Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

How Does One Lead a Good Life and Be Good?

December 14, 2017

Introduction

  • Summa Theologiae

The philosophical moral taught by St. Thomas Aquinas develops as a merger of two traditions that are at loggerheads with each other, Aristotelian eudemonism against theologies found in Christianity. The happiness elaborated by Aquinas is based on perfection, completion or well-being. Establishing happiness needs an array of moral virtues and intellect that empower us with the understanding of the motivation behind happiness. In the opposite corner, Aquinas staunchly communicates that complete happiness in life is impossible. Infinite happiness, according to Aquinas, is only possible through a supernatural union with God. An end of this nature is far beyond the existing human capabilities that have been achieved. As such, we not only need the help of a supreme being (God) in the transformation of nature but the virtues as well. In addition to this, Aquinas also emphasizes that we did inherit a linking to sin from Adam that corrupts our human nature. However, it should be noted that not all of our existence is corrupted by sin, only diminished by it. Forthwith, it is our responsibility to seek God’s guidance as a means of ensuring that our naturalness is restored and maintained, comforting us with his plans. Such results in grace courtesy of the divine form instantiated by gifts and virtues.

In the first article, with regards to the inquisition as to whether the contemplative perspective has lesser rewards than the active type, the first demurral elaborates on how Aquinas thought that which fits to better men would seem better and worthy. It means that the active life can only be lived by individuals in their ranking, those in situations that epitomise power and honor (Pbs.org, 2017). As such Augustine elaborate how in our activities we must not love, respect or power in this life. The active life, it would appear, is exemplary than the contemplative type. The second objection, he elaborates that every act, direction or habit belongs to the person it is most important to and directs the acts of the bridle maker. It as such, is in the presence of the active lifestyle liver to command and direct those living contemplatively. It supports the excellence of an active life over the contemplative.

(2)

A contrary opinion is provided by Jesus, as quoted from Luke 10:42,’Mary hath chosen the best part, which shall not be taken away from her’. Here, Mary figures out that the contemplative standpoint is better than the active life. A personal rebuttal to this is that certain thins cannot be prevented from being excellent regardless of other overtaking them to some respect. We ought to reply that a contemplative lifestyle is better because it enables man to set up a life best on what suits them best. Specifically, intellect where an active life is riddled with external materialism. Further research reveals how a contemplative life is continuous, with no regards to an optimum level. Mary is elaborated as ‘sitting at the Lords’ feet’ at the time. Augustine, talks of how ‘Martha was troubled, but Mary feasted.’ The contemplative life seems to have more personal sufficiency in life as it is simplified. Luke 10:41, talks of ‘Martha, Martha, thou art careful and art troubled about many things’. It would seem that a contemplativeness is appreciated more for what it is, while the activeness is focused on something else.  The former promotes what ought to be proper to man, his intellect. It is by far the only thing that has been provided equally. Which brings us to the issue of gender equality.

Aquinas provides some elaborations with regards to whether the woman ought to have been made in the first production of things? The first protestation portrays the woman as the misbegotten male. As such if she was among the first living things created, she would be immune to defections, as the first. A similar opinion, Genesis 3:16, that sin was caused by limitations of the subjective instruction, ‘Thou shalt be under the man’s power.’ Naturally, a woman would be less dignified leave alone stronger, than a man. Given a contemplative overview, one realizes that God did see sin originating from woman, otherwise He should have considered her fast. The simple contradiction is not found that far in the book of Genesis, specifically, chapter two verse twelve, ‘It is not good for man to be alone; let us make him a helper like to himself.’

Elaborately, the woman was a necessity for man to be at his most successful. It would seem the latter needed help, and not just any help. God saw it fit to create a being that was similar to man (Higgins, 1976). It is made clearer when one considers the same perspective in other living things. There are living things that do not link of the power of generation and are catalyzed by other entities such as certain animals, or heavenly bodies, leave alone seeds. There are species that vary better passive and active generative collaboration. Plants come from seeds, and liver a compete live in a single position, living collaborative tendencies to other forces of nature. Quite contemplative in retrospect. Powerful animals, however, assimilate a belief that empowers the male sex. Their lives are principally motivating, the continuation of the species, with the strongest male selecting his set of perfect female animals, however coition the time (Aquinas, 2010). The likeness to perfect the masculine sex makes woman the misbegotten material indisposition, regardless of the external factors inhibiting Adam’s performance. Be that as it may, man has an intellection contribution, the sense to his limitations and empowering woman, as he deeds naming creations, in ways that will aid him in his obligation to God.

When a man is born, bestowed in the gift of life that, as for now, has not been proven to be theological or biological, there is a single grant that is equal among all; choice. Augustine is torn between the two primary purposes of life, whether you were born to impact the earth that surrounds you or for God’s greater purpose. Elaborately, the first one catalyzes a need of sense in the materialistic attributes one comes across in life. Regardless of whether one is born in a wealthy family or a poor one, the choice to want to be wealthy is faced in each scenario. Those in riches are more likely to take on an active lifestyle. For what money truly is, is a means of living to the standards that one perceives to be in. A poorer candidate is likely to be contemplative, seeking to appreciate the little that is available to them, as that is their best possible option.

Contemplative contributions from Jesus in the book of Luke, will be embraced better by an individual who has been born into that mode of thinking. It comes down to whether they have active faith in God. A poor individual who is weak in this scenario is likely to do everything they can to established an active lifestyle. This is includes using this contemplation, humbleness and belief in God as motivation. Luke 10:42,’ Mary hath chosen the best part, which shall not be taken away from her.’ By the right of being born with the freedom to choose a path, the contemplative individual has every right to aim for an active life, simply because they experienced the hardships of being born poor.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Aquinas, T. (2010). Summa Theologica. Fathers of the English Dominican, Vol 5.

Higgins, J. (1976). The myth of Eve: The Temptress. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol 44.

Pbs.org. (2017). The stoy of the stoytellers-The Gospel Of Luke. Retrieved from PSB: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/story/mmluke.html

 

 

Advertisements

Select one Short story limited portion of the thesis statement.

December 14, 2017

Name:

Professor:

Course:

Date:

Symbolist Representation of Beliefs in Flannery O’Connor’s A Good Man is Hard to Find

Written by the American writer and essayist Flannery O’Connor, the short story “A good man is hard to find” is a member of the author’s set of short stories with the same name published in 1953. Since it was published, the story has been studied from a religious perspective, with various scholars revealing a number of in-depth meanings from a religious view. It is also considered a member of the Christian realism, a literal and art movement from which Mary Flannery O’Connor was a member. The narrative’s main storyline revolves around spiritual aspects of humanity, with the reader attempting to show that the world lacks a “good person” and that the only good person is God himself (Kilcourse 92). A number of symbols have been used to portray the author’s point of view in terms of religion and religious beliefs and comparison with common beliefs among humans. In particular, the idea of a “good man” is used as a symbol to describe the expectations of humans about each other, which are never satisfied or achieved. Arguably, the definition of the “Good Man” as used in the story extends to every person involved in the story, despite the personal beliefs that one is good while others are not.

The definition of “Good Man” is relatively elusive. O’Connor wanted to show that individuals belief that they are good, but perceive others to be bad or evil, yet they do not reflect their actions to determine their moral goodness. In this story, the symbol of ‘a good man’ has been used to describe O’Connor’s idea of being good. First, the Grandmother, the main character in the story, is possessed with the idea finding a good man. She is yet to be satisfied by finding a good man. She applies the “good” label often and indiscriminately, which tends to blur the actual definition of the being good. In fact, her actions seem to make the label. In the storyline, she first applies the label to Red Sammy in an argument in which he shows his hatred for the general nature of being untrustworthy, which is common among all the people he finds (O’Connor and Asals 59). Sammy complains of his behavior when he let two men charge their gasoline but ended swindling him. The grandmother tells Sammy that his action was faithful because he was “a good man”. In this case, it is worth noting the elusive meaning of being good. According to her definition of a good person, the grandmother tends to believe that being gullible, poor in judgment, submitting to people’s needs to please them and having a blind faith are signs of being good. However, it is clear that none of these characteristics are good in themselves.

Secondly, the grandmother’s use of the label “good” suggests otherwise. When she is confronted by the Mistfit after the accident, the Grandmother seems to change he idea of being good. She knows that Misfit is a criminal who has killed people and escaped from prison. However, she believes that by calling him “good”, he would submit to her pleas and save her life. In addition, she thinks that a good man cannot kill a woman because women are inherently good. In particular, she seems to have an underlying value of the term “good”. For instance, she uses this symbol to describe a person whose values and perceptions align to her belief. For instance, she knows that Misfit is a criminal and a murder. Yet, she calls him “good”, thinking that his values were aligned with her beliefs. For instance, she believes that women are inherently good and should not be harmed. She thinks that the Misfit holds the same ideology and that he is “good”. However, it turns out to be false. She is killed after calling the Misfit “a good man”. According to the Misfit’s point of view, there is not “good man”. It is probable that O’Connor used this phrase as a symbol of an individual’s point of view on each other.

Thirdly, the author uses the phrase “good man” to depict what individuals think of themselves and others. According to the author’s point of view, each person thinks or believes that he or she is good and that other people can only be good if they are submissive to what one wants or believes. Again, the grandmother is used to portray this notion. The grandmother thinks and believes that she is good. In addition, she thinks that women are inherently good and harmless, which means that they should not be harmed. On the other hand, she believes that the other people can be good or bad depending on their moral codes. If a person’s ideas, believes and moral code does not align with her perceptions, then that person is not good.

The mother also fails to recognize her negative sides, which makes her “not good”. For instance, she fails to recognize her sins, flaws and weaknesses. For example, the grandmother tells a number of lies to her children, but does not realize that it is a sin. She also controls her son and fails to respect his quiet wife. She fails to see her weakness, especially in remembering things.

In addition, the author has used the human nature of believing that God sees from our individual perspectives. Using the grandmother and the Misfit as examples, the author tends to show that God’s salvation is meant for every person, including those who are depicted as bad on earth. For example, in the story, the grandmother believes that she is righteous and other people, especially the Misfit, is wrong or evil. Her perception of Jesus changes due to increasing fear of Misfit’s possible action (Kilcourse 127). Initially, she seemed contented that good people will rise from the dead, emulating Jesus. However, she changes her mind as fear accumulates in her. On his part, the Misfit cannot repent or save the lives of others. Unlike the grandmother, the Misfit believes that every person is bad and should be treated as a bad thing. He is naturally a murderer who does not have a second thought about his actions. He seems to be out on a mission to avenge for something. However, the end of the story is used to show that every person has an equal chance of salivation in God’s presence. God settles Grace on the grandmother and the Misfit, despite their sins. The idea is to show the readers each person has an equal chance to obtain God’s grace, regardless of what others think about us.

 

 

Works Cited

Kilcourse, George. Flannery O’Connor’s religious imagination: a world with everything off balance. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 2011. Print.

O’Connor, Flannery and Frederick Asals. A good man is hard to find. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2008. Print.

 

 

Mid Term Essay Questions

December 13, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mid Term Essay Questions

 

 

Institutional affiliation

Name

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question one

The major problem in understanding the brain is the inability to get the best picture of the events that are happening inside the brain. The scientists have different empirical methods that help them see the brain acting. The techniques have changed limitations until they are put together. The direct approach or technology to visualize and understand the brain structure is by analyzing the corpses of the human brain directly. When Albert Einstein was deceased in 1955, the brain was taken from the head and stored for the analysis in the future. Miriam Diamond in 1999 analyzed the cortex of Albert’s brain to determine his characteristics. She concluded that the ratio of neurons to glial cells was critical to decide on the intelligence level. For this hypothesis to be tested, Diamond compared glia to neuron ratio. The advantage is the brain can be studied thoroughly but the disadvantage involved is that brain is inactive. Another method of analyzing the brain is through electrical activity formed by the firing of the neurons. This technique has realized that there are future detector neurons placed at the point of visual cortex helping to detect movement, edges, faces, and lines. The Electroencephalography (EEG) is an approach given a live human being (Klüver, 1939). EEG records electrical activities that the brain neurons have produced through the electrodes placed close to the participants’ header research. ECG can be able to show if an individual is asleep, anesthetized or awake because the wave’s pattern of the brain differs during every state. The advantage of ECG is the patient can freely move as the recordings are done and it’s helpful for children who can’t be still (Olds, 1954). Even though ECG provide general electrical activity in the brain and researcher changes quickly as they take place in the brain, ECG does not give a clear picture of the brain structure. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI) is the technique used to provide specific brain images. It uses a charming arena to generate brain activity descriptions in each area of the mind. This technique is substantial, noninvasive and available but expensive. This process can lead to damage to the human, brain cells leading to stroke and other mental illnesses.

