Consequently, China became a closed society that rarely interacted with other countries. It regained its economic stability in the mid-1980s, with a renewed interest to integrate with international economy[6]. China was convinced that by integrating with the world economy, it would maintain its economic prowess. The considerations of integration as a way of maintain economic power motivated China to join WTO. From the perspective of China’s leadership, WTO membership was pivotal in promoting the nation’s economic future.

Even prior to its WTO membership, China was a major exporter, with the exports making up two thirds of the national GDP. With its accession into WTO, China’s expectations are to perform better with regard to exports since it will be able to access the market of several countries. Joining the WTO was necessary for China since such a move was meant to ensure that the county maintained its positon at the international community to enable it stand up for itself during trade disputes[7]. Furthermore, the country will have the ability to attract additional FDI to aid in internal development and economic growth. Therefore, China’s step of joining the WTO in 2001 can be viewed as a fundamental move towards global integration.

China’s accession process stirred the interest of different quarters like the Foreign Invested Enterprises (FIEs) that was already operational since the 1980s as well as some corporate sector sections that already had global competitiveness. The accession protocol was a long process characterized by numerous economic and political programs like establishing a transparent judicial system, structural adjustment, establishing of economic reforms, bilateral negotiations, and addressing human rights issues. The terms associated with China’s Accession Protocol to WTO signify substantial development whose history has been unparalleled. The protocol commitments that China had to make exceeded those that other WTO members made[8]. The Chinese government came to realize that a major benefit of joining the WTO is that it would increase China’s competitive edge in the domestic market. The high level of competition is considered as a significant source of pressure to state-owned banks, government institution and enterprises to implement the needed structural reforms. The accession process entailed 15 years marked by hectic negotiations that centered on China’s major trading partners like Japan, Canada, EU and US.

3.2 China leading roles in Africa

3.2.1 Improved economic ties through the Sino-African Trade

Since China joined the WTO, its national economy has progressed significantly.  Additionally, the country’s economic ties with Africa have deepened. China was declared as the largest trade partner to Africa in 2009, surpassing the United States. 15-16percent of the exports from the sub-Saharan Africa is destined for China. Similarly, 14-21 percent of Africa’s imports are from China, according to approximations given by the World Bank and Thomson Reuters[9]. While most of the goods exported to China from Africa include lubricants, mineral fuels and other materials, the county also exports, metals, iron ore, agricultural products and some foods. China’s exports to Africa include a wide variety of machinery, communication equipment, transportation, and manufactured goods.

Africa considers China as a primary foreign direct investment source. Rich nations such as Angola receive development loans from China. Moreover, China develops economic cooperation and trade zones in numerous states such as Zambia, Nigeria and Ethiopia. The country has invested in agriculture, with its companies and banks providing finance so that they can secure greater business deals’ shares in Africa. The financing in question is in terms of credits and loans that are offered by China Development Bank, People’s Bank of China, China-Africa Development Fund and the Export-Import Bank of China. More than 86 billion dollars was loaned to Africa between 2000-2014 by Chinese contractors, the government and banks[10]. The top recipients were Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Kenya. However, such huge amounts of loans have begun to raise concerns regarding the loads of debt in African countries, with a possibility of debt crisis.

The business interests of China in Africa have been diversifying steadily. China has been involved in telecommunications, mining, and energy industries, in addition to financing the construction of ports, railways, airports, stadiums, schools, hospitals, and roads. Investment drawn from both private and state funds has helped to set up sugar, rubber, sisal, and tobacco plantations. Because of local economic conditions, Chinese firms were forced to seek for new markets for excess industrial capacity and consumer goods, a move that was seen as China’s strategy of going global. The investment that China has made in Africa is also in line with the development framework formulated by President Xi Jinping, “One belt, One Road.”[11] This framework merges a maritime road with continental economic belt with the aim of promoting interconnectivity and cooperation between Eurasia and Africa. Therefore, the economic impact that China has had in Africa is a clear demonstration of its significant leading role in the continent.

The role that China-Africa Forums’ meetings have played in strengthening the ties between the China and Africa cannot be overlooked. These forums have been renamed as FOCAC and are conducted every three years in Africa and China alternatively. The meetings serve as a strategy for promoting security, investment, trade and diplomatic relations between Africa and China. The first China-Africa Consultative Forum was hosted by China in 2000, and a new policy was introduced for the country to aggressively engage with Africa at diverse multilateral levels[12]. China has to provide a special package of security, political and economic inducements so as to gain access to the continent’s resource producing regions. China faced a stiff competition from other interested parties such as the EU and the US. China’s unique package include cheap loans for infrastructure development, targeted debt relief, competitive military deals, collaborative traditional medicines projects, promotion of South-South ties, establishment of funding agencies, and participation in operations aimed at peace-keeping in areas such as Sudan, DRC and Liberia[13]. Such promises were attractive to African nations, which managed to win the trust of China. For this reason, China managed to successfully engage with Africa and take a leadership role in the continent. It managed to overpower its competitors such as the United States.

3.2.2 China’s energy footprint in African countries

            In a time span of a few years, China has become a leading energy player on Africa. This was triggered by the nation’s quest for oil supplies that were more secure following the static and declining local oil production. The Chinese companies do not have the technical ability to handle oil exploration project. Hence, it is necessary to form partnership with companies such as TotalSA, Petrobras and Chevron-Texaco in regions like West Africa as this will help the country to acquire new drilling techniques. Sudan was the only country explored by China in Africa until 2000[14]. Currently, almost 20 African nations have operational Chinese oil companies in both downstream and upstream sectors.

China reprioritized its sources of energy supply and chose to explore the major oil producing countries in Africa including Nigeria and Angola. China also ventured into the high risk places such as Sudan, Mauritania, Chad, Equatorial Guinea and Niger. It is searching for new opportunities to explore in Uganda, Madagascar, Kenya and Ethiopia. A strategy that China uses to maintain its closeness to the main decision-makers within the energy area is forming joint ventures with oil companies owed by the local state[15]. This strategy has been witnessed with the ventures formed with Sonatrach in Algeria, Sudapet in Sudan, the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation in Nigeria, and Sonangol in Angola.

