Language and Oppression, Language and Identity

ENG 100.5/101

“Teaching New Worlds/New Words” Worksheet Questions


  1. Adrienne Rich wrote, “This is the oppressor’s language, yet I need it to talk to you” (qtd in hooks 1). What might this line of poetry mean? What does it say to you?

According to Rich, language has turned into the main tool of communication used by the oppressor; for example, the usurper, slave master, and the colonist. In the line of the poetry, Rich illustrates that the oppressor’s language has become a prevailing tool for communication to the extent that if the oppressed use his language, he will be punished, rejected outright, derided, or even misunderstood.

Breaking down the Text

  1. Why does hooks find it “difficult not to hear in Standard English always the sound of slaughter and conquest” (1)?

Initially, he believes that Standard English is similar to the oppressor’s language which can disempower other people who are learning how to claim language through which they can make themselves subjects. In the US, Standard English is a language of domination and conquest. It is a mask that conceals the many tongues that are lost.

  1. How might English have been terrifying?

English was terrifying to Africans on board slave ships because it was a language they could not comprehend. Additionally, Africans were initially living in places with the deepest bonds such as shared speech.  The abrupt transportation into a different world, besides listening to a language that had no meaning was obviously a terrifying experience (Wisker, 2017).

  1. How could bonding occur and a “culture of resistance” (hooks 1) be formed by learning the oppressor’s language?

Bonding occurs when people are forced to find ways to talk to each other in a completely new world because they are unable to use the oppressor’s language. The culture of resistance is formed when Africans learn that English, their oppressive language has to be taken and possessed.

  1. Hooks describes enslaved black Americans creating a “counter-language” (2). How did non-standard use of the English language make it “into more than the oppressor’s language” (2)?

The nonstandard use of the English language represented the oppressor’s language because their incorrect placement and usage of words showed a spirit of rebellion which explains language as a sign of resistance.

  1. How does hooks see contemporary black vernacular speech as a continuation of that new use of English, and why does she think it’s important to recognize its “revolutionary power” (2)?

The contemporary black vernacular speech is a continuation of the new use of English since it promotes resistance to white supremacy. Hooks recognizes that this speech allows for alternative epistemologies and alternative cultural production. It is important to recognize the revolutionary power in contemporary black vernacular culture because it can intervene in the limitations and boundaries of Standard English.

  1. Where do black vernacular speech and dominant mainstream culture connect (or collide)?

In the modern black popular culture, black vernacular speech has been applied in a way that provokes dominant mainstream to be transformed, hear and also listen.


  1. Why are we used to standard English being the medium of communication in our classrooms?

This is because they are simply not aware that they can say things in another way, through another language.

  1. Hooks encourages students to write in their first language (whatever form that takes) and to translate where necessary for other students. What reactions and dynamics did that create in her classes?

Hook explains that when she encouraged her students to use the first languages such as diverse speech and language, complains would arise from white students. It was disturbing since they could hear the words but not understand their meaning.

  1. Hooks quotes June Jordan, who writes that if we truly lived democratically, “We would make our language conform to the truth of our many selves” (3). What does that mean? What would this be like?

The quote creates a vision of the future where issues of democracy and language come together to create democratic worlds that are culturally diverse.

  1. How do we “act unconsciously, in complicity with a culture of domination” (hooks 3), even if we are the ones dominated?

People act unconsciously, in complicity with a culture of domination by repressing themselves to speak in different languages rather than Standard English without recognizing this repression as political.

  1. Hooks discusses the value of changing long-held thoughts about how language should be used and creating “spaces where diverse voices can speak in words other than English or in broken, vernacular speech” (4). What might this allow or encourage?

This will promote fragments of speech that could not be available to all people. By changing the way people think or use language, this ultimately also changes the way people know the things they know.

  1. What does hooks mean that maybe we don’t actually need to understand everything and can “learn from spaces of silence as well as spaces of speech” (4)? Why could that be valuable?

Hooks means that it is not necessary that people conquer or master a narrative as a whole. This could be valuable in stopping people from adopting the culture of consumption and capitalist frenzy that necessitates that all desires are instantly satisfied or even interrupt cultural imperialism.

  1. What does hooks mean that our society finds no “dignity in the experience of passion, that to feel deeply is to be inferior” (4) and that ideas are privileged over feelings?

This is because society feels that ideas have more significance in comparison to language.

  1. According to hooks, how and why is language important to marginalized and oppressed people, more so than just ideas?

Language is important to the oppressed and marginalized people because it assists in healing their split mind and bodies to recover themselves and their experiences.




  1. How can people liberate themselves through language?

People can liberate themselves by taking the oppressor’s language and turning it against itself. Through this, words become a counter-hegemonic speech that allows people to liberate themselves.

ENG 100.5/101
“Acting French” Worksheet Questions

  1. What is immersion learning?
    Immersion learning is an experiential education which focuses on social work education.
    2. Why should we learn other languages?

By learning other languages, people can learn about other cultures. Studying other languages also increases one’s creativity.

Breaking Down the Text
1. Why might “child like amazement” be less possible for adults (Coates 1)? What lets Coates access it again?
This is because children live in constant fear. Coates access it through observation of things around him.
2. What did “scholastic achievers” have that Coates didn’t (2)?
Coales did not have a culture of scholastic high accomplishment around him like the other scholar achievers children in the country.
3. How does Coates describe his own learning experiences?

Coates explains how he has been able to learn in different environments where the race was the main order of the day.

Coates shows elements of the American dream by exposing the desire to be white.
4. When Coates writes that “it has been national policy to plunder the capital accumulated by black people—social or otherwise” (3), what does he mean and how does he illustrate this point?
Coates explains how Blacks are under oppression because they cannot own a thing on their own. He illustrates this by the way people have been prohibited against reading (Hansen Löfstrand & Uhnoo, 2014). This is also manifested through the way people have accepted segregation.
5. How do the environment and the “critical mass” of people we are surrounded by influence our potentials and options (Coates 3)?
The environment and the ‘critical mass’ of people harbor many factors that dictate how people think.
6. Who are the “fence-patrollers” (Coates 3) and what are the fences/borders they patrol?
Fence-patrollers refers to the act of people trying to adopt a culture that is different from them. The fence or borders they patrol include music activities.
7. How is education “a profound act of auto-liberation” (Coates 4)?
This was because it created his childhood culture. Also, through education, he developed his youth thrills.
8. Coates claims his culture failed to make him a good student, but did make him a writer (4). How?
He explains that the culture was strong that it became a social capital. This made him become a writer because he had to take a few credentials and autodidact.


