Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

Pro Choice

October 16, 2017

According to research, 86% of abortions take part in the developing world where abortion is highly restricted (“WHO | Preventing unsafe abortion,” n.d.). Additionally, 98% of all abortions worldwide are unsafe. Unsafe abortion has led to high mortality rate among women of the reproductive age. In the history of America, abortion was regarded a state matter rather than an individual issue. Abortion can result from the inability to access contraceptives, unwanted pregnancy, unpreparedness for responsibility, cases of rape and incest. The point of abortion has been controversial, and there is a debate in the USA on whether to legalize abortion or not. Pro-choice is the process of advocating for legalized abortion whereas pro-life is the process of restricting abortion. Furthermore, pro-choice means an individual makes her own choices regarding their reproduction. Pro-choice perceives a woman as an autonomous being who can make her personal decision. Pro-choice discourages unsafe abortion, and lastly pro-choice regards of pregnancy and childbirth as a massive financial undertaking. Unsafe abortion is leading to high mortality rate, and Pro-choice will be an excellent solution to this problem.

Pro-choice reduces instances of unsafe abortion. Every year, at least 68000 women die as a result of unsafe abortion, and therefore it is the leading cause of maternal mortality (“WHO | Preventing unsafe abortion,” n.d.). Abortion is regarded immoral and unreligious by the society and women, health providers who perform abortion are labeled and stigmatized. Abortion is also stigmatized because the pro-life community has identified to be the best technique of discouraging abortion. The society believes that abortion destroys sex purity and nurturing motherhood. Additionally, women end up conducting the abortion in quack doctors leading to the death of many pregnant women. Recent research shows that abortion not only affects the women who perform it but it affects the whole society at large (Jacob, 2006). Health care workers are also sources of stigmatization to women who seek the services from them. Research shows that stigmatization by health care workers have made many women travel away from the facilities next to them when seeking abortion services. From the above illustrations, discrimination creates fear, secrecy and trauma and women would instead go to unqualified personnel for the services rather than experiencing discrimination from health care workers and the society at large. Pro-choice gives women the power to decide what they have to do with their reproductive health and when the pro-choice law is passed, women will be willing to come out and seek safe abortion from qualified health workers without intimidation and stigmatization. Therefore, advocating for legal abortion would reduce the fear and discrimination on abortion and women will be free in seeking a safe abortion.

Pro-choice perceives childbirth and pregnancy as a massive financial undertaking. Every mother wishes to provide the best for her children. Parents want to take their children to the best schools, buy them fashionable clothing and feed them with nutritious food. All these wishes cannot be realized when a mother is financially unstable. Financial instability put both the mother and the baby at risk of health complications and death. Furthermore, the cost of pregnancy is also expensive especially to the women who lack health insurance. For instance, those who do not have medical cover spend about $2000 in the prenatal care services, and the cost of delivery and pregnancy can range from $3000 to $71000. By 2008, around 33% of women who performed abortion did it due to lack of health insurance (“WHO | Preventing unsafe abortion,” n.d.). Also, pregnancy happens as a result of two people that are a man and a woman. Some men deny their pregnancies hence leaving the women frustrated and depressed. The women become depressed either because they are not financially stable or because their children will be labeled bastards by the society. According to The Independent, there is a story of a girl who decides to go for an abortion because of his irresponsible boyfriend. To prevent such frustrations, a woman may opt for abortion. Pro-choice perceives that women should not face all the consequences for something they did with a man. Pro-choice gives the woman to choose whether she would raise the child alone or perform an abortion as a result of depression and financial instability. Sex has been considered a sacred topic and people shy away when an issue on sex emerges. Research shows that teenagers who are educated efficiently about sex have a lower chance of getting pregnant (Page, 2006). Most states are not offering adequate reproductive health education, and this is the reason for increased rate of unwanted pregnancies that lead to abortion. When teens get pregnant, they usually lack the finance to take care of the pregnancy and childbirth cost and such instances can lead to unsafe abortion or even suicide. Pro-choice gives women the power to decide whether or not to keep the pregnancy when she is financially unstable hence reducing the risk of complication of either the mother or the unborn baby.

Pro-choice also regards women as autonomous hence they can make the decisions regarding their body (Weitz, 2013). There is a saying that goes; one man’s meat is another man’s poison. The saying only means that what someone may view to be right may be seen by another person to be wrong.  Each has a different background, religion, belief and way of doing things. This does not mean that people should stereotype other people’s opinions. When your actions do not interfere with the life of other people, then you have the right to do it. The pro-life activists are forcing their belief onto others while the pro-life is just empowering women to make their decisions regarding what they want. When the woman who has an unintended pregnancy decides to give birth and offer the kid to adoption, or whether the woman wants to terminate the abortion the pro-choice will support her decision (Page, 2006). It has been noted that in states with less restrictive laws on abortion have a lower number of unsafe abortion cases compared to the states with restrictive laws regarding abortion.  Unintended pregnancies are not planned for, and they happen as a result of accidents, unavailability and even wrong use of contraceptives. According to a recent study, almost half of the unintended pregnancies result from incorrect use of contraceptives and non-use of contraceptives. In this case, who should be blamed? Is it the laxity of the government health sector to provide affordable and accessible contraceptives? Before accusing and forcing women with unintended pregnancy to give birth, the government must ask themselves what strategies they are putting in place to avoid unwanted pregnancies that often lead to abortion. The sad part is that the government usually offers fake promises to pregnant women telling them to give birth because the babies will be accommodated at various children homes. Such instances have only resulted in the neglect of about 102,000 kids in the foster care system. A mother is the best person a child or baby will need, and if the mother is not ready to take up the motherhood responsibility, then she decides to terminate the pregnancy instead of bringing the baby to suffer in the face of this unpredictable world where empathy and generosity have been forsaken. Therefore, pro-life respects the independent decision of a woman regarding reproductive issues.

In conclusion, pro-life empowers women in making their own decisions, reduces the number of unsafe abortion and perceives pregnancy and childbirth as an aspect that requires financial stability. Unsafe abortions should be the last issue women should think of because it leads to increased maternal mortality deaths.  The state should ensure they make contraceptives available to all people so that they are reduced cases of unwanted pregnancies. When the government provides contraceptives, but they do not educate women on their correct usage, then that is a waste of time. They should, therefore, offer education on the use of contraceptives and reproductive health. Additionally, the government should formulate a law that ensures fathers support their kids emotionally and financially. Finally, they should pass the pro-choice law since everyone has the right to make their own decisions regarding their anatomy.
























Jacob, K. (2006). Abortion under attack: Women on the challenges facing choice. Emeryville, CA: Seal Press.

Page, C. (2006). How the Pro-Choice Movement Saved America: Freedom, Politics, and the War on Sex. Basic Books (AZ).

Weitz, T. A. (2013). Pro-Choice and Pro-Life Movements. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology. doi:10.1002/9781405165518.wbeosp101.pub2

WHO | Preventing unsafe abortion. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Woman who aborted baby of irresponsible boyfriend earns internet’s sympathy | The Independent. (n.d.). Retrieved from





October 13, 2017

Whistleblowing refers to the disclosure by an employee in a government or public workplace of the wrong doings that they may have observed, witnessed or heard about, how previous violations and practices have shaped current legal and business ethics policies and procedures (Johnson, 2003). What are the acts that can be reported by a whistle blower about a company? What is the right procedure in whistle blowing? How does whistle blowing affect an employee at the work place? Is it possible to conclude on the whistleblowing by focusing on the intent of the whistle blower? What aspects are related to retaliation against whistle blowing? These are some of the questions that when answered might help in understand the law, policies, procedures and effect of whistle blowing in business.

Usually the issue of whistle blowing involves the protection of the public interest and safety and cases that are reported do not involve personal grievances such as bullying. Cases that can be reported include cases of corruption, miscarriage of authority, possible pollution to the environment, crime cover up, use of illegal insurance terms or procedures and the carrying out of illegal activities at the work place among others. The topic of whistle blowing is one that is recognized by the law and hence there several laws that govern whistleblowers on the right and wrong procedures of exposing workplace wrong doings (Bower, 2012).

The incidence of organization’s being accused of wrong doing is increasing rapidly every day. Cases of fraud, corruption, illegal business transactions, use of drug money to fund operations and pollution cases by companies are always making headlines in the news today. Such news often bring up the need to congratulate the reporter who exposed the news but often, people forget about the people inside the organization that helped in exposing these malpractices. By exposing these wrong doings, these whistle blowers risk their employment status, their personal relations with their fellow employees and retaliation from the company management and workers.

Whistleblowers can either be actual or intended whistleblowers. Actual whistleblowers are the once that observe a wrong doing, make a decision to report it and eventually make a claim on the issue. Intended whistleblowers on the other hand are the ones who are given information about a wrong doing and have given information on whether they are going to file the claim or not. Unlike the actual whistle blower, an intended whistle blower has not exactly reported the matter to the rightful authorities(Bower, 2012). Researchers justify the use of data that is provided by the intended whistle blower as opposed to that provided by the actual blower. This is because actual whistle blowers often filter the information that they provide in the thought that the information from the actual organization will not conceal their identity. Actual whistleblowers often fear that giving some information may sell out their identity and cause retaliation from the organization. Another reason why intended whistle blowers are preferred is that it is difficult to locate an actual whistleblower for questions.

Correct whistleblowing procedure must be followed for a claim to stand. The first step- in the procedure is raising a concern on the wrong doing. This can be done through a trade union representative or the public concern at work. Once the claim has been raise, the next step involves internal evaluation where the issue is reviewed and investigated internally and a person is selected to handle the matter. If the claim is complex, a formal investigation in the matter is launched and a decision made after the investigation. In a situation where the whistleblower report matters to the outside bodies such as the police, then they are advised to seek professional help in order to understand the law involving the whistleblowing process (Johnson, 2003).