Question two

Classical condition is a type of learning that takes place when Neutral Stimulus like a tenor is related with the incentive like food that generates a conduct naturally. An experiment done with dogs by exposing them to a specific sound just before giving them food for several days proved this condition. The dogs used to salivate initially if they smelled or saw food, but after many sounds and food pairing, they began to salivate immediately they hear the sound. They learned to co-relate food and the hearing of the sound. The unconditional stimulus is when food triggers a response that occurs naturally like salivating in dogs. The unconditioned response is a natural response that occurs like salivating due to unrestricted stimulus. Conditioned stimulus (CS) is a stimulus that is neutral after being recurrently obtainable just before the unconditioned stimulus; it arouses the same reply like unconditioned stimulus (Öhman, 2010). This research, the sound was the conditioned stimulus creating a conditioned response, which is a response attained from the previously neutral stimulus. It is important to note that the behavior of UR and CR are the same in the situation it is salivation. They have dissimilar names because they are manufactured by various stimuli that are CS. and US. The phobia developed in these animals can be eliminated by delivering the same sound and fail to bring food. If this is practiced severally, then the animals will no longer salivate until they see or smell food.

 

 

Question three

Some of the problem that this eyewitness could be having based on the memory and cognition subject is that there is a possibility of distorting judgment or even to misremember information. Our memories have no perfection, and they often fail because of our inability to adequately encode and store information. The memory cannot accurately retrieve the stored data. The memory of the eyewitness is most likely influenced by its setting where an event occurred after experiencing another event (Bridgeman, 1996). Even though the cognition permits the witness to attend to, organize information and rehearse but the perception may equally lead to information distortions and also errors in the witness judgment and behavior. The witness may be having cognitive biases that are memory errors or judgment caused by improper use of the cognitive processes. There is a possibility of inability to identify accurately the memory source of information presented by the eyewitness. Misinformation effects mean memory errors that occur when the current memory is influenced by the new information. This misinformation may lead to false information remembrance of things that never happened. Example of misinformation effect is:

“About how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?”

 

“About how fast were the cars going when they smashed each other?”

 

“About how fast were the cars going when they contacted each other?”

The above questions were asked of a group of eyewitnesses in an accident, and they have a different response. The fast team estimated that they moved at the highest speed that was average and therefore the phrasing of the query prejudiced the reminiscence of the participants in responding to the question. Research reveals that there is a Passive Cognitive Bias in overconfidence, and it’s the tendency of individuals being very sure of their ability to remember the events accurately.

Question four

The operant condition is learning that is sometimes viewed as R-àS because it’s the consequence that comes after the response and thus influences the likelihood or unlikelihood of the response occurrence. The ideal condition demonstrates S-àR learning. Despite these circumstances, we are likely to have imperfect children and pets. This is because learning is always the consequence of the application of the knowledge that means learners begin to associate specific responses with some particular stimuli. This association leads to a probability of changes to reactions. Especially in children they can fashion their consequences, and that may lead to change in behavior. An example of the operant condition is Robert likes to camp outside in his home compound. He was doing this every Friday in December. It had been his custom for a long time. The last time he was camping, a group of friends snuck up the tent while he was sleeping and they poured a bucket of freeze water on him while he was asleep. From that time Robert has never gone to a campout. Ir was a negative reinforcement that led to a negative response to changing the camp out behavior (Doob, 1979). It led to the weakening of the action that Robert had due to the added consequences. Since there was an addition of effect, there was a weakening of practice leading to the punishment of the process. Another example is every time that Meek raises her hand in class; she is appointed to speak. She did this two times in the first grade, four times in the 2nd class and five times in the last category. This behavior of raising her hand was positively reinforced by appointing her severally to speak, and this strengthens her behavior. The consequence here was added. Since there was an addition to her impact and strengthening of her response, then this is a positive reinforcement process.

Question five

Mindfulness is disbursing courtesy deliberately without making any judgment to what is taking place in your body, mind and the existing world around you. Meditation and mindfulness help in developing our inner resources to be able to cope up with stress, depression and anxiety, effects of chronic diseases and pain. Mindfulness will make life very much enjoyable, fulfilling and exciting. Mindfulness enables individuals to bare and cope up with difficulties. The more meditation and mindfulness is done, the more significant experience of a calm sense, serenity, and wellbeing. In the video, the professor examines the neuroscience that is involved in mindfulness. Mindfulness is always a non-judgmental way giving attention to current issues. The Cognitive Behavior Therapy designed for awareness to a habitual negative thinking leading to anxious spirals and depression. The combination of MBCT interferes with how individuals react habitually to situations. Some of the keywords used are depression, psychology, anxiety, and mindfulness. One of the significant discoveries of scientists that are mindfully relevant was that there is plasticity in the brain which is known as Neuroplasticity. The innovation enables us to realize that we have flexible brains and the development is progressive even as we became old. Professor Williams reports that when you follow the training of mindfulness meditation, “then neocortex brain is uncoupled with ventromedial prefrontal cortex, ” and this part is related to the narrative where people create stories about themselves. If the parts of the brain are uncoupled, then compassion is activated without stories generated in the brain or even the mind ruminating. It enables individuals to feel good and worries.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Bridgeman, B. &. (1996). Success in college for students with discrepancies between performance on multiple choice and essay tests. Journal of Educational Psychology, 333-340.

Doob, A. N. (1979). Television viewing and fear of victimization: Is the relationship causal? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 170-179.

Klüver, H. &. (1939). Preliminary analysis of functions of the temporal lobes in monkeys. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry (Chicago), 979-1000.

Öhman, A. &. (2010). Fears, phobias, and preparedness: Toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning. Psychological Review, 483-522.

Olds, J. &. (1954). Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 419-427.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mid Term Essay Questions

 

 

Institutional affiliation

Name

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question one

The major problem in understanding the brain is the inability to get the best picture of the events that are happening inside the brain. The scientists have different empirical methods that help them see the brain acting. The techniques have changed limitations until they are put together. The direct approach or technology to visualize and understand the brain structure is by analyzing the corpses of the human brain directly. When Albert Einstein was deceased in 1955, the brain was taken from the head and stored for the analysis in the future. Miriam Diamond in 1999 analyzed the cortex of Albert’s brain to determine his characteristics. She concluded that the ratio of neurons to glial cells was critical to decide on the intelligence level. For this hypothesis to be tested, Diamond compared glia to neuron ratio. The advantage is the brain can be studied thoroughly but the disadvantage involved is that brain is inactive. Another method of analyzing the brain is through electrical activity formed by the firing of the neurons. This technique has realized that there are future detector neurons placed at the point of visual cortex helping to detect movement, edges, faces, and lines. The Electroencephalography (EEG) is an approach given a live human being (Klüver, 1939). EEG records electrical activities that the brain neurons have produced through the electrodes placed close to the participants’ header research. ECG can be able to show if an individual is asleep, anesthetized or awake because the wave’s pattern of the brain differs during every state. The advantage of ECG is the patient can freely move as the recordings are done and it’s helpful for children who can’t be still (Olds, 1954). Even though ECG provide general electrical activity in the brain and researcher changes quickly as they take place in the brain, ECG does not give a clear picture of the brain structure. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI) is the technique used to provide specific brain images. It uses a charming arena to generate brain activity descriptions in each area of the mind. This technique is substantial, noninvasive and available but expensive. This process can lead to damage to the human, brain cells leading to stroke and other mental illnesses.

Question two

Classical condition is a type of learning that takes place when Neutral Stimulus like a tenor is related with the incentive like food that generates a conduct naturally. An experiment done with dogs by exposing them to a specific sound just before giving them food for several days proved this condition. The dogs used to salivate initially if they smelled or saw food, but after many sounds and food pairing, they began to salivate immediately they hear the sound. They learned to co-relate food and the hearing of the sound. The unconditional stimulus is when food triggers a response that occurs naturally like salivating in dogs. The unconditioned response is a natural response that occurs like salivating due to unrestricted stimulus. Conditioned stimulus (CS) is a stimulus that is neutral after being recurrently obtainable just before the unconditioned stimulus; it arouses the same reply like unconditioned stimulus (Öhman, 2010). This research, the sound was the conditioned stimulus creating a conditioned response, which is a response attained from the previously neutral stimulus. It is important to note that the behavior of UR and CR are the same in the situation it is salivation. They have dissimilar names because they are manufactured by various stimuli that are CS. and US. The phobia developed in these animals can be eliminated by delivering the same sound and fail to bring food. If this is practiced severally, then the animals will no longer salivate until they see or smell food.

 

 

Question three

Some of the problem that this eyewitness could be having based on the memory and cognition subject is that there is a possibility of distorting judgment or even to misremember information. Our memories have no perfection, and they often fail because of our inability to adequately encode and store information. The memory cannot accurately retrieve the stored data. The memory of the eyewitness is most likely influenced by its setting where an event occurred after experiencing another event (Bridgeman, 1996). Even though the cognition permits the witness to attend to, organize information and rehearse but the perception may equally lead to information distortions and also errors in the witness judgment and behavior. The witness may be having cognitive biases that are memory errors or judgment caused by improper use of the cognitive processes. There is a possibility of inability to identify accurately the memory source of information presented by the eyewitness. Misinformation effects mean memory errors that occur when the current memory is influenced by the new information. This misinformation may lead to false information remembrance of things that never happened. Example of misinformation effect is:

“About how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?”

 

“About how fast were the cars going when they smashed each other?”

 

“About how fast were the cars going when they contacted each other?”

The above questions were asked of a group of eyewitnesses in an accident, and they have a different response. The fast team estimated that they moved at the highest speed that was average and therefore the phrasing of the query prejudiced the reminiscence of the participants in responding to the question. Research reveals that there is a Passive Cognitive Bias in overconfidence, and it’s the tendency of individuals being very sure of their ability to remember the events accurately.

Question four

The operant condition is learning that is sometimes viewed as R-àS because it’s the consequence that comes after the response and thus influences the likelihood or unlikelihood of the response occurrence. The ideal condition demonstrates S-àR learning. Despite these circumstances, we are likely to have imperfect children and pets. This is because learning is always the consequence of the application of the knowledge that means learners begin to associate specific responses with some particular stimuli. This association leads to a probability of changes to reactions. Especially in children they can fashion their consequences, and that may lead to change in behavior. An example of the operant condition is Robert likes to camp outside in his home compound. He was doing this every Friday in December. It had been his custom for a long time. The last time he was camping, a group of friends snuck up the tent while he was sleeping and they poured a bucket of freeze water on him while he was asleep. From that time Robert has never gone to a campout. Ir was a negative reinforcement that led to a negative response to changing the camp out behavior (Doob, 1979). It led to the weakening of the action that Robert had due to the added consequences. Since there was an addition of effect, there was a weakening of practice leading to the punishment of the process. Another example is every time that Meek raises her hand in class; she is appointed to speak. She did this two times in the first grade, four times in the 2nd class and five times in the last category. This behavior of raising her hand was positively reinforced by appointing her severally to speak, and this strengthens her behavior. The consequence here was added. Since there was an addition to her impact and strengthening of her response, then this is a positive reinforcement process.

Question five

Mindfulness is disbursing courtesy deliberately without making any judgment to what is taking place in your body, mind and the existing world around you. Meditation and mindfulness help in developing our inner resources to be able to cope up with stress, depression and anxiety, effects of chronic diseases and pain. Mindfulness will make life very much enjoyable, fulfilling and exciting. Mindfulness enables individuals to bare and cope up with difficulties. The more meditation and mindfulness is done, the more significant experience of a calm sense, serenity, and wellbeing. In the video, the professor examines the neuroscience that is involved in mindfulness. Mindfulness is always a non-judgmental way giving attention to current issues. The Cognitive Behavior Therapy designed for awareness to a habitual negative thinking leading to anxious spirals and depression. The combination of MBCT interferes with how individuals react habitually to situations. Some of the keywords used are depression, psychology, anxiety, and mindfulness. One of the significant discoveries of scientists that are mindfully relevant was that there is plasticity in the brain which is known as Neuroplasticity. The innovation enables us to realize that we have flexible brains and the development is progressive even as we became old. Professor Williams reports that when you follow the training of mindfulness meditation, “then neocortex brain is uncoupled with ventromedial prefrontal cortex, ” and this part is related to the narrative where people create stories about themselves. If the parts of the brain are uncoupled, then compassion is activated without stories generated in the brain or even the mind ruminating. It enables individuals to feel good and worries.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Bridgeman, B. &. (1996). Success in college for students with discrepancies between performance on multiple choice and essay tests. Journal of Educational Psychology, 333-340.

Doob, A. N. (1979). Television viewing and fear of victimization: Is the relationship causal? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 170-179.

Klüver, H. &. (1939). Preliminary analysis of functions of the temporal lobes in monkeys. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry (Chicago), 979-1000.

Öhman, A. &. (2010). Fears, phobias, and preparedness: Toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning. Psychological Review, 483-522.