  1. How does formal education create a kind of culture? Why does Coates regret missing out on that?
    Formal education promotes a profound act of auto-liberation. Coates feels that by missing to become an academic achiever, he has ignored the knowledge of many things.
    10. Coates writes that he had to “be a nationalist before I could be a humanist” (5). What does he mean by this? What did he have to do?
    Coates explains how he had to support the interests of the black people to understand what they were going through. He describes that he had to understand that black people are architects of the West rather than victims.
    11. Coates discusses Daniel Walker Howe’s point that the efforts of the government to “civilize the Indians” by persuading the Cherokee Nation to accept missionary schools backfired (6). What was the intent of the schools? What actually happened?
    The main intent of schools was to make Indians adopt civilized ways that would help in dividing the land sales. Nonetheless, as the Cherokees became more politically organized, prosperous, and literate, they developed an interest in what was in their land and what they could do to use it effectively.
    12. What comparison does Coates make between educating young black children and what happened with Native Americans?
    Coates explains that during his time, it was common to find children being urged to go to school to become respectable people and also impress the right individuals. Native Americans established that America’s discussion of exchanging culture for rights was only a cover.
  2. In the last paragraph, Coates states, “I came in ignorance, and found I was more ignorant than I knew” (7). He then writes that he was still more comfortable teaching himself in the library than learning in the classroom: “It was not enough. It will never be enough” (7). Why?

Coates feels that there is much to be done than just thinking about the common things that happen in life.
14. What does the last line of his essay mean? What are those tools? What is the house to be dismantled?
The last line means that people can use the master’s methods to beat him at his own game. The tools refer to the methods used to preserve power by those who have it. The house to be dismantled is the community’s definition of women who have so many differences.

Summary of Language Teaching New Worlds/New Words

Rich explains that language has become the main tool of communication used by the oppressor. The oppressor’s language is a dominating communication tool to the extent that when oppressors use it, they will be punished, rejected outright, derided or misunderstood. Hooks reflects on the ideologies, thoughts, and images portrayed by the language in Rich’s poem. In the poem, the line ‘This is the oppressor’s language, yet I need it to talk to you’ reflects on the hegemony theory which talks about Black American slaves and how they struggled to apply English as their first language together with other slaves who spoke African languages. The slaves used the English, the oppressor’s, by manipulating it to their needs to explain their realities (Wisker, 2017). This eventually made them to develop a language of resistance. Hooks also discusses some of her personal struggles as she tries to balance her linguistic roots with the academia discourse.

Summary of “Acting French” Ta-Nehisi Coates

Coates narrates his story concerning the drivers of oppression to advance his fight for mutual understanding and equality. While at Middlebury College, he efficiently uses his time to develop parallels between his college experience and his lack of understanding of other people’s culture. Coates illustrates how ignorance has been institutionalized which has helped in keeping the majority in power (Hansen Löfstrand & Uhnoo, 2014). Similar to the Native Americans at the time of colonization, the majority were aware that if minorities obtained the majority culture, they could apply against them to maintain their freedom and powers.















Hansen Löfstrand, C., & Uhnoo, S. (2014). Diversity Policing–Policing Diversity: Performing Ethnicity in Police and Private-Security Work in Sweden. Social Inclusion, 2(3), 075. doi: 10.17645/si.v2i3.40

Wisker, G. (2017). Post-colonial and African American women’s writing: a critical introduction. New York: St. Martin’s Press.




Theoretical Background of Leadership

The concept of leadership is founded on three fundamental pillars, namely exemplary conduct, ability to influence (different from controlling) others, and competency in driving change. This blueprint marks the gap between leadership and management. The gap is reflected primarily in the different approaches to the treatment of human subjects within a hierarchical structure of an organization. Organizational operations contend against waves of incessant dynamics that undermine the productivity of the labor force almost invariably. These dynamics include deteriorating social standards, conflicting cultural values, and ideological differences. These factors present critical challenges to leadership where executives are focused on optimizing organizational goal achievement. Indeed, the type, nature, and degree of leadership forms a core part of organizational culture and determine the compliance of staff with the company’s values. Consequently, leaders invoke or blend different leadership styles based on the context and circumstances of operation to optimize worker productivity. These leadership styles are based on various theories that illuminate the significance of adopting a specific leadership approach in a particular environment rather than other styles of leadership.

Literature Review

Transformational Leadership Theory

James McGregor Burns launched the theory of transformational leadership in 1978 from the perspective that positive developments only occur under the auspices of mutual relations between a leader and the followers due to the consequential effects on morality and motivation. A subsequent modification of this theory by B.M Bass and J.B Avalio sought to fit it to the organizational domain (Odumeru & Ifeanyi, 2013). Essentially, transformational leadership hinges on employee stimulation and inspiration to achieve exceptional objectives. This framework directs attention to the developmental interests of the followers. Accordingly, transformative leaders adjust the team’s perception of issues by helping them to approach old challenges with newer effective techniques. As such, transformative leadership focuses on boosting the subjects’ morale and performance by way of inspiration. In doing so, the leader links the person’s sense of self and identity to the common organizational identity and the project.

Elements of Transformational Leadership. There are four major elements of transformational leadership (Shibru & Darshan, 2011). Firstly, transformational leadership draws on charisma and idealized influence. A transformative leader acts admirably, depicts convictions, and makes choices that nudge the follower to identify with them as an exemplary character with a clear set of enviable qualities. Secondly, transformational leadership is fueled by inspirational motivation. In this regard, the leader communicates the organizational vision so decisively that it fascinates and inspires the team with optimism regarding future goals while concomitantly portraying the essence of the existing task.

Thirdly, transformative leadership employs intellectual stimulation to confront assumptions while encouraging and stimulating the creativity of the followers. The leader uses intellectual stimulation to proffer a model for the team to identify its attachment to the leader, organization, colleagues, and the objectives. As such, the team can subdue the difficulties on its way through optimism (Shibru & Darshan, 2011). Finally, individual-oriented attention may well be the major pillar of transformative leadership. While an assessment of the team’s performance is crucial, the transformative leader attends to the individual interests of team members and provides mentorship. Additionally, the leader affords juniors genuine respect and acknowledges their input to the team; however little it may be. This appreciation promotes a spirit of self-fulfillment and worth thus motivating the individual to pursue more growth and achievement (Hardy et al., 2010).