Whistleblowing statutes are set in order to protect an employee who has raised concerns of the employers’ misconduct from discharge or discrimination (Miceli & Near, 1992).  In the United States, in accordance to the federal civil service, it is illegal for the government to take legal action on an employee who discloses information that she/ he believes is a violation of the law. Any federal employee who is making a claim must show that there was a disclosure of protection and that the accused knew of the disclosure and retaliation was made to the effect of it(Bower, 2012).

An employer who retaliates against a whistleblower who exposed information in good faith is subject to disciplining up or even dismissal from the work place. Any person who raises a concern must act in good faith and must have reasonable grounds for bringing up the matter for investigation (Miceli & Near, 1992). As much as whistleblowing is meant for dealing with workplace misconduct, corruption and fraud cases, sometimes the information may not be genuine and the person may not be acting in good faith. This is why there are procedures and rules that are set aside to govern these whistleblowing processes and also ensure that the right of a whistleblower is protected.

There are many people who might have information about wrong doings at their workplace and out of fear, never come out to report them for action to be taken. This is sometimes as a result of fears or the lack of knowledge on how to go about it. To solve this problem, more governments should set up more channels to advocate for whistleblowers and by so doing, they will help in achieving collective law enforcement globally.




Johnson, R. A. (2003). Whistleblowing: When it works and why. Boulder [u.a.: Rienner.

Bowers, J., Fodder, M., & Lewis, J. (2012). Whistleblowing: Law and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Miceli, M. P., & Near, J. P. (1992). Blowing the whistle: The organizational and legal implications for companies and employees. New York: Lexington Books.



Aerobic Training

October 13, 2017

In this information age, weight loss, muscle building, and body fitness in general has received a lot of attention from social media and lifestyle magazines. Aerobic training is one of the training routines that have received much of this attention. It has been touted as the best way to shed off a lot of body fats. Well, these are some of the true facts about aerobic training. Aerobic training is essential in creating the fat-burning zone. Second, it increases body efficiency in burning excess fats. However, some of these facts are often misrepresented in the popular lifestyle platforms.

First, while aerobic training creates the fat-burning zone, it is a fact that more body fat is burnt at low-intensity aerobic training than at high intensity aerobic training. Most explanations assert that for the body to lose fats, one has to engage in high intensity aerobic exercises (Patel, 2016). Second, although aerobic training makes the body an efficient fat-burning machine, it is ineffective in burning fats, at least in terms of creating and maintaining the tools used in the body. In other words, it does not demand more muscle action than other more effective muscle burning tools (Dulhunty, 2017). It is also important to underline that when aerobic training is used to burn calories, the body slows metabolism leading to higher accumulation of fat (Patel, 2016).

Aerobic training can help in burning fat, but it is not the most effective. A combination of weight training and cardio or aerobics can help in burning calories and fat while also giving the body the balance to lose fats and maintain the fat losing mechanism (Patel, 2016). It has also been argued that taking a walk or taking part in a leisurely swim would help burn more fat than high intensity aerobic training (Dulhunty, 2017).

Going into the future, this knowledge will help me to balance my training regime in terms of losing fat and calories as well as building and maintaining body muscles.


















Dulhunty, B. (2017, April 5). Cardio exercises – low or high intensity exercise burn body fat       faster? Fitness Revelation. Retrieved from    exercises-low-or-high-intensity-exercise-burn-body-fat-faster

Patel, C. (2016, April 4). An effective exercise routine for beginners. Retrieved form   

Doctoral Study Document Analysis

October 13, 2017

Rubric: 5. the problem statement, purpose, research questions, and/or hypotheses, design, and methodology are consistent with the state of knowledge development in the discipline described in the literature review.

The doctoral document has done exceptionally well. This part if of exceptional quality and that is why the reviews approved the document for doctoral study. Steve Gardiner has started by defining the problem that he has set up to solve in the study that he was conducting. He started by identifying the previous studies that had been done on the area of the students’ motivation and engagement. He acknowledged that the previous studies that had been conducted by the scholars acted as the basis by which many professors developed programs to engage students and motivate them. He goes and identify that there are problems that arises from the parents and educators that make policies that do not favour extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.

In stating the problem, he provided the evidence of the problem at local level and from the literature that he reviewed (Holloway & Brown, 2016). The research question is direct and easy to guide the researcher on collecting data to the answer the question. The research question is direct and relates to the topic under the study. The hypothesis that was developed tend to provide answer to the research problem Gardiner also acknowledged that the research was not all about proving the hypothesis but finding evidence that either supports or are against the hypothesis.

The method that was used in this doctoral study is historical methodology and analysis. The study in itself is qualitative and thus this method is relevant to the topic and to the study design. The Historical analysis helped Gardiner to analyse the relationship between the policies and intrinsic motivation among students in Billings Public Schools in Billings, Montana.

Historical method is appropriate in this research since it did not require much of primary data. It required the researcher to observe the past activities and also to review various secondary sources so as to collect concrete information to solve the identified problem (McDowell, 2002). Methodology used in this doctoral study was of acceptable quality since it is appropriate in the qualitative study. The historical analysis was also appropriate in ensuring that Gardiner came to the right conclusion so that he can make the right recommendations.

Rubric: 4. the literature review is exhaustive and reflects mastery of the current state of knowledge in the discipline related to the area of research.

The quality of the literature review in this doctoral study is exceptional. Gardiner has used more than relevant sources in the research. He has arranged the reviews of literature in different chapters and different aspect so as to make them easy to understand and apply. The review of literature at the statement and explaining the significant of the problem is relevant since it makes it easy to understand the various gaps in the previous researches that have been done. Understanding the gaps in the previous researches is important in knowing the relevant of the doctoral study and why the research was approved in the first place.

At the part of methodology, most of the information that is being analysed is gathered through the secondary sources and thus the relevance if the literature reviews at this juncture. Gardiner has presented all the relevant information and has used the best articles, proceedings and books that are relevant for the research topic. He has managed to exhaust most of the sources that he decided to use in the doctoral article.

According to Tony Lynch (2014) in a doctoral writing it is important to understand your sources and mostly how to get your sources. Gardiner has showed how he was able to acquire the relevant sources that he used in the doctoral document. Showing other people how he got the sources that he used in the paper showed that the sources are reliable and can easily be accessed by other scholars.

From the way the literature has been presented, it shows that Gardiner has the mastery of the content that he is presenting. He has presented the reviews of literature in different chapters and different sections so that they are easy to understand and does not become confusing for other readers. It is common to find other writers making one section of literature review and presenting all the reviews of the literature. However, I believe that at a doctoral writing level, it is better to review the sources differently so that confusion does not arise.


The doctoral study by Steve Gardiner is of exceptional quality regarding rubric 4 and 5. Gardiner has done well when starting the research problem and research question. He identified what other researchers had done before regarding student motivation before identifying the problem that the study intends to cover. He then developed a research question help him through the research and writing of the study. He also recognized that the investigation was designed to look for evidence either to support the hypothesis or not. The research was not geared towards proving the hypothesis. The literature review was done both intensive and extensive. Gardiner even provided information on how he went about finding the best sources to use for the doctoral work.





Holloway I. & Brown L. (2016). Essential of Qualitative Doctorate. Routledge.

Lynch T. (2014. Writing up your PhD (Qualitative Research). University of Edinburgh.

McDowell, W. (2002). Historical research: A guide.  Harlow, England: Pearson



Resistance Training

October 13, 2017


A healthy lifestyle is the sum of one’s nutritional diet and physical activity; therefore, one’s longevity is subject to the exercises one engages in. It is apparent that the current generation has shunned outdoor activities for the indoor comforts. However, there is a section of the society that is still pro-exercise, and this has led to the controversial topic of resistance training for children.

Resistance training has its proponents and opponents however it is clear that this form of exercise is beneficial to young athletes as it puts them on a progressive path. The aspect of early sports specializations brings recognizes the need for coaches to have their athletes compete in a  broad spectrum activities that ensure that these athletes are all rounded concerning a particular sports event. Hence, strength training provides an athlete with a stable foundation that expands his sporting options (Falk, 2015).

Resistance training prepares these young athletes for their future through the process of long-term athletic development. It is achieved through the holistic view that ensures this young athletes deeps his toe in various beneficial physical activities. It ensures that this athlete becomes more coordinated and robust as they advance in their athletic careers. Strength training also reduces the risk of injury as this individual becomes more resistant to injury. His development will ensure that he has a higher level of motor skills and a better knowledge on how his body mover. Hence, he reduces his risk of injury by taking more control over his body (Haff, Gregory, Triplett, Travis 2015).




Resistance training helps one stabilize the core and distributing his bodyweight. It also reduces the occurrences of burnouts or overspecialization. Hence, optimal specialization should be held off until the young adult has a clear input in deciding their future. Therefore, this athlete should have a taste of all the various sports that promote his skills. Therefore, parents and coaches should ensure that their young athletes are proficient in all planes and this will develop their adaptability both in and outside the field. Hence, all children should be exposed to various modes of physical activities if they wish to benefit from resistance training (Hoffman, 2014).













Falk, B. (2015). Resistance Training in Children, Pediatric Exercise Science, 27(1), 13-17. doi:10.1123/pes.2015-0028

Haff, G. Gregory, Triplett, N. Travis (2015) Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning 4th Edition, Human Kinetics

Hoffman, J. (2014). Physiological aspects of sport training and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Persuasive Essay

October 12, 2017

Response One

The main argument in my article is that “Gay marriage should be legalized.” This form of marriage is just like any other marriage, thus should be allowed to be lawfully exercised in the society. Gay marriage enhances the right of individuals to marry whoever they feel like and it should not be criticized because it is usually a personal choice and no one is forced into such agreements or institutions.