Olds, J. &. (1954). Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 419-427.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mid Term Essay Questions

 

 

Institutional affiliation

Name

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question one

The major problem in understanding the brain is the inability to get the best picture of the events that are happening inside the brain. The scientists have different empirical methods that help them see the brain acting. The techniques have changed limitations until they are put together. The direct approach or technology to visualize and understand the brain structure is by analyzing the corpses of the human brain directly. When Albert Einstein was deceased in 1955, the brain was taken from the head and stored for the analysis in the future. Miriam Diamond in 1999 analyzed the cortex of Albert’s brain to determine his characteristics. She concluded that the ratio of neurons to glial cells was critical to decide on the intelligence level. For this hypothesis to be tested, Diamond compared glia to neuron ratio. The advantage is the brain can be studied thoroughly but the disadvantage involved is that brain is inactive. Another method of analyzing the brain is through electrical activity formed by the firing of the neurons. This technique has realized that there are future detector neurons placed at the point of visual cortex helping to detect movement, edges, faces, and lines. The Electroencephalography (EEG) is an approach given a live human being (Klüver, 1939). EEG records electrical activities that the brain neurons have produced through the electrodes placed close to the participants’ header research. ECG can be able to show if an individual is asleep, anesthetized or awake because the wave’s pattern of the brain differs during every state. The advantage of ECG is the patient can freely move as the recordings are done and it’s helpful for children who can’t be still (Olds, 1954). Even though ECG provide general electrical activity in the brain and researcher changes quickly as they take place in the brain, ECG does not give a clear picture of the brain structure. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI) is the technique used to provide specific brain images. It uses a charming arena to generate brain activity descriptions in each area of the mind. This technique is substantial, noninvasive and available but expensive. This process can lead to damage to the human, brain cells leading to stroke and other mental illnesses.

Question two

Classical condition is a type of learning that takes place when Neutral Stimulus like a tenor is related with the incentive like food that generates a conduct naturally. An experiment done with dogs by exposing them to a specific sound just before giving them food for several days proved this condition. The dogs used to salivate initially if they smelled or saw food, but after many sounds and food pairing, they began to salivate immediately they hear the sound. They learned to co-relate food and the hearing of the sound. The unconditional stimulus is when food triggers a response that occurs naturally like salivating in dogs. The unconditioned response is a natural response that occurs like salivating due to unrestricted stimulus. Conditioned stimulus (CS) is a stimulus that is neutral after being recurrently obtainable just before the unconditioned stimulus; it arouses the same reply like unconditioned stimulus (Öhman, 2010). This research, the sound was the conditioned stimulus creating a conditioned response, which is a response attained from the previously neutral stimulus. It is important to note that the behavior of UR and CR are the same in the situation it is salivation. They have dissimilar names because they are manufactured by various stimuli that are CS. and US. The phobia developed in these animals can be eliminated by delivering the same sound and fail to bring food. If this is practiced severally, then the animals will no longer salivate until they see or smell food.

 

 

Question three

Some of the problem that this eyewitness could be having based on the memory and cognition subject is that there is a possibility of distorting judgment or even to misremember information. Our memories have no perfection, and they often fail because of our inability to adequately encode and store information. The memory cannot accurately retrieve the stored data. The memory of the eyewitness is most likely influenced by its setting where an event occurred after experiencing another event (Bridgeman, 1996). Even though the cognition permits the witness to attend to, organize information and rehearse but the perception may equally lead to information distortions and also errors in the witness judgment and behavior. The witness may be having cognitive biases that are memory errors or judgment caused by improper use of the cognitive processes. There is a possibility of inability to identify accurately the memory source of information presented by the eyewitness. Misinformation effects mean memory errors that occur when the current memory is influenced by the new information. This misinformation may lead to false information remembrance of things that never happened. Example of misinformation effect is:

“About how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?”

 

“About how fast were the cars going when they smashed each other?”

 

“About how fast were the cars going when they contacted each other?”

The above questions were asked of a group of eyewitnesses in an accident, and they have a different response. The fast team estimated that they moved at the highest speed that was average and therefore the phrasing of the query prejudiced the reminiscence of the participants in responding to the question. Research reveals that there is a Passive Cognitive Bias in overconfidence, and it’s the tendency of individuals being very sure of their ability to remember the events accurately.

Question four

The operant condition is learning that is sometimes viewed as R-àS because it’s the consequence that comes after the response and thus influences the likelihood or unlikelihood of the response occurrence. The ideal condition demonstrates S-àR learning. Despite these circumstances, we are likely to have imperfect children and pets. This is because learning is always the consequence of the application of the knowledge that means learners begin to associate specific responses with some particular stimuli. This association leads to a probability of changes to reactions. Especially in children they can fashion their consequences, and that may lead to change in behavior. An example of the operant condition is Robert likes to camp outside in his home compound. He was doing this every Friday in December. It had been his custom for a long time. The last time he was camping, a group of friends snuck up the tent while he was sleeping and they poured a bucket of freeze water on him while he was asleep. From that time Robert has never gone to a campout. Ir was a negative reinforcement that led to a negative response to changing the camp out behavior (Doob, 1979). It led to the weakening of the action that Robert had due to the added consequences. Since there was an addition of effect, there was a weakening of practice leading to the punishment of the process. Another example is every time that Meek raises her hand in class; she is appointed to speak. She did this two times in the first grade, four times in the 2nd class and five times in the last category. This behavior of raising her hand was positively reinforced by appointing her severally to speak, and this strengthens her behavior. The consequence here was added. Since there was an addition to her impact and strengthening of her response, then this is a positive reinforcement process.

Question five

Mindfulness is disbursing courtesy deliberately without making any judgment to what is taking place in your body, mind and the existing world around you. Meditation and mindfulness help in developing our inner resources to be able to cope up with stress, depression and anxiety, effects of chronic diseases and pain. Mindfulness will make life very much enjoyable, fulfilling and exciting. Mindfulness enables individuals to bare and cope up with difficulties. The more meditation and mindfulness is done, the more significant experience of a calm sense, serenity, and wellbeing. In the video, the professor examines the neuroscience that is involved in mindfulness. Mindfulness is always a non-judgmental way giving attention to current issues. The Cognitive Behavior Therapy designed for awareness to a habitual negative thinking leading to anxious spirals and depression. The combination of MBCT interferes with how individuals react habitually to situations. Some of the keywords used are depression, psychology, anxiety, and mindfulness. One of the significant discoveries of scientists that are mindfully relevant was that there is plasticity in the brain which is known as Neuroplasticity. The innovation enables us to realize that we have flexible brains and the development is progressive even as we became old. Professor Williams reports that when you follow the training of mindfulness meditation, “then neocortex brain is uncoupled with ventromedial prefrontal cortex, ” and this part is related to the narrative where people create stories about themselves. If the parts of the brain are uncoupled, then compassion is activated without stories generated in the brain or even the mind ruminating. It enables individuals to feel good and worries.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Bridgeman, B. &. (1996). Success in college for students with discrepancies between performance on multiple choice and essay tests. Journal of Educational Psychology, 333-340.

Doob, A. N. (1979). Television viewing and fear of victimization: Is the relationship causal? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 170-179.

Klüver, H. &. (1939). Preliminary analysis of functions of the temporal lobes in monkeys. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry (Chicago), 979-1000.

Öhman, A. &. (2010). Fears, phobias, and preparedness: Toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning. Psychological Review, 483-522.

Olds, J. &. (1954). Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 419-427.

 

 

Nursing Research Study

December 11, 2017

Nursing Research Study

Meta-analysis is a term that is used to refer to the statistical analysis that involves the combination of various results of multiple scientific research or study. In the study that was done between the year 2013 and the year 2017 on the clusters of human infection and human to human transmission of Avian influenza, a meta-analysis was implemented in a broader context. The various laboratory experiments that were conducted on the different members of the selected sample goes a long way to dictate the meta-analysis implementation in the study. To detect the changes in the human to human transmission of the infection, around 40 clusters of patients during five different epidemics strikes in China were picked and studied within the period of the five years.

Since meta-analysis is mainly concerned with the comparisons and the contrast of the various results in order to prove an outcome, in this case, it was noted that the clusters had similarities in terms of the number and the size. In the end, it was proved that there was no noticeable change in the human to human transmission risk within the stated research time. Since the study was done year after year and the results recorded, the comparison that was done at the end of the five-year period and the resultant comparison with the aim to show that there was no change in the risk of the transmission of Avian Influenza from one person to the next is a clear indication of the practical use of meta-analysis in research and scientific study.

Survey was conducted year after year for the whole period of five years. The surveys or in this case the studies were independent of each other, and their individual reports and findings were securely saved for future reference or further investigation. It is indicated that for each laboratory-confirmed Avian Influenza virus A(H7N9) that was reported in the China’s mainland (Zhou et al., 2017), the scientists in the Center of Disease Control and Prevention( CDC) took it upon themselves to conduct an investigation aimed at monitoring the close contacts of these patients for signs of the illness and their associated symptoms for ten days after the last known case-patient. Studies were conducted on the respiratory system of these close contacts of the known infected patient and to aid in this detailed information of the patient was collected early enough, that is immediately after the reporting of the infection, in this case, the laboratory proof. The detailed information included the close family members, demographic data,  exposures to and from other index case-patients as well as poultry, clinical management information as well the resultant outcomes. With the use of this data, it was easy to analyze the impacts and the effects that drive more infections and what would be used to regulate the infections to a manageable level. The surveys, which were primarily aimed at the collection of these detailed pieces of information were used in the making of various conclusions as well as studying the infection right from the case-patients, all the way to those that he or she interacted with in the immediate environment.

Though the data was taken over an elongated period, some flaws and discrepancies did exist in the analysis of this data. One of the inconsistencies was that the information mainly was based on the aspect of probability. Though the human to human transmission of the Avian influenza virus did not vary from time to time all along the many years of study, the survey was based on the probable transfers and not on the actual and proven record of the same. In June 2017, among the 40 clusters that were studied, fourteen of them were classified as the probable human to human transmission of the influenza infection while the remaining ones were ranked as the possible infections of the same virus.

As much as the data was effectively and efficiently analyzed, there remains some possible traces of inaccuracy and eventually the unreliability of the data and the resultant conclusions and outcomes. The data also involved both first hand secondary transmission of the virus. The survey, as well as the consequent data hence, remains unreliable as one is not able to deduce what transmission is best suited in producing the conclusions on the eventual outcomes of the study. To come up with any reliable conclusion of a scientific research or study, there is a need to have constant data at hand or to ensure that the data that is being used in the study be that one that is proved for the sake of reliability and dependability. This is a demand in all studies and more so when one is studying a topic on human health since it is not only a sensitive issue but one that can be dangerous if conducted without careful consideration and focus.

In comparing two journal articles, one that is based on descriptive epidemiology and one that is concerned with analytical epidemiology, the article on Fatal Outbreak in Tonkean Macaques Caused by Possibly Novel Orthopoxvirus that was conducted in Italy, in January 2015 was compared against the article on Clusters of Human Infection and Human-to-Human Transmission of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus that was conducted between the years 2013 and 2017. As per its definition, analytical epidemiology is mainly concerned with the causes of diseases.

Analytical epidemiology is based on the search for the causes, effects and the question on how and why one condition or the other exists or affects a certain group of people. In this type of epidemiology, the researchers, or in this case the epidemiologists use the analytical research to quantify the relationships between the exposures of the disease and its related outcomes. The method is used to test or prove a stated hypothesis about some casual relationship between the analysis of the existing information about a disease and the related outcomes.

The article on the Fatal Outbreak in Tonkean Macaques Caused by Possibly Novel Orthopoxvirus  as well as the one on Ceftriaxone-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Canada, 2017 are clearly based on the analytical type of epidemiology. Analytical epidemiology is a type of disease research and study that is mainly based on the cause, effects, how and why a disease exists and this article clearly shows that the research was concerned with the how the disease comes to be and how it is transmitted as they explain how the virions exists and how they look like right from the beginning of the article. The article also elaborates the hosts in which the virions survive as the epidemiologists claim that some types of the same virions exist only in mice.  In this type of epidemiology, the epidemiologists seek to explain how the disease is initiated and how it comes by as contrasted to the descriptive epidemiology that traces its basis on the analysis of data about a disease over a period of time.

The article on the human to human transmission of the Avian influenza is clearly based on the descriptive type of disease epidemiology as the epidemiologists conducted the research on the infections from one human being to the next using some equal clusters for over a period of five years. At the end of the research, combined the findings which resultantly helped in the drawing of the conclusion that there is not a significant change in the risk of the human to human transmission of the virus as it remained constant and there was no noticeable rise in the risk of the same.

Descriptive epidemiology is known to implement a set of data that is effectively analysed with the aim of drawing conclusions and reliable outcomes. The method provides a way of analyzing sets of data in order to understand the variations of a disease frequency geographically as well as over a period. As indicated in the article the study on the human to human transmission of the Avian Influenza virus was done with a lot of consideration being placed on the geographical location of the index case-patients, the immediate associations, and contacts as well as contacts with poultry, as they can be agents of the transmission of the virus. The research was also conducted over a lengthy period of time.