Context-Style Relationship. It is imperative for all sectors to focus on the humanization of leadership to optimize the performance of labor. Nevertheless, transformative leadership is compatible with certain contexts than others. A transformative aspect of leadership bespeaks an environment of constant change and long-term objectives; features that blur the benefits of the project to employees. Consequently, followers may develop distrust or lack the requisite morale for completing challenging tasks that are occasionally accompanied by significant setbacks. After all, the organizational operation may entail subversion, especially from rivals thus underlying the criticality of intellectual stimulation by the leader to rid their teams of doubts and negate assumptions. It is noteworthy that transformations are usually typical of bureaucracy-free contexts that allow strong executive-subordinate relationships and contact.

The technology and sales industries are typical examples of environments that require and are open to direct communication and links between leaders and their followers. Followers in the technology sector, for example, are besieged by incessant innovations and the need for creativity to sustain competitiveness. Beginners and professional alike confront the challenges of generating new ideas to counter rivals with a substantial measure of uncertainty. Under such circumstances, transformative leaders maintain team productivity by inducing confidence and spearheading brainstorming (Ahmad, Abbas, Latif, & Rasheed, 2014). On the other hand, sales teams battle with disappointments and frustrations especially when marketing intangible products such as insurance. Such followers require mentoring and motivation to reach predetermined targets and develop resilience. Cavazotte, Moreno, and Bernardo (2013) recommend transformational leadership for the latter group to play the role of encouraging, guiding, and inspiring individuals to concentrate more on their achievements than disappointments despite the market unpredictability.

Limitations. The transformational leadership theory has various limitations. The first limitation is the ambiguity underlying the theory’s influences and processes. This theory does not establish the connection between such variables as charisma and productivity beyond the subjective adulation that charisma elicits for the leader. Moreover, the theory emphasizes the dyadic level of connection over the relationships across the entire group. As such, this theory does not elucidate such issues as the organization and coordination of personnel intergroup activities to optimize performance. Other weaknesses include the omission of various transformational behaviors and the insufficient specification of situational variables (Odumeru & Ifeanyi, 2013). Despite these limitations, this theory shapes the perception of leadership and its impacts on employee conduct. Specifically, the theory reveals the role of mentoring as a technique for leadership development by exposing employees and getting employees to subscribe to organizational values thus furnishing them with the necessary experience.

Supportive Leadership

The supportive mode of leadership is a subset of the path-goal theory of leadership. In contrast with the superficial implication of its name, supportive leadership focuses more on facilitating the followers’ observable potentiality than adjusting to their level of competency. House (1971) developed the path-goal theory deriving from the research related to the components that best inspire the follower to pursue designated objectives. According to the theory, leadership activates motivation by raising the number and types of benefits that employees get for their services. Moreover, leadership induces motivation by simplifying the means to ends through such activities as training, directing, eliminating obstacles, and making the work appealing to the employee. In other words, this theory explains how leaders assist followers along the process of goal achievement by pinpointing distinct approaches suitable to the follower’s needs and the work situation (Alanazi, Ratyana, Alharthey, & Rasli, 2013).

The supportive leadership style weights the external factual and value-based views of organizations. The style blends a relative measure of the skills of filtering and delegation which entail an adjustment of the approach to suit the situation by adding and balancing value for the organization and leader-follower dyad (Shibru & Darshan, 2011). A supportive leader is cordial, approachable, and one who attends to the interests of the followers. Supportive leaders often divert discretely from their way to make tasks appealing to the novice worker. Most importantly, supportive leadership assigns equality to followers while taking note of the effect that their statuses may have on their output.

The follower’s features are central determinants regarding how and to what degree the leader employs a supportive role. Characteristic features include the need for affiliation, preference for structure, and desire for coordination. Followers with such features prefer supportive leadership due to its complementary aspect that draws on a close leader-follower relationship. The leader, therefore, assigns an individual with tasks that are repetitive and less challenging in an attempt to balance organizational goals with the skill development of the follower. The repetitive aspect of the assignment helps the worker to absorb and develop the required skills while its triviality eliminates the burden of anxiety.

Components of the Path-Goal Theory. The elements of the supportive leadership theory derive from its parent theory – the path-goal theory. These elements include the leader’s behavior, the follower’s features, and the assignment features (Northouse, 2013). The leader’s conduct should especially factor in the follower’s limitations, and extrinsic challenges thus create a balance to build a platform from which the worker can complete the task. This element demands that organizational goals avoid various ineluctable uncertainties. The leader should also develop a suitable leader-follower connection that responds to the needs of their subject for human connection. Finally, the leader has to create assignments that appeal to the follower as a technique of avoiding challenges that derail performance and skill development.

The context-Style Relationship. Drawing on the previous discussion, it is justly conclusive that supportive leadership hardly applies to the corporate context and other environments that involve rapid dynamics and challenges. Supportive leadership is appropriate for instances where the leader can compromise organizational objectives to foster the followers’ welfare. This leadership style is manifested in environments where voluntary workers lead groups to facilitate such dimensions as the health benefits of a community. In these environments, the leader’s behavior is based fundamentally on promoting the followers’ best interests.

Supportive leadership is best suited for the healthcare environment and medical education discipline where weight is added to the importance of showing concern, empathy, trust, respect, and encouragement towards the follower. The growing need for worker empowerment in the nursing field is largely ascribed to the escalating pressure to handle the shortage of workers versus the patients in the healthcare discipline (Shirazi et al., 2014). Leaders of the health industry thus employ supportive leadership by portraying such features as integrity respect, and sincerity towards the team. Patients receiving care in such environments enjoy significant benefits such as cohesion which enables them to fit back into their societies after the health care experience despite disabilities and other health challenges. According to Toseland, and Rivas (2017), supportive leaders design tasks based on the competency of the person who is expected to fulfill them. Nevertheless, these designs should be tailored to the achievement of specific goals.

Limitations. The supportive leadership style has faced criticism especially from advocates of the corporate stakeholder theory. The theory’s set of assumptions about leader-follower conduct and expectations derail its application in the corporate domain. Moreover, the theory is not concise regarding how the compromise-based role of the leader facilitates the follower’s motivation without degrading performance. Finally, this theory is leader-centered and does not explain how the follower contributes to their individual development (Northouse, 2013). Notwithstanding these limitations, supportive leadership is particularly insightful for professions that prioritize the humanization of services for the best interests of the consumer.