A major turning point that solidified China’s leading role with its energy footprint was witnessed in 2000. Between January and May of 2000, the oil imports of China from Africa hiked to 307,000bpd, which was a 174 percent increase from the previous year’s amount that was at 132,000 bpd. Angola was reported as the country that exported the largest amount of crude oil to China at 174,000 bpd[16]. This figure was up from the previous year’s 43,000 bpd. The second highest exporter was Sudan, whose figure was at 43,000 bpd, up from zero in the previous year. Congo Brazzaville was also a notable exporter jumping from zero to 19,000 bpd[17]. From 2001 to 2002, there was an extensive branching out of Chinese oil companies across Africa, with most of the sites set up in the North-Western Africa region.

 

3.3 China leading roles in Latin America

3.3.1 China’s commercial links

The commercial role that China plays in Latin America is considered as a win-win situation. While Latin America is in need of investment, China has the financial resources. A dilemma is that Latin America’s greatest investment to date is responsible for the most severe humanitarian disaster that the region has experienced. This reality serves as a significant lesson to the Latin American countries[18]. Such countries are now more vigilant and are aware that some financial help is too expensive, unless there is a change in terms. The track record that China holds implies that this Asian giant should be part of the answer as Latin American’s struggles to control its fallout from Venezuela. It is hard to overemphasize the Venezuelan tragedy since the inflation, economic collapse and infrastructure disintegration has devastated its citizens. In the past few years, more than 2 million people have fled the country, with the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR) expecting another close to 2 million refugees in the next year[19]. Given the extent of damage that the tragedy caused, China has to tread carefully in the course of establishing commercial and economic links with Latin America.

The economies of Latin America highly depend on the trade of non-renewable and renewable commodities such as agriculture, with China being the primary buyer of both. The dependence of Latin America on China is strengthened by the fact that the region recorded a comparatively lower rate of growth of exports to Europe and the United States. Also, economies are now recognizing that the supply chains would be dysfunctional if it is cumbersome to physically move goods. Additionally, a major barrier to sustainable development is lack of connectivity, which also results in unequal opportunities for education, healthcare and income[20]. Since China has realized the mentioned aspect, it promised to offer solutions via its initiative of Belt and Road. By the end of 2018, about 14 Latin-American countries had subscribed to China’s initiative as a sign of their goodwill.

China has continually conveyed a positive message to the Latin-American region. In 2010, the country initiated a think tank forum for China-Latin America while in 2014; China-CELAC (the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States) forum was established. In 2016, China initiated World Political Parties Dialogue. A long-standing tradition held by the Communist Party of China is that of engaging with different representatives coined from developing nations regardless of their governmental position[21]. Such engagements serve as a smart move for democratic futures that are uncertain. There is also the Confucius Institutes that are supported by the Chinese governments and established in different countries including those in Latin-America. Through these institutes, the citizens of other countries can learn more about the language, history and culture of the Chinese. China is known for its positive messaging art of sponsoring local media like China’s special issue. In October, 2018, China was in charge of Semana, a top-rated Colombian magazine[22]. This engagement and involvement of China with Latin-American countries signify the leading role that the country has taken in the continent.

3.3.2 China’s contribution to Latin-America’s economy

            China has become a significant Latin-America’s new economic actor in the last 15 years. In 1990, the China-Latin America trade was at 10 billion negligible, with the figure increasing to about 10 billion dollars in 2000. In 2012, the trade contributed to 270 billion dollars[23]. Such increasing figures signify the fact that China has a significant impact on Latin-America’s political and economic development. There has been an increasing growth of Chinese loans, investment and trade in Latin-America, with the terms being favorably and conditions being less than those given by traditional Western powers. The role of China in this region can be considered as positive. The high demand of Latin American commodities in China helped in driving the economic boom that was witnessed in the past decade. As a result of the boom, the middle class population doubled in size in Latin America, with the levels of poverty reducing dramatically. Some analysts have speculated that China’s increasing interest to have stable and positive returns may cause the convergence on the rule-based development and investment Western models.

The economic relationship shared between China and Latin-America has had a direct impact on some states of Lain America willingness to work with China in challenging the liberal world order led by the U.S. This is especially true in cases where there is an alignment of interests. The various states of Latin America seem to base their alignment with either U.S. or China on the level of integration and economic ties with each power. This implies that if a state feels that it is more economically tied to China than U.S. it will align with China[24]. As at now, the rise of China’s power in Latin America has not harmed the core national security interests of the United States. However, the significant role that China plays in the region clearly increases its power and influence, consequently challenging the U.S’s influence ad warranting continued attention.

Currently, China is the largest creditor to Latin America, and it mostly funds extensive infrastructural projects. As a result, China has managed to have strong ties some of the capitals in the region. Recently, the President of Argentina, Mauricio Macri declared his intention to deepen his country’s relationship with China. President Iván Duque also recently hosted Li Xiaopeng, the Chinese Transport Minister as an honorable guest during an inauguration ceremony. Andrés Manuel López Obrador, the Mexican President also declared about his intentions to join China’s initiative, Belt and Road, with the hope of strengthening the ties between China and Mexico[25]. In the last decade, the amount of money that Latin America has borrowed from China has increased tremendously. Brazil has borrowed 42 billion dollars while Venezuela has borrowed 62 billion dollars. Argentina has received 18 billion dollars while Ecuador has received 17 billion dollars. Those that are deeply indebted to China are sometimes forced to borrow additional loans from superpowers in order to stay afloat. Based on the increased level of borrowing and dependence of Latin American countries on China for their economy and infrastructural growth, it is clear that China holds a leading role in Latin America.

3.4 China leading role in Asia

Though the long-term strategic goals of China are unpredictable and uncertain, it seems as though China is seeking a leadership role in Asia. Although less certain, there is still a probability that one of China’s strategic goals is to minimize the influence that the United States has in Asia. The behavior that China has continually displayed towards the Asian neighbors showcases its intentions to expand its role in Asian region in the future[26]. During the fifth China debate series in Carnegie, one of the issues raised concerned the probability of a strategic conflict arising between China and the United States over Latin American dominance. It seems as though China’s ultimate goal is to overthrow the U.S and hold a significant position in Latin America.