 

 

 

 

 

References

Zhou, L., Chen, E., Bao, C., Xiang, N., Wu, J., & Wu, S. et al. (2017). Clusters of Human Infection and Human-to-Human Transmission of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, 2013–2017. Retrieved 4 December 2017, from

 

Contact and Rooming-In

December 11, 2017

Contact and Rooming-In

Introduction

It is a well-known fact that the postnatal period-first few days to weeks after childbirth- form one of the most critical phases in the lives of both the newborn baby and the mother. Why? The reason is simple, more than half of maternal deaths occur within 24 hours postnatally, and other two-thirds of these deaths have been shown to occur within the first one week postnatally. Research findings show that about one million out of the 2.8 million infant deaths within the first month of life in recorded in 2013 occurred on the first day of birth. It, therefore, calls for appropriate measures to mitigate this challenge by ensuring better postnatal care for both the mother and the newborn (Schmied et al., 2014). In 2013, Dumas, Lepage, Bystrova, Matthiesen, Walles-Nystrom, and Widstrom conducted a randomized control trial research on the effect of skin-to-skin contact and rooming-in during the early interaction between mother and infant. This paper is a critical analysis of the article they did.

Abstract Summary of the Article

The primary objective of their study was to find out the impact of the birth routines on the interaction between mother and infant at the 4th day postnatally. The intention was to examine videos filmed on the fourth day of mother-infant interaction. The study followed a longitudinal pattern whereby mother-infant pairs were randomized using infant apparel and location. They developed and validated-using intercultural method-a protocol for the assessment and coding of the compelling value of maternal behaviors that are indicative of the mother-child interaction. The findings of the research indicate that swaddling and separation at birth significantly interfere with the mother-child interaction during wet-nurse sessions on the fourth day. Mothers whose children were separated and swaddled portrayed marked degrees of roughness towards their newborns at day 4. Moreover, the results of the study indicate evidence of sensitive separation period after childbirth. In light of these findings, the research recommends uninterrupted skin to skin contact immediately at birth, as well as rooming-in arrangement during the postpartum period. The article is an important motivator to upcoming researchers because it helps in creating a sense of motivation and guidance that can hardly be found in other articles.

The Problem of the Study

The World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with UNICEF, recently recommended immediate and non-interrupted skin contact between the mother and the newborn beginning immediately at birth, as well as rooming-in during the postpartum period in the ten steps for successful breastfeeding (Schmied et al., 2014), which comes at the backdrop of alarmingly high infant mortality rates especially within the first one week of birth which indicate how sensitive this period is. Additionally, there have been opinions that new mothers, as well as their infants,  need physical contact, precisely skin-to-skin contact so as to strengthen the bonding between the mother and the child (Hurlemann & Scheele, 2016). What is the best time to separate the mother and the infant if need be? Is it necessary to initiate contact between the mother and the infant immediately after birth? What about rooming-in? Is it significant?

Literature Review

The research article has a significant lot of backing and support for its validity. First, it has been postulated that the transition from fetal life to neonatal life is one critical phase in the presence of both the newborn and the mother. Moreover, there are research findings which indicate that shorter periods of separation between the mother and the infant is ideal for the bonding that is much needed for the duo. Hurlemann and Scheele (2016), recommend that to boost and strengthen this bond, physical contact and emotional support between the baby and the mother need to be initiated as soon as the first day of birth. The physical contact between the mother and the child is very critical in ensuring that there is an initiation of the bonding that results from the same.

One fact is well known among healthcare professionals, especially nurses, that skin-to-skin contact between the mother and the baby stimulates the secretion of the hormone oxytocin. This hormone is quite critical in the mother-child bonding. The relationship of oxytocin and bonding is also a well-studied topic. It has earned the name ‘love hormone.’ The earlier its production starts, the better. It is therefore little wonder that the level of love between mother and child often surpasses that of the mother to the father. Furthermore, there is always deep feelings between the mother and child to the effect that may surpasses the boundaries

The literature review part is very vital in ensuring that the paper demonstrates that the thesis statement or the problem statement receives a lot of barking from author scholars. It is very evident a fact that many researchers and scholars worldwide have demonstrated the same. Quite clearly, the oxytocin hormone has been demonstrated to be very critical in facilitating bonding between mother and child. The hormone has a special way in which it ensures that the two individuals have a closer relationship between them.

Design and Procedures

The major method that was embraced in the collection of data is the use of questionnaires as well as interviews. Questionnaires were designed such that they had questions that captured the major interests of the study. The main subjects that were to be interviewed or fill the questionnaires were randomly selected to form the sample that would be the brainchild of the study. The study was therefore somewhat a replica of previous studies that has been done under a similar design.

 

Data Analysis and Procedure

The study employed one of the most effective methods; randomized controlled trial following a longitudinal pattern. Additionally, it developed and validated an intercultural protocol for the analysis of the data obtained. Videos recorded on the fourth day of suckling were analyzed (Dumas et al., 2013). The data was analyzed using methods such as SPSS and Excel sheets. The major findings supported the main hypothesis of the paper. However, the study was mainly qualitative. The major weakness or problem that we faced during the study is the fact that there was insufficient data from some quota which provided a great blow.

Conclusions and Implications

Undeniably, the findings of the research were entirely conclusive, self-sufficient and self-explanatory. Dumas et al. (2013), found out that mothers whose babies had been separated for long, and the mothers whose babies were wet-nursed with more intensive wrappings portrayed marked arrogance towards their babies.

The research was therefore of the implication that immediate and uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact between the mother and the infant beginning immediately after birth should be encouraged. Moreover, rooming-in during maternal care is the surest way of ensuring the connection between the baby and the mother is initiated and maintained.

Overall Assessment

Generally, the article is potent and timely as it comes at the backdrop of alarming rates of infant mortality on the first day of their birth, as well as in the background of the realization that the hormone oxytocin, which is entirely necessary for bonding between the mother and the child, is stimulated by skin-to-skin contact between the mother and the baby. That the findings reinforce the recommendation by WHO in that rooming-in and uninterrupted body contact (Schmied et al., 2014), is essential for the bonding between the mother and the baby makes the article altogether relevant. Conclusively, it is paramount to understand that there lies a great relationship between the hormone oxytocin and the bonding between mothers and their children.

 

 

References

Dumas, L., Lepage, M., Bystrova, K., Matthiesen, A. S., Welles-Nyström, B., & Widström, A. M. (2013). Influence of skin-to-skin contact and rooming-in on early mother–infant interaction: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical nursing research22(3), 310-336.

Hurlemann, R., & Scheele, D. (2016). Dissecting the role of oxytocin in the formation and loss of social relationships. Biological Psychiatry79(3), 185-193.

Schmied, V., Thomson, G., Byrom, A., Burns, E., Sheehan, A., & Dykes, F. (2014). A meta-ethnographic study of health care staff perceptions of the WHO/UNICEF Baby Friendly Health Initiative. Women and Birth27(4), 242-249.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Improving Police-Citizen Relationships

December 11, 2017

Introduction

The police serve within communities and therefore their effectiveness depends on progressive cooperation with citizens. Public cooperation thrives in an environment of mutual respect and trust between the police and the public. Educating the community on policing and the criminal justice system is essential in obtaining this public trust and cooperation. Public awareness of the work of the police has been known to increase confidence in law enforcement agencies. The public is educated on operations, policing procedures and policies to ensure that there is effective communication between the police and the public. Additionally, public awareness alleviates concerns about safety strategies. If the attitude of the citizens toward the police is enhanced, they will be willing to cooperate with the police with the understanding that the police are there to safeguard their wellbeing. Only a relationship based on trust and mutual respect can provide the critical foundation for the partnership between citizens and law enforcement, vital for any effective policing or public safety campaign.

Exploring the Police-Citizen Relationship

Police duty to protect and serve

It is the duty of the police to maintain law and order in the society and to protect and serve the public. Peak, Bradshaw & Glensor (1992) argued the traditional approach to policing was incident-driven and reactive. Police investigations were also retrospective based on the incidences that had already occurred. The police were more concerned about performing their duties rather than considering the consequences of their actions. To begin with, the roles and duties of police are complicated and sometimes hard to reconcile. Studies by various scholar since the 1960s have revealed the many times that police spend doing non-crime activities. The roles of the police are more oriented toward maintenance of order instead of law enforcement. Therefore, public perception of policing activities tends to point to the fact that they are instrumental in maintenance of law and order. As such, the citizen-police relationship is essential in the realization of secure neighborhoods. The failure of the police to play their collective role would generate apathy within communities and result in increased crime. Administrators in police departments have realized that they need public support to be more effective and accountable (Peak, Bradshaw & Glensor, 1992). More police departments have now resorted to foot patrols and using strategies that are innovative and appealing to the public.

Police officers are required to maintain peace and order for the proper functioning of the society. People should be secure and confident that they can go about their business without fear. However, in reality, in most countries, there is cognitive awareness of fear, which indicates that more people are exposed. Initially, many policing strategies have been motorized patrols, ensuring quick incident responses and employing retrospective investigation (Kappeler & Gaines, 2012). These strategies did not impact communities by addressing the root cause of crime in neighborhoods but were more oriented toward crime detection and apprehension of criminals.

The idea of community policing was embraced in the early 1980s and was concerned with the integration of policing and community efforts in maintaining law and order. Community policing involves having the police doing foot patrol and interacting with members of the community. The role of the police in this strategy is more responsible and inclusive. For instance, in the past, patrol was a role assigned to rookies or was even allocated to incompetent police officers. However, in the new approach, specialized patrol can be used in gathering information, community education, community counseling, problem solving and even consultation. Therefore, the role of police officers becomes more instrumental in the maintenance of peace and order in the community.

Importance of a good working relationship

            A cordial citizen-police relationship is important for the reduction of crime and for long-term engagement of police officers in the same community. Trust and cooperation are essential in facilitating a working citizen-police relationship. Additionally, the relationship promotes the delivery of services to the public and establishing mutual solutions for the identified problems. There is also the increased utilization of citizen contacts and intelligence gathering on the root causes of crime. This is because the public is sometimes more knowledgeable about the definition of certain criminal activities. The police can access this knowledge in working relationships.

By relying on citizen-police relationships, patrol officers become more knowledgeable about the community and can develop the best solutions based on their experiences. Additionally, patrols bring police officers nearer to the citizens. This increases the fear of committing crimes among criminals (Carr, 2012). However, the use of discretionary powers of the police in the community may affect the police officer’s accountability. There have also been concerns about the police spreading thin in the community. Police officers also need to understand the rights of citizens. The legitimacy of the police in many democratic countries is anchored on the recognition of the rights of citizens (Mears, Stewart, Warren, and Simons, 2017). Although the police have the power on the use of violence, they are required to use it as a last resort. Community policing is based on trust. The public must trust the police to ensure policing activities are legitimate. Therefore, a working police-citizen relationship should be premised upon trustworthiness and legitimacy.

Current Challenges facing the Police

Community-Police relations

The public opinion of the police reflects on the national politics. Therefore, the challenges facing the police will directly or indirectly affect a country’s political landscape (Weitzer, 2002). In relation to community-police relations, police brutality, use of deadly force, over-enforcement, concoction of evidence, bribery, discrimination against certain minority groups and failure to apply the law are some of the problems that the police administrators face when dealing with the public (Walker, 2001). Public perception also reveals the reality of community-police relations, performance and effectiveness. Surveying public perceptions also reveals the problems facing the police. One of the challenges that the police face is to ensure accountability. Incidences of police misconduct affect public perception of the police force as a whole in addition to having grievous effects on the victim. The use of the discretionary power and implied monopoly of violence by police officers may adversely affect the public perception of the police if there are no accountability measures.

Advocacy groups are always looking out for instances of abuse of authority by the police to ensure equal enforcement of the law. Therefore, police administrators have the challenge of ensuring that accountability is emphasized in the laws and policies used by the police in the performance of their duties. The police must also be guided on the use of discretionary power. Empowering of patrol officers is also important. Police officers also act on orders from their superiors, which ought to promote accountability. Although this system appears to have promoted accountability, it contradicts and defeats the discretionary powers that police officers are supposed to exercise during patrols. The intricacies of seeking approval for any action are impractical and unreasonable. Therefore, accountability consists of bureaucratic processes that can be challenging for administrators to consistently implement.

Civil unrests

The conduct of citizens during protests and demonstration is challenging for the police. The use of excessive unwarranted force in managing crowds has strained the police-community relationship. This trend limits the mutual benefits that would have come out of the relationship since the public lose their trust in the police force. Additionally, the actions of one or a few officers can be generalized and affect the public trust in the police force. Management of civil unrests requires planning, training, information management, crowd control strategies, and effective media relations. In demonstrations, there are competing interests between the obligation of the police to maintain law and order on one hand and that of the protestors in exercising their freedom of speech and assembly on the other (Fields, 2007). However, although sometimes the police have succeeded in peaceful management of civil unrests, other times their actions have turned disastrous. Cappitelli (2016) calls for training of police officers in crowd management methods. It is also important to ensure that the police maintain a cordial relationship with civic leaders and faith-based groups (Cappitelli, 2016).

