TIM HORTONS Case Study Analysis

Organizational performance depends on the strategies put in place by the management team to increase revenue collection. It is essential to analyze both internal and external environment with the aim of making appropriate decisions that can facilitate the positive growth of an institution. Venturing into the restaurant industry is an uphill task due to the kind of competition associated with the penetration of new players in the market. Tim Hortons relies on numerous factors for operations to take place thus creating the need to examine different issues that contribute to the kind of decisions made by the relevant authorities that are designed to transform the image of the company positively.

Bargaining Power of Customers

Clients play a significant role in the growth of any organization because the ultimate aim of a firm’s existence is to serve customers. Bargaining behaviors shape the functionalities of the firm since prices are determined by the clients’ ability to negotiate for a better deal. The ever-changing trends in the restaurant industry require flexibility where hotels are sensitive to the change in behaviors exhibited by the target customers. The practice implies considerations on prices to attract more clients to the hotel and create a competitive advantage over other players in the same industry. Tim Hortons experiences change in consumption trends where individuals prefer service providers that are quick in production and also produce food that is appropriate for their health. To achieve such milestones, acquisition will help in reinforcing the performance of the company because a lot of resources will be shared thus reducing the operational cost.

Bargaining Power of Suppliers

The increase in market coverage demonstrates the need to engage more suppliers for the company to meet the market demands. It is possible to witness a situation where suppliers champion for better pay for the material they supply to the restaurant thus affecting the growth of the firm since the move will consume part of the profits made by Tim Hortons. Through the acquisition, the company will enhance its bargaining power to contain the demands presented by suppliers thus realizing positive development as compared to working as a single firm. Suppliers negotiate for better prices depending on numerous issues like the economic transformations witnessed in the country where some commodities consume a lot of resources before reaching the destination hence affecting the general performance in a given industry. The existence of competitors like McDonald’s is also critical when understanding the factors that influence suppliers’ prices because the rates vary from one firm to the other depending on the financial abilities within an organization.

Competitive Rivalry

Restaurant industry experiences stiff competition due to the presence of many firms that offer the same services to the same target customers. Price is a crucial determinant of the number of clients served by a restaurant because consumers evaluate the financial implications of engaging with a particular hotel. Tim Hortons has the opportunity to pursue acquisition to focus on specific groups of individuals by enhancing service delivery where the time taken to process food is reduced to attract clients. The presence of many restaurants in the industry is an indication that the field is lucrative and worth investing if a proper analysis is conducted to determine the competitiveness of a firm.

The threat of Substitute Products

Health matters have become critical when making consumption plans since people are keen to protect their lifestyles by engaging in healthy eating. To manage the situation, alternative foods are consumed since it is perceived that fast food is not adequately prepared to meet the health standards. With such threats, it is difficult to run a restaurant without incorporating the changes demonstrated by consumers who contribute to the survival of a company. Tim Hortons has the potential to maintain relevant on the market due to the strategy applied by the company to provide food according to the client’s specifications. The move prompted the need to embrace fast food approach where a product is produced on order instead of having a ready meal that might not be consumed by the end of the day. Having a variety of food products is also an essential move towards successful operations since the interests of diversified clients are taken care of in the process of functioning within a diversified community.

The threat of New Entrants

Competition in the restaurant industry is a common practice that is facilitated by the entry of new players who introduce attractive packages to clients. Starbucks joined the market in 1971 and made tremendous strides due to the strategies employed by the company where a variety of brands were provided to customers. With such practices in place, Tim Hortons must make a crucial decision that is meant to transform the operations and create a new look to contain the competition in the industry. According to Angwin and Meadows, merging will help in creating a strong team to counter the strategies employed by new players because the combined team will enjoy the presence of vast experience and diversified markets through different networks created by the two companies during their independent operations (236).

 

Work Cited

Angwin, Duncan N., and Maureen Meadows. “New integration strategies for post-acquisition

management.” Long Range Planning 48.4 (2015): 235-251.

Advertisements

TIM HORTONS Case Study Analysis

TIM HORTONS Case Study Analysis

Organizational performance depends on the strategies put in place by the management team to increase revenue collection. It is essential to analyze both internal and external environment with the aim of making appropriate decisions that can facilitate the positive growth of an institution. Venturing into the restaurant industry is an uphill task due to the kind of competition associated with the penetration of new players in the market. Tim Hortons relies on numerous factors for operations to take place thus creating the need to examine different issues that contribute to the kind of decisions made by the relevant authorities that are designed to transform the image of the company positively.

Bargaining Power of Customers

Clients play a significant role in the growth of any organization because the ultimate aim of a firm’s existence is to serve customers. Bargaining behaviors shape the functionalities of the firm since prices are determined by the clients’ ability to negotiate for a better deal. The ever-changing trends in the restaurant industry require flexibility where hotels are sensitive to the change in behaviors exhibited by the target customers. The practice implies considerations on prices to attract more clients to the hotel and create a competitive advantage over other players in the same industry. Tim Hortons experiences change in consumption trends where individuals prefer service providers that are quick in production and also produce food that is appropriate for their health. To achieve such milestones, the acquisition will help in reinforcing the performance of the company because a lot of resources will be shared thus reducing the operational cost. The bargaining power of customers is high hence making the industry unattractive because the restaurant must invest according to the dynamics in the market.