Response Two

  • I believe that gay marriage is just like any other marriages and should be recognized and authorized. Legalizing gay marriage will help in reducing the rate of divorce. Currently, over 52% of divorce cases are reported among the married couples in the United States. Therefore, allowing gay marriage will significantly increase the rate of marriage because few couples will get divorced as a result of infertility or incompatibility.
  • Gay marriage is an issue of equal rights, thus should be legalized. Interracial marriage was illegal in the 1950s, but today, the modern society has undergone considerable changes, and the society now view this law as unjust since it deprived same rights to individuals who were in love. The gay marriage issue is not distinct because obstructing marriage to two couples who are in love is to deny them a vital freedom. Therefore, gay marriage should be legalized to promote freedom of choice as well as enables individuals who love each other to get married on the basis of their agreement and love but not on gender.
  • Legalizing gay marriage will also enhance acceptance of gay couples and gay individuals in the society. It will play a significant role in establishing a social norm that respects and includes the homosexual way of life.

Response Three

The audience of this essay will include the youths particularly those in the universities and colleges. This audience is appropriate because they form the largest part of the population, thus should be conversant with societal changes. However, a section of this demographic will present some challenges because it will be difficult to convince them with my argument considering that most of them are accessed to information and can reason well.

Response Four

My primary accomplishment in writing this essay is changing the perceptions of youths regarding the legality of gay marriage. At the end of the essay, I expect the readers would have embraced gay marriage as among the usual societal changes and not evil. The essay will need more supporting pieces of evidence to be successful.

Response Five

The potential resources that will be used include;

Lannutti, P. J. (2015). Looking at Same-sex Marriage Through a Legal Consciousness Lens.

In this book, Lannutti describes how same-sex marriage has undergone significant transformations in most parts of the world. This source will be useful because it will provide a general overview of gay marriage to enhance my arguments.

Brewer, P. R. (2014). Public opinion about gay rights and gay marriage.

In this book, Brewer explains how people have accepted gay marriage particularly the Britons. The source will be useful since it will provide information to solidify my argument for legalization of gay marriage.

Powell, B., Quadlin, N. Y., & Pizmony-Levy, O. (2015). Public opinion, the courts, and same-sex marriage: Four lessons learned. Social Currents2(1), 3-12.

In this book, the authors look at gay marriage from the legal view describing how it is taking shape in the society. The source will be useful because it will provide legal evidence to support my arguments.

Response Six

Gay marriage should be legalized. According to Lannutti (2015), gay marriage is just like any other marriages and should be recognized and authorized. Legalizing gay marriage will help in reducing the rate of divorce. Currently, over 52% of divorce cases are reported among the married couples in the United States, therefore, allowing gay marriage will significantly increase the rate of marriage because few couples will get divorced as a result of infertility or incompatibility. Gay marriage is an issue of equal rights, thus should be legalized. Interracial marriage was illegal in the 1950s, but today, the modern society has undergone considerable changes, and the society now view this law as unjust since it deprived same rights to individuals who were in love (Powell, et al., 2015). The gay marriage issue is not distinct because obstructing marriage to two couples who are in love is to deny them a vital freedom. Therefore, gay marriage should be legalized to promote freedom of choice as well as enables individuals who love each other to get married on the basis of their agreement and love but not on gender. Moreover, legalizing gay marriage will also enhance acceptance of gay couples and gay individuals in the society (Brewer, 2014). It will play a significant role in establishing a social norm that respects and includes the homosexual way of life.

Response Seven

The strategic places where integrating evidence would be most effective include areas that involve statistical data as well as major viewpoints. This is important because it will enable the reader to appreciate that the research has been done and accurate data compiled, thus enhancing the study validity and reliability.























Brewer, P. R. (2014). Public opinion about gay rights and gay marriage.

Lannutti, P. J. (2015). Looking at Same-sex Marriage Through a Legal Consciousness Lens.

Powell, B., Quadlin, N. Y., & Pizmony-Levy, O. (2015). Public opinion, the courts, and same-sex marriage: Four lessons learned. Social Currents2(1), 3-12.









Argument Extraction Evaluation and Explanation

October 11, 2017

The concept of dualism, in particular, is premised upon the assumption that a human being is comprised of two parts that include the mind and the body, commonly known as the matter,  that are essentially differentiated from one another.  Paul Churchland differs with the dualist assertions that the mind and the body are dependent on one another. In the realm of Churchland’s school of thought, the non physical mind can never be solely responsible for a culmination of particular mental functions including but not limited to consciousness, emotion, reasoning and emotions (Churchland, 2013. p20).  Churchland’s deconstruction against substance dualism can be summarized as follows:

  1. The mind is totally different from the brain
  2. The brain’s functions are meditative as opposed to being meditative
  3. The functions of the brain influence the mind
  4. The happenings in the mind comprise the activities of the brain
  5. Therefore, substance duality is fundamentally flawed

Churchland defends line (1) by arguing that the mind is essentially non physical and therefore it would somewhat incoherent to assume that that which is non material would be affected by that which is physical. Additionally, the mind is cogitation in the broadest sense whereas the body is a spatial extension. In his thinking, if emotions, reason and consciousness are the activities of the mind, then they would not be easily influenced by the material world.  Noteworthy, the mind processes are related to the brain and therefore can be deemed to be one thing. Line (2) is premised upon the assumption in Line (1). In the context of human psychology, the brain helps people to interact with the outside world and the same is manifested through feelings, emotions, consciousness and reason. The brain is a physical tool where the preceding chain of events takes place.  In essence, the brain acts as an interconnection between the physical world and the non material world that majorly comprise the mind. Therefore, the brain merely performs a meditative function.  Churchland strongly believes that these processes in the brain (that affect feelings, emotions, consciousness and reason) should not be affected by the external world.  It is worthwhile to note that these processes are purely based in the brain, which is purely physical.

The third line is a mini conclusion where Churchland utilizes a number of neuroscience processes to explain the assertion that the brain influences the mind. It would be wrong to assume the place of different phenomena that affect the nervous system. Diseases and drugs such as lithium, alcohol and narcotics majorly affect the proper thinking of any average person. Simply put, impairment to the brain would equally affect the non-physical processes. The dualist averment that the brain and mind are different entities would be severely defeated in this instance. Line (4) is an assertion that the activities of the mind are affected by those of the brain and to some extent interrelated. In nutshell, owing to the foregoing line, it is evident that the brain and the mind processes are interrelated. Therefore, when either fails to dispense its functions due to some impairment, the other one is greatly affected. Therefore, for the optimized functioning of the mind, the brain should be well maintained. For instance, a person can avoid abusing drugs.  Substance duality is false and therefore, line (4).

The foregoing arguments are based on a number of cases. To begin with, argument 1 and 2 are validated by a conjunction. In essence, the brain is not just a physical tool but a meditative tool where the mental processes take place. Argument 3 and 4 are premised on the averment that the activities that affect the brain will have a substantive effect on the mind process. In the context of the fall 2017 arguments, the arguments are valid. The arguments are further validated through the arguments that have been numbered. Churchland’s arguments, however, are devoid of arguments on how the mind affects the brain. Noteworthy, the wellness of the mind is dependent on the activities of the brain. Churchland, however, should be cognizant of the fact that the mind affects the activities of the physical body including the brain. The mind informs rational decisions including how a person is to deal with his body.

Churchland must accept that knowledge about the mind goes beyond apriori assumptions.  From the Fall Philosophy Arguments (2017), the limitlessness of the mind is an indication of the discrepancy of the physical brain and mind. Again, to an average human being, the physical world is more imperative than the non material world. In one way or the other, Churchland’s argument against substance duality is valid.





Work Cited

Churchland, Paul. (2013). Matter and Consciousness, Third Edition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.





Environmental and Resource Management

October 11, 2017

Executive summary

Black Diamond Mining Pty Ltd is proposing to have an open cut coal mine west of Scone on the existing scone airfield. The proposal is desirable for the government as it will generate high revenue for the government. The project will lead to a road extension and widen that will connect Satur road to the Moobi road which will make the connection of the mine site to the rail network possible. However, mining project will have a great impact on the environment and to the people that live around Scone regions. This report is about the most appropriate strategies that NSW State government will take concerning Black Diamond’s company proposal. It will discuss the land uses and the industries that are available in the local area. The report will then give recommendations on how the mining relates to sustainability. Thirdly, it will give commendations on the environmental factors to consider about scone before the project is implemented. Finally, it will recommend the action that NSW government will take regarding the proposal.









Table of Contents

Executive summary. 2

Environmental and Resource Management 3

Land use and industries in Scone. 4

Relating the mine to sustainability. 5

Reducing inputs. 6

Reducing output 7

Environmental factors to be considered. 8

Climate. 8

Landscape. 8

Soils and surfaces. 9

Biodiversity. 9

Recommendations for NSW government action. 10

References. 11




Environmental and Resource Management

Black Diamond Mining Pty Ltd has a proposal of opening a new mine at west of Scone on an existing Scone airfield. The project will benefit the government to a large extent as it will produce 6 million tons per annum for 25 years. The amount is coal is highly likely to generate huge revenue for the country and thus should be implemented. Additionally, it will create more employment opportunities more so for people living around Saturn road Bunnan road. Unfortunately, the implementation of the project possesses huge environmental risk to the scone and areas around. For this reason, NSW State Government needs to know the best strategies that will be used for the implementation of the project to ensure that it has minimum risks to the environment. Firstly, there is need to understand and analysis the different land uses in the local area.

Land use and industries in Scone

Scone consists of a large piece of land with 11, 856.3 ha with few number of people that totaled 6283 in 2015. The total number of business in Scone is 736 with mining being the main industry.


Scone region has several land users as there are several built environment. It is a local area with the established settlement. From the map, it is evident that many people have established homes along Satur rod and Bunnan road. Some homes have been established singly while others have been established in clusters. To sustain themselves, the people living in this region have modified the area with different activities and arrangements. For one, the people in this region use the road for transport purposes. The need for roads and other transport means such as the airstrip is essential for efficient operation within the region. Satur road has Upper Hunter driver training center meaning that the regions are heavily depended on the road.