In the U.S., events such as 9/11 terror attacks also present a different angle where mass demonstrations may also provide cover or become a target for terrorists. The challenges arising from demonstrations and protests include inadequate resources and personnel, protection of properties, information gathering on spontaneous demonstrations, maintaining accountability, identifying applicable policy issues, determining the level of force to use in these demonstrations, and clarifying the role of the person in charge of crowd management (Narr, Toliver, Murphy & McFarland, 2006).

Officer misconduct

The misconduct of one or a few police officers is likely to influence the public opinion (Cappitelli, 2015). Additionally, personal experiences with law enforcement can also increase distrust and frustrate the citizen-police-relationship. The neighborhood experience also shapes the residents’ attitude toward law enforcement. The role of the media in publicizing some incident derogates the police further and erodes public confidence (Weitzer, 2002). One of the incidences in police using excessive power in enforcing the law was the shooting of a Black woman after threatening two officers with a knife in Los Angeles. Following the incidence, the confidence in the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) declined. However, three years after the incidence, the confidence levels rose again.

The Rampart scandal where officers were accused of gross corruption affected the public perception of the LAPD. Legal action has been taken against slightly more than half of the reported cases in the Rampart scandal (Weitzer, 2002). However, most of the reports filed by the alleged victims of police brutality have been overturned. Most of the residents of Los Angeles believe that the Rampart scandal ruined the reputation of the LAPD. Therefore, the police have implemented reforms and strategies of mitigating the actions of police officers. Capitelli (2016) noted the growing trend of inducing criminal prosecutions against police officers whose actions culminate to either death or injury. Police officers also need training in using deadly force. This underscores the need for police organizations to ensure professional conduct.

The Path Forward

Improving citizen perceptions

            The task of improving citizen perceptions is a proactive process that the police undertake to ensure that the public is assured that they are committed to serving and protecting their lives and properties. For delivery of effective services, the police may undertake surveys to identify their needs, which in turn helps in establishing a positive perception of the police among the public (Covington, 2015). Consequently, the actions and policy decisions of police departments should be determined by this perception. The surveys will help r shed light on underlying issues that are entrenched in the justice system. Internal scrutiny will reveal problems and solutions on the provision of quality services. Instead of relying on crime statistics, agency records and criminal justice researchers, citizen-police relationship is a practical method of determining the quality of services. The surveys help uncover the level of public satisfaction with the police force. The police department can then use the results of the survey to adjust accordingly.

One of the strategies of improving public perception is personnel diversification. According to Kent (2015), it is advisable to recruit officers from within the community served. Citizens derive confidence from general satisfaction with the police force, performance and more importantly, on controversial issues such as racial discrimination. However, reforms such as personnel diversification can be instrumental in the long run in increasing or restoring public confidence. Hiring officers from minority communities to address the marginalization of some groups in some areas to fit the intended racial profile has been instrumental in increasing public trust (Weitzer, 2002). For instance, in New York, there was a policy that proposed that minorities be given priority during the hiring of police officers, which was highly supported by Blacks and Hispanics. Proportional representation was widely accepted and considered a common practice in hiring nationally. The LAPD has ensured that Blacks are represented in the police force. The appointment of an African-American police chief was also seen to increase the public confidence in the police. It is perceived that increased hiring and even promotion of minority officers will increase accountability. However, even with this diversification, there will always be occurrences of new events that may negatively affect perception about the police.

Citizen police academies (CPA) and ride-along programs have also be employed in the improvement of police-citizen relationship. CPAs have been developed by police departments to educate the public on procedures and goals of the police, and to enhance the police-citizen relationship (Lee, 2015). The graduates of CPAs support the police departments in different ways such as crime reporting, advocacy and crime prevention strategies (Palmiotto & Unninthan, 2002). Generally, it provides citizens with the opportunity of making their neighborhoods safer. CPAs increase understanding of policing methodologies (Cohn, 1996). Citizens gain from understanding how criminal justice systems work as they may even be invited to tag along police officers in patrols and solving mock crime scenes or attending mock courts. It is perceived that awareness of what the police do may enhance the public perception.This way, CPAs has culminated to creation of a new mechanism of enhancing police-citizens relations and bolster public cooperation (Cohn, 1996).

On the other hand, ride-along programs allows the attendees to ‘ride along’ officers and participate in mock police activities. Awareness should enable citizens to empathize with police officers too. Additionally, it enhances public participation in police work. However, the attendees are sometimes required to sign a waiver that releases the police department of any liability for any injury, death or trauma. Nevertheless, in case of any incidence in the course of training, the affected individuals can still sue the police department (Lee, 2015). The training also does not give the citizens the privilege to exercise the authority of a police officer. The police have to insist on this to avoid cases of vigilantes in rough neighborhoods taking the law into their own hands. Therefore, CPAs and ride along programs are only effective in changing the public perception to a certain level.

Building trust and legitimacy             

            The quality of policing is related to the public perception of the police force. The concept of community policing was introduced to deal with -police-citizen relationship. Community policing was expected to improve the quality of police service as well as getting public confidence. However, as a result of different unfortunate incidences, public trust on the police has been worn out and the legitimacy of the police authority challenged for different reasons. The community will always have some preserved sense of fear for the authority vested in the police force and their ability to use their discretion and monopoly of violence (Mentel, 2012). Community trust is based in the perception that the police are acting in the best interest of the citizens.

According to Dunham & Alpert (2009), it is common for police officers and citizens to respond to each other’s demeanor. It follows that demeanor is the best predictor of police actions. Perception about law enforcement is also driven by the perceived legitimacy that the citizens ascribe to the police. For instance, White officers working in a predominantly Black neighborhood are likely to be feared by the residents and get accused of being racist. The reaction could be attributed to prior experiences and predominant attribute toward White officers. Therefore, providing incentives for officers to live within the city they serve is integral (Covington, 2015). Additionally, in operations such as stop-and-frisk, the police must be trained on how to apply the policy in a way they can maintain their legitimacy. This is because legitimacy is dependent on the pre-existing narratives in the community (Mentel, 2012). Trust and legitimacy must be earned not enforced like the law.

Transparency and accountability

            Community policing efforts require demonstration of integrity and accountability. However, since most of the policing activities are essential for deciding court cases, most of the procedures are delineated from the public. However, technological innovations have changed this perspective as police can now use social media to promote citizen-police relationships. Apart from the invention of less lethal methods of law enforcement such as use of the TASER, the Internet, through police-owned website have become avenues of making clarifications and opening portals where public can launch complaints (Presidential Task Force, 2015). The websites are also essential in the preparation for a press release or briefing for the public. The media strategy is critically in securing public trust and accountability (Narr, Toliver, Murphy & McFarland, 2006). They should be able to reassure the citizens of their safety in cases of emergencies. The distribution of such communication to the media is important in ensuring accurate reporting.

Another technological innovation that has been used to promote accountability is the adoption of body-worn cameras (Sousa, Miethe & Sakiyama, 2017). In some states, the police are required to wear cameras that record their daily interactions with citizens. The perceived benefits of these cameras are that they promote accountability and transparency. Body-worn cameras also increase officers’ awareness and reduce cases of police misconduct. This results in less complaints of police misconduct by the public. They also reduce cases of public misconduct because they capture both parties in any incidence. However, there are no studies showing any positive relationship between body-worn cameras and arrests or prosecution practices. However, the legitimacy of body-worn cameras is contested for it is a threat on the right to privacy of both the public and police officers. There are legal restrictions on both local and federal laws on the use of these cameras in certain settings. Most of the content recorded by the cameras can be considered graphic since it records the real-time experience of traumatized victims (White, 2014). For police officers, the use of the body-worn cameras should be negotiated to cater for their privacy. Therefore, the impact of body-worn cameras on community policing and police-citizen relationship is controversial at the moment.

Conclusion

A good police-citizen relationship is crucial. Positive police-citizen relationships are anchored on the societal stability. Securing the trust of the community will require police officers to develop and implement policies that enhance the perception of the police. There are innumerable adverse consequences if there is no good police-citizen relationship. On the contrary, poor relationship between the police and the citizenry may lead to lack of cooperation. Criminal activities will increase when there is no cooperation between the police and the citizenry. Citizens may also vote against tax measures that intend to help the police.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Carr, P. J. (2012). Citizens, community, and crime control: The problems and prospects for negotiated order. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 12(4), 397-412.

Cappitelli, P. (2015). Introduction to special issue on traffic safety. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 38(3).

Cohn, E. (1996). The citizen police academy: A recipe for improving police-community relations. Journal of Criminal Justice,24(3), 265-271

Covington, K. (2015, September 21). 6 ways to improve police and community relation Retrieved November 07, 2017, fromhttp://www.azcentral.com/story/news/local/phoenix/contributed/2015/09/16/waysimprove-police-and-community-relations/32536565/

Dunham, R. G. & Alpert, G. P. (2009). Critical issues in policing: Contemporary readings. 7th Edition. Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland Press.

Fields, C. (2007). 1999-2006 Award-Winning Community Policing Strategies (pp. 1-38) (U.S. Department of Justice, Community Oriented Policing Services). Washington,D.C.: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services

Kappeler, V. E., & Gaines, L. K. (2012).Community policing: A contemporary perspective. Routledge.

Kent, S. (2015, April 16). 8 ways to improve police and community relations — seminar on                        diversity held at Salem Community College. Retrieved November 07, 2017, from                             http://www.nj.com/salem/index.ssf/2015/04/blunt_seminar_discusses_race_and_policing   _with_law.html

Lee, T. L. (2016). Tennessee citizen police academies: Program and participant characteristics. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 41(2), 236-254.

Mears, D. P., Stewart, E. A., Warren, P. Y., & Simons, R. L. (2017). Culture and formal social control: The effect of the code of the street on police and court decision-making. Justice Quarterly, 34(2), 217-247.

Mentel, Z. (2012). Racial reconciliation, truth telling, and police legitimacy. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

Narr, T., Toliver, J., Murphy, J., & McFarland, M. (2006). Police management of mass demonstrations: Identifying issues and successful approaches. In Police Executive Research Forum.

Palmiotto, M. J., & Unninthan, N. P. (2002). The impact of citizen police academies on participants: An exploratory study. Journal of Criminal Justice,30(1), 101-106.

 

Peak, K., Bradshaw, R. V., & Glensor, R. W. (1992). Improving citizen perceptions of the police:“Back to the basics” with a community policing strategy. Journal of Criminal Justice, 20(1), 25-40.

President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. (2015). Final report of the Presidents TaskForce on 21st Century Policing (pp. 1-99). Washington, D.C.: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

Sousa, W., Miethe, T., & Sakiyama, M. (2017). Inconsistencies in public opinion of body-worn cameras on police: Transparency, trust, and improved police–citizen relationships. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 1-9.

Walker, S. (2001). Police accountability. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 199-214.

Weitzer, R. (2002). Incidents of police misconduct and public opinion. Journal of criminal justice, 30(5), 397-408.

White, M. D. (2014). Police officer body-worn cameras: Assessing the evidence. Office of Justice Programs, US Department of Justice.

 

 

Latinas (Hispanic Women) Wage Gap

December 11, 2017

Abstract

In the US, Hispanics are believed to constitute about 17.8% of the entire population. Of these about 49.6% are females. Latinas, like the other minority groups, are believed to earn less than their white counterparts in different jobs. This disparity gap has been triggered by discrimination in working environments. However, a solution for addressing these disparities can be found by using the salary index for all employees within a working environment.

This paper explores the wage disparities between the Latino women and their white non-Hispanic counterparts. An analysis of the matter will include the use of theoretical and historical information from secondary sources. The salary index would be used to indicate the theory of solving this challenge.


 

Introduction

There is an overall consistency in the wage gap between Latina women and their non-Hispanic White colleagues, both male and female. The cause of the wage gap is hard to know. About one-third of the Latinas working in the US are in the service industry, where salaries and wages are notoriously stagnant and low. Even after passing laws that support fairness in workers compensation, states are still experiencing wage disparity for Latinas women compared with others. Latino women remain significantly under-represented in the better-paying jobs (Kaufman, 2016).

Most families rely on women wages for family support more than before. However, women working on a full-time basis are normally paid less than their male counterparts working full time. Latino women’s wage gap is bigger than for all women overall. They normally make fewer cents for every dollar non-Hispanic and white counterparts make. In states with the big Latinas percentage of the workforce, there are widespread wage disparities, with theoretically devastating impacts for the Latinas population as well as their families. This paper highlights the racial based wage disparity. It provides statistical data regarding the wage disparity that the Latinas face in work and how to address the gap (Kaufman, 2016).