Adaptive Leadership

Adaptive leadership is a mainstay of traditional leadership with little focus on followers and more attention on teamwork and organizational goals. Although adaptive leadership does not disregard humanistic values altogether, the style subjugates individual welfare to the goals of the profession expressly. According to the theory of adaptive leadership, leaders contend against two major challenges – the technical and adaptive challenges. Leaders, therefore, have to be authoritative, conscious of the change, and adequately influential to fine-tune the organizational culture to the factors of the external environment through collaborative approaches. Essentially, adaptive leadership recommends diagnosis and centrally-oriented confrontation of changes and challenges (Heifetz, 2006). Additionally, the adaptive leader mobilizes the organization with influence by collaborating and establishing strong alliances to shape organizational culture. Moreover, strategic planning enables the adaptive leader to fit in an environment of unpredictable changes.

Elements of Adaptive Leadership. The technical and adaptive components of adaptive leadership are combined into a whole in four major elements (Heifetz, Grashow & Linsky, 2009; Useem, 2010).

  1. The Subordinate team: the adaptive leader meets their juniors regularly and engages them through such tactics as handshaking and chats. This technique induces confidence in the follower and revives their morale. Regular meetings build a sense of approachability to convince the follower that they do not merely work for but with their leader.
  2. Decision-making: adaptive leaders implement decisions when they are certain that the available backing is adequate to achieve the goal despite the opinion of an individual in the group. This approach involves explicit decisiveness that pressures discontented followers to support the mission based on confidence in the leader’s boldness amidst external challenges.
  3. The mission: organizational mission, group needs, and personal ambitions are placed hierarchically in adaptive leadership with individual needs coming last. An adaptive leader concentrates on mitigating the errors of the follower even when such errors would elevate the leader’s career. This measure follows the realization that the errors of any follower detract from organizational success thus necessitating warnings before mistakes appear.
  4. The strategy: adaptive leaders lay and communicate their strategies clearly without allowing alternatives and room for divergent opinions. It is therefore typical for the leader to instruct followers to conduct various exercises without providing the procedures for execution of the task. This technique allows substantial autonomy for the follower and allows them to innovate and pursue self-actualization in agreement with the precepts of adaptive leadership (Useem, 2010).

Style-Context Relationship. It is fair to conclude from the discussion of the elements of adaptive leadership that this style is suitable for projects that entail rapid change and significant obstacles. Workers in a community context seeking innovative solutions to complicated issues devise inclusive, enabling, and client-centered frameworks driven by a focus on social justice and the need to create value-centered services. These demands require new and flexible frameworks of service delivery that prompt diverse leadership features (Creyton, 2014). As such, adaptive leaders are open to and capable of accommodating changes in the environment. This flexibility requires resilience, innovativeness, charisma, and openness to unfamiliar experiences. Also, the leader engages the follower through shared meaning with a significant sense of purpose and focus. The requisite characteristics of an adaptive leader, therefore, include self-awareness, ability to counsel, and communication effectiveness drawing on flexible problem-solving models. Finally, adaptive leadership necessitates integrity and established morality. This feature allows the adaptive leader to clarify objectives, remain true to their values and beliefs, and balance their interests with the situational variables.

The unpredictability of the business environment especially in domains that draw on technology and are affected by political affairs of different jurisdictions is a challenge for a majority of business executives. Leaders in such environments need to be assertive without compromising the moralistic approach to people management (Northouse, 2013). Businesses in these tempestuous environments survive by creating and revisiting strategies regularly as well as building confidence in the face of exterminating competition. The adaptive leader is therefore clear on desired objectives but afford relative autonomy for the follower to facilitate innovation and shifts from conventional approaches. According to Cojocar (2010), adaptive leadership is also appropriate in the military context with its reliance on strictness, strategy, and command. The military may well be the cradle of this leadership style that lays goals and targets without fixed routes to the achievement of these goals.

Limitations. Adaptive leadership faces little criticism in the realm of research on organizational theory. Existing criticism is, however, significant enough to challenge the application of this leadership style especially in the corporate environment. For instance, this model has been criticized for the paucity of research and evidence indicating its productivity (Northouse, 2013). This weakness creates the impression that adaptive leadership has hardly been reflected with actual outcomes. However controversial the criticism, existing research has not built the foundation on which to test and prove the cause-effect dimension of adaptive leadership. Also, advocates of humanism have demonized adaptive leadership for excessive focus on organizational objectives rather than the humanized face of projects. This criticism elicits controversies as scholars endeavor to strike a balance between individual career satisfaction and corporate benefits. Despite these limitations, the precepts of adaptive leadership have particularly been beneficial in the military environment. Applications of this theory are thus bound to remain in disciplines that focus more on ends other than the means.



The nature of environmental operations and the situation impact of the external and internal environment on the type of leadership that optimizes the productivity of the follower. Different theories have been put forward to explain how leaders can balance the organizational activities and demands with the varying capabilities of their workers to improve the outcome. Transformative leadership concentrates on empowering the followers to boost their competence while supportive leadership focuses on adjusting tasks based on the worker’s abilities. Contrarily, adaptive leadership emphasizes organizational mission and strictness to spur follower into action to achieve predetermined targets. As such, these theories are applicable in different but specific fields where leader-follower relationships can be varied.











Ahmad, F., Abbas, T., Latif, S. & Rasheed, A. (2014). Impact of transformational leadership on employee motivation in telecommunication sector. Journal of Management Policies and Practices, 2(2), 11-25.

Alanazi, T., Ratyana, T., Alharthey, B. & Rasli, A. (2013). Overview of path-goal leadership theory. Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences and Engineering), 64, 49-53.

Cavazotte, F., Moreno, V. & Bernardo, J. (2013). Transformational leaders and work performance: The mediating roles of identification and self-efficacy. BAR, Rio de Janeiro, 10(4), 490-512.

Creyton, M. (2014). Adaptive Leadership: An Approach for Challenging Times. Brisbane: Volunteering Queensland Inc.

Cojocar, W. J. (2010). Adaptive Leadership in the Military Decision Making Process. Military Review, (Nov-Dec.), 23-28.

Hardy, L., Arthur, C. A., Jones, G., Shariff, A., Munnoch, K., Isaacs, I. & Allsopp, A. J. (2010). The relationship between transformational leadership behaviors, psychological, and training outcomes in elite military recruits. The Leadership Quarterly, 21, 20–32.