Scone uses the land for agricultural purposes. The map shows some agricultural farms. Additionally, there are farm centers such as Middlebrook Farm on Satur road. Along Bunnan road is Satur veterinary clinic. The veterinary clinic is used to provide primary care for animals including pets and farm animals. For the clinic to be available, then it is highly probable people in this region practice animal farming. Further evidence is shown from the huge arid lands in the region. Most of the region where the open cut coal mining will take place is not to the west of scone is bare and does not have settlement apart from farming land. In sum, the people living along the Bunnan Road/Satur road have small rural holdings, use the region for public recreation, general residential, and infrastructure, light industrial and local centers.

Understanding the land uses as well as the industrial activities in this region helps in defining strategies that will ensure environmental sustainability measures. It also helps in relating the project to sustainability.

Relating the mine to sustainability

The mining project has huge economic benefits to the country. The project will produce 6 million tons of coal per annum. Also, it will create more employment for the region in Scone. Having an open cut oil mining can be detrimental to the environment. The pollution effect and the infrastructure associated with mining have a potential of affecting the health of the environment which in turn reduces the ability of the ecosystem to sustain the well-being of the environment. Sustainability is a very crucial component for this project as economic growth alone will not solve all ills in the modern world (Epstein and Buhovac, 2014). Black Diamond Mining Pty Ltd can take up strategies to ensure that mining established at west scone is environmentally sustainable. These strategies should ensure that that mining takes place in considerations of the future generations’ ability to meet their own needs.

Black Diamond Mining Pty Ltd will need to integrate the principles of environmental integrity with all the agencies such the government systems, social concerns. Environmental sustainable mining will reduce the negative impact it has on the environment (Liu, Yao & Liu, 2016). It will leave the land in a state that can be re-used by the ecosystem or people. The management strategies that Black Diamond Mining Pty Ltd will need include the following. The image below shows the state of Scone, the mining project should ensure that it leaves this region in the state that it is at the moment.

To ensure that the project leaves as scone as it is, several sustainability measure will be taken. The sustainability measure can be categorized into reducing input strategies and reducing output strategies.

Reducing inputs


Black Diamond Mining Pty Ltd will require water for various applications in the mining site. A diversion of surface of pumped groundwater by the company reduces the amount and quality of water in the environment. For this, it will be critical for the company to employ innovative water conservation practices (Palmer, and Hondula, 2014).


Black Diamond Mining Pty Ltd will require intensive energy for mining and performance of other processes. Also, the establishment of infrastructure for the generation of energy will negative impact to the environment, e.g., the production of greenhouse gasses (Pandey, Agrawal and Singh, 2014). The company can take up external renewable sources of energy.

Land disruption

It is undeniable that Black Diamond Mining Pty Ltd while mining will disrupt land in cases like clearing land for construction and buildings and having roads and other activities that lead to deforestation and habitat loss. The company can take up measures that will reduce the overall footprint of the mining area (Frantál, 2016). As such, it will minimize waste production maintain biodiversity by transplanting and culturing the endangered species at west scone mine. From the image below, the regions around scone airport mainly has well terrain land for farming.

Reducing output


The mining of coal will result in huge amounts of solid wastes like mine water and air particles that pollute the environment (Epstein and Buhovac, 2014). It is important that Black Diamond Mining Pty Ltd recognizes that pollution prevention is more economical thus they should take up strategies that will minimize or eliminate waste. Such strategies include the use of cleaner mining methods, use technologies that control waste, recycling waste and using re-engineering to reduce the amount of waste. To manage water, the company will need to retreat the water until it is safe for before releasing it to the environment. Most of all, the project should be able to restore Scone to its original state.

Restoration of environmental functions at mine sites.

Black Diamond Mining Pty Ltd plans to have the mining for the next 25 years. It is, therefore, a temporary activity. The company will need to have plans that will ensure successful mine site reclamation and closure activities. The plan will ensure there is a restoration of that land is disturbed by the project’s activities in a state that can be reused by people and ecosystem (Palmer and Hondula, 2014). The objective of having a sustainable project is to ensure that the environment and its resources are cared for so that it can sustain both the current and the future generations. The objective of achieving sustainability can be achieved with a consideration of a number of environmental factors.

Environmental factors to be considered

First, it is important to recognize that the proposal to have open cut mining at West Scone is beneficial to the country overall economic performance. However, it will also require an extension and widening of Cliftlands road north of Moobi Road to connect with Satur Road south of Seward Avenue.  The establishment of the road extension will enable a connection to the rail network. The mine project and the road constructed will affect the people living in Scone and thus the following need to be considered before undertaking the project.


The mining processes will have impacts on the climatic conditions of these regions such as the evaporation rate and average rainfall (Pandey et al., 2014). Therefore, there is need to assess the impact that the mining will have on the climatic conditions of this region.


Coal mining will have environmental attributes to the region, and thus there is need to assess the geographical and topographical context of the region. Assessing landscape is necessary as it will help in the decisions regarding landforms and infrastructure as well as the decision that regard mine closure (Frantál, 2016).

Soils and surfaces

Usually, mining will disrupt the soil and surfaces through the use of physical and chemical means (Andersen, Cook and Bax, 2014). It will be crucial for Black Diamond Mining Pty Ltd to define the means by which soils and surfaces will be disrupted as well as the define how the disruption will harm the environment and how it will contribute to or detract from the rehabilitation and closure.


It is inevitable for any mining project to have an impact on the biodiversity (Andersen et al., 2014). It will be prudent for the company to assess the how the mining processes will affect the flora fauna and ecosystem regarding the species, populations and community level. The image below shows grass as the part o biodiversity at Scone Bunnan road.


The mining process will have negative effects on the ground and surface water sources. These water sources have values to the environment and beneficial users. Therefore, the company will need to assess how the water for use by the people in this community will be affected.

The analysis of the land uses, sustainability and environmental factors to be considered at scone, recommendation for NSW state government action can be devised. The following include recommended actions for NSW state government in regard to Black Diamond mining Pty Ltd project.

Recommendations for NSW government action

There is, therefore, need to take environmental measures for the success of the project. Such measures will take the context Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act, threated Species Conservation Act, Environmental Planning and Assessment Regulation Act among other important clauses. The following are examples of NSW government action regarding the mining project how the safeguard the environment.

Firstly, the NSW will need to assess the risks that are involved in the mining processes. Risks assessment should identify whether the mining project is associated with the environmental sources of risk (Axelrod and VanDeveer, 2014). There is need to have a detailed risk analysis that will determine the levels of risks from the proposed project. The risks will then be evaluated to give an outline of the measures that can be taken to counter the threats. There NSW will then take measures to eliminate the risks, substitute the risks with different activities, and control the risks with engineering solutions or to mitigate the risk using administrative procedures.

It will be prudent that NSW takes further consultation about the design of the project. The design of the project proposal needs to abide by the specific approval requirements that will be in consideration for the environmental sustainability. Mine design helps in the identification and solving of the real world problems that are associated with mining (Hustrulid, Kuchta and Martin, 2013). The project design will necessitate the company to take up strategies to mitigate environmental issues in its initial stages, all through the process to the final stage of the production processes.





Andersen, A., Cook, G. and Bax, N., 2014. Mining and biodiversity. Science and SolutionS for auStralia, p.167.

Axelrod, R.S. and VanDeveer, S.D. eds., 2014. The global environment: institutions, law, and policy. CQ Press.

Epstein, M.J. and Buhovac, A.R., 2014. Making sustainability work: Best practices in managing and measuring corporate social, environmental, and economic impacts. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Frantál, B. (2016). Living on coal: Mined-out identity, community displacement and forming of anti-coal resistance in the Most region, Czech Republic. Resources Policy49, 385-393.

Hustrulid, W.A., Kuchta, M. and Martin, R.K., 2013. Open Pit Mine Planning and Design, Two Volume Set & CD-ROM Pack. CRC Press.

Liu, J., Liu, H., Yao, X. L., & Liu, Y. (2016). Evaluating the sustainability impact of consolidation policy in China’s coal mining industry: a data envelopment analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production112, 2969-2976.

Palmer, M.A. and Hondula, K.L., 2014. Restoration as mitigation: analysis of stream mitigation for coal mining impacts in southern Appalachia. Environmental science & technology48(18), pp.10552-10560.

Pandey, B., Agrawal, M. and Singh, S., 2014. Assessment of air pollution around coal mining area: emphasizing on spatial distributions, seasonal variations and heavy metals, using cluster and principal component analysis. Atmospheric Pollution Research5(1), pp.79-86.

Legacy Service Members and the Civil-Military Gap

October 10, 2017


Traditionally the members of the military forces are regarded to as servicemen. This because their core mandate is to serve the people on national interests including safeguarding the territorial integrity of the state, respond to the national disaster, protecting the corporate interest in the economy, population control, political agenda setting, attend and entertain the to the public social functions and amongst many others. Traditionally there has been an increase in inheritance service membership within several distinct armed forces transversely the globe and also mostly in governments affiliated institutions. A good example can be illustrated whereby a father, a son, brother and even a sister reigns from the same office at the logistical office of the military or a government office. In the United States of America, an all-volunteer force was concreted to source for and retain the most-qualified service members into the military; to eradicate the apparent and proven disparities linked with the conscripted service, and to achieve and sustain diversity in the armed forces that imitate the nation holistically. Based on these assumptions, this paper seeks to conduct a review on the perceived increase in generational military service. The possible impacts on the public at a large interest in the understanding of military service; the likely implications for civil-military relations, both socially and politically; and the most feasible options to preclude the civil-military gap from widening.