Literature Review

A number of scholarly articles have been reviewed regarding the wage disparity in the United States. Patten (2016) found out that about forty percent of the Latinas women bring about forty percent or even more of their families revenue. This implies that their households depend heavily on their salaries and wages to survive. Latinas families are about three million households in the US. Almost 38 percent of the Latina-headed families are living below the poverty line (US Census Bureau, 2016). This further implies that more than one million Latina families live in poverty

Patten (2016) further indicates that of twenty states with some of the biggest number of Latinas in full-time employment, Latinas pay ranges between 43 to 60 cents for every full dollar compensated to a white employee, non-Hispanic employee. NationalPartinership.org (2017) identified California and New Mexico have the biggest shares of the Latinas population working on a permanent basis. In New Mexico, Latinas employees are paid about 56 cents while in California they are paid 43 cents for every dollar white non-Hispanic workers take home.

The racially based wage gap has been consistent for a number of years. In 1987, the Latinas on permanent employment were making about 54 cents for every US dollar other white non-Hispanic male employees were getting. The same ratio was depicted in 2015. However, in the last decade, the racial wage based disparity gap has slightly narrowed by only 2 cents (Alon & Haberfeld, 2017).

There still a need for more information regarding wage disparity between Latina women and their non-Hispanic white counterparts. This paper examines these disparities from different sector perspectives, educational and experience levels, labor unions memberships and how the disparities can be addressed using a salary index scale strategy.

Findings

Latino women without high school education have been found to get only 60 cents for every dollar compensated to their White, Non-Hispanic colleagues. For the Latinos’ normal wages to exceed those of their white men and women with a college education but without degrees, they need to have a university degree or more (NWLC & LCLAA, 2015). Latinas who have bachelor’s degree or more get about $52,037. This is less than the average $54,620 white, non-Hispanic men in possession of associate degrees get in a month. Latinas in possession of an associate’s degree take home about $9,700 less than what their white, Non-Hispanic counterparts with only high school education get (NWLC & LCLAA, 2015).

In a broad variety of professions including poorly paid occupations, are women dominated who mainly happen to be Latinas who work full time around the year and earn less than their non-Hispanic counterparts earn. Latinas in low-wage occupations, which compensate about $10.50 hourly or even less get about 62 cents for every dollar their white counterpart, especially the men, get (NWLC & LCLAA, 2015).

Latinos working in agricultural factories as graders and sorters, which are low-wage jobs make more than 50 percent of the entire workforce. They get 49 cents for every dollar their white non-Hispanic men get. In high paying professions paying about $100,000 annually, get about 58 cents for every dollar compensated to white, non-Hispanic men. Physician and surgeon Latinos are known to make about 48 cents for every dollar compensated to their non-Hispanic males Doctors (NWLC & LCLAA, 2015).

They receive 37 cents for every dollar paid to white, non-Hispanic male employees in the same working environment. This results in a lifetime loss of $1.74 million to the identified wage gap over the period of 40-year work careers. Among the immigrant Latinas, especially the non-citizens experience increased wage gap (NWLC & LCLAA, 2015).

 

Fig1: Wage disparity for Latinos and Non-Hispanic White employees (NWLC & LCLAA, 2015).

Permanent and full-time employees have reduced wage gap (25 percent) for every dollar paid to non-Hispanic white union members as compared to the non-union employees (40 cents). In spite of this development, the Latina women are the least likely to become members of workers unions. Just 9.2 percent of the employed Latina women happened to be members of workers unions compared to about 11.6 percent of white non-Hispanic women in 2016 (NWLC & LCLAA, 2015).

Addressing the Disparity Gap through Salary Index Scale

            These disparities show the need to efficiently and swiftly address the compensation gaps. Coming up with company policies depending on the size of the company will be appropriate in addressing these issues (Kaufman, 2016). Smaller and medium can make use of exceptional work policy that assigns indexed, market-based wages and salaries for every individual (Kaufman, 2016). Junior staff and middle-level employees, regardless of their color or gender or age, can use index price tags for each job responsibilities and align the recruitment policies to it (Kaufman, 2016).

There is also a need for the potential employees to understand that starting employees are not negotiable but rather they are compensated based on the price tag for that jobs roles and responsibilities. This salaried can also be stated based on employee skills, their educational level and other qualifications that the specific job needs (Kaufman, 2016). All working environment should also use a salary index policy where there are fair representations of every employee skills level and the prevailing market rates for every job role (Kaufman, 2016).

Significant transformations anticipated in addressing the disparity gap can include the increased proportion of women in the workforce including the minority Latinas, Gender, and racial diversity increase, and increased female representation especially of the minority races (Kaufman, 2016).

If the racial wage gaps are addressed and consequently eliminated, averagely Latinas working in permanent basis would get sufficient finances to for more than extra years of childcare, tuition fees for public university degree education or even a two-year college education (Kaufman, 2016). This will also mean extra days for food and basic needs and more than extra months of utilities and mortgage payments. In additional, this would imply extra months of rent payment. Elimination of the wage gap would result to much-required income to the Latinas Women whose wags have been sustaining their families (Kaufman, 2016).

Conclusions

Wages for employee Latinas in the US happened to be less as compared to wages for the non-Hispanic the white women. Even in working environments where the Hispanic women are more experienced and qualified than their white, non-Hispanic counterparts, they still earn less. This gap is bigger in low paying jobs as compared to high paying jobs, from one sector to another. A significant percentage of the Latinas headed families are still struggling financially, partly because of this disparity.

The wage disparity translates to annual financial and investment difference between the two groups annually. This wage disparity implies that the Latina workers and their families have lower financial abilities to support their families and themselves. Their chances of saving and investing in future are also low.

Their spending and buying power on various crucial goods and services is low as compared to their white counterparts. This salary scale can also be based on employee skills, their educational level and other qualifications that the specific job needs. Addressing these issues will give the Latina women an equal employment opportunity with all other employees in the country.

 

References

Alon, S., & Haberfeld, Y. (2017). Socsci. Retrieved from http://people.socsci.tau.ac.il/mu/salon/files/2010/10/haberfeld2007.pdf

Kaufman, D. (2016). Here’s how we solve the gender wage gap: A salary index for every position. Retrieved from https://venturebeat.com/2016/12/09/heres-how-we-solve-the-gender-wage-gap-a-salary-index-for-every-position/

NationalPartinership.org. (2017). Latinas and the wage gap. Retrieved from http://www.nationalpartnership.org/research-library/workplace-fairness/fair-pay/latinas-wage-gap.pdf

NWLC & LCLAA (2015). Equal pay for Latinas. Retrieved from https://nwlc.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Latina-Equal-Pay-2016-English-Final-2.pdf

Patten, E. (2016). Racial, Gender Wage Gaps Persist in U.S. Despite some Progress. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/01/racial-gender-wage-gaps-persist-in-u-s-despite-some-progress/

US Census Bureau. (2016). Population Estimate. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/newsroom/facts-for-features/2016/cb16-ff16.html

Future prospects until the year 2030 (Trend Analysis)

December 10, 2017

Future prospects until the year 2030 (Trend Analysis)

The German healthcare system is advanced and takes critical considerations on the welfare of doctors in the system. The health system realized significant developments associated with the provision of healthcare, governance and organization, and health reforms. The proportion of male and female doctors is at par, since female have as much interest in studying medicine and becoming doctors as men. It is essential to note that the number of women in the occupational medical career is significantly lower than the number of males. The trend is also evident in the success levels of female level of understanding against that of males. Therefore, this study seeks to highlight the trend of the development of female doctors in Germany over the next three decades and its impact on the practice of medicine in the country (Wainwright 2008, p.3). The study involves a trend analysis highlighting the issues emerging from the development of female doctors in Germany. The development of female doctors in Germany is in an upward trend following efforts by authorities to realise parity in the success levels with their male counterparts and may cause shortage in the number of doctors in the country.

Trend Analysis

The trend analysis utilizes collected information and identifies a pattern that is indicative of the direction the medical sector in Germany is likely to take (United Nations & U.S. Census Bureau 1990, p.12). It is useful in demystifying the sense of uncertainty presented by past events to establish how the future may look like. The focus of the trend analysis is how many women are likely to take up physician position in the future and the impact it is likely to have the entire German health sector. In this instance, the trend analysis takes the approach of project management as it uses historical figures to illustrate future events. The trend analysis is achievable by monitoring or tracking rates of employment of female professionals as physicians for the identified years. Here, the analysis spans from the year 2005 to the year 2030, which is a 25 year difference. It may not be easy to analyse the trends of the employment characteristics of female physicians in Germany across all the devolved units.

Based on the defined problem of this project, the outcome of the trend analysis acts as a control tool to ensure that is quality in achieving the goals of the healthcare systems. The problem alludes to the possible lack of sufficient doctors to cater to the needs of all the patients in Germany as a result of the efforts of feminization as stated by Potter et al (2016, p. 4). It employs mathematical models to produce outcomes based on the results acquired from a rich history of medical practice in Germany. The mathematical model produces accurate results to ensure that they produce important insights that is applicable for decision making.

The table below shows a steady rise in the rate of employment of female employees in medical the medical field in Germany.

 

Figure 1: Table showing percentage of growth of male and female doctors fro 2005-2017

Year    X1       X2

2005    38.5     61.5

2006    40        60

2007    43        57

2008    43.7     56.3

2009    44.2     55.8

2010    44.8     55.2

2011    45.4     44.6

2012    46        54

2013    47.3     52.7

2014    47.9     52.1

2015    48.1     51.9

2016    48.7     51.3

2017    49.8     50.2

There are three variables namely Year, X1, and X2. The variable year is constant and behaves in the manner of a time series variable. X1 represents the percentage of German women employed according to the year indicated under variable Year, while X2 represents that percentage of male doctors employed in the stated value of variable Year. The table shows that the percentage of women and men in the medical field grew significantly over the last ten to twelve years. The cumulative percentage of the growth is around an average of percentage of 3.85, which is significantly high and may go on for the next ten to thirteen years leading up till the year 2030. Based on the assumption that everything remains constant and the growth the efforts of feminization remains constant, there is a chance that percentage of female doctors will surpass the 50% point in the next year as indicated in the Cumulative Table below.

 

Figure 2: Cumulative frequency table of rate of female doctors in Germany

       Year |      Freq.     Percent        Cum.

————+———————————–

2005 |          1        3.85        3.85

2006 |          1        3.85        7.69

2007 |          1        3.85       11.54

2008 |          1        3.85       15.38

2009 |          1        3.85       19.23

2010 |          1        3.85       23.08

2011 |          1        3.85       26.92

2012 |          1        3.85       30.77

2013 |          1        3.85       34.62

2014 |          1        3.85       38.46

2015 |          1        3.85       42.31

2016 |          1        3.85       46.15

2017 |          1        3.85       50.00

2018 |          1        3.85       53.85

2019 |          1        3.85       57.69

2020 |          1        3.85       61.54

2021 |          1        3.85       65.38

2022 |          1        3.85       69.23

2023 |          1        3.85       73.08

2024 |          1        3.85       76.92

2025 |          1        3.85       80.77

2026 |          1        3.85       84.62

2027 |          1        3.85       88.46

2028 |          1        3.85       92.31

2029 |          1        3.85       96.15

2030 |          1        3.85      100.00

————+———————————–

Total |         26      100.00

 

It is evident that feminization efforts are bearing fruit and that ender parity is a reality in 2017, and may not be necessary in 2018. The number of female doctors in Germany attained a level that is acceptable by scholars and proponents of the feminization calls. However, it is essential to determine the increase in the number of female doctors in Germany has a substantial a negative impact on the provision health services in the country.

The dot graph below shows the rate of the rise in the percentage of female doctors in Germany from the year 2005 to 2017. The graph shows a steady rise in the number of women joining the profession as a response to the call of feminization.

The Variable X1 represents the rate of employment in the y-axis, while the x-axis represents the year.

Figure 3: Dotted Chat of the increase of rate of female doctors in Germany

Figure 4: Linear regression analysis for the raise of female doctors against the male doctors

Source |       SS       df       MS              Number of obs =      13

————-+——————————           F(  2,    10) =   80.21

Model |  171.320338     2  85.6601692           Prob > F      =  0.0000

Residual |  10.6796615    10  1.06796615           R-squared     =  0.9413

————-+——————————           Adj R-squared =  0.9296

Total |         182    12  15.1666667           Root MSE      =  1.0334

 

——————————————————————————

Year |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

————-+—————————————————————-

X1 |   1.155688   .1410514     8.19   0.000     .8414055     1.46997

C |   .0263512   .1075823     0.24   0.811    -.2133572    .2660596

_cons |   1957.357   11.48668   170.40   0.000     1931.763     1982.95

——————————————————————————

The diagram above is a linear regression of the trend of the employment of female doctors in Germany between the year 2005 to the year 2017. The outcome of the study shows the linear regression was achievable at 95% confidence interval and standard error of 0.1410514. The results show a constant increase in rise in the rate of employment over the years because of the constant interval level. The rate of employment has experienced a steady increase although it has been slow over a period of about twelve years before the authorities attained gender parity in the employment of female employees compared to the male employees in the health sector.