Heifetz, R. (2006). Anchoring leadership in the work of adaptive progress. In F. Hesselbein & M. Goldsmith, (Eds.). The Leader of the Future 2: Visions Strategies and Practices for the New Era. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Heifetz, R. Grashow, A. & Linsky, M. (2009). The Practice of Adaptive Leadership: Tools and Tactics for Changing your Organization and the World. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business Press.

Northouse, P. G. (2013). Leadership: Theory and Practice (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Odumeru, J. & Ifeanyi, G. O. (2013). Transformational vs. transactional leadership theories: Evidence in literature. International Review of Management and Business Research, 2(2), 355-361.

Shibru, B. & Darshan, G. M. (2011). Transformational leadership and its relationship with subordinate satisfaction with the leader (The case of leather industry in Ethiopia). Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(5), 686-697. Retrieved from

Shirazi, M., Emami, A. H., Mirmoosavi, S. J., Alavinia, S. M., Zamanian, H., Fathollahbeigi, F., & Masiello, I. (2014). Contextualization and standardization of the supportive leadership behavior questionnaire based on socio- cognitive theory in Iran. Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran28, 125.

Toseland, R. W. & Rivas, R. F. (2017). An introduction to group work practice (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Useem, M. (2010). Four lessons in adaptive leadership. Harvard Business Review, (November). Retrieved from

Zabihi, M. & Hashemzehi, R. (2012). The relationship between leadership styles and organizational citizenship behavior. African Journal of Business Management, 6(9), 3310-3319.

Theories of Accounting


Both positive accounting and critical theoretical perspectives are sets of suppositions, outlines and methodologies applied in the study and utilization of financial reporting codes. The two theories form the historical foundations of accounting practices and the way in which accounting practices are embraced and incorporated in the regulatory framework that regulates financial statements and financial reporting. The following discussion critically evaluates the value and purpose of accounting standards from the perspectives of the two theories.

Positive Accounting Theory

Positive accounting theory tries to give some description of accounting principles founded in the purposes of executives. The pioneers of the theory, Watts & Zimmerman try to create positive theories that help in accounting standards determination. In this case, accounting standards mean the accounting measures that encompass the regulations used in the integration of transactional events into finances reporting. According to the positive theorizers, for an accounting action to be described using a positive theory, it needs to specifically comprise the measures employed by analysts to compute such things like total liabilities, total assets, net income, owners’ equity, etc.  The positive accounting theoretical perspective highlights the significance of explaining an event and relating it to its causes. In accounting standards, the theory argues that people act to capitalize on their own utility (Williams 1989). The typical application of this hypothesis is that executive advocate for accounting standards depending on their own self-interest.  In regard to this, the first theoretical proposition of the positive accounting theory is considering the financial self-interests of executives as a determiner of their likings for accounting measures. Moreover, the positive theorists consider the likings of executives for accounting measures to have an impact on the apparent set of current accounting measures.

Based on the view of positive theorists regarding management, their view is that the management is manipulative. This implies that the preferences for accounting procedures for the managers are for those that enable them to report narratives that are beneficial to them economically. According to Watts & Zimmerman, the positive accounting theory offers investors and financial analysts a significant predictive model of the accounting procedures essential to financial statements. In the modern world, this is applicable because utilizing the theory, analysts or investors don’t consider balance sheet and earnings figures as impartial approximates of the value of firm and alterations in the value of the firm. Instead, they take into consideration the impact of political processes and contracting on the computation of incomes and balance sheet figures. For instance, the incentive of the executive to select incomes decreasing or increasing accounting methods is dependent on the current payment and debt contracts. Supposing the analyst is aware of the contracts, he or she can adjust the reported numbers (Gendron 2018). What positive theorists assert is that for the aims of financial analysis, accounting standards are influenced by the unscrupulous behavior of the administration and that this behavior is determined by their values.

The perspectives of the positive accounting theory are concerned with forecasting actions such as the choices of accounting policies by firms and the responses of firms to the existing accounting standards. Positive theorists assist in the reconciliation of efficient securities market theory with economic impacts through asserting the contracts that firms enter into are responsible for the management’s concern regarding accounting standards.  In regard to positive accounting theory, the positive theorists have formulated the hypothesis that is regarded to be influential in determining the decisions that stakeholders take considering accounting standards. First, the bonus plan hypothesis is related to the maximization of compensation. According to the positive theorists, when all things are equal, the management of companies with bonus plans is more possibly going to choose the accounting standards that will favor the shifting of the reported earnings from future periods to the present period.  Second, there is the debt covenant hypothesis that is related to the minimization of the problems with the creditors. The hypothesis shapes positive theorists in that it influences their decisions concerning the accounting standards related to creditors (Nobes 2014). According to the hypothesis, when all other things are held equal, the more a company is close to violating debt contracts that are account-based, the more possibly the company’s management is to choose accounting standards and policies that will shift the reported earnings from future periods to the present period. Lastly, there is the political cost hypothesis that is related to the minimization of the political heat. It supposes that when all other things are held equal, the higher the political cots a firm faces,  the more possible that the management will opt for the accounting standards and policies that will assist in deferring reported earnings from present to future periods.

The positive accounting theory perspectives forecast that managers will select account standards with the aim of furthering the above-mentioned objectives.  This implies that although the accounting standards and policies that managers select are usually within the scopes of GAAP, the possibility of reporting different accounting variables in the wrong section occurs (Godfrey et al 2010).



Critical Accounting Theory

According to critical theorists, critical accounting theory entails a strategy of accounting research that goes beyond questioning if specific strategies of accounting need to be used and instead concentrates on the role of accounting standards in maintaining the powerful stakeholders that are responsible for the regulation of specific resources like capital while minimizing or limiting those without capital. The goal of accounting standards in the society is to ensure financial information provided during reporting will be correct to assist stakeholders to make short and long term economic decisions. according to critical theorists, justification of a company’s operations are mainly done through accounting practices and also it is through the accounting standards that companies provide pieces of evidence like liabilities, assets, expenses, income, and equity (Deegan and Unerman 2011). Critical theorists consider accounting standards as a framework that legitimize the ongoing existence of the firm and fulfilling the ‘social contract’ between society and organization. Moreover, they argue that the motive of legitimation is possibly harmful, specifically if it legalizes activities that are not in the best interests of specific classes in society and benefits those strong stakeholders. For critical theorists, they consider accounting standards to regulate the disclosures of both financial and non-financial information are applied intentionally to support specific social structures and stakeholders that ends up benefitting a group of people on the expense of others.