Situational Overview of the U.S Military

One of the construed perceptions about the U.S armed forces is that it’s a free and open service for any American citizen to join. However the findings at the American Leadership Conference dubbed ‘the state of the recruitment market,’ has shown that there is a prevalent employment trait within the military workforce, whereby there is an established a network of family lineages dominating the work pattern within the armed force’s membership. The federal laws do not prohibit employability of a person based on their family relationship to other military personnels. The all-volunteer program is meant to ensure that there is a controlled recruitment for only the probable recruits who are best suited for the job. Traditionally the U.S military is widely perceived and a national heritage for the state. A great number of members from across the political divide are continuously mindful of the political power the members of the armed forces have and henceforth they always seek to gain their approval. The American armed forces members are always regarded as national heroes. The American armed forces members are divided into three categories including the Marine Corps, the Air force and the Navy.  There is a high chance that one’s comes from a family with a military officer there is a high chance that they will also join the forces. A preponderance of the new recruits to the military that is the youth aged between 16 – 24 have relatives who have served in the Military.  Almost half of youth employed have immediate family members including parent, sibling, or grandparents who have served with the military. More so, active duty new recruits have higher rates of traditional family service as compared to the overall youth market. At least 63% of the new recruits have immediate relatives who have rendered their services to the armed forces. Specifically, for the Navy seal, at least 30% of the new hires have their parents previously working with the military and about 80% have either of their relatives currently or previously serving in the military. On the Marine Corp’s font about 22% of the new recruits had their parents formerly working with the forces, and approximately 76% of either relatives working or previously engaged with the U.S Armed forces activities.  For the Air Force servicemen, at least 35 percent of the new workforces have parents currently working with the military and more than 80% of the relatives who previously or currently are still working with the military. However this figures are disproportionate when it comes to the specific forces the family members served, just to mention; only 13% of the new recruits had their parents previously serving in the navy and at least 49% of their relatives that including siblings, uncles, cousins and grandparents, Only 8% of the new recruit’s parents previously or currently are working with the Marine Corps and 39% of relatives who also engaged in Marine Corps Military Affairs, and also, only 12% of the new recruits had parents who have served with the air force and 45% of relatives that previously served or are currently serving at the Air Force including grandparents, siblings  , uncles and aunties, and cousins. From these deductions, it will be logical to preclude at this juncture that at least 30% of the United States Member of the Armed forces have their relatives either currently or previously worked for the military. The legacy Service Membership has an impact on the civil-military gap, and this is because it creates a disproportionate distribution within the military. More so, the family generational factor can lead to the formation of social cocoons within the military service, through the rise of godfathers within the sector. Culturally a recruit may be persuaded to proceed with their relative’s legacy thus leading to the rise of non-liberal characters within the armed forces. For example, a new recruit from a conservative family has a higher probability of sustaining the ideology within the work environment. Besides, there is a chance that during all volunteer work force the probable recruits with relatives within the military, will get first considerations to the formal work short listing into new recruit’s active duty. But does, these factors make’s the military forces socially or culturally in cellular?

Literature Review

Generations are defined rather by demographers, the media, culture, and even by themselves (Whelan 2006).Today the personality difference recognized and experienced by institutions managers, either old or young are categorized as generational. The generational theory identifies that generation is an important psychological variable since it incorporates the culture of one’s nurturing during a specific time frame. Generations are molded by distinct experiences as experienced during their critical developmental time. The universal influence of extensive forces, like parents, media, popular culture and peers create shared value systems amongst the people growing at a certain time hence distinguishing them from other people who grow up at a different time. A good example can be recounting that the people raised up in Japan have divergent personality characters and attitudes as of them born and raised up in the USA there is an empirical distinction amongst generations. Growing up in the 1990s was a profoundly a different experience as opposed to growing up in the 1970s or more so the 1950s.

As military missions increase in variety, complexity and frequency hence does the requisite for qualified, skilled, and deployable members to execute the missions becomes more urgent. The actively procured recruitment targets in the USA military in 2007 surpassed 180,000; nevertheless, there are growing hitches in meeting hiring goals. In more complication, the retirement of Baby Boomers that is the second generations over the next decade have the possibility to create an massive labor gaps in the military workforce. These employment gaps have to be filled by the new generation otherwise known as the Millennial (age group born between 1989-2000). The falling propensity for the military was the reactor that orchestrated for the first of the youth surveys in the USA, by the Youth Attitudinal Tracking Study in 1975, followed by the Youth Polls that began in 2001. The Youth Poll identifies propensity as the ratio of youth who say they may opt to join the American military service. Today, the Youth Polls are conducted at least twice a year to assess the youth’s perceptions towards the military and their interests or chances of enlisting in the military. The data acquired from the polls is often used to strategize on improving  the quantity and quality of American youth leaning  toward the  military service, with the view  of assisting  the military ser­vices  attain their recruiting goals.  The youth polls often has their focus on the youth aged 16- to 21-years, the Polls gauges their awareness of, attitude of, and favorability toward the military. Furthermore, the Youth Polls also measures the influenceability of each source of information in making the youth to get interested with joining the armed forces. To depict factors that most likely could influence the future hiring effectiveness and efficiency, the Youth Polls inspects the options that are available for the youth following their high school graduation. Examples of such components includes the subjective norms, attitudes, confidence and beliefs, which are thought as drivers of propen­sity to the military enlisting.Also,  the youth polls track the perceptions on current economic dynamics and reactions. The Generational traits can be categorized base on the generational transitions that includes, the Salient Generation, Baby Boomer, Generation X and Generation Y

The Salient Generation

Also known as the veterans, the salient generation comprises of retirees born between 1922 and 1945 are still playing some role within the workforce.In the United States, the veterans age group hold’s at least three-quarter of the national wealth and also are leading industrialists and technocrats. The generation is linked mostly to the shaping of the USA military and economic power. Some of the traits of the generation include;


  • They are logical
  • They are authoritarian
  • They are conservative, such that they are definite on what is right or wrong
  • They are loyal, and they respect the authority


  • They are disciplined
  • Don’t like conflict
  • Details oriented
  • They use history to predict the future

Work Style

  • Past-oriented
  • Uniformity and consistent
  • Prefer a hierarchical organizational structures
  • More like command and control leadership and also they’re reminiscent of military operations

This generation is identified as salient because it is more focused on the career as opposed to activisms. The term ‘salient generation’ was first coined by the Times Magazine, on 5th November 1951. In the United States the generation was somewhat small because of the 1930s financial security and the early 1940s wars that made people have few children.  The generation also spent it is early administration careers in the after-war world that never or rarely questioned the legitimacy of authority and also adhered to a rigid command chain and witnessed a framework of honor, prepared to accede to the orders without questioning and acknowledged the seniority. This group is so disciplined such that they might turn a blind eye to a wrong leadership direction even when they know of a mislead.

Baby Boomers

This is a group of people conceived between 1946 and 1964. Specifically, the generation was born in the period of rebellion and post-war national prosperity. They make a substantial portion of the American population accounting to at least 20% of the total population. According to the U.S Census Bureau, the group is currently aged between 52 and 70 years old. Baby boomer has both the cultural and technological meanings, based on the context of ascription. The generation is linked with dismissal or redefinition of cultural or traditional values. Pundits dispute that the extent of the refusal acknowledging the generational transfer of the traditional values. At most European countries and North America, baby boomers are largely associated with opportunities since they grew up during the period of widespread government’s post-war education and housing and increased affluence. More so, the group is considered to be the wealthiest in their arrival times, most lively, and even so, physically fit. They grew up anticipating for an improved world with time and also received a peak level of income, hence their viability to harvest the benefits of apparel, sufficient food levels, and retirement programs and amongst many other advantages. Amongst the features of this group is that they tend to partake themselves as a special generation from the preceding generation of veterans. During the 1960s, a relatives large number of the younger generation became teenagers, while other grew into adulthood, they and those around them formulated a definite rhetoric around their cohorts and the underlying changes it was generating. The rhetoric had a critical impact on self-perception for the baby boomers and their world definition tendency that was largely from a new phenomenon. The age wave theory indicates that there was an economic slant down when baby boomers began retiring in 2007-2009. At least by 2020, 25% of the American employees will be at least 55 years old. More so the Baby Boomers control more than the 80% the USA  personal financial assets and over a half the customers’ spending’s. From the cultural aspect, by 1980, most of Baby Boomers began re-adopting some of the conservative cultures like the religion contrary to their early notion. However, they remain liberal on various cultural practices such abortion and homosexuality. It is through this cohort’s views that the counterculture rebellion emerged in the 1960s. Also, it was through this group that counter status quo leaders like Martin Luther King Jr. and John F. Kennedy and now Donald J. Trump.


Generation X

It is the next generation after the baby boomers. The cohort is perceived to have been born between 1960 and 1980. Contrary to the other generations that are the Salient and Baby Boomers this group didn’t have an encounter with the real war apart from the cold war between the United States and the Soviet Union. The group is also described as self-dependent, seeking a balance between work and life, while placing greater emphasis on the family (Millar 2011). They have a casual approach to the authority and even sometimes skeptical about it. They also have a higher affinity and comfort for the technology having grown up in the era of computer. Just like the older generation this group also has a personal dedication to their profession. However, they don’t trust the hierarchy rather they prefer informal engagements. I addition the group prefer to gauge themselves based on the impacts of their undertakings as opposed to their status. They also don’t guarantee absolute loyalty to their employers. According to a Havard Business Review article of 2007, demographers Howe and Straus acknowledged that Generation X, are “the greatest entrepreneurial generation in the U.S history; their high-tech savvy and marketplace resilience have helped America prosper in the era of globalization.”

Generation Y

It is the fourth group, also referred to as the millennial, the generation Y age gap ranges up to after 1980.The group is now trying to impact its presence in the professional world. The members of this group are relatively new but highly motivated, and they are actively engaged in a bid to improve their abilities and skills. They are not opposed to the status quo within the work environment but just like the Generation X they also lack full commitments to their respective jobs. The generation is aggressive, full of esteem and always up to the task. The generations pro activeness is interlinked to the fact that it has been raised during the period of childhood psychology infused by the counseling, parenting and education. The generation has been brought up in an environment where parents are encouraging their children to pursue their career ambitions (Meier etel., 2010). More so, the children are resided within a caring environment, independent of their parent’s obstructions, presence or interest. The generation also has access to excess information as compared to the previous group, through the electronic media, that is including the internet platforms like social media and amongst many other websites.