The issue at hand is that the efforts to increase the number of women or feminization, which has been given priority may lead to significant shortages in the number of professionals available to take care of patients. The steady increase in feminization efforts is unsuitable for the organization of medical practice because of the concentration of recruitment of many female doctors. There is a danger that the authorities may not take the low number of practitioners in consideration because it may impact service delivery negatively. In addition, the fact that Germany seems to have achieved gender parity in medical practice, but there is a need to address the impending shortage of doctors in the country if Germany is to provide adequate medical care to citizen.

A look at the population of Germany shows that the population of the country has been on upward and a downward trend. The population growth of Germany is not stable as it fluctuates on year after year as indicated in the graph below. There is a need for medical authorities in Germany to be cautious of the trends in the population and ensure that the provision of care in the country is not affected. Failure to address the issue of the available number of doctors in the country against the population growth may cause health crises in the country. The graph below shows a steady increase in the population of the country and there is a chance that the number of doctors in the country in the near future.

Figure 5: Table of population increase in Germany and population growth from 2005 to 2016

Year    X1       X2       DocPop           Pop

2005    38.5     61.5                 82.4694

2006    40        60                    82.3765

2007    43        57                    82.2664

2008    43.7     56.3                 82.1101

2009    44.2     55.8                 81.9023

2010    44.8     55.2                 81.7769

2011    45.4     44.6                 80.275

2012    46        54                    80.4258

2013    47.3     52.7                 80.6456

2014    47.9     52.1                 80.9825

2015    48.1     51.9                 81.6866

2016    48.7     51.3                 82.6667

2017    49.8     50.2

Figure 6: Graph of Population growth from 2005 to 2016

Despite the challenges experienced in the medical field pertaining the development of female professionals, Germany has realized significant development that has seen the increase in the inclusion of more female doctors. Current statics reveal that the number of female doctors is almost at equal level with the number of male doctors (Thege 2014, p.9). Germany is at the forefront in providing females with the support they require to meet the demand of the healthcare system. There is a notion that female doctors provide detailed care than male doctors because of their attention to detail and tendency to use mild approaches to address health issues.

Essentially, gender equality in the provision of opportunities is a phenomenon that is yet to be achieved, although many countries are making significant efforts to achieve it. The input of female doctors in the provision of healthcare is critical in the realization of successful practice given that they treat patients differently than men in medical practice (Kuhlmann et al. 2017, p.9). Perhaps this is the reason why some patients prefer getting attention from female doctors rather than male doctors. In addition, governments including in Germany where the authorities have introduced policies to encourage the inclusion of female professionals in the field of medicine.

The history of women in medicine controversial especially in Germany where the government begun to pay attention to the inclusion of female doctors in healthcare for just a few decades. Women were under strict restrictions to stay away from medical practice primarily during Hitler’s regime. The intervention of the authorities focused on the inclusion of women in medical education that was dominated by men. Initially, the number of women enrolled in medical schools was significantly, but the number started rising towards the end of the 20th century, and has grown in the 21st century. The percentage of female doctors practicing medicine by the year 1990 was still less than the percentage of male practitioners in Germany. The number experienced a significant increase in the last two decades as many more females now engage in medical practice.

The last decade has seen substantial developments in the number of female doctors engaging in medical practice in Germany. Women made substantial gains across Germany in the last decade that saw the number of women practitioners in medical practice rise to over 45%. In fact, the proponents of equality in the medical sector were happy on the realization of parity as at the year 2005, when the percentage of female doctors was around 47-48%. Most women received substantial support from other women in healthcare especially those pursuing other medical career.

Evidently, women in the other medical sector are more than males in the practice and there is a chance that some women in medical practice draw their motivation from the fact that there are many women in the other medical sector that support their vocation. The fact that there are more female nurses than males presents a picture that is reverse of the situation of the number of practicing doctors in healthcare. Scholars see the need to have equal number of doctors from both genders to address all medical issues evident in Germany.

The growth in the performance of women is also evident in the academic performance close to half of the degrees attained in medical studies belong to women. The realization is a significant increase of about 30% from a decade ago when only a few female doctors graduated from medical school. Despite the rise in the number of women joining the medical field, there are still fewer women in leadership positions with regard to medical practice. The leadership positions range from the heads of institutions including deans and professors, which is low compared to the number of men in such positions.

Males continue to dominate the medical field, which is disproportionate especially in an industrialized nation such as Germany. The gender parity is a factor that many scholars consider a matter of importance that makes it necessary to have more women in positions of leadership and other positions to help in service delivery, Attaining feminization goals in the medical sector is likely to lead to create a positive impact in developing countries where the situation is worse than it presently occurs. Increasing the number of women in medical practice is a matter of significance because it ensures that the welfare of all professionals is likely to improve given the fact that they all receive equal treatment from the society.

The dominance of women in the other medical field is unquestionable as they number of males in the field is substantially low. Other medical is a profession largely perceived to be an occupation of women, and most people consider it as a female career. The notion is evident in the growing number of female workers in the health sector compared to men, working in the same industry. Germany has experienced substantial changes in its professional statistics including a declining workforce. It is evident that the number of female nurses has increased over the recent past and there are expectations that the situation is likely to remain dominant (Habermann & Uys 2006, p. 3). Scholars refer to the situation In Germany as feminization of the other medical profession that is attributable to various reasons. It is clear that women are the dominant gender in the profession and the likelihood of the number of males catching up with that of their female counterparts seems unlikely. Chapter provides insights on the trends of the demography of the workforce in the other medical sector in Germany. The number of registered male doctors in Germany is substantially low compared to that of females that is at an all-time high. Despite the fact that the situation does not raise concerns on the reasons why a few men take up other medical jobs in Germany, there are patients that prefer services offered by male nurses.

According to Mitcham (2005, p.7), other medical is an occupation with women as its largest workforce globally. The situation is evident in almost every country and Germany seems to have a higher population of female nurses compared to other countries. In fact, the population of male nurses in the country is less than twenty percent despite the fact that the profession is not under any regulation. One would expect that the lack of regulations in Germany would be a motivating factors for more male professionals to take up the profession. However, the number of male other medical professionals remain significantly low regardless of the number of years of sensitization to create awareness among professionals. The population of male nurses in the country has not changed much over the last decade as it has experienced about two to three percentage points in the number of male nurses joining the profession.

 

The organization of the medical system takes the approach of solidarity especially among the insured. Public is a responsibility under the Lander, which devolves the provision of health function to various municipalities within the Lander. It is essential to note that public health offices with the help of doctors provide the monitoring and surveillance needed to report health issue. In essence, many of the doctors in the municipalities report to the public offices to help supervise the infectious hygiene and address the issues faced by personnel in the country. Doctors work under restrictions of delivering a limited scope of service delivery that involve preventive medical services (Perelberg & Miller 1990, p.12). Some preventive services include ambulatory practices provided by specialty medical professionals and immunization.

In essence, the number of professionals in the specific services are disproportionate and the increased call to have many more women in the profession seeks to achieve gender parity in the specific areas. It is essential to note that the intensions to feminize service provision in various municipalities are good, but there is a need to consider that it may lead to neglect among male practitioners (Perelberg & Miller 1990, p.12). In addition, the concentration on improvement on the number of female practitioners in different medical specialties is likely to pose challenges in the organization of the medical practice.

The solution lies in rethinking the entry of medical students in medical training institutions, which most scholars argues that should apply principle of fairness. The insistence to ensure that the entry process should be as fair as possible means that only the best should have the opportunity regardless of their gender. The implication is that only the best have the opportunity to enter regardless of gender proportion which could mean that there could be 90% males and 10% females. The approach differs by the efforts of feminization that calls for affirmative action that seeks to have equal number of males and females gain entry in the medical profession. The approach means that more women would gain entry into the medical training institutions because of the general good performance of female students.

There are instances where calls to have more female students enter the medical field creates a situation where the authorities need to develop structures that allow for the increase of the number of female practitioners (Kuhlmann et al. 2017, p.8). The implication is that not enough medical practitioners make entry into the medical training institutions to take care of the needs of all the patients in Germany. In addition, it poses challenges in provision of healthcare services because of an apparent shortage of personnel who would take care of patients suffering from specific conditions. The efforts of feminization also mean that some specialties may not have sufficient practitioners because most women prefer certain specialties they have significant passion.

Authorities in Germany focus on the efforts to see that there are more women in medical practice to attain gender parity. There are a number of reasons that inform the efforts to influence the inclusion of more female medical practitioners. Essentially, cultural factors coupled with religious beliefs is one of the reasons that calls for the inclusion of more women in medical practice. The Islamic culture is categorical on the gender of the professionals that provide care for certain individuals of their communities.

It is imperative that a female doctor must take care of females who may be of Islamic descent. The belief is mostly applicable among pregnant women who as their religion restricts them to receive treatment services from female doctors. The situation makes it essential to have female doctors to cater to such situations to help address cultural or issues of faith. In addition, there are medical issues that are particular to the female physique and it is important that it is female doctors that take care of such situations. The absence of enough female doctors to take care of such situations creates difficulties that may deny a section of the society that hold strong religious beliefs from receiving care.

The trend is not pleasing for a world that seeks to achieve substantial equality in the labor force in different sectors. The disappointment is mainly evident among scholars who campaign for the attainment of equality goals in the other medical and healthcare sector. There are different factors that influence the practice of the other medical profession including the consideration of cultures that prefer service profession from men professionals rather than females (Potter et al. 2016, p. 6). Such a situation calls for the inclusion of more male other medical professionals to address the needs of such clients because they are likely to lead to problems in the absence of enough male nurses to serve their client’s interests.
Moreover, there are many males that can be good nurses despite being male and the efforts employed by the authorities to promote the career among men should have yielded positive results.

Stereotyping is one of the reasons behind the low uptake of the other medical profession among men because the image dominating the world is of a female professional as a nurse. The situation is the reason why male professionals do not feel right joining in the profession because of the image that a nurse ought to be a female (Van der Boom 2009, p.5). The German society as other societies around the world also perpetuate the notion that influence the number of male and female professionals that take up the career. It is important to note the efforts to sensitize the society on the presence male nurses that has been represented in different ways including in television series or shows that have male nurses as characters.

There are certain practices that do not do much in changing the stereotype including the use of the term matron, which mainly refer to female personnel. The most important factor in the execution of duty in the other medical profession is the fact that it is about the service provided to patients. It means that both males and females can execute their responsibilities based on such expectations. It is imperative that some scholars question whether the occupation is more favorable to females than males and may fail to attract men (Kenny & Jennings 2010, p.5). The manner in which students receive professionals counselling also require scrutiny to establish whether it is the conditioning of the students that influence their decisions to take up the career. The motivations associated to the reasons why men should take up the job may also have an influence on the decision to join the profession. The trend analysis plays a critical in identifying important insights on the direction the other medical profession is taking in Germany. The trend analysis also provides important information on the current situation in the German healthcare in relation to the occupation. Moreover, the trend analysis shows the impact each gender has in the profession of healthcare in German health institutions.

Departments such as the Biomedical research is male dominated as only a few women take positions in the important field where their contribution could make substantial difference. The skewed nature of medical field where various specialties have a few women than men practicing them. However, it is essential to note that there are other specialties that are female dominated and it appears that the number of males in such fields may not match of females. Gálvez et al. (2009, p.6) argues that the pediatric specialty has significantly low number of female practitioners compared to practicing males. Family medicine also has a small number of male practitioners because most female doctors prefer practicing in the particular field. Other specialties where there are more female doctors than males include psychiatry, obstetrics, pathology, and gynecology, which is a specialty that revolve around the female physique.

In 2006, there were more women in various specialties than men. These specialties include Child and Youth Medicine where there were 51% female practitioners than males. The specialty of Child and Youth Psychiatry or Psychotherapy also had 55% women as the practitioners. There are various reasons that explain the higher number of female doctors than males including the compassion of females in taking care of young people. 59% percent of practitioners in the specialty of Human Genetic were females, while the specialty of Neurology had 68% of practitioners who were females. Women still dominate specialties including Women’s Health, practice without specialty, and other unidentified specialties within the medical field.

The table below shows the attributes of physicians in Germany in 2006.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1: Table of total number of physicians by gender and specialty in 2006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Bundesärztekammer (2007): http://www.bundesaerztekammer.de/downloads/Aerztestatistik2006.pdf

The issue of power dynamics provides important insights on the direction the medical field takes with regard to the role of women in their execution of objectives in practice. The issue of sexual harassment is common primarily in the phases of training as female students are likely to experience sexually motivated harassment. The high rates of sexual harassment is the likely reason for the high loss of interest among female medical students and eventual dropout to pursue other courses. The fact that the problem is largely underreported makes it a problem that is on the increase and the women suffering under such circumstances may require attention to overcome such issues. The nature of the career training is also the reason is persistent since the perpetrators of such attacks are likely to hold powerful positions that may not prevent victims from seeking help.