Bargaining Power of Suppliers

The increase in market coverage demonstrates the need to engage more suppliers for the company to meet the market demands. It is possible to witness a situation where suppliers champion for better pay for the material they supply to the restaurant thus affecting the growth of the firm since the move will consume part of the profits made by Tim Hortons. Suppliers have low bargaining power in the case of Tim Hortons since they have to share the few organizations hence being forced to offer competitive prices to attract clients. Through the acquisition, the company will enhance its bargaining power to contain the demands presented by suppliers thus realizing positive development as compared to working as a single firm. Suppliers negotiate for better prices depending on numerous issues like the economic transformations witnessed in the country where some commodities consume a lot of resources before reaching the destination hence affecting the general performance in a given industry. The existence of competitors like McDonald’s is also critical when understanding the factors that influence suppliers’ prices because the rates vary from one firm to the other depending on the financial abilities within an organization. The high number of suppliers makes the industry more attractive due to the reasonable prices provided by vendors with the focus on retaining clients like Tim Hortons.

Competitive Rivalry

Restaurant industry experiences stiff competition due to the presence of many firms that offer the same services to the same target customers. Price is a crucial determinant of the number of clients served by a restaurant because consumers evaluate the financial implications of engaging with a particular hotel. Tim Hortons has the opportunity to pursue acquisition to focus on specific groups of individuals by enhancing service delivery where the time taken to process food is reduced to attract clients. The presence of many restaurants in the industry is an indication that the field is lucrative and worth investing if a proper analysis is conducted to determine the competitiveness of a firm. The rivalry is high because many organizations offer alternative solutions to clients thus affecting the operations of Tim Hortons.

The threat of Substitute Products

Health matters have become critical when making consumption plans since people are keen to protect their lifestyles by engaging in healthy eating. To manage the situation, alternative foods are consumed since it is perceived that fast food is not adequately prepared to meet the health standards. The threat of substitute products is high since customers’ demands are met by providing food according to their specifications. With such threats, it is difficult to run a restaurant without incorporating the changes demonstrated by consumers who contribute to the survival of a company. Tim Hortons has the potential to maintain relevant on the market due to the strategy applied by the company to provide food according to the client’s specifications. The move prompted the need to embrace fast food approach where a product is produced on order instead of having a ready meal that might not be consumed by the end of the day. Having a variety of food products is also an essential move towards successful operations since the interests of diversified clients are taken care of in the process of functioning within a diversified community. The situation makes the industry attractive to Tim Hortons since the restaurant has incorporated flexibility in its food production services.

 

 

The threat of New Entrants

Competition in the restaurant industry is a common practice that is facilitated by the entry of new players who introduce attractive packages to clients. The threat of new entrants is high since the industry is attractive thus contributing to a high number of restaurants being established in the market. Starbucks joined the market in 1971 and made tremendous strides due to the strategies employed by the company where a variety of brands were provided to customers. With such practices in place, Tim Hortons must make a crucial decision that is meant to transform the operations and create a new look to contain the competition in the industry. According to Angwin and Meadows, merging will help in creating a strong team to counter the strategies employed by new players because the combined team will enjoy the presence of vast experience and diversified markets through different networks created by the two companies during their independent operations (236). High competition makes the industry less attractive because many firms have to serve the same client base thus affecting the pricing practices.

Conclusion

Tim Hortons is in a better position to survive in the restaurant industry because the firm has the potential to overcome the challenges associated with high competition from rivalry by merging its operations. The reputation of the firm allows it to overcome threats posed by new entrants since clients are keen on quality food from recognized producers like Tim Hortons. The company has more of the attractive features that can facilitate positive growth. The level of competition implies that the industry is attractive due to the population growth that presents ready market for the food products.

 

Work Cited

Angwin, Duncan N., and Maureen Meadows. “New integration strategies for post-acquisition

management.” Long Range Planning 48.4 (2015): 235-251.

TIM HORTONS Case Study Analysis

TIM HORTONS Case Study Analysis

Organizational performance depends on the strategies put in place by the management team to increase revenue collection. It is essential to analyze both internal and external environment with the aim of making appropriate decisions that can facilitate the positive growth of an institution. Venturing into the restaurant industry is an uphill task due to the kind of competition associated with the penetration of new players in the market. Tim Hortons relies on numerous factors for operations to take place thus creating the need to examine different issues that contribute to the kind of decisions made by the relevant authorities that are designed to transform the image of the company positively.

Bargaining Power of Customers

Clients play a significant role in the growth of any organization because the ultimate aim of a firm’s existence is to serve customers. Bargaining behaviors shape the functionalities of the firm since prices are determined by the clients’ ability to negotiate for a better deal. The ever-changing trends in the restaurant industry require flexibility where hotels are sensitive to the change in behaviors exhibited by the target customers. From the case study, the bargaining power of customers is high because each segment of the restaurant industry has specific customers that drive their sales. Tim Hortons is a fast food restaurant with a 39% customer loyalty rate means that this consumer segment controls the profitability levels of the company. As such, the consumer segment has the power to influence the price of the products and quickly switch to other alternative products in the market. The high bargaining power of customers makes the industry unattractive because the restaurant must invest according to the dynamics in the market.