Civil-Military Gaps

Civil- Military gaps, elaborates on the relationship between the military and the members of the civilian community. In the past decades, Morris Janowitz and Samuel P. Huntington, identified an increased conflict between the member of the American public and the conservative security officers. Whereas Huntington underlined on the armed forces value as a distinct society based on different values, Janowitz partook that the conflict between the military and civilian cultures could lead to diminishing the military responsiveness on the civilian leadership. The fallacy that there is a divide between the military and civilian cultures has been perceived as important. This is because the gaps have been cited as amongst the determinant factors towards the United States foreign policies and propensity to engage the force. Furthermore, the variance has been linked to implications on hot-button issues like equality and fairness at the all-volunteer force (AVF), the women’s role in the military and the question as to whether lesbians and gay men should openly serve. More so other critics have gone further to identify that the disagreements could pose a grave danger to robust democracy and the civilian-military relationship. There are at least four conflicting gaps within the civil-military gaps these conflicting gaps can be Cultural, Policy preference, demographic and institutional.

The cultural gaps elaborates on whether the values and attitudes of the military and those of the civilian population contradict. For example, after an eleven-week spending at the boot camps on their return, some Marines still loath for a private loathing with the member of the public. The Marine member’s distaste for the civilian culture formulates a contrast within the military life which largely that upholds discipline, unity, and sacrifice, the contrast to the civilian life of individualism, self-gain, and hedonism. These opposing forces can lead to the characterization of the disciplined force’s attitude. Kohn and Feaver notes’ that, the elite in the military perceive the civilian community as corrupt morally and as such only the military can help in reforming them. Whereas the civil community colludes that we are leaving in a corrupt society, there is a disagreement about the military inclusion in executing the moral reforms. In addition to these contradictions, there is a lack of trust between the civilians and military leaders. For example, in 2000, Lt.Gen. Ronald Kadish remarked that “many at the Pentagon thought that the Office of as the Secretary of Defense as Enemy.”

The demographic gap is an argument as to whether the military composition and ideology is a representative of the United States population either in a socio-economic or political makeup. With the compulsory enlistments into the military, most countries like the USA are shifting towards the all-volunteer force, the members of the military service have a hard time to ensure that there is a reflection of the society within their ranks as opposed to the latter. This is because the military only draws a small portion of the community to its membership. From a political perspective, studies have deduced that up to 60% of the armed forces members are largely Republicans, while a 13% is identified as Democrats. The study conducted by a retired Army Major Dana Isaacoff indicates that a U.S Academy at the West Point concludes that “that being a Republican is becoming a part of a definition of a military officer.”Issacoff discovers that at least supporters of libertarianism in the U.S corps are generals and colonels may be because of their draft military eras.  Additionally, the military also tends to recruit from the disproportionately from the conservative rural areas and Southern states, a tendency that was aggravated by the closure of camps at the Northern regions during Clinton’s administration. In return, the social and economic elites are underrepresented within the military. Major new military recruits have family members who previously served in the military as opposed to those who doesn’t have relatives within the ranks. As an outcome of these actors, the educational diversity in the community is not represented in the military and may because of the willingness to serve in the military decrease the educational prosperity purge amongst the youth increase, hence a lot of in futility in military recruitments at Universities since only a few of the college graduate are willing to enlist in the military. Meanwhile, on the other hand, the upper echelons of the military are more educated as compared to their civilian counterparts, a good proportionate of military elites holds post graduate degrees. Other actors in demographic gaps entail gender and race. There is an unbalanced representation of the racial minorities and ethnic within the enlisting team and an under-representation in the service’s ranks. For women, although they encompass over 50% of the general American population they are greatly underrepresented in the military at 15%.

The policy preference gap alienates the military and civilian elites, whom either disagree or agree on a range of public policies. Patrick Shield notes that the potential in a policy gap is leveraged on the fallacy that the institutions tasked with protecting a policy should be empowered enough to threaten the policy. The Armed forces have powers to threaten a policy, interlinked with its sole role of safeguarding the national security, and generate interests that can trigger the military elites to take of contrary view as opposed to the civilian leadership on different policies. The difference between military and civilian leaders can generate into distinct policies preferences. The elites in the armed forces believe that the United States forces should only be deployed on strict reasons, that when employed it should be for on a strict use of overwhelming force. In divergence, the civilian leadership prefers limited military interventions, only considered on humanitarian or in peacekeeping missions.

The institutional concerns, on the relationship between the military and civilian institutions such as the courts, the media, and even the education can be factored as either conflict or harmony. For example, there is an argument going own about the federal judges being influenced by the military’s interpretations on constitutional questions. In the field of education, analysts attributes that presence of Junior Reserves Officers Training Corps (JROTC) programs to high numbers of campus enrolments, while others analysts attribute the same to antimilitary dissents planned by teachers, the administration, and students. Critics while analyzing the media, observes that it is largely militarized since the events of 9/11, whereas, others have questioned the patriotism of the media mainstream and as well their support for the troops and the war in Iraq (Rhbek-Clemmensen et al.,. 2012).

Evolution to the All-Volunteer Force

The AVF was first incepted in 1969 at the United States after the elimination of the draft. The system was incorporated so as to reinforce the fact that military service should be on voluntary basis and not by coercion (Rand Corporation 2006).The inception of the AVF was built on five major reasons including; the demographical size of the eligible recruits , that is the number men reaching the draft age annually was large as compared to the positions within the servicemen membership, and hence the draft method was no longer tenable. Besides, as compared to the cost of employing an active new recruit, the volunteer cost was reasonably cheaper and effective for the government to incur. From the economic and moral reasoning, both the conservatives and liberals argue that the state had no obligations of imposing military service on the potential recruits without their consent. The libertarians resonated that the draft method was an unfair burden to the underprivileged inhabitants within the society who included the poor.Most of the Americans were opposed to the Vietnam war, and hence the rising unpopularity of the war was an indication of the public’s resistance to joining the Servicemen members, and also the quest for change within the military ranks foresaw this transition (Armed Forces Journal 2011).A commission was set up in 1969 by President Richard Nixon on the AVF, endorsed the move. Amongst the commissions’  overviews included critical military powers that entailed attrition and retention, demand and supply, career mix, the context of the management efficiency and personal equity. The Commission concluded that the nation would be served better if the all-volunteer force is established. The AVF law would later be signed into law later in 1971 and into a formal announcement in 1973. A Fruitful implementation of the AVF is dependent on the management and leadership of the program after in its inception the program was placed under President Nixon, then the Gates Commission then would later be led federal departments of Defense under President Ronald Reagan’s regime. The second contributing factor includes the use both quantitative and qualitative analysis to follow up on its efficiency.A good example of this is the Annual Youth Polls. Thirdly, is the need to adjust the program to attract the new potential recruits that is the youth.To attract the young people of higher quality, the AVF has to engage advertising strategy, and amongst other marketing strategies, that elaborates on the benefits and opportunities in enlisting to the military service. And fourthly the financial resources, the AVF programs success is also dependent on its financial availability within the depart of Defense to conduct  studies for the program, to fund marketing and amongst other advertising programs, to keep pace with rising States inflation rates, pay recruiters, educational benefits and bonuses and to also fund military retirement programs and amongst other quality-of-life initiatives.

The Impacts of Civilian and Military Service Relationship

Economic impact

The military service awareness campaigns in the United States are often targeted at the probable new recruits from colleges and high schools. The ultimate goal of this campaign is to generate interest and in even encouraging enlisting amongst the millennials. The economic advantage for this campaigns to the military service can be viewed from the armed forces and community perspective. To the service, the economic implication includes quality labor and enlisting target meeting. While in return the community or new recruits economic viability is realized, by the benefits from the military service including full-time jobs,hefty allowances and retirement packages and an advanced educational training. Besides, larger enrollments into the military service means a reduction in the unemployment rates within the society as well as poverty levels. There has been increased concerns that the Millennials are not interested or rather are not ware of military activities, the military is always in a constant recruitment drive sourcing for quality or educated labor.  Failure of the youth not to enroll into the military would mean that there would be a deficit gap of labor to be field by the service and these might lead to resources strains within the armed forces. On the other end quality labour will be of economic beneficial to the military owing to its innovativeness and quick adaptability to various dynamics on the military front. This, as a result, will impact on the national economy whereby, the unemployment rates at the national level would have reduced and there is a probability the innovative nature of the fourth generation can lead to inventions that might be vital to solving an issue at the national level.

Political Impact

Traditionally the USA is considered as amongst the most trustworthy in the United States. In addition, the military plays a role in  crucial decision-making at the highest ranks of the community including the media, the courts and even within the political ranks. Most technocrats often seek the opinion and endorsement of the military on various contemporary issues in the society in order to gain the public acceptance. A good example of this was reflected during the 2016 presidential campaign when both the presidential aspirants that is Donald Trump, and Hillary Clinton were seeking the endorsement from the military servicemen on their manifestoes in a bid to cement their public approval and acceptance. I addition the military also has lion’s share when it comes to budget allocations, a move critic attributes to its political influence (Miller 2004).  The establishment of the all-volunteer forces was based on amongst reason to try an eliminated increased family generational recruitment within the military. The old generations within the military hold individualistic and conservative political ideologies that can be diluted if the youth are well informed about the socio-political dynamics and given equal opportunity to enlist into the military service. The young people are considered as a more liberal, dynamic and technological a versed group. A recent study indicates that up to 60% of the armed forces members are largely Republicans, while a 13% is identified as Democrats. The awareness campaign could help bridge the gap by the introduction of nonpartisan new recruits who have less or no political affiliations to either side of the political dominion.