Critical accounting theory claims that firms deliberately reveal non-financial information to legitimize their behavior. In regard to this, the theory claims that firms only react to specific concerns that have emerged in relation to their operations in regard to the survival as opposed to a liability owed to society at large. Besides, critical theorist claims corporate survival is linked to legitimizing disclosures. This implies that management only follows the accounting standards when they are needed to do.  Accounting standards result in the existence of limited disclosures because of limited concerns. Critical theory perspectives consider accounting standards being helpful in assisting establish reality and are considered as a way of establishing or making a specific social structure legitimate. This means that financial reports can be created and assessed without effective market intrusion (Edwards 2013). Critical theorists claim that accounting standards do not produce an objective representation of economic reality and the agenda behind it is to transfer wealth to another specific group of people.  This is connected to the positive accounting theory that claims that all people’s action is motivated by self-interest and people will behave in an opportunistic manner to the extent that the actions will result to an increase of their wealth. For instance, the management of a company with bonus plans is more possibly going to apply accounting policies that will increase the present period reported income. This will entail increasing the present values of bonuses paid to management and assist them to attain their bonus and incentives.

According to critical theorists, the major objective of accounting standards results to the creation of unequal distributions of wealth and power across society, taking into consideration that accounting practices are in the hands of reporting entities and regulation of accounting is in the hand of government and associated regulatory agencies. Accounting standards are perceived to empower only those who use them like organizations were mostly is applied to legitimize myths. Thus, accounting standards are considered being conceptual frameworks that are utilized to legitimize and self-regulate the accounting profession and are normally used to assist powerful stakeholders to legitimize their financial reports or attain their incentives (May 2013). Critical theorists consider accounting standards as tools used in manipulating figures, as strategies of distributing wealth, and as ways of legitimizing financial reports. In most cases, accounting standards favor the powerful and wealthy in society.


The evaluation of both critical accounting and positive accounting theories reveals that they interpret and apply accounting standards in different ways. The positive accounting theoretical perspective highlights the significance of explaining an event and relating it to its causes. In accounting standards, the theory argues that people act to capitalize on their own utility. The typical application of this hypothesis is that executive lobbies on accounting standards depending on its own self-interest. For instance, the incentive of the manager to select incomes decreasing or increasing accounting methods is dependent on the current compensation and debt contracts. On the other hand, Critical theorists consider accounting standards as a framework that legitimize the ongoing existence of the firm and fulfilling the ‘social contract’ between society and organization. Moreover, they argue that the motive of legitimation is possibly harmful, specifically if it legalizes activities that are not in the best interests of specific classes in society and benefits those strong stakeholders. Thus, accounting standards are considered being conceptual frameworks that are utilized to legitimize and self-regulate the accounting profession depending on the principles of the theory adhered to.








Deegan, C. and Unerman, J., 2011. Financial accounting theory: European edition. McGraw-Hill.

Edwards, J.R., 2013. A History of Financial Accounting (RLE Accounting). Routledge.

Gendron, Y., 2018. On the elusive nature of critical (accounting) research. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 50, pp.1-12.

Godfrey, J., Hodgson, A., Tarca, A., Hamilton, J., and Holmes, S., 2010. Accounting theory.

May, G.O., 2013. Financial accounting. Read Books Ltd.

Nobes, C., 2014. International classification of financial reporting. Routledge.

Williams, P.F., 1989. The logic of positive accounting research. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 14(5-6), pp.455-468.

Human Evolution

Human Evolution

Question 1

Fossils records enable us to see events that happened in the past. As such, humans can know the modern evolution using events that happened in the past through fossils. Documented fossils history shows characteristics such as path the creatures took through evolutionary history. In addition, fossils show the time taken for a complete revolution to occur (Grabowski, 2015). As such, humans can date them as well as looking into their features that occurred during their development period and helps in comparing them. Therefore, fossils enable us to know human evolution (Cartmill & Smith, 2009).


Question 2

Different scholars have come up with several explanations to illustrate bipedalism including the idea of our ancestors’ desire to stand up and see beyond the tall grasses, reduce the body area exposed to sunlight among others. However, bipedalism enables human to understand the origin of their most distinctive traits (Langdon, 1985). In addition, scientists postulate that understanding our ancestors’ brain enables us to fully understand how modern humans evolved. Notably, the modern human’s brains are globular and large. The modern human behavior can be attributed to induced neurological shifts from our ancestors. According to scientists, the human brain possesses abstract thought that enables humans to create art and tools and is traceable from the emergence of human revolution (Grabowski, 2015).


Question 3

The out of Africa theory explains that modern humans came from an isolated species that expanded to replace the out-of-date and indigenous humans. The out of Africa modern humans are believed to have risen in the Pleistocene and are considered as new species that have negligible mating between archaic groups and migrating Africans (Leakey, 2013).   While the Out of Africa hypothesis suggests that Africans are the ancestors of all living things, the multiregional hypothesis postulates that Homo erectus is ancestor of all living things after he migrated into various part of the world and evolved (Grabowski, 2015).


Question 4

The most recent discovery was the Neanderthal; the creature was discovered in Germany, August 1856. Consequently, various scholars have argued the relationship between modern human and the Neanderthal (Dalton, 2010).  For instances, some signs show that the Neanderthal is similar to modern human but different from Homo sapiens. Consequently, the scholars argue that the Neanderthal breed with Homo sapiens, while others argue that they could not bleed because they had different characteristics (Hopkinson, 2000).













Grabowski, M., Hatala, K. G., Jungers, W. L., & Richmond, B. G. (2015). Body mass estimates of hominin fossils and the evolution of human body size. Journal of Human Evolution, 85, 75-93.

Top of Form

Leakey, R. E. (2013). The origin of humankind.

Bottom of Form

Top of Form

Cartmill, M., & Smith, F. H. (2009). The human lineage. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley-Blackwell.

Bottom of Form

Langdon, J. (1985). Fossils and the origin of bipedalism. Journal Of Human Evolution14(7), 615-635. doi: 10.1016/s0047-2484(85)80071-3

Dalton, R. (2010). Neanderthals may have interbred with humans. Nature. doi: 10.1038/news.2010.194

Hopkinson, T. (2000). Neanderthals and Modern Humans. Antiquity74(285), 723-725. doi: 10.1017/s0003598x00060129



Business Analysis: Motel 6

Business Analysis: Motel 6

The paper undertakes business analysis of Motel 6 assessing its generic business-level strategy with specifics. It also explores the firm’s competitive advantage vis-à-vis the industry and its top competitors. The sustainability of the firm’s long-term strategy is also evaluated. In addition, the position of the firm in the industry life cycle is identified. The analysis of the life cycle seeks to establish its influence on the strategies being implemented by the firm.