Bargaining Power of Suppliers

The increase in market coverage demonstrates the need to engage more suppliers for the company to meet the market demands. The quick-service category in which Tim Hortons belong to has many more powerful actors such as McDonald’s. These categories of restaurants have numerous locations which have independent suppliers for its raw materials, meaning that they have many different suppliers.  Tim Hortons has an existing 300 locations and another 261 newly established locations and 3G capitals is equally a well-established company. For this reason, the supplier bargaining power is low because the company can choose to contract other suppliers from its other locations to do the supplies. Additionally, with the acquisition, the company will enhance its bargaining power because it will decide which among its previous suppliers will continue supplying for the new company. The high number of suppliers makes their bargaining power low and ultimately the industry becomes more attractive.

Competitive Rivalry

There are numerous players in both the U.S. and Canada restaurant industries. 900,000 and 81,000 players in both the U.S and restaurant and catering industries respectively indicate the significantly high numbers of players. This is an indication that the competitive rivalry in the industry is high, and mainly because Tom Hortons is operating in the same category with the McDonalds which presents stiff competition. The high competitive power means that the company will have to go as per the market trends including pricing which is a critical determinant of the profit levels. While the Tom Hortons acquisition by 3G Capitals is a strategic move to enhance the competitive advantage of the company, the high competition levels in the industry makes it unattractive because one is not certain of the expected profitability levels. The high industry competition makes the industry less attractive.

The threat of Substitute Products

Health matters have become critical when making consumption plans since people are keen to protect their lifestyles by engaging in healthy eating. To manage the situation, alternative foods are consumed since it is perceived that fast food is not adequately prepared to meet the health standards. For Tim Hortons, the threat of substitute products is high since there is the existence of other players who provide different products. Full-service dining restaurants, limited service restaurants which offer healthy menus and fast-casual restaurants which provided products based on customers’ preference. While fast food products is a preference for a fair share of the market segment, various factors may influence the customers’ preference such as the nutritional value of the food, health impact, source of raw materials among others. These considerations may cause customers to switch to substitutes provided by other players in the market. The situation makes the industry less attractive to Tim Hortons as there are high chances for its customers to shift to substitute products.

The threat of New Entrants

Competition in the restaurant industry is a common practice that is facilitated by the entry of new players who introduce attractive packages to clients. The threat of new entrants is high since the industry is attractive thus contributing to a high number of restaurants being established in the market. However, the restaurant industries in both the U.S. and Canada is already high and well-established with players enjoying economies of scale and strong branding of its products in the market. For instance, Tom Hortons brands are well established and with its numerous outlets, it enjoys economies of scale. According to Angwin and Meadows, merging will help in creating a strong team to counter the strategies employed by new players because the combined team will enjoy the presence of vast experience and diversified markets through different networks created by the two companies during their independent operations (236). Because of this, the threat of new entrants is low due to these requirements and the position that Tom Hortons occupies in the industry. This requires significantly high capital for entry into the market and competing with the strong brand stand to be a challenge. This makes the market more attractive.

Conclusion

The industry is unattractive for Tom Hortons to venture in. This is because; the bargaining power of customers, the competitive rivalry and the threat of substitute products are high against the bargaining power of suppliers and the threat of new entrants which are low.. This means that the possibility of developing a competitive advantage and sustain its profitability levels will be highly compromised. For this reason, Tom Horton’s competitive position is low.

 

Work Cited

Angwin, Duncan N., and Maureen Meadows. “New integration strategies for post-acquisition

management.” Long Range Planning 48.4 (2015): 235-251.

 

CASE STUDY: OPTIMAL SIZING AND DESIGN OF A STAND ALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM USING HOMER

S

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

24

InverterOutputPower

2.65

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

olar systems are gaining traction worldwide as alternative energy options. This is because they are environmentally friendly and a renewable source of energy.

This project is tasked in designing a 25kw solar system using HOMER. We are also required to provide a comprehensive description of the system; labeling components, their characteristics (electrical) cost, reasons for choosing the components and the parameters used while factoring them on.

This paper aims to study the feasibility of an independent (standalone) solar system in providing electrical energy needs for a setup of a 25kw load. The study will apply HOMER software to design a complete photovoltaic system with the requisite components. It is aimed that the net cost of this system in comparison with cost benefits will be established. HOMER is an effective software design suite (tool) for a photovoltaic system as it offers a comprehensive library of solar and energy system components and their characteristics.

INTRODUCTION

Renewable energy system and advantages/limitation.

Electrical energy needs have exponentially increased over the recent two centuries, this has also raised the global awareness of the adverse effects of conventional energy generation methods like hydro-electric, thermal, geothermal and nuclear. It is therefore not surprising that the world is moving towards renewable energy sources as an alternative. There is also the fact that main grid electricity is often not extensive; covering only renewable urban areas and frequently inaccessible in the rural or far-flung areas. The unavailability of grid-energy in such areas is often due to the high cost of connections coupled with the profits to be accrued hence, limiting coverage. This lack of coverage in remote locations gives an excellent opportunity in applying renewable energy to mitigate accessibility challenges in meeting the energy needs of the resident communities. Although a major drawback of the renewable source is their intermittent unreliable nature, the pros far outweigh the cons environmentally. The above-mentioned sources of renewable energy is a standalone (purely solar) PV (photovoltaic system); which employs a solar array with photovoltaic solar panels, inverters, battery banks, and solar charge controllers. The PV solar panels essentially convert the sun’s ultraviolet rays into direct-current electrical current. The amount of current produced is dependent on the size/power rating of the solar panel in watts.