Cultural Impact

Another importance of creating awareness is that the team of new recruits is adversely informed on what to expect in the event that they join the military as opposed to relying on rumors about the service. The military culture exists based on the virtue to exhaust particular symbols, language and the hierarchy presented in the formation of the personnel’s within the ranks. Sarkeisian and Connor acknowledge that “The military profession could stand or fall based on it is ability to sustain and reinforce.” The military culture is built on the distinctive pillars of teamwork, loyalty, obedience, leadership, and hierarchical (Greene et al., 2010). In this regard, awareness will be important for the new recruits to understand the standard operating procedures within the military, hierarchical values and norms and amongst others as they would have been made aware of. Lack of information might make a new recruit within the ranks have a hard time in learning the operation procedures. Of key emphasis is that the awareness will help the recruits understand how to survive in the strict and disciplined military environment as opposed to how the outside society operates.The military service is principled with a conservative or intrinsic approach to particular issues within the society and hence they tend to deliberize the community on various societal issues such as gender and workforce, lesbianism and homosexuality.

In conclusion, the members of the armed defense forces are a critical player in the contemporary world. They play a role in both the political, social and economic forces within the society. Traditionally in the United States, the military service members have been graded amongst the elite in the society and hence their opinions are highly regarded. The military has an ultimate responsibility of safeguarding the national territorial integrity. The military personnel’s have been grouped into a four generational chain that is the Salient generation, Baby boomer, generation X and Y. All these groups are important to their capacities, but the generations Y otherwise known as the millennial in considered more important. This is because the generation is more stable in esteem, technologically advanced, liberal and more so obedient. The future of the military service is highly dependent on the new generations. In the modern world adoption of the all-volunteer forces is amongst the most probable approach of mitigating the generational change effect or impact within the military. More so, the domination of certain family lineages within the military service could also be eliminated by this process because it offers a more open and equal opportunity to either of the qualifying candidates. The American military employment policy doesn’t discriminate based relatives affiliations, race or gender. Most of the current personnel’s within the United States military have either parents, cousins, uncles or brother previously or currently working with the members of the armed forces. This can be attributed the public’s lack of enough knowledge about the military service, an aspect which is contrary to this groups since they get information from their parents or other relatives. The public has an obligation to understand the military because it is a public service meant to serve the people. A good relationship between the military and the civilian is important because it creates a mutually beneficial environment between the two. The public can benefit from the military through employment, technological innovations, moral values preservation and even education, while the military could also benefit from the society through intelligence gathering, quality labor and even resource mobilizations like land.


I recommend that the military service use more of digital media including the social media to engage with the younger generation and making them interested in the service. The community engagement drives like the corporate social responsibilities could also help the USA armed forces generate a good relationship with civilians. The military should also review their policies on relatives employment this is in a bid to ensure that there is a limited dominance of the members from a particular family lineage doesn’t dominate the workforce. Some conservative elites within the service could also be talked to on the importance of being liberal when it comes to certain societal matter so as to also give the community a listening chance.  The military can also be involved in academic sponsorships whereby all the eligible and willing recruits are fully sponsored to finish their academics.











Jon Rhbek-Clemmensen, Emerald Archer, John Barr, Aaron Belkin, Mario Guerrero, Cameron Hall & Katie E.O.sWIM. “Conceptualizing the Civil-Military Gap: A Research Note .” Armed Forces and Society, 2012: 669-678.

Journal, The Armed Forces. October 1, 2011. (accessed December 10, 2016).

Justin Meier, Stephen F. Austin, Mitchell Crocker & Stephen F. Austin. “Generation Y in the Workforce: Managerial Challenges.” The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, 2010: 68-78.

Millar, Jon D. “The Generation X Report.” The University of Michigan. 2011. (accessed December 10, 2016).

Miller, Justin. “The Military and Politics: An Apolitical Tradition; A Role in Policy Formulation; A Diversified.” American Public University System. September 24, 2004. (accessed December 10, 2016).

Rand Corporation. “The Evolution of the All-Volunteer Force.” Rand Corporation. 2006. (accessed December 10, 2016).

Talya Greene, Joshua Buckman, Christopher Dandeker, Surg Cdr Neil Greenberg. “Impact of Culture Clash on Deployed Troops.” Military Medicine, 2010: 958-963.

Whelan, Paul. “Generational Change: Implications for the Development of Future Military Leaders.” The Quarterly Journal, 2006: 160-174.



The Applied Project

October 10, 2017

Dear Stakeholders,

I am submitting this policy plan to you in the hope of having it being implemented as soon as possible. Health and nutrition in schools has been an issue of concern that every stakeholder should be aware of. This policy plan seeks approval and support from the students, regular members of the society, the government, and the authorities in various learning institutions to enhance health and nutrition in schools. Recent research has shown that there exists a mutual relationship between children’s eating behaviors and performance in school.

This pertains to the nature of lunch programs that children are provided with while in school. The most relevant condition in school children that has been associated with poor nutrition is obesity. In Texas neighborhood, this condition has been a serious issue of concern. Children have been reported to be performing poorly in class. Health studies have attributed the poor performance to the nature of food programs that are being ran in schools. It is a general understanding that when nutritious foods are available, they enhance a healthy eating behavior among students. This develops their positive psychological growth and physical make-up.

Having described the issue at hand, I am proposing that we implement a food policy which will take care of the nature of food programs that are offered in schools. This policy will include: Training teachers and parents to observe and implement quality food programs, providing accessible information about health and nutrition to students, supporting policies that seek to impose heavy taxes on energy-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages, facilitating labeling legislation of food content and composition, and advocating for the removal of trans-fatty acids from processed foods. The removal and observance of this combination will serve to reduce the prevalence of obesity among students and realize high academic improvements as a long-term goal.

At this juncture, I wish to thank you in advance for the efforts that you will make in considering this matter. It is my hope that our convergent efforts in implementing this food policy in schools will place the life of a student at a better position in the future. In case of any concerns or questions, reach me at



Name Last Name

Policy Proposal Enclosed







Executive Summary

This paper presents a food policy plan to be implemented in schools so as to ensure that students’ health is well catered for. It is a description of the rationale for considering a change to develop a food policy that is geared towards improving students’ health in school and at home. Covered are the aspects of a proposed timeline for implementation and implementation procedures.

Students in both public and private schools are given basic lunch that has limited nutritional value. This affects their physical growth and brain development. Comparative studies that have been done in the country show that students who are provided with highly nutritious foods perform better in school as compared to those with little access to balanced diets. Moreover, health issues such as obesity that have been common in children aged 7-14 years have been attributed to poor diets that they take in school.

Over the last 2 years, efforts have been made to facilitate the issuance of lunch programs in school. Interestingly, there is evidence that little attention has been paid in the categories of food supplied to schools. It has been established that parents have not developed interest in selecting food substances for their children. There is the tendency of buying food products that are rich in sugars and fats among school children. In essence, the kind of nutritional value that they get from these foods is not body development oriented.

Nutritionists generally recommend the use of low sugar and low fat packed foods among children. Conversely, the societal surroundings in which children interact with other members of the community have created access to these foods. From a health perspective, taking foods with high fat content is the primary source of obesity in children.

In this policy proposal, the significance of observing the kinds of food that students take, and the time they take it is elaborated in relation to the consequences that their choices have on their health status, physical development and classroom performance. As such, there are recommendations that have been forwarded to various agencies for implementation and action but they have not been put to work effectively.


School meals matter. Proper nutrition is linked with the physical set up of a child and academic performance in school. According to nutrition researchers and medical authorities, leading an active lifestyle starts with the kind of meals that children take every day. This supports the hypothesis that has been proven to be true as youngsters who take nutritious food have been found to excel in school. Improving children nutrition is a collective health concern that most schools have made efforts to achieve. In a great nation, achieving excellence in academic studies starts with the process of improving the meals that students take while in school. The nutritional education of children pertains to the active role that different agencies play in promoting physical activity and improving poor diets. This should be so because wiping out childhood obesity in the current generation remains to be an issue to be solved through food consumption policies. This study proposes a food policy plan to put to an end obesity in children and improve children’s nutrition in general while in school.

Problem Statement                  

It has been established that the general welfare of a student, more so in matters of health have a direct impact on the academic performance of the student. This has placed the onus upon all schools in Texas to make efforts in informing the community on good nutrition and do all within the school’s means to make sure that healthy eating for proper nutrition is promoted on a new spotlight. If the students are in proper state of health, they are more likely to perform better in school work. However, there is still a large number of students in Texas who face challenges with regard to health and nutrition. These challenges affect their education negatively (Nestle, 2006).

There is the need to create interventions that are meant to ensure that this chunk of students is not hindered from performing in school by the issue of malnutrition and unhealthy eating habits. Interventional policies that are meant to introduce nutrition in school policy across all schools in the state of Texas would serve as an appropriate remedy for the situation. Tentatively, students and authorities in various schools will have the responsibility of ensuring that whatever is provided for consumption counts to their health status and academic performance. Once the plan is put into operation, all the students will have the benefits of being introduced to and provided with information on proper nutrition and healthy eating. On the side of the students, they have a role to play in giving back a feedback on the effectiveness or failure of the policy. This will be very vital since this is a pioneer project. Such a policy has not been in operation before.

Description of the Policy

The policy to be developed will be dabbed: The Nutrition Education in Schools Policy. It will involve improving nutrition and the health of students through creating awareness among the parents and students on recommended health lifestyles. The policy will copy its working mechanisms from a number of perspectives such as the government and the school. There will be an integrated learning platform that will incorporate the resources and frameworks that are effective in establishing a conducive school food environment. Legislative measures will be imposed on food production and packaging companies requiring them to label the food packages with information on the nutritional content of the packaged food. This will make buyers more cautious of what they are buying and they can avoid foods that they think are unhealthy. Some foods have very high-fat content and their consumption may lead to obesity. The policy will also include the element requiring the removal of trans-fatty acids from processed foods.