Business-Level Strategy

Business-level strategy “details the goal-directed actions managers take in their quest for competitive advantage when competing in a single product market” (Rothaermel, 2016, p.177). The focus is on customer segments to serve, customer needs to satisfy, and ways and means of meeting the customer needs (Rothaermel, 2016). There are generic business-level strategies that determine the market target focus (broad or narrow) and cost (Thompson et al., 2016).

Motel 6 has established itself as a low-budget hotel with no-frills lodging and roadside locations (Karmin, 2015). It offers discount motels in more than 1,300 locations with discounts such as 10% off for seniors (Motel 6, 2019). It offers discounted rates on its motel properties and inherently pursuing a low-cost provider strategy. The firm has developed an infrastructure in terms of locations that enables it to offer competitive pricing relative to most of its rivals.

It also offers similar discounts for military personnel (Motel 6, 2019). Although for the most part of its history (founded in 1962) the firm has pursued a low-cost provide strategy, it has adapted to the blue-oceans strategy. In this strategy, the firm simultaneously pursues a low-cost and differentiation strategy (Rothaermel, 2016). In 2010, the chain revamped its rooms offering additional amenities including large flat-screen TVs and granite countertops (Delollis, 2010).

The changes were made without impacting its appeal and average price at that time of $45.26 (Delollis, 2010). It became the first budget hotel chain to feature 32-inch flat-screen TVs as well as offering Wi-Fi and ports for plugging electronics (Delollis, 2010). Although the prices at the hotels did not change significantly, the product improved dramatically. It highlighted the efforts that the firm pursued to differentiate its offerings from rivals like Super 8.

Competitive Advantage

The intention of pursuing a business-level is to garner and sustain competitive advantage vis-à-vis industry rivals (Rothaermel, 2016). It has broader brand recognition that most rivals such as Super 8 and Red Roof Inns (Delollis, 2010). The greater awareness is due to efforts to make the product more appealing especially among young people while maintaining low prices. The attractiveness among different age groups is instructive (Figure 1, Appendix).

The strong appeal among the younger demographics (18 to 29 years) gives the firm a broader market than most rivals (Statista, 2019). It has more than 1,300 locations in the United States that are strategically located along roadsides (Karmin, 2015). The hotel chain is backed by a strong parent, Blackstone Group. In addition, it offers broader range of products from the basic Motel 6 to the extended stay hotel offerings under the Studio 6 brand.

Motel 6 has continues to institute changes with its products offerings that respond to the evolving customer tastes leading to retention of strong brand recognition (Delollis, 2010). The firm has comparatively high occupancy rate of more 85% relative to industry (Karmin, 2015). The high occupancy rate has been instrumental in generating adequate profitability to support product makeovers and purse its ambition to expand to new geographical markets.

Business Sustainability

The major driver of sustainability for Motel 6 is its attractiveness to younger people (Figure 1, Appendix). It offers the firm consistent customer base as they are likely to continue to patronage their establishments as they grow older. The firm has always responded to changes in consumer demands and has pioneered significant changes (Delollis, 2010). Even with the broad appeal of product innovations, it has maintained its low prices which are the main attraction.

As a result, it has been able to balance product upgrades and still maintaining the low prices profitably. The ability to profitably manage the balance is instrumental in creating the level of differentiation that promotes strong brand appeal. The hotel chain is pursuing more markets within the Americas with expansion into Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Belize as part of regional diversification strategy (Karmin, 2015).

Expanding into additional country markets reduces its reliance on the United States market. Unlike the basic products offered under the Motel 6 brand, it is creating an entirely different model for Latin America. It is an expanded version with food and beverage offerings under the Hotel 6 brand. The diversification that responds to different markets and cultures has the potential for enabling them to attain success in new markets unlike standardization.

Industry Life Cycle

There are five stages in the industry life cycle including embryonic, growth, shakeout, mature, and decline (Hill & Jones, 2013). The stages are progressive with varying demand and growth rates. Motel 6 is in the industry shakeout phase where growth has slowed considerably and is approaching saturation levels especially in the home market. It posted increase of Revenue per Available Room (RevPAR) of between 1.1% and 3.6% (Lodging Staff, 2017).

The low growth rate is persistent due to the high level of saturation in the market in the United States with progressive towards market maturity. It is the main driver behind its move to expand into Central America as part of geographical diversification (Karmin, 2015). There is a high level of awareness within the firm that the sustainability of growth in the United States is fairly limited. Therefore, geographical expansion offers the requisite diversification.


Motel 6 has maintained its budget focus but has been modifying its product to create a stronger appeal among the younger generation. It implies that is seeking blue oceans in the increasingly saturated market in the United States. The continued expansion in the home market and internationally boosts economies and long-term sustainability. The industry is increasingly becoming mature prompting strategy shift especially geographical diversification for the firm.


Delollis, B. (2010). Budget Hotels Going More Upscale. Retrieved 27 March 2019 from

Hill, C. W. L., & Jones, G. R. (2013). Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach (10th Ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western.

Karmin, C. (2015). Low-Budget Motel 6 Gets in on Lodging Growth Boom. Retrieved 27 March from

Lodging Staff. (2017). G6 Hospitality Announces 2016 Growth. Retrieved 27 March 2019 from

Motel 6. (2019). Save More for What You Travel For. Retrieved 27 March 2019 from

Rothaermel, F. T. (2016). Strategic Management (3rd Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Statista. (2019). Share of Americans who Stayed at Motel 6 Hotels in the Last 12 Months in 2018, by Age. Retrieved 27 March 2019 from

Thompson, A. A., Peteraf, M. A., Gamble, J. E., & Strickland, A. J. (2016). Crafting and Executing Strategy: The Quest for Competitive Advantage, Concepts and Cases (20th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Aviation Safety






Aviation Maintenance Safety


Institution affiliation

















Weakest Link in Aviation Maintenance Safety

Since time immemorial, air transport been considered as the most convenient and secure means of transportation. The recent blow to the industry has been the increasing cases of plane crashes which has necessitated experts to examine the root cause of these accidents and develop effective solutions to reduce these accidents (Phillips, 2006). Aviation maintenance, safety can be defined as the process of ensuring that a system continuously performs its intended function in the level of reliability and safety (Xavier, 2015). Accordingly, International Aviation Maintenance and Safety bodies are carrying out research to find the most effective ways to prevent the planes from fatigue, wear and corrosion hence restoring the airplanes’ status.