The current is fed to a solar charge controller which employs pulse width modulation to limit and control (at an optimum-tolerable level) electric current fed to a battery to charge it. The battery bank stores energy when charging and discharges to an inverter with a certain wattage (depending on a system needs).

Various factors need to be considered in designing a standalone PV system. It has been stated that renewable energy is intermittent at best and fluctuating most of the time. Solar is no exception and is available during the daytime and unavailable during rainy/cloudy/night periods. It is therefore essential that a designer factors the amount of sunshine available at different times.

Another factor in choosing system components and design orientation is the varying direction and orientation of the sun. This will determine the type, number, and orientation of the solar panels.

The load (electrical) requirement for the system will depend on whether the establishment to be powered is domestic or commercial with commercial setups employing a greater load. Considering the design is for a 25kw commercial property, we will choose the solar panels, battery, and the inverter accordingly.

HOMER

To aid us in this design challenge, we will use HOMER (hybrid optimization model for electric renewable) (4) developed by Dr. Lilienthal. It is a micro-power optimization tool that employs a comprehensive suite of tools and an extensive library of renewable energy system components to ease the task of designing accurate systems Homer will optimize the system and also perfume a sensitivity analysis (HOMER Energy, 2018). HOMER will also perform an energy balance computation based on sizes and numbers of components. A sorted list displaying the different available configurations and based on total net present cost will thus be afforded (Ian, 2004).

The cost calculation is based on pre-factored and software build in variations of costs parameters for instance capital, operation maintenance and replacement of the components. The sensitivity analysis will query and let the varying factors in the system and the level of affectedness of the components while varying them. The simulation results will be displayed in graphs and tables.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF A STAND-ALONE.

Advantages

  1. Pre-fabricated and pre-designed components hence enable easier/faster installation
  2. Provides energy in remote locations where High voltage grid connection is uneconomical
  3. Environmentally friendly, it reduces emissions from conventional and environmentally unconscious sources.
  4. Lower costs over the term (there are no recurrent costs
  5. They are less complex, the user may operate it and perform easy installation and maintenance tasks. The tasks can be performed with minimal injury risk

CONS

  1. Intermittent and fluctuating therefore unreliable
  2. Lower power output compared the conventional source. This means the load that can be supported is minimal
  3. Depend on weather conditions
  4. Prone to failure of components especially battery which have a limited operation life-cycle, inverter also frequently fail.

THEORY

In a PV system, semiconductor material absorbs U-V light/solar radiation photons which are converted to a current (DC) through the movement of semiconductor electrons. A solar module is formed by adding up solar cells. Modules are combined to form an array: Solar resources refers to the total solar the density index supposes the amount of abstraction of the sun rays before it reaches the earth.

Stand-alone energy systems consist of one independent type of energy sources like purely HEP (hydroelectric grid power) thermal, wind while hybrid system employs a combination of two or more. A hybrid system is more effective but a standalone system is cheaper and easier to install and operate.

RELATED WORK

Most other works use a more effective hybrid solution combining solar/PV and diesel generator or wind system. This solution is optimized using HOMER.

METHODOLOGY

As proposed, HOMER will be used to design a 25kw/day standalone commercial PV system. As a snapshot of the methodology to be used, it is imperative to note that the methodology will mainly focus on describing system inputs and calculation that will be used in HOMER simulation. These are the technical specifications of the solar panels, inverters, batteries, and the weather data for the chosen study location, the solar radiation density and average temperature of the location of interest.

To clarify farther, the method to be used in the HOMER PV system will focus on three major areas;

  1. HOMER Simulation
  2. HOMER Optimization.
  3. HOMER Sensitivity Analysis.

Input Specification.

Electrical Load

The project required a design for a constant load of 25kw/day as per the requirements.

Solar Radiation.

The global solar radiation average on the earth surface and the specification hourly per annum as a pre-factor for the design was required. Khartoum, Sudan was chosen as the study location (15Degrees 31’N latitude and 32Degrees 35’E) longitude. Data pertaining to an hourly radiation was obtained from the NASA website, surface meteorology and solar energy. Based on our source the average radiation from the sun daily was 6.31(Km/m2/d) for a horizontal surface in the said location.

Process

The below screenshots show actions took on HOMER online version

 

 

 

STRUCTURE OF THE PROPOSED DESIGN

For the case study, commercial polycrystalline silicon PV cell we selected at the optimal cost for required design. Besides PV cells, other additional components will be required for the Photovoltaic design, for instance, an inverter that is required for the conversion of the DC current at the PV modules to AC current, for our case synchronous with the grid. Additionally, due to the sunshine variability both on the twenty four hour basis and seasons as well, there is the need to balance the mismatch between the production and the consumption of electricity using a battery design.

The PV modules produce DC current, this current is converted to AC current with the aid of an inverter for the AC current electrical loads. The electric energy can be stored and used later by utilizing a battery. Batteries used in this cases have a huge storage capability. The PV design creates DC current that is converted to AC current by an inverter as mentioned earlier. From the design there are, PV modules, batteries, inverters, circuit breakers, and cables that are specific, this is to have an efficient power supply for a specified electrical load.