China’s aim is to reshape the political systems and economies of Asia to suit its specific needs. Although the military capabilities of the U.S are still dominant in Asia, China’s military power has started to establish its footprint in the region. The longtime allies of America such as Indonesia and Philippines are gradually starting to get closer to China[27]. This power shift may increase under the leadership of President Trump. President Trump’s refusal of trade agreements and unstable foreign policy has forced some Asian nations to have second thoughts about their strategies. A trade deal that was made in March, 2018 was a powerful indicator that nations such as Japan and Australia were progressing without the help of American leadership. Virtually all Asian countries currently trade with China. The trade ties will continue to increase as the economic growth of China surpasses the United States’ growth.

China is currently the largest exporter to developing economies, and has been called to represent Asian interests. There is also a possibility of China leading the efforts to maintain a balance between the developing nations’ interests and those of the developed nations in multilateral trade agreements. According to a study carried out by an Asian economist, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)’s free trade with China would result in mutual wealth, by partly diverting the trading activities of ASEAN to China from the Western economies[28]. Some experts have projected that free trade deal between ASEAN and China would conflict the trade agreements with North America and the European Union. Such rivalry would imply that China would become a leading trading partner with Asian countries and hold a top role in Asia.

The foreign policy domain of China has traditionally considered its East Asian region neighbors. The states in these Asian regions had tributary ties with China both during and before the Qing dynasty. The East Asian region has a heavy influence of Chinese culture. For instance, the culture of Japan originated from China’s Tang Dynasty while the Korean culture was heavily influenced by the Chinese religion and art[29]. A similar case applies to Southeast Asia, particularly Vietnam. Buddhism spread from India via Tibet into China and then travelled outward to the Southeast and northeast Asia. Northeast Asia’s incorporation of Confucianism thinking also serves as a unifying foundation between China and Asia. Korea, Vietnam and Japan’s writing language has incorporated Chinese characters for several centuries, with Japan still using it.

Human ties also exist between China and Asia. The Chinese people are now spread across Southeast Asia, with most of them engaged in various business activities. Some of the notable places are Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Cambodia, and Thailand. An essential economic fabric element is formed by the overseas Chinese in the mentioned countries[30]. China is the preferred power for direct investments as an increasing number of Asian countries have shown the willingness to trade with China. The transformation following the ties with China has been felt in Asia, with major regional economies enjoying substantial growth. For instance, the trade between China and Taiwan quintupled between 1993 and 2003. China’s trade with Malaysia rose by eleven fold within those 10 years while its trade with India rose by twelve fold. The increase in trade relations between China and Asian countries is clear evidence that China’s role in Asia is powerful.

All the economies of East Asia, which are, Thailand, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, India, and Philippines have a significant trade surplus in China. The manufacturing sector of China heavily depends on the imports from East Asian economies. These imports are required for feeding the factories, with the export-producing machine inclined to the west. This trade interdependence has made the East Asian countries to appreciate China. This region considers the continued prosperity and growth of China to be pivotal for its own economic progress. In 2004, China became the leading trade partner of Japan, passing the United States[31]. Observers noted that China’s boom was a significant factor to help in lifting the economy of Japan out of a decade long stagnation.

In the past years, China has pursued significant security ad political initiatives with Asian countries. In 2005, the border dispute that the country had for several centuries with Russia was settled. The then Chinese Prime Minister, Wen Jiabao also made a visit to New Delhi, India to formulate a strategy for negotiations between the two countries to settle their border dispute[32]. The decision made by China to shelve its territorial claims towards Spratly Islands was a move that aimed at establishing a peaceful environment between China and the Asian neighbors. Such a peaceful environment was necessary for economic progress and development to be achieved in the two regions.

While China considers Southeast and East Asia as sources of investment and key trading partners, it looks to west and north Asia for gas and oil to meet its energy needs. The energy consumption of China is increasing at the rate of 15 percent per annum, which means that its oil demand is set to increase even more in the future. The country’s import of oil from Saudi Arabia has increased massively[33]. With China’s intention to diversify its energy sources, Russia and Central Asia are central to this plan. Such significant moves and the inclusion of Asian countries indicate that China has a powerful influence and role in Asia, with both regions benefiting in terms of economic growth.

The analysis suggests that China uses trade and investments to increase its political influence as well as “back door” challenge to the U.S. world political and economic dominations. China has played a fundamental role in Global Trade Governance. It’s leadership role in Africa, Latin-America and Asia is evident in the economic and trade ties that it has made with these regions.

The role of China in global governance can be seen in Sino-African relations where both China and Africa adjust to policy initiatives that emanate from the other. For instance, the majority of African governments support China’s “One China” policy, a move that has helped to attract Chinese investment and aid. African governments engage with China for political legitimacy and recognition. The economic relationships between China and Latin America enabled governments to pursue their policies of interests more aggressively. This is especially the case with nations that have good governance environments. There is a possibility of China to use its military power to control Asia’s politics and government policy. An institutional approach is used by china to expand its political influence, which means that it uses international cooperation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abbott, Frederick. China’s Accession to the WTO. American Society of International

            Law, Vol. 3, 1998.

Albert, Eleanor. China in Africa. Council on Foreign Affairs, July 12, 2017. Accessed on

March 14, 2019. https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/china-africa

Cheong, Ching, and Ching Hung-yee. Handbook On China’s Wto Accession And Its

            Impact. Singapore: World Scientific, 2003.

Dent, Christopher M. China, Japan and Regional Leadership in East Asia.

Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010.

Rathbone, John. “China Scores in Latin America.” Financial Times, 2018.

Rotberg, Robert I. China into Africa: Trade, Aid, and Influence. Cambridge,

Massachusetts: Brookings Institution Press, 2009.

“World Trade Organization (WTO),” By Merriam Webster Dictionary, accessed March

14, 2019, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/WTO

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

           

 

[1] “World Trade Organization (WTO),” By Merriam Webster Dictionary, accessed March 14,

2019, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/WTO

[2] Cheong, Ching, and Ching Hung-yee. Handbook On China’s Wto Accession And Its Impact.

Singapore: World Scientific, 2003.

 

[3] Cheong, Ching, and Ching Hung-yee. Handbook On China’s Wto Accession And Its Impact.

Singapore: World Scientific, 2003.