In a broader perspective, the policy will be an expansive framework for controlling the entry of energy-dense food items to school, foods with no nutritional information labels, and those that are deemed by market regulators to be having high fat content. It should be notable that the issue number one to be solved is the reduction of obesity that has become prevalent in school children especially those at the primary and secondary levels. The study will also cover content for teacher training resources that will be geared towards sensitizing teachers on a proper implementation framework that should be effected as soon as possible. It will also be a bureau of information to both students and parents to acquire information on proper and nutritionally recommended provisions. The Nutrition Education in Schools Policy will entail statements that will be used to address the most urgent and specific health concerns among school children.

Weighing Alternatives

This approach to improving the nutrition and health of students in school is both socially and anthropologically progressed. Simply put, there are a number of social institutions in the society in which their control would point to the entry of standardized products for student access. These social institution include but are not limited to, the family, local markets, and the school. Moreover, studying this problem in schools requires the use of anthropological techniques such as interviews and observation to collect data for making significant conclusions.

These collection of social institutions and techniques create an interconnecting link between food and nutrition in school and other attaching factors such as budget considerations, economic factors, social factors, political factors, physical constraints, legal risks, internal and external factors, and cultural influences. Without studying these links, one would not be able to implement this policy plan as effectively as possible. The formulation and implementation of food policies is primary in countering weight-related problems. This policy should therefore serve as an alternative and framework for implementing food policies in schools.

Justification of the Food Policy Plan

Studies have shown that most schools have not put enough efforts to adopt healthy eating habits. However, elements of positive efforts have been reported once in a while in schools that champion for the health of students. The disparities that have been witnessed demonstrate the presence of challenges that stagnate the situation as seen mostly in primary and secondary schools. A wide public awareness that has been created through government efforts has also led to fruitful recommendations as regards to the creation of an effective and readily available school food environment.

Some programs that have been adopted by the government to create such a school food environment include the Framework Policy on Healthy Eating and Active Learning adopted in 2007, and the Going the Healthy Route at School that was also adopted in the year 2007. Though these policies were created on a primary objective of improving the health of students, they have not made any significant progress. This lack of support is attributed to lack of support from government agencies and the gaps that exist between controlling other related factors and the actual food policy. Up to date, the number of school children that have suffered obesity is constantly increasing, a condition which calls for a proper and a more effective food policy framework.

Why the Policy Will Work

Unlike the previous policies that have failed to work, this policy will work because of two main reasons: It draws upon the regulations that link food consumption and food processing, it focuses on establishing an effective school food environment.

This description of the nature of this food policy has not been found in any of the food programs that have been created before. It is a common understanding that energy-dense foods are sold at cheap prices in the market. Students, being among the most unpredictable consumer generation in the current global market will take on the consumption of a product that seems to be appropriate according to their age. It should also be a common understanding that imposing heavy taxes on such food items is one of the measures that can be used to bar them from making particular purchases.

Secondly, it should be known that conditions such as obesity are mainly caused by environmental factors that establish imbalances in consumption mediums. Controlling such mediums is one of the ways of controlling the entry of non-nutritious food items to school. Regarding this, any policy plan to improve students’ nutrition should attach to changing the environment to correspond in the realization of long term and short term objectives. In each specific context, creating an energy balance in the school consumption habits should be the main approach through which this should be done. Establishing a conducive school food environment should therefore consider the types of food to be offered, current government policies such as principles of taxation, physical structures and facilities such as the storage equipment and information medium programs.

Expected Policy Outcomes

The primary concern of this food policy is to improve students’ nutrition in schools for better performance and health status. In general, promoting the well-being and health of school children place them at a better position to excel in studies. Nutritionist have pointed out through research that the ability of students to learn effectively and grasp content at all levels is determined by the kind of foods they consume. This starts with the implementation programs that seek to improve the healthy eating habits of children and proper physical training. By so doing, it will be easier for parents and the government to control and prevent certain food-related chronic diseases and obesity among children.

Secondly, this food policy plan seeks to create a conducive learning environment in school. A healthy eating habit is key to promoting a conducive learning environment. Such an environment is characterized by the presence of highly nutritious lunch and breakfast programs and active physical activity. In the classroom, the program will enable instructors to measure the level of retention and to ensure that messages are coherent.

Proposed Implementation Procedure      

There are many steps to be involved in the implementation of the Nutrition Education in Schools Policy. As such, it possesses some complex features which must be effectively coordinated. If all the specifications and requirements for the implementation of the policy are met, then the whole exercise will take less than two years to achieve the set objectives. This timeline is appropriate as it will give the associated stakeholders ample time to address all the components of the plan.

The implementation process of this policy will involve the following key steps:

  1. Formation of the steering committee- This committee will draw members from all the stakeholders to be involved and it will be responsible for coordinating the implementation plans. It will also take the responsibility of identifying and securing sources of funding to meet the costs associated with the implementation process.
  2. Setting up conflict management and enforcement systems- As it is required in any form of implementation procedure, an enforcement plan should be educative and respectful. As such, compliance with the existing legal provisions is key. This step will establish a system for incorporating and addressing issues and concerns that might arise during the implementation process.
  3. Establishment of a policy management system- All ongoing operations should be monitored by effective systems. This step will be part of the communication arrangements to be addressed.
  4. Assessment and Evaluation- This pertains to the procedures that will be set to oversee the development of the policy plan and its connection to the realization of the set objectives. This will be a collection of both planned and formal efforts that should be set to assess the impacts of the policy.

The Communication Plan

As earlier stated, the Nutrition Education in Schools Policy is a recommendation that is seeking to improve students’ healthy living for better academic outcomes. The following are the policy objectives:

  • To improve students’ health status by facilitating the provision of diet-oriented food products.
  • To develop a framework for curbing the consumption of voluminous food with no dietry significance.
  • To create a conducive food environment for the students and teachers.
  • To contribute to the government’s efforts in achieving its national health goals such as the elimination of obesity.

The implementation of this policy will be held as a mutual exercise and therefore it will require efforts from students, parents, the government, and the society at large. The following will be the key contributions of each of the stakeholders during the implementation process.

The government- As a stakeholder in the education sector, the government will support efforts from the secondary stakeholders. This will be done in the form of pumping resources and materials required to build and sustain the policy. Additionally, the government is expected to revise the tax rates for the unfavorable food products so as to limit students’ access and affordability.

Students- Being central characters in the realization of the policy’s objectives, students will be the key facilitators in the implementation process of this policy. It is required that students be supplied with adequate and relevant information that defines the kinds of food that are supposed to be consumed for their better health. The policy classifies students as “high-end” consumers of food items. As such, supplying them with information about the eating behaviors that are expected will be a key part in evaluating the effectiveness of this policy.

School authorities- Second in authority after the government regarding the implementation of this policy are the school instructors. This policy would not be fully implemented without the efforts of teachers and instructors. School instructors are a medium through which resources to be used for the implementation of this policy will be disbursed from the government. They should be properly trained to ensure that all the aspects of the implementation process are adequately figured to shape.

Parents- Parents are placed at the midst of the implementation pattern. They should be taught on how to monitor their children’s eating behaviors when at home. Being members who are closer to the students, it is expected that parents take a classic role in defining the food substances that their children will consume. They should be active members of this process because their presence will serve to ensure that the influence of the black market on children is minimized. By so doing, one will be assured that children take foods that are recommended by qualified nutritionists.

Proposed Timeline

This policy is expected to run for one year and to be active for as long as it is effective. The following is a breakdown of this timeline and the programs and activities to be conducted:

  • 1st-6th Month- A committee is formed to spearhead the implementation process. Each committee member is to be assigned a specific task. The committee will be responsible for sourcing and gathering resources and coordinating meetings.
  • 7th-10th Month- The policy effective date and the implementation date are identified. During this period, an integrated and coordinated school announcement is made. Implementation plans for the food policy are developed.
  • 11th-12th– The implementation plans are further developed by the sub-committees. Communication patterns are drawn and specified. The eating behaviors of the students and their general school food environments are facilitated effectively within the schools.

Budget Requirements

The implementation of this policy plan will be associated with significant costs. There will be several meetings at the system level among parents, instructors, students, and various government agencies to develop and coordinate information and resources. There will be an in-person conference which shall be followed by group meetings.  Successful implementation of food policies needs adequate resources. Sometimes due to fiscal constraint, this may not be possible. There are infrastructures that need to be put in place as well for the successful implementation of these programs.

Thus, in instances where funds for the same are lacking, then it means that such policies will not be successfully implemented. The plan requires a significant amount of funding to make it effective. The cost is, however, worth it. There is need to fund the policy with regard to the provision of the materials and equipment needed to operationalize the plan. There are further funds needed to hire the human resource team that s to be involved in operationalizing the plan. More funds will also be required to facilitate any form of training that the staff may be required to undertake (Nestle, 2006). This funding should be benchmarked against the cost of funding each institution and letting them run their own nutrition plan on their own means. Primarily, the cost categories will be attached to the purchase of training materials, enforcement costs, educational campaign costs and lead staffing schools for implementation purposes.


In a closer view, there is an urgent need for developing a policy that will work to eradicate conditions related to malnutrition among school children. This is a presentation of one of the potentially successful policies. In this policy plan, measures for improving children’s health in school to eradicate conditions such as obesity are drafted by use of a multi-diverse perspective. The policy calls for an active engagement of all education stakeholders to contribute efforts towards ensuring that school feeding programs are standardized. This intervention incorporates efforts from the most relevant stakeholders thus its durability cannot be questioned. There is enough to be done to ensure that it is durable and effective. Considered as a whole, the policy is a masterpiece that seek to create a conducive food environment in schools that value the health status of children.
























Nestle, M. (2006). Food marketing and childhood obesity—a matter of policy. New England Journal of Medicine, 354(24), 2527-2529.