PV Array

The PV design, a semiconductor is used for the absorption of solar energy as photons, the photons are converted to a voltage through electrons movement; PV cells together form a module. The modules are wired to a large array referred to as a PV array.

The suggested modules to be used for our simulation are 24 V, 2.8 kW (at 1000 W/m2, and 25 degree Celsius). The modules are linked, forming an array with 24v.

The cost estimates including the replacement cost for the PV is $ 7/W. A lifetime of 25 years was estimated. An 80% de-rating factor was applied from each PV solar module to the electricity production. The modeling of the PV Solar panel modules was fixed, tilted south an angle equal to the site`s latitude. The capacities from different PV Solar panel modules (0, 0.28, 0.42, 0.56, 0.70, 0.84, 0.98, 1.12, 1.26, 1.40, 1.54 and 1.68 kW) were considered during analysis.

The image below shows a summary of the system.

 

 

Batteries

Since the design factors a working period of 24 hours, an essential part of the system has to include a battery bank and a solar charge controller mechanism. During the battery`s lifetime, HOMER software presumes that the properties are constant, external factors such as temperature are not considered. Our battery of choice had 24v, 360 capacities. The estimated battery cost is at $ 200. The battery`s lifetime is 1,075 kWh of throughput per battery. Several batteries were considered in the analysis (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4).

Discover AES 2.8kWhr 24VDC without Xanbus Communication Nominal Capacity is 110 Ah or 2816 Whr. The max discharge current of 600A is based on a 3 second rating. The lifetime is 16MWh within 10 years, with failure meaning <60% or the original capacity. Price estimate for hardware with Xanbus Communication is approximately $3560, and without is $3308. Capital cost and replacement cost represent hardware costs, but should be edited to include the cost of installation and logistics, etc. P/N 44-24-2800 (with Xanbus); P/N 14-24-2800 (without Xanbus)

The figure shows a general block diagram of the system

 

 

Inverter

An inverter is a device that is responsible for the conversion of DC current produced by the solar module array to AC current. Its efficiency is understood to be 95 percent for the PV design sizes of interest for the study. The probable price of an inverter is $ 300/kW, and the lifetime an approximate fifteen years. Inverters of an assortment of sizes in kW (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, and 1.5 kW) were used for analysis.

The electric loads proposed are energy conservative in comparison to electric load type used recently in Khartoum, Sudan. Here, a typical 24hr. electricity for commercial use is in place, we identified the energy generated in 24hrs. by the PV design.

An hourly load profile is shown below, the electric load is 25kWh daily.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

 

NetPresentCost($)

Cost summary

Cost Summary
Total net present cost Leveled cost of energy 48972$

0.345$/kWh

Net Present Costs
Component Capital Replacement O&M Fuel Salvage Total
 

Generic flatplatePV 24,877

 

0

 

1

 

0

 

0

 

24,879

HOMERCombinedDispatch 0 0 0 0 0 0
Discover AES2.8kWh24VDC 13,232 3,027 6,301 0 ­506 22,055
SystemConverter 1,421 798 0 0 ­181 2,038
System 39,531 3,826 6,302 0 ­687 48,972

Annualized Costs

Component Capital Replacement O&M Fuel Salvage Total

Generic flatplatePV 1,579 0 0 0 0 1,579

HOMERCombinedDispatch 0 0 0 0 0 0

Discover AES2.8kWh24VDC 840 192 400 0 ­32 1,400

SystemConverter 90 51 0 0 ­11 129

System 2,509 243 400 0 ­44 3,109

Capital

5k

Operating

Replacement

Salvage

0

­5k

NominalCashFlow ($)

­10k

­15k

­20k

­25k

­30k

­35k

­40k

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Year

Electrical

Quantity Value Units

Excesselectricity 6418kWh/yr.

Unmet load 109kWh/yr.

Capacityshortage 179kWh/yr.

Renewable percent 100%

Component Production (kWh/yr.) Percent(%)

PV 15,778 100

Total 15,778 100

Load Consumption (kWh/yr.) Percent(%)

ACprimaryload 9,016 100

DCprimaryload 0 0

Total 9,016 100

Power(kW)

 

PV:Generic flat platePV

Quantity Value Units

Ratedcapacity 8kW

Meanoutput 2kW

Meanoutput 43.23kWh/d

Capacity factor 21.72%

Totalproduction 15778kWh/yr.

Minimumoutput 0.00kW

Maximumoutput 8.08kW

PVpenetration 172.91%

Hoursofoperation 4361hrs/yr.

HourofDay

Leveledcost 0.100$/kWh

Battery: Discover AES 2.8kWh 24VDC

Quantity Value

Stringsize 1

Stringsinparallel 4

Batteries 4

Busvoltage 24

Quantity Value Units

Converter

Quantity Inverter Rectifier Units

Capacity 5 5kW

Meanoutput 0 0kW

Minimumoutput 0 0kW

Maximumoutput 3 4kW

Capacity factor 5 6%

Hoursofoperation 5,135 3,416hrs/yr.

Energyin 2,218 2,452kWh/yr.