[4] Abbott, Frederick. China’s Accession to the WTO. American Society of International Law,

Vol. 3, 1998.

 

[5] Cheong, Ching, and Ching Hung-yee. Handbook On China’s Wto Accession And Its Impact.

Singapore: World Scientific, 2003.

 

[6] Rotberg, Robert I. China into Africa: Trade, Aid, and Influence. Cambridge, Massachusetts:

Brookings Institution Press, 2009.

[7] Cheong, Ching, and Ching Hung-yee. Handbook On China’s Wto Accession And Its Impact.

Singapore: World Scientific, 2003.

 

[8] Abbott, Frederick. China’s Accession to the WTO. American Society of International Law,

Vol. 3, 1998.

 

[9] Albert, Eleanor. China in Africa. Council on Foreign Affairs, July 12, 2017. Accessed on           March 14, 2019. https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/china-africa

[10] Rotberg, Robert I. China into Africa: Trade, Aid, and Influence. Cambridge, Massachusetts:

Brookings Institution Press, 2009.

 

[11] Cheong, Ching, and Ching Hung-yee. Handbook On China’s Wto Accession And Its Impact.

Singapore: World Scientific, 2003.

[12] Albert, Eleanor. China in Africa. Council on Foreign Affairs, July 12, 2017. Accessed on

March 14, 2019. https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/china-africa

 

[13] Rotberg, Robert I. China into Africa: Trade, Aid, and Influence. Cambridge, Massachusetts:

Brookings Institution Press, 2009.

[14] Albert, Eleanor. China in Africa. Council on Foreign Affairs, July 12, 2017. Accessed on

March 14, 2019. https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/china-africa

[15] Cheong, Ching, and Ching Hung-yee. Handbook On China’s Wto Accession And Its Impact.

Singapore: World Scientific, 2003.

[16] Albert, Eleanor. China in Africa. Council on Foreign Affairs, July 12, 2017. Accessed on

March 14, 2019. https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/china-africa

[17] Albert, Eleanor. China in Africa. Council on Foreign Affairs, July 12, 2017. Accessed on

March 14, 2019. https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/china-africa

[18] Rathbone, John. “China Scores in Latin America.” Financial Times, 2018.

[19] Abbott, Frederick. China’s Accession to the WTO. American Society of International Law,

Vol. 3, 1998.

 

[20] Rathbone, John. “China Scores in Latin America.” Financial Times, 2018.

[21] Cheong, Ching, and Ching Hung-yee. Handbook On China’s Wto Accession And Its Impact.

Singapore: World Scientific, 2003.

[22] Rathbone, John. “China Scores in Latin America.” Financial Times, 2018.

 

[23] Rathbone, John. “China Scores in Latin America.” Financial Times, 2018.

 

[24] Rathbone, John. “China Scores in Latin America.” Financial Times, 2018.

[25] Rathbone, John. “China Scores in Latin America.” Financial Times, 2018.

 

[26] Cheong, Ching, and Ching Hung-yee. Handbook On China’s Wto Accession And Its Impact.

Singapore: World Scientific, 2003.

[27] Dent, Christopher M. China, Japan and Regional Leadership in East Asia. Massachusetts:

Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010.

 

[28] Dent, Christopher M. China, Japan and Regional Leadership in East Asia. Massachusetts:

Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010.

[29] Abbott, Frederick. China’s Accession to the WTO. American Society of International Law,

Vol. 3, 1998.

 

[30] Dent, Christopher M. China, Japan and Regional Leadership in East Asia. Massachusetts:

Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010.

 

[31] Dent, Christopher M. China, Japan and Regional Leadership in East Asia. Massachusetts:

Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010.

[32] Cheong, Ching, and Ching Hung-yee. Handbook On China’s Wto Accession And Its Impact.

Singapore: World Scientific, 2003.

 

[33] Dent, Christopher M. China, Japan and Regional Leadership in East Asia. Massachusetts:

Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010.

 

ASSIGNMENT 1: REPORT (SECTOR ANALYSIS)

Sector Outline

            This report will focus on the civil service sector as a potential employer for business graduates. The Civil Service is an independent and politically impartial sector that encompasses the central government agencies, departments as well as non-departmental government bodies. Government ministers, the police, National Health Service employees, the Royal Household staff, British Armed Forces members and local government officers are not part of the Civil Service (Stanley, 2016). The Prime Minister is the coordinator and manager of this sector and is regarded as the Civil Service Minister. A permanent secretary is the chief civil servant in different departments within the sector.

Since the Civil Service sector has to hold accountability to citizens or the public, it has to attain the highest standards possible. All civil servants should exercise integrity, which entails putting the public service obligations above personal interests. They must also display honesty, which means being open and truthful in all circumstances. Objectivity is another aspect, which refers to basing all the decisions and advices on an in-depth analysis of available evidence (Stanley, 2016). Civil servants are required to exercise impartiality, which means to act on the basis of the case’s merits and serve governments of diverse political parties equally without favouritism.

The Civil Service comprises of 25 professions, which each profession having an independent competency framework. There are diverse professional roles ranging from engineers and communicators to lawyers and procurement managers. Some of the recognised professions include government communication service, corporate finance, counter-fraud standards, government economic service, government IT, government finance, government planning inspectors, among other professions.

Graduate Opportunities within the Civil Service Sector

Currently, the U.K government has 453,000 civil servants working on a full-time basis. These employees are talented individuals who play the role of helping the government in the development and delivery of policies in an effective way. Consequently, a career in the Civil Service sector is quite exciting and important. The dedication and hard work that civil servants put in their work has a significant impact in the lives of citizens. The society would be dysfunctional without the input of civil servants. Thus, a major question is how graduates can get involved and the opportunities available for them in this sector.

One of the most popular and competitive opportunity for graduates to join the Civil Service is via the Civil Service Fast Stream, whose objective is to prepare well-performing graduates for management posts within the sector. This graduate scheme is available to graduates from any degree discipline (Bryon, 2010). Moreover, it offers opportunities for specialising in different areas.  Graduates that take this route are assured of more responsibility or placements faster than those who choose different routes or those that begin at lower administrative level positions. Fast streamers have the opportunity to work across a wide range of governmental departments and in different locations nationwide. However, successful graduates who manage to enroll into the scheme are assigned specific departments.