Safety programs to mitigate this Weakness

Plans to enhance Aviation maintenance, safety have been thoroughly carried out over the years. A recent study by the flight safety foundation indicates that the human factor remains to be the weakest link in aviation safety and maintenance system. Further studies show that 85% of airline crashes are caused mainly by human error. Wikstén & Johansson (2016), gives an illustration of American Airlines Flight 587 where as a result of human error, 265 passengers succumbed to death. Some of the tendencies that prompt researchers to attribute most airplane crashes to human errors include; pilot decision making, poor “crew resource management, GPS factor, pilot area familiarity, fatigue and adverse mental states of the pilots.

Aviation Maintenance Safety Dynamics with Other Safety Programs

Currently, the aviation sector is working on safety programs to design more reliable, convenient and safer transportation systems. Fallibility, a safety program has been evaded through combining good training with modern safety equipment and onboard devices to warn of collisions with other planes or with the ground. Other safety programs include the provision of new decision aids and educational training and enhancement of existing guidance material (Rosenkrans, 2018). Moreover, air safety ought to be controlled and pilots to spend more time with the planes to learn all the controls. When systems are in place, the failure rate is low as opposed to the ability of humans to monitor the aircraft’s performances effectively. Phillips (2006), states that efforts to introduce unmanned aerial vehicles rather than piloted aircraft prove to be safer as there is an increased operator vigilance. In order to detect malfunctions more easily, perhaps robots should be put into operation. Malfunctioning of these aircraft could be overcome by employing multiple parallel monitoring systems.

How Analytical Systems and Data Collection Help Develop Safety Programs

The issue of vigilance effects when dealt with, can reduce dangers associated with aircrafts crash. Vigilance effects can be attributed to; boredom and the high workload associated with a high level of vigilance. Besides, performance deficit may occur because of either vigilance decrement over time or sustained low levels of vigilance. These levels of vigilance cause fatigue which is disastrous as it poses threats to passengers’ safety (Hinckley et al., 2010). On the other hand, analytical systems and data collections tools would play a vital role in enhancing aviation systems since they would integrate the safety processes and hence enhance speed and efficiency in gathering safety information. Moreover, the aspect of scalability is desirable as the safety operations and aviation structure expand in terms of ensuring that programs and processes are designed towards safety and maintenance. However, the initial cost of instituting analytical systems, especially the big data technology is quite high, but the benefits of its implementation and execution within the aviation safety docket would help the organization realize significant levels of safety and maintenance.

From the above arguments, it is evident that even with the introduction of aircraft, engines, navigations, and in-flight safety devices, accidents are still occurring with more plane crashing and killing many passengers. Therefore, we can conclude that human beings are the constant weak link in aviation safety.





















Hinckley, C. M., Hettinger, H., & Juenger, J. E. (2010). The argument for federal legislation protecting the confidentiality of aviation safety action program information. J. Air L. & Com.75, 161.

Phillips.D. (2006). Human factor remains air safety’s weakest link – Business – International Herald Tribune. New York Times.  Retrieved from

Rosenkrans, W. A. Y. N. E. (2018). Speaking up. Flight Safety Foundation. Aerosafety World, 34-39.

Wikstén, J., & Johansson, M. (2016). Maintenance and reliability with a focus on aircraft maintenance and spares provisioning.

Xavier, A. J. (2015). Managing human factors in aircraft maintenance through a performance excellence framework. A Graduate Research Project, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.

Social Judgment Theory

Social Judgment Theory

Social judgment supposition is a self-influential premise that examines the perception and evaluates an idea through weighing it against contemporary positions. Therefore, social judgment theory is a scheme that ventures into human judgment. The premise of the theory depicts that attitude change can occur as a result of a persuasive message. The approach further examines interaction with people and how such interactions lead to a shift in perception and opinion. Aspects that are coiled in the social verdict assumption include; “scope of rejection, acceptance, and noncommitment, adjustment and disparity, ego association, attitude change, and simulations” (Kuzio, 2013). Understanding the dynamics and principles of the theory will help in indicating a situation that depicts my self-experience concerning social judgment theory.

Social judgment aids us to understand the best way to approach individuals that we intend to impact concerning a particular subject. This is because the premise of social judgment gives us an idea regarding the stance or attitude of individuals we intend to influence concerning the underlying topic (Chau, et al. 2014). Therefore, we will be in a position to infer what they are likely to accept and reject the subject matter in question. The incidence that instilled a memorable experience regarding social judgment premise is when I was discussing with my mother regarding success in life. I understand that my mother has a perception that education is the aspect that will largely contribute to success. Therefore, I had to persuade her that in-built and nurtured talent is another platform that significantly contributes to success. My mother has a good impression concerning talent; hence, she will give it a level of tolerance or acceptance as a path to success.

The anchor point in this situation is education. My mother believes that education is the most satisfying aspect when it comes to attaining success in life. I think that the fact she believes in education as the most pleasing factor in achieving success does not imply she will not accept other paths that lead to success. For instance, she had some degree of acceptance that talent is another platform that presents an opportunity for one to succeed in life. Latitude of acceptance refers to the range of ideas one is willing to accept. In the underlying situation, my mother agrees that talent is essential in elevating an individual, but she believes ones should balance between education and talent, and pursues them in a parallel manner.

The latitude of noncommitment implies a scope of thoughts where one has got no opinion regarding them. For instance, if I informed my mother that I had a talent in football and I pursue it while studying, she did not bother much even though it was not her preference. Latitude of rejection implies the idea that one is not supporting. For instance, I asked my mother if I could undertake a football professional on fulltime bases at the expense of my studies. She was quick to detest the idea has she had a notion that education is the primary aspect; other aspects concerning success should only complement education. I was keen on denoting my persuasive approach particular where my idea was within the rejection latitude of my mother, as the concept was opposing the anchor point.


Chau, et al. (2014). Social Judgment Theory-Based Model On Opinion Formation, Polarization, And Evolution. Retrieved from:

Kuzio, A. (2013). Social Judgment theory: retrieved from: http://a-