Energyout 2,107 2,330kWh/yr.

HourofDay

Losses 111 123kWh/yr.

24

RectifierOutputPower

4.14

18

12

6

0

0.00

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

HourofDay

 

24

InverterOutputPower

2.65

18

12

6

0

0.00

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Emissions

Pollutant Emissions Units

Carbondioxide 0kg/yr.

Carbonmonoxide 0kg/yr.

Unburnedhydrocarbons 0kg/yr.

Particulatematter 0kg/yr.

Sulfurdioxide 0kg/yr.

Nitrogenoxides 0kg/yr.

References

About HOMER Energy – Creators of Hybrid Renewable Microgrid System Design Software. (n.d.). Retrieved September 30, 2018, from http://www.homerenergy.com/company/index.html

Ian, B. (2004). HOMER, the micropower optimization model, helps you design off-grid and grid connected systems. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. doi:https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy04osti/35406.pdf

Raji, A. K. (2017). Techno-Economic Feasibility Study of Autonomous Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid System. System Reliability.

Comoros Economy

Introduction

Human beings perceive island nations to be beautiful and a place many long to escape to for sun, sea, and serenity. However, not all island nations are paradise. While some are densely populated, economically unstable, and vulnerable, others are termed as paradise on earth with their stable economy comprised of various resources. This paper seeks to discuss the economy of the African country Comoros- an island state nation. It provides various signs of economic health in the country while pointing out interesting facts about the country.

Comoros Economy

To begin with, it is critical to identify a unifying economic factor in Comoros. Most people have the perception that island nations have the US dollar as the official currency since tourist all over the world could visit the island, thus using one of the most supreme currency in the world. On the contrary, this is not the case. The Comorian Franc (KMF) is the currency used at Comoros (Quod, Naim & Adourazi, 2000). One US dollar is equal to 422.2513 KMF. In contrast with other African currencies such as the Kenyan currency (KSH), the Comorian Franc is among one of the highly devalued currencies in Africa. While the KSH has an exchange rate of one US dollar equals 100ksh, the KMF currency is four times higher. The currency devaluation that occurred in January 1994 affected the currency of countries such as Comoros affiliated with the Franc zone.

One may argue that the economy of Comoros is dependent on the exchange rates that fluctuate each day due to the devaluation of the KMF currency. The fluctuating of the exchange rates has an adverse impact on the economy of Comoros since it deters import and export activities in the island. For instance, if a businessperson wants to import a car into the island from another country, but the exchange rate increases rapidly hence, he or she may be forced to wait until the exchange rate is stable. Such occurrences have affected both the importation and exportation of major commodities in Comoros. Currently, Comoros is a major exporter of commodities such as cloves, vanilla, ylang-ylang, scrap aluminium, wood charcoal, and essential oils (OEC, Comoros, 2018). Did you know that Comoros is the world’s leading producer of ylang-ylang, which is used in making perfumes and the world’s second-largest producer of vanilla? In fact, there is a likelihood that your perfume has been manufactured from ylang-ylang from Comoros.

Comoros is also a major importer of various commodities. It mainly imports fuel and cars. The importation of fuel accounts for 23% of total imports, whereas the importation of cars accounts for 18% of the total imports. Other imports include sugar, rice, fish, and cement. With the increased importation and exportation activities, the island nation has trade partners. For instance, according to (Comoros, 2018), Turkey, France, Kenya, United Arab Emirates, and Pakistan are its major import partners. In contrast, its major export partners are Singapore, Netherlands, and India. The island state has to ensure a balance in its import and export activities to avoid the occurrence of a trade imbalance. For instance, in 2016, Comoros imported goods worth $409 million and exported commodities worth $78.3million leading to a negative trade balance of $331 million (Comoros, 2018). Although the country is the 189th largest export economy in the world, negative trade balances have mainly affected its GDP.

Currently, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Comoros is worth 0.65 billion dollars. The GDP represents less than 0.01% of the world economy, which is still a fragile state for the country’s economy. Looking back, the electricity crisis that occurred in 2014-2015 led to the downfall of the country’s GDP affecting its economy (Comoros, 2018). With the resolution of the electricity crisis and increased investment programs, economic growth has rose from 2.8% in 2016 to an estimated 3.4% in 2017. It is evident there is some advancement in the economic growth of the country with economic growth projected to reach 3.7% by the year ended 2018 and 4.1% by 2019.

Increased investment programs have spurred economic growth at Comoros. For instance, in 2017, the programs targeted the public sector mainly in improving the roads and national hospitals while the private sector comprised of tourism and hospitality. Again, according to Quod et al. (2000), an increased regularization of civil servant’s salaries and cash transfers from the diaspora have improved private investment, which in turn has led to an increase in the country’s GDP. In terms of supply aiding in the country’s GDP, growth relies heavily on the recovery of the primary sector whereas in terms of demand, end-use consumption drives growth primarily.