The degree requirements differ from one scheme to the other. For instance, commercial scheme has the objective of giving graduates the experience required for commercial management role in the civil sector. Graduates that join the finance scheme become professionally qualified accountants that would help in shaping the financial policy of the government (Bryon, 2010). These individuals also ensure that the costs are managed and there is delivery of public services in an efficient and effective manner. With the generalist scheme, graduates get the opportunity to serve in various departments and professions.

Within a specific department, graduates gain vast experience by taking part in various work placements, which last between 12-18 months. The experience gained falls in two to three core work areas, which are, corporate services, policy and operational delivery. Corporate services are necessary to ensure the smooth running of all government departments. Graduates that gain experience in corporate services might be serving in the finance, IT, procurement or the HR departments (Stanley, 2016). This job comes with huge responsibility, particularly in terms of coordinating and overseeing departmental budgets. Policy entails working on governmental initiatives and strategy. It involves intensive research, analysis as well as working collaboratively with stakeholders to prepare, plan, implement and evaluate policies. Operational delivery involves the provision of quality public services. In this case, the public directly interacts with governmental work, and the graduate developing this aspect might be controlling administration procedures or managing Job Center operations.

Placement opportunities in the Civil Service sector are also available to graduates. Since the Civil Service sector is diverse with different careers, it is a smart choice for graduates to consider work experience opportunities. Placements help graduates to establish their interest and provide insight into what they can expect when serving in the Civil Service sector. Some departments have structured work experience that is offered as summer internships or sandwich placements that last for 12 months. Some common examples are the Government Economic Service, which caters to economic students (Stanley, 2016). There is also GCHQ that considers STEM students while Foreign Commonwealth Office offers placements to international relations graduates.

Another opportunity worth noting is the Summer Diversity Internship Program, which is available to ethnic minority, disabled and disadvantaged graduates. Additionally there is the Early Diversity Internship Programme, which provides a 7-day work experience for the first-year students that are interested in finding out and learning more about Fast Stream placement program.

Graduate Attributes and Employer Requirements

            Although most graduate schemes in the Civil Service accept any qualification obtained by undergraduate students, some departments may prefer particular degrees. Some sector roles may necessitate special knowledge. For instance, for one to begin a career in chartered public finance accountancy, it would be necessary to have a finance and accountancy degree, mathematics, economics or business (Bryon, 2010). Company secretaries would be required to have a degree in law and business management. Those aspiring to be facility managers should have a qualification in construction, building management, surveying or hospitality.

            There are some attributes that graduates should have so as to work in the Civil Service sector. Excellent negotiation and organisation skills are fundamental since individuals working in this sector may be required to juggle various projects with different levels of priority. Flexibility and creativity are also needed, and these entail the ability to embrace change and creatively solve problems. In the Civil Service sector, employees are keen to gain insight into becoming great leaders as well as influencing and inspiring the people around them (Bryon, 2010). Thus, leadership and communication skills are fundamental. Team-working skills are also essential since these employees work with a wide range of people with different qualities and skills. It would be necessary for a civil servant to know how to motivate and work collaboratively with different people.

A graduate that desires to work in the Civil Service sector should be enthusiastic and committed toward current affairs, policy issues and politics. Since policy and politics shapes a country, every person has an opinion. A person that wants to work in the Civil Service should be aware of the current controversies and be in top of such issues (Bryon, 2010). Since the sector has numerous personalities and is extremely competitive, a potential candidate should have the drive and confidence to perform any role assigned. Time management skills are also necessary since they would enable a civil servant to manage the assigned workload within the given deadlines. Other additional attributes include interpersonal skills, project management skills and commercial awareness.

Employer’s Recruitment and Selection Practises

            The recruitment and selection process in the Civil Service sector has always been known to be impartial and fair. The recruitment decisions are based on both competencies and success profiles. The Competency Framework was introduced in April 2013 and it provides a recruitment approach that is consistent (Stanley, 2016). The approach entails identifying the knowledge, behaviours ad skills that result in successful performance. A break down is then made on how the skills in question can be applied at each grade. A special focus is given to past behaviour examples as a means of predicting future behaviour in specific job areas. With this approach, assessment of all candidates adheres to similar criteria. The approach also ensures that recruiters use the same language for the selecting or recruiting purposes. Therefore, the Competency Framework has had a positive impact on the Civil Service Sector.

Success Profiles have also been used to successfully recruit employees into the Civil Service sector. The elements that are assessed using this approach include Civil Service Behaviours, ability, strengths, technical skills and experience. The approach considers the natural talents and strengths of an individual, which gives the applicants an opportunity to show their suitability and ability to carry out a specific role (Bryon, 2010). Success Profile approach also allows the recruiting managers to design the selection criteria methods on the basis of the available vacancies. This maximises the ability of the recruiters to get the best candidates for specific roles. With Success Profiles, both the external and internal candidates would have a level playing field.

A case study that can be used to demonstrate the recruitment and selection practice is Southwood School that needed to hire a business teacher with managerial skills. The first step that the human resource manager took was to post the recruitment advertisement to a U.K national newspaper (Robson, 2008). The advertisement contained details such as the job title, the responsibilities and the skills that potential candidates had to possess. Potential candidates should have accurate and clear information regarding the position and the recruitment process. Another step is making a selection day timetable, which gives a schedule of events noting the time and location that the selection process will be done. According to Robson (2008), it is also necessary to structure the interview questions, with the questions stemming from different stakeholders. The question should test the candidates’ technical skills, competencies, managerial skills, conflict resolution skills, strengths and weaknesses as well as creativity skills. Such diverse questions ensure that the individual chosen for the position is competent and all-rounded. Once all the mentioned preparations have been completed, applicants are shortlisted, called for an interview and then a candidate that is a best fit for the position is given the job.

Personal Development Plan

Short-term plan

These are the goals that are achievable within a year or less. My short-term objectives and plan include acquiring training in good leadership skills, communication skills and decision-making skills. I also plan to have a great team relationship with my colleagues and within the organisation I will intern with. The target completion time is one year. Since I plan to undertake my internship for six months, I plan to attend various leadership training that will enable me acquire good leadership skills. The internship role will also help to improve my communication skills.

Medium-term plan

            This plan focuses on professional skills that will take more than a year to acquire. They include ability to support other people, motivate and inspire staff, delegate responsibilities, write reports and analyse information. At this stage, I plan to apply for a junior managerial position, which will give me the chance to display my acquired leadership skills. The target completion time is 2 years from now.

 

 

Long-term plan

My long-term goal is to hold a senior business managerial position. This plan will be achieved within a 4-year period. I hope to display good leadership skills, which will enable me to support, motivate and inspire my colleagues. I also hope to use good communication skills to enhance the process of making decisions, writing reports as well as analysing situations and problems. Another goal is to display the skills that would help in building trust and confidence among the people around me. I will make an annual review of the goals mentioned and check whether each of the set goals has been attained within the set target date.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Byron, M., 2010. How to pass the Civil Service Qualifying Tests: The Essential Guide for Clerical and Fast Stream Applicants. Kogan Page Publishers.

Robson, F. L., 2008. Southwood School. A Case Study in Recruitment and Selection. Society for Human Resource Management.

Stanley, M., 2016. How to be a Civil Servant. Biteback Publishing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix

Reducing Inequalities in Educational and Life Chances of Students from different Backgrounds in Newark, New Jersey Schooling Community

Introduction to the Sphere and reason for the Choice

In sustained efforts to become responsible citizens, we need to confront the question regarding whether the current educational inequalities matter. The answer to this question is that these inequalities are significantly a cause of concern and thus, they greatly matter. The educational difference is a significantly growing problem in Newark, New Jersey and America at large. While some students have had the opportunity of attending public schools that are considered as the best in the globe, a majority others are cast off into unsupportive, unsafe, under-resourced, and unchallenging schools where there are minimal chances of succeeding academically (Welner & Farley, p.1). The inequality relates to diverse issues that powerfully link to parental wealth, race and ethnicity as well as education; and have persisted across generations. Welner & Farley (p.1) posit that following the lack of equality, a significant group of children who have attained the school-going age does not get the opportunity to join good schools while some do not secure the chance at all following the disparity mentioned above.

Garcia & Weiss (p.3) argue that it is common knowledge that the existing inequalities, especially in the education continuum, will consequently derail the realization of the American dream. Because of this realization, the research on the reduction of educational disparities is crucial as it provides substantial information to help understand the broader connection between education and outcomes. Moreover, the research will provide information which addresses critical issues relating to the inequalities in life and education and how to overcome them. Therefore the topic is an important area to study given the strong relationship between education acquisition and economic growth. According to Garcia & Weiss (p.3), relevant bodies and legislators need to look at ways through which the existing education inequalities can be curbed in a bid to drive equality in the region.

The process of Identifying the Sphere and Initial Preconceptions

In identifying this sphere, I had to engage in direct interviews with the schooling community in Newark. Consequently, I engaged in participative interviews using online surveys and questionnaires. My desire for this specific sphere was fuelled by my concerns for the growing inequalities in the education sector which are significantly derailing the realization of the American Dream of equality. Before engaging in this fieldwork, I had preconceived perceptions that the educational inequalities were as a result of poverty alone. However, through the interviews, I came to learn that several other issues facilitate biases despite the set standards for delivering equality in education and life. Consequently, the fieldwork gave me insights that reducing inequalities among the schooling community in Newark prerequisites for more than just addressing poverty because other issues such as racial and ethnic segregation have played a substantial in the advent of the apparent inequalities.

Logistics Difficulties

The primary challenge faced for this fieldwork was on data collection. It was not easy to decide which method was more efficient for collecting primary data as the process required funds which were a limiting factor. My initial plan was to organize in-person interviews because I felt this would increase the chances of obtaining unbiased data. Notably, I was convinced that I could employ both verbal and nonverbal communication techniques and as such obtain authentic feedback from the participants. However, coordinating in-person interviews required monetary resources since it mandated me as the researcher to look for convenient places to meet with the participants (they were not easy to find). Finding a considerable number of participants who were willing to take part in the research was also a challenge as most people were not ready to discuss the issues on as it felt personal to them. Consequently, I settled for an online interview process (through email exchange) which also had its fair share of challenges. For instance, in using of online interviews, it was not possible to receive all the feedback at once as some participants took more time than others before returning the letters and questionnaires. Consequently, this fieldwork was constricted by time and financial constraint.

Work Cited

Garcia, E., & Weiss, E. “Education Inequalities at the School Starting Gate. Economic Policy Institute, 2017, pp.2-15

Welner, K., & Farley, A. “Confronting Systematic Inequity in Education: High Impact Strategies for Philanthropy, National Committee for Response Philanthropy, 2010, pp.1-19

Reducing Inequalities in Educational and Life Chances of Students from different Backgrounds in Newark, New Jersey Schooling Commu

Introduction to the Sphere and reason for the Choice

In sustained efforts to become responsible citizens, we need to confront the question regarding whether the current educational inequalities matter. The answer to this question is that these inequalities are significantly a cause of concern and thus, they greatly matter. The educational difference is a significantly growing problem in Newark, New Jersey and America at large. While some students have had the opportunity of attending public schools that are considered as the best in the globe, a majority others are cast off into unsupportive, unsafe, under-resourced, and unchallenging schools where there are minimal chances of succeeding academically (Welner & Farley, p.1). The inequality relates to diverse issues that powerfully link to parental wealth, race and ethnicity as well as education; and have persisted across generations. Welner & Farley (p.1) posit that following the lack of equality, a significant group of children who have attained the school-going age does not get the opportunity to join good schools while some do not secure the chance at all following the disparity mentioned above.

Garcia & Weiss (p.3) argue that it is common knowledge that the existing inequalities, especially in the education continuum, will consequently derail the realization of the American dream. Because of this realization, the research on the reduction of educational disparities is crucial as it provides substantial information to help understand the broader connection between education and outcomes. Moreover, the research will provide information which addresses critical issues relating to the inequalities in life and education and how to overcome them. Therefore the topic is an important area to study given the strong relationship between education acquisition and economic growth. According to Garcia & Weiss (p.3), relevant bodies and legislators need to look at ways through which the existing education inequalities can be curbed in a bid to drive equality in the region.