Although the recovery of the primary sector has driven the economy of Comoros, the budget position inherited by the 2016 government has affected the GDP of the island. The government elected in 2016 has endured financial constraints since the country did not have a cooperation program with the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Surprisingly, most African countries are dependent on the IMF due to their overly ambitious budgets, which they are unable to fund. Comoros is an excellent example of a country with an overly ambitious budget. The 2017-2018 budget has been criticized as over ambitious with taxes accounting for only 22.3% of the country’s GDP (Comoros, 2018). Nonetheless, inflation is stable at under 3% due to the involvement of the Comoros central bank that has been managed soundly although this does not mean that the trade balance has been stabilized. In fact, it is expected to worsen slightly due to the economic recovery. Increased cash transfers to the diaspora are expected. They will consequentially amount to 25% of the country’s GDP.

The Gross National Product at Comoros has grown over the years with increased growth expected even with money transfers to the diaspora. In 1998, the GNP of Comoros was estimated at $370 million. The per capita income has in real terms increased at an average annual rate of 3.1% with output growing at a rate of 2.6%. The population growth in the island has increased with most families relying on small-scale agriculture for their livelihood even with the low output. According to Comoros (2008), the island state has a population of more than 795,000 people who are unevenly distributed in the three major islands of Anjouan, Grande Comore, and Moheli. With comparison to the size of the country and its population size, Comoros is densely populated. There are 400 inhabitants per square kilometre in Comoros with more than half of the population comprised of children. However, with the different islands having much to offer, the dense in the island state does not only depend on agriculture for their livelihood but also depend on the ocean by conducting fishery activities.

As a small island state, Comoros economy is 28% dependent on the ocean. With the country endowed with rich cultural resources of Arabic Decent and white beaches coupled with the Indian Ocean waters, it forms a tourist destination thus generating revenue for the country. Most people are also employed in hotels located on the white beaches, which aids in minimizing the rate of unemployment in the country. The increased rate of unemployment has led to increased poverty. According to the last household survey conducted in 2004, almost 18% of the population in Comoros lives below the international poverty line of $1.9 per capita per day (Quod et al. 2000). The rate of poverty varies from one island to the other with rural areas being the most affected. The Moheli Island is the poorest with people living on $1 per capita per day. In other terms, it is the land of survival.

The dense population and increased poverty has led to the sourcing of foreign aids and increased debts. Today, the World Bank is committed to reducing the country’s vulnerability and the strengthening of its capacity and accountability. The French Aid and Cooperation fund has aided Comoros 5.7 million French Francs in funding various projects such as sustaining food production in the country and providing effective housing and education systems (Comoros, 2018). Moreover, the isolated location of the nation and the lack of any high-valued mineral resources have made it rely heavily on foreign aid. Nonetheless, this does not imply that the island state does not have any mineral related resources.

Comoros has various minerals that are used for domestic consumption. They include sand, clay, gravel, and crushed stones. Since Comoros is located in the Indian Ocean, such minerals are in plenty although they do not have any significant impact on the economy of the country. Firstly, they are only used for local consumption, hence the country does not benefit from foreign revenue acquired through the exportation of minerals such as diamond (Quod et al.2000). Secondly, Comoros does not have any trading partners who have an interest in its minerals. However, this has not isolated the country from creating economic relationships with other countries although it has little to offer. Notably, Comoros is a member of the African Union.

Comoros has an economic relationship with countries such as Pakistan, United Arab Emirates, India, China, Turkey, and the United States. Most of these economic relationships have been built based on trade. The importation and exportation of various commodities have strengthened the economic relationship between Comoros and its trading partners (US Trade Representative, 2018). For instance, with the US importing agricultural products amounting to $3 from Comoros, the two states have strengthened economic relations with the US providing aid funds to the Island state through the French Aid and Cooperation fund (US Trade Representative, 2018). Although the two states have an economic relationship, the US does not have an embassy in Comoros. The US Ambassador to Madagascar is accredited as the US Ambassador to Comoros.

In conclusion, the economy of the African country Comoros is still growing. It is not a paradise on earth. The densely populated island has poverty issues, unemployment issues, vulnerability issues, debts, and it lacks minerals that are of value. However, the country is the main exporter of ylang-ylang, wood charcoal, cloves, and vanilla. On the other hand, it is a huge importer of cars, sugar, fuel, rice, fish, and cement.

Reference

Comoros. (2018). retrieved from: http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/comoros

OEC, Comoros. (2018). OEC- Comoros Exports, Imports and Trade Partners. Retrieved from: https://atlas.media.mit.edu/en/profile/country/com/

Quod, J. P., Naim, O., & Abdourazi, F. (2000). The Comoros archipelago.

US Trade Representative (2018). Comoros. Retrieved from: https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5236.htm

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

A Midsummer Night’s Dream is an idealistic humorous fantasy film, bottomed on the play, A Midsummer Night’s Dream by Shakespeare. The film transforms the pleasantry action of the 1800s from antique Athens to an Italian fantasy village by the name Monte Athena. The movie leaves the comedy’s paranormal, flimsy wings thus parting a tedious, earthbound case in its place. As Shakespeare’s Bottom is a deceive, self-possessed, and charitable slapstick comedian, Hoffman brings out an ill at ease, quickly dissatisfied Bottom. This paper will compare the two versions of the play, A Midsummer Night’s Dream by Shakespeare created by Angel and Hoffman.

Script

The initial film, which was written by Michael Hoffman and made in 1999, was an immense movie. It was positioned in the 1800s in the fantastic conurbation of Monte Athena Flockhart. Angel’s creation was the other film, which can be termed as an account movie. The Royal Shakespeare Company made it for the fourth channel. Angel’s film was created in 1985 and is produced by a producer by the name Adrian Noble. The movie was much more surrealistic for the reason that the storyline of the film was founded on a story of a dream that a young boy dreamt.