The process of Identifying the Sphere and Initial Preconceptions

In identifying this sphere, I had to engage in direct interviews with the schooling community in Newark. Consequently, I engaged in participative interviews using online surveys and questionnaires. My desire for this specific sphere was fuelled by my concerns for the growing inequalities in the education sector which are significantly derailing the realization of the American Dream of equality. Before engaging in this fieldwork, I had preconceived perceptions that the educational inequalities were as a result of poverty alone. However, through the interviews, I came to learn that several other issues facilitate biases despite the set standards for delivering equality in education and life. Consequently, the fieldwork gave me insights that reducing inequalities among the schooling community in Newark prerequisites for more than just addressing poverty because other issues such as racial and ethnic segregation have played a substantial in the advent of the apparent inequalities.

Logistics Difficulties

The primary challenge faced for this fieldwork was on data collection. It was not easy to decide which method was more efficient for collecting primary data as the process required funds which were a limiting factor. My initial plan was to organize in-person interviews because I felt this would increase the chances of obtaining unbiased data. Notably, I was convinced that I could employ both verbal and nonverbal communication techniques and as such obtain authentic feedback from the participants. However, coordinating in-person interviews required monetary resources since it mandated me as the researcher to look for convenient places to meet with the participants (they were not easy to find). Finding a considerable number of participants who were willing to take part in the research was also a challenge as most people were not ready to discuss the issues on as it felt personal to them. Consequently, I settled for an online interview process (through email exchange) which also had its fair share of challenges. For instance, in using of online interviews, it was not possible to receive all the feedback at once as some participants took more time than others before returning the letters and questionnaires. Consequently, this fieldwork was constricted by time and financial constraint.

Work Cited

Garcia, E., & Weiss, E. “Education Inequalities at the School Starting Gate. Economic Policy Institute, 2017, pp.2-15

Welner, K., & Farley, A. “Confronting Systematic Inequity in Education: High Impact Strategies for Philanthropy, National Committee for Response Philanthropy, 2010, pp.1-19

Academic Development

 

Job Evaluation

Job evaluation is a systematic strategy used in the determination of the relative worth of a job within a firm. It is used in the development of equitable salaries and wages in organizations. Job evaluations are done in two main ways which include: Job ranking where jobs are ranked against each other. In the other method, points are awarded to each job, for instance, the education and experienced need to perform specific tasks. The objectives of job evaluation are establishment of standardized procedures for the determination of wages and remuneration, ensuring of equal salary for a job and reasonable wages in different jobs and the hierarchy within companies (Guest, 2017). Additionally, job evaluation helps in determining job rates in comparison with other firms in the industry, assists in the evaluation of inequalities in wages, used in the determination of bonuses and incentives and provides a benchmark for progression of careers and promotions within organizations.

The job evaluation process is based on certain factors such as:

Know –how

Know-how involves the skills, knowledge, and experiences needed for standardized and acceptable job performance. It incorporates the professional and technical skills and the time required for organizing and working through a team.  Know how is based on three dimensions, the technical know-how, managerial and the human relations knowhow (Guest, 2017).

Education

It is the formal education required when to perform tasks in a particular job position. To avoid overlap with experience, the education level of a new incumbent is considered for external recruitments (Hoert et al., 2018).

Experience

Experience incorporates the period of technical expertise and managerial familiarity in addition to formal education.

Complexity

Complexity is used as a measure of the time taken in learning and adjusting to the particular job requirements, the thinking required in rapidly adapting to dynamic situations and innovations (Nankervis et al., 2016). Others include accountability, the scope of the job, and problem-solving. Job evaluations can be applied in the work environment where there are competing opportunities for job promotions and salary raises. An evaluation will ensure that the process is transparent, has equality and is fair to all parties (Nankervis et al., 2016).

Performance Management and Employee Management

A performance management system is an interaction between the employee and the organization from when a job is defined by the organization to a point where the employee leaves the organization. The components of the management system include the development of job descriptions and recruitment plans, recruitment of potential employees and conducting of interviews (Guest, 2017). The most qualified candidate is offered the salary and compensation benefits, paid time off among other payments as negotiated.

Secondly, the employees are oriented to the organization, assigned a mentor and introduced to the organizational culture.  The employee undergoes, continuous training, coaching and education to improve his/her performance and career prospects. (Nankervis et al., 2016)  Also, quarterly performance development is conducted to keep the employee in check. The organization can also develop effective recognition and compensation systems to appreciate and reward employees for their contribution to the organization. Moreover, they provide promotion and development opportunities such as transfers and lateral moves (Hoert et al., 2018).

Management of employees in firms deals with organizational policy, practices, and policies. The policies and strategies are formulated to establish employee performance expectations, and monitoring and evaluation of results (Hoert et al., 2018). An effective performance management system plays a strategic role in retention and attracting of performing employees in an organization. The system also helps organizations in improving their business performance.

Employee Health and Wellness

Wellness programs in organizations help employees to make the right decisions while improving their health. The success of these programs is dependent on the organization’s culture and its intrinsic attitudes of the firm. The wellness programs differ from health insurance and other medical policies given by the organization (Guest, 2017). The typical aspects in a wellness program include the alleviation of stress, giving of advice, sufficient spaces for fitness activities and proper nutrition plans for the employees.  Wellness programs in organizations are significant investments because they aid in increasing productivity, which leads to an increase in the general performance of the organization (Nankervis et al., 2016). In this case, employees also have a heightened state of mind and body which leads to decreased absenteeism due to fatigue and lack of motivation at the workplace. Wellness programs to be established need be sensitive to the needs of the employees, and therefore a medical physician can be called to assess the employee needs.

The human resource should be tasked with overseeing the program by regular monitoring and feedback to improve the sessions. Sometimes the programs fail because of poor follow up by the management (Guest, 2017). In the work environment, health and wellness are essential in ensuring that employees have a conducive environment for working by promoting a positive psychological atmosphere. Additionally, those who may contribute to work-related disease can be held accountable.

Concepts in Human Resource Profession

The human resource is composed of various concepts and processes such as recruitment which involves attracting employees with particular job criteria. Next is selection, which is filtration and the main aim is to shortlist the candidates with matching qualifications (Hoert et al., 2018). The next step is hiring the final applicant who is finally trained to upgrade skills and abilities required for the job. Another function of human resource is the determination of employee remuneration and benefits packages. They decide how salaries will be awarded in regards to the job activities, skills and technical know-how (Guest, 2017). Another function is employee relations. The human resource professionals are tasked with ensuring that there is low employee turnover. Turnover is expensive and tedious for organizations in highly competitive fields. The human resource managers should ensure that employees have a conducive working environment, there are minimal conflicts between employees, compensation of workers, wellness and assistance programs (Guest, 2017).  They can also offer occupational counseling because of work-related stress that slows performance. The strategies, concepts, and theories in the human resource are not independent, and therefore, require a cohesive approach for them to be successful.

Professional Development

Participation in Networking Events

A professional development plan is important in giving direction and to help an individual to remain focused after graduation.  One of the ways is through attending networking events. Such events include workshops and seminars on human resource management.  They create an avenue for networking with professionals as well as promote growth in the field (Nankervis et al., 2016).  The sessions provide a networking opportunity and help one to build relationships with clients, speakers and other persons. Additionally, one can get a mentor from workshops which are imperative for successful career growth. The mentors can also inform the mentees when there are job openings, give tutorials as well as share important information.

Apart from what is learned in the classroom, practical lessons can be gotten from such professional events. More knowledge is gained in the field of focus. Further, through workshops and seminars expertise is acquired, which is important when looking for job opportunities. It also creates an opportunity for innovation and development of new ideas.  In workshops and seminars, a graduate is likely to meet diverse people, therefore, building inspiration and motivation towards the career (Nankervis et al., 2016). Through sharing enthusiasm with peers, one can grow and be inspired to be better.  Lastly, seminars and workshops are a different environment from what one is used to. It is time to be sociable and interactive.

Development of a Job Search Strategy

A job search strategy is critical, especially for graduates who wish to acquire good jobs after graduation. A job search strategy prepares one to be ready for interviews, communicate effectively and be prepared for stressful situations such as job interviews. An effective job strategy requires that one understands their priorities and individual stories (Nankervis et al., 2016).  For instance, knowing one’s accomplishments and how specific experiences have prepared the person for other roles.  For fresh graduates, they may use volunteer opportunities as part of the experience as well as the attachment period. It is imperative to also focus on one’s aspirations in terms of responsibilities, organization’s mission, and vision in line with individual beliefs and the targeted salary among others.  The above factors will be vital in enabling one to prioritize (Ammendolia et al., 2016).

Secondly, in the job search, it is important to focus on the organization rather than the job openings.  One should have more interest in working for particular organizations as opposed to jobs.  For instance, one could proactively approach such organizations before jobs are posted. This will enable the graduate to be in the talent pool of the organization, and one may be considered for job openings (Nankervis et al., 2016). The graduate can create a list of organizations they would wish to work with and proactively reach to these organizations. The network is vital in helping one know when there are openings, or when their particular skills and expertise is needed.

Lastly, in developing a job search strategy, one must have a plan. For graduates, especially 20 hours is recommended for job searching. One can divide the activities into the identification of the organizations, getting new contacts and attending networking events such as workshops and seminars. Other activities include identifying the targeted organization, getting new beneficial contacts and attendance of networking events (Nankervis et al., 2016). One can set weekly or monthly milestones for a fixed period to have a vivid idea of the aim and the need to take a just course. For accountability purposes, one can also join a job search group to provide support to each other.

Professional Human Resource

The professional human resource body is suitable for entry-level personnel, especially recent graduates, who have a focus on human resource career development in mind. It is also important for already experienced professionals who want to be sure of their basic competencies. The body is certified by the human resource certification institute (IHRCI, 2019). The basic requirement for registration in this body is 2-4 years’ experience as a human resource manager. However, students with one year prior to their graduation can also join the body after passing the professional human resource exam. The organizations’ mission is enhancing employee professionalism by promoting human resource science and technology. Also, certification is globally recognized (IHRCI, 2019).

Registering in such an organization will enable the human resource practitioner to focus on the impact that management practices have especially on the observable organizational outcomes. The decisions are thus supported by available scientific evidence (IHRCI, 2019). Technology is vital in any department in an organization. It makes work easier, saves time and is cost effective.  Therefore, organizations with the ability to utilize such technology have desirable outcomes.  Human resource professionals need technical know-how in advanced technology (Ammendolia et al., 2016). They also have the required conceptual knowledge required in selecting, managing, innovations, and evolutions in the advancements in human resource career.

The certification of these professionals shows that the persons have the required competencies in performing professional responsibilities.  Besides, it is a way of standardizing the practice. The professionals should have a standardized way of operations and also be competent as per the training (IHRCI, 2019). Ill-prepared professionals are ultimately disqualified from entering the human resource field (IHRCI, 2019). For the graduates considering to join the field, the professional human resource also offers tutors who guide the practitioners on the steps towards advancing their career growth, how to create networks among other career-related issues. It is important that recent graduates consider joining professional bodies. They will be certified as human resource professionals who are globally recognized. Moreover, they become a unique lot and stand out in interviews because of the exceptional skills they possess (IHRCI, 2019). The professional body may also defend the human resource practitioners in case of legal cases that are within their mandate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Ammendolia, C., Côté, P., Cancelliere, C., Cassidy, J. D., Hartvigsen, J., Boyle, E., … & Amick,              B. (2016). Healthy and productive workers: using intervention mapping to design a               workplace health promotion and wellness program to improve presenteeism. BMC                Public Health16(1), 1190.

Guest, D. E. (2017). Human resource management and employee well‐being: Towards a new                   analytic framework. Human Resource Management Journal27(1), 22-38

Hoert, J., Herd, A. M., & Hambrick, M. (2018). The role of leadership support for health                          promotion in employee wellness program participation, perceived job stress, and health                behaviours. American Journal of Health Promotion32(4), 1054-1061.

IHRCI. (2019). The Associate Professional in Human Resources (aPHRi) | International Human              Resource Certification. Retrieved February 20, 2019, from      https://www.ihrci.org/certificate/aphri.

Nankervis, A. R., Baird, M., Coffey, J., & Shields, J. (2016). Human resource management:                    strategy and practice. Cengage AU.