Scenery

One of the differences flanked by the two versions of A Midsummer Night’s Dream is the scenery and location of the film. In Hoffman’s film, the film is set in Umbria, Italy while in Angel’s movie the area where it was placed is in the imaginary Monte Athena town. The setting is full environmentalist scenery, as the outlook is viewed to be incredibly beautiful. However, the leprechaun human race is shadowy and additionally legendary. Cleaned out constructions formulate the place to look out of this world. In the nobles’ production, the stage is seen to be bare with little decorations and with only least amount of props.

Lighting and Color

Lighting and color are typically necessary for any film since films are mostly an illustration form of media. In the documentary by Hoffman, the colors seem to be very environmentalist and utilize the insipid colors and beautiful inoculations. The lighting has a kind of flight of the imagination world quality. There are many mysterious colors in the goblin world of the movie while the clothes of the fairies are bright, in which it can be said that the elves were symbolized by pinpricks of light.

Blocking

Hoffman’s film functions to portray correspondence flanked by the characters as well as between the worlds. A good illustration of this is shown in the variations of Hippolyta and Theseus versus Oberon and Titania who are habitually depicted as analogous in the movie and occasionally acted by the same actor. At the start of the film, Theseus tells Hippolyta of how impatient he was to get married to her, and as he tries to kiss her, Hippolyta turns her face away given the fact that it was not appropriate to be witnessed in public kissing. Titania and Oberon are moderately dissimilar in that they are not only represented as the same in power. Their clothes are more comfortable to take off and are less astringent. Oberon does not wear a shirt while Titania wears a dress that allows her to move liberally and easily. Further to this, on one occasion when the two fairies moved precedent to their dispute, they start kissing not quite but straight away, not concerned at all, about who could be watching them.

Dialogue change

Shakespeare’s play, A Midsummer Night’s Dream is among the most well-liked and regularly performed comical plays, and one of which has been transformed into a cinematic production has not much changed in its basic plot and dialogue, but the setting and some character traits have been altered. The play’s setting has been elegantly shifted from the sixteenth century Greece to the nineteenth century Tuscany. In Angel’s production, Bottom thinks he will become an auditor or an actor in which he starts by asking himself why ordinary people were so near to Titania. By setting the film in the nineteenth century, Hoffman has been able to include some modern inventions into the movie. In a broad-spectrum, it is seen that the two worlds do not mingle a lot and when they blend, they do chaos ensues. In Athens, every entity has a set and is on its purpose where records are used to document music, gramophones to play music and spoons to eat food. Many of the objects in the film go into the fairy forest world are used for the wrong purpose. Helena, Hermia, and Demetrius are seen in the forest with their bikes and Helena is spotted with hers in Athens.

In conclusion, the two films are of high quality, although I would have a preference of Hoffman film because of its rational and naturalist depiction. Furthermore, one can repeatedly watch, unlike the Noble movie. Hoffman’s film requires a lesser amount of knowledge of Shakespeare en route for understanding, in addition to being factual to life. Nevertheless, Angel’s movie is excellent and enhanced conditioned that one is familiar with the play and can envisage the prospects and the scenery.

Management

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unions

Name

Date

Institution

 

Unions

Many people join trade unions because of the assurance and insurance they offer to the well-being of the working environment. Using the mainstream economic school of thought, it is easy to understand why many workers choose to join unions. In as much as it has a negative connotation about the role of trade unions in an economy, the school of thought supports the views of workers and the quest for economic justice. The view of the school of thought, especially about labor relations is the ultimate reason why workers join unions (“Labor Relation Theories: Schools of thought and unions,” n.d.). Unions offer a voice in bargaining. This is the sole reason why workers join trade unions; to get their voice heard. The school of thought posits that unions make individual voices more pluralistic when striking a bargain.

The Communication Workers of America (CWA) is a perfect example of a union that voices the work of individual voices. It has incorporated workers from various fields and covered their best interests. According to the sitemap, the union is strictly governed by democratically elected leaders and regional balance (“Democracy in Our Ranks | Communications Workers of America,” 2017). The austerity of the rules about governance and leadership in the union portrays how effective the union can be in making the workers enjoy a better environment. To depict the importance of caring for the workers, other institutions mirror the work of trade unions. The American Federation of Labour and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) is one such organization that strives to see the wellbeing of workers across the country (“About Us | AFL-CIO,” n.d). The unions work closely with the members than such an organization would, and thus workers still find it necessary to belong to a trade union. Workers often feel well represented by trade unions because of the benefits they reap from unionized bargains. Ideally, even if unions do not call for strikes, they pressure employers to sign better contracts and Collective Bargaining Agreements for the workers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

About Us | AFL-CIO. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://aflcio.org/about-us

Democracy in Our Ranks | Communications Workers of America. (2017, September 21). Retrieved from https://www.cwa-union.org/about/democracy-in-our-ranks

Labor Relation Theories: Schools of thought and unions. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://brainmass.com/business/labour-management-and-relations/labor-relation-theories-schools-of-thought-and-unions-595259