Figure 2: Total number of employed female physicians in 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: http://www.statista.com/statistics/582141/female-doctors-germany

The fact that about 40% of physicians, and about 50% of students were females in 2006 means that Germany realized gender parity in the last decade and continues to see improvements in the number of female doctors joining the profession. As at 2016, there are many female doctors and the number is significant to the proponents of feminization the medical sector. German authorities employed over 65,961 female doctors who did not have field designation, which means that they were in a position to serve in at different levels within medical institutions. The country also employed about 20485 female doctors in the General medicine field, which is a significant increase from 18938 in the year 2012. Over 19037 females were employed in the internal medicine area to take of the needs of patients. There is a chance that the number may have grown in the last year. 12046 women joined the field of Gynecology and Obstetrics in the same year, which was an increase from the 10473 in 2012 that take are of issues affecting women. The specialty is usually predominantly female and it is likely to remain that way in many years to come.

About 10043 women were employed in the Anesthesiology specialty and have been able to take care of the needs surrounding the medical area. Essentially, pediatrics and youth medicine saw over 8412 women join in to treat cases related to youth and children. The number is likely to have grown because of the increasing population in the many cities in Germany. The field of Ophthalmology had about 3469 new entrants as physicians qualified to address medical issues in the specific area. In addition, about 3211 women were employed in the skin and venereal diseases specialty in 2016, and may see an increase over the past year.

The number of women in the Neurology specialty were about 3011, while those working in the Radiology field were about 2857. Only 2269 women were employed in the specialties of psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy, which is rare compared to other specialties. It is essential to note that about 2252 women were employed in the otolaryngology specialty to take of the medical issues in the area.

Despite the significant increase in the number of female medical practitioners in Germany, there is danger that some specialties may have low number doctors to address the needs of patients. In addition, many of the patients in Germany seem to have enough doctors, but the situation may change if efforts to feminize without increasing the overall numbers of practitioners. There is a chance that achieving the goals of feminization may not be possible for many years, and rethinking the strategy is important to ensure that there are enough doctors to cater to the needs of all patients in the country (United Nations & U.S. Census Bureau 1990, p.11). Moreover, many women still do not occupy senior positions of leadership in the medical sector despite the calls to feminize. One wonders whether the efforts are bearing fruit if it is men that still occupy almost all powerful positions in medical practice. It is evident that the situation changed in some places while it remains the same in some areas. The fact that women are the minority in the leadership of the practice of medicine or the leading medical figures does not mean that authorities should neglect the number of all the doctors in practice.

Some scholars believe that there is a need for concerted action to ensure that parity in the employment levels especially in gender is attainable. It is important to note that the expected changes will occur, but there is also a need to address the looming shortage of doctors that may occur because of the focus on gender issues.

While the number of female doctors is likely to surpass that of male practitioners, the total number of practitioners may not rise at the same rate of the country’s population. The manner in which authorities implement structures to ensure gender parity matters significantly and it may determine if there will be enough doctors to take care of patients in the country. Some of these structures include items such as additional training, mentoring and support, affordable childcare, reasonable reimbursement packages, and excellent reentry schemes (United Nations & U.S. Census Bureau 1990, p.12). Ensuring the entry of the best candidates in the medical practice is one of the targets of achieving the entry of enough doctors in the country. It is essential to note that the situation in the next twelve to thirteen years may need substantial intervention from the authorities to achieve parity and equality in the provision of services.

Authorities may need to act accordingly to address the impending shortage of doctors, which is a looming threat in Germany’s healthcare system. These need to implement proper strategies that help identify important insights in terms of numbers that also inform the type of policies that the authorities need to implement to implement decisive policies to address the problems. Some of these strategies include mathematical models for trend analysis that have proven effective in predicting future trends that are likely to influence decision making in the future.

Discussion

Research shows that more than half of all the students pursuing medicine in medical institutions are females, but only a few women occupy leadership positions. The women in leadership positions also experience substantia challenges in the care or the leadership they provide. There are instances where female leaders receive demeaning comments from doctors from the lower hierarchy. The fact that feminization has been achieved means that there are almost equal numbers of female compared to the number of male doctors in Germany should not lead to a deficiency in the number of doctors in the country to serve the patients in the country (Cockerham 2009, p. 8). In addition, the steep slope of the dotted graph indicates that there was a rapid increase of female doctors in Germany for a period of ten years.

It is essential to note that there is a sense of neglect of male doctors since the focus is on female doctors. In addition, authorities’ focus on the attaining parity between male and female practitioners could lead to overcrowding in certain specialties and understaffing other specialties, which is likely to lead to the lack of sufficient numbers to address medical issues in the specific areas. The principle of fairness is critical because it allows entry of the best practitioners in medical field, which is important in improving the quality of care among patients in Germany. The female and male doctors contribute much regarding the provision of care in the different German municipalities. The authorities need to ensure that they check the number of doctors practicing against the population of Germans to ensure that treatment demands are attainable.

Academic medical specialty is predominantly male as because of the low number of women interested in the profession. Medical faculties mainly have male professionals as heads of departments and practitioners working as scholars to impart medical students. The fact that women have attained a level of fairness considering the number of enrollments in medical schools does not mean that everything is perfect. Research indicates that discriminations in the field as they continue with their studies forces them to dropout along the way, which leads to a significant low number of female graduates joining the medical profession. The low number of female professionals means that the women attaining faculty positions and pursuing important research innovations are still likely to be low in number after some of them dropout.

Female doctors face numerous obstacles and some of them are unidentified and is likely the reasons for staling feminization in Germany. Discrimination is one of the challenges that female doctors face in the country because of their state of minority compared to male doctors in the country. Female doctors face various forms of discrimination and harassment at individual levels at different stages in their careers. In a study that surveyed female physicians that are already parents, the study reveals that more than half of the women in medical practice underwent various forms of discrimination that saw them desire to leave the profession. Gender discrimination was the common form of mistreatment and persisted in the 1990s, but has since declined in the last decade. Gender discrimination led to the systemic exclusion of female physicians in the medical field that leaves out more women out of medical practice, with less than 48% percent of practitioners in the medical profession being women.

Apart from gender based discrimination, many women have also complained about ethnic motivated discrimination where they are discriminated from ethnic minorities. Some women have reported experiences of exclusion because of their skin color and the lack of tolerance from different professionals. The issue of race and gender for the motivations behind the discrimination many of the women in German medical practice face. The issue of confidence also varies significantly as female students are likely to have doubts in their confidence levels because of the discrimination they experience. There is no doubt that the performance of female doctors is at par to that of their male colleagues, but they seem to have lower confidence levels in the manner they discharge their medical practice duties. Power dynamics also play a critical role in the manner female doctors execute their duties and how they address the issues they face in their practice.

According to Kent (1998, p.4) the contribution of gender in medical practice is undoubtedly important because of the contribution female doctors make in their practice. There is a notion that female doctors are likely to be more accountable than their male counterparts in their practice. The statement could mean that they care about the procedures in their actions and may be motivated by expectations that may not be realistic informed by roles of a female doctor. The expectation of female doctors to take up the role of a matron responsibility and the ability to nurture may impose more responsibility on the women with significant leadership roles in medical practice. It is essential to note the efforts by German authorities to introduce curriculum that cater to the concerns revolving around gender discrimination. Such a curriculum helps authorities in the medical field address issues of gender discrimination and ensuring that women receive fair treatment in pursuing knowledge in the medical field.

Many doctors face challenges referred to as differential problems especially during medical training period regardless of whether they are international students or local students that graduated from the local institutions. Some of the reasons that explain the persistence of discrimination among the medical practitioners include the cultural differences or unconscious bias directed against the trainees who do not fit description of the other doctors and is likely to affect the support they receive form the superior doctors. Unconscious bias were more common overt racism that was rarely reported by the students who had such experiences. Standards set by the systems determine the places the student doctors are likely to work following their performance in exams and recruitment, which also have an influence in their moral and motivation. Cultural differences were largely evident among students working in different environments especially the international students with cultural backgrounds and experiences. Feminisation attainment is a solution to a problem that us gradually becoming to an end and soon the shortage of doctors in different parts of the country will be the problem to focus on. The authorities should also address issues concerning structural and social problems that doctors are likely to face when deployed in different parts of the countries because they are the possible differential issues that are likely to affect the performance of the doctors in their new areas of vocation.

Conclusion

Feminization efforts are attainable judging by the trend analysis that shows that there the rate of employment of female doctors in the last ten to twelve years experienced a steady increase. The result is excellent news to the proponents of the phenomenon since women are increasingly getting recognition in important leadership position although the number is still low compared to the number of males occupying the positions. It is essential to note that a new problem is emerging out of the efforts to feminize as authorities’ main concern is achieving gender parity and equality in the positions of leadership among men and women. However, there is a danger that the number of doctors may not be enough to cater to the needs of all the patients in the country because of the focused action on feminization. In addition, many of the women getting into the medical practice prefer specific specialties that they prefer causing shortages causing shortage of doctors in other areas that do not attract many doctor but require significant attention as the other specialties. The situation requires rethinking to help address issues of doctor shortage while ensuring that the feminization goals are achievable. Consequently, implementing a fairness and equitability strategy in the provision of care is necessary to help realise feminization goals and increase the number of doctors proportionately. Although the authorities’ main concern is the attainment of gender parity, it is essential that the also focus on getting the best personnel out of a diverse personnel. The number of all the recruits should also be sufficient enough to cater to the needs of all the patients in the country. The quality and sufficient numbers have a direct impact on the health of Germany because it affects the provision of care among all the patients in the country.

 

 

 

 

List of references

Bittel, C. J. 2009. Mary Putnam Jacobi & the politics of medicine in nineteenth-century America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Burton, A. M. 1999. Gender, sexuality and colonial modernities. London: Routledge.

Cockerham, W. C. 2009. Medical sociology. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.

Earle, S., & Letherby, G. 2008. The sociology of healthcare: A reader for health professionals. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

European Conference on Gender Equality in Higher Education, & Grenz, S. 2008. Gender equality programmes in higher education: International perspectives. Wiesbaden: VS, Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Gálvez, L., Harris, B., Machado, H., & Gender and well-being. 2009. Gender and well-being in Europe: Historical and contemporary perspectives. Farnham, UK: Ash

Kent, J. C. 1998. Women in medicine. Minneapolis: Oliver Press.

Kuhlmann, Ellen, Ovseiko, Pavel, Kurmeyer, Christine, Gutiérrez-Lobos, Karin, Steinböck, Sandra, von Knorring, Mia, Buchan, Alastair, … Brommels, Mats. 2017. Closing the gender leadership gap: a multi-centre cross-country comparison of women in management and leadership in academic health centres in the European Union. (BioMed Central Ltd.) BioMed Central Ltd.

Habermann, M., & Uys, L. R. 2006. The other medical process: A global concept. Edinburgh: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone.

Kenny, D. J., & Jennings, B. M. 2010. Uniformed services other medical. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders.

Mitcham, C. 2005. Encyclopedia of science, technology, and ethics. Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference USA.

Potter, P. A., Perry, A. G., Stockert, P., Hall, A., & Peterson, V. 2016. Clinical Companion for Fundamentals of Other medical: Just the Facts. St Louis: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Thege, B., Popescu-Willigmann, S., Pioch, R., & Badri-Höher, S. 2014. Paths to Career and Success for Women in Science: Findings from International Research.

United Nations., & U.S. Census Bureau. (2000). Women and men in Europe and North America, 2000. New York: United Nations.

Van der Boom, Hannerieke. 2009. Home Other medical in Europe: Patterns of Professionalisation and Institutionalisation of Home Care and Family Care to Elderly People in Denmark, France, the Netherlands and Germany. Amsterdam

Perelberg, R. J., & Miller, A. C. 1990. Gender and power in families. London: Tavistock/Routledge.

Wainwright, D. 2008. A sociology of health. Los Angeles: SAGE.

 

Money and Credit

December 8, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“The Enormous Edifice of Credit” Summary

Name of Author

Institution

Date of Submission

 

 

“The Enormous Edifice of Credit” Summary

Majority of writers on the subject of money believed the notion that the use of money evolved at a certain stage of the barter system. Similarly, the writers opined that it was a common agreement to use a common commodity as an alternative form of exchange or as a measure of value for the trading processes. However, it is false to imagine that money was invented to evade the inconveniences and challenges faced while using the barter system. Just like other institutions in the society, the use of money evolved. It is not fairly accurate to determine the origin of the use of money. Also, there was no considerable, substantial volume of trade that would be successful sing the barter trade. Hence, the use and origin of money are closely linked to the development of trade.

In some regions globally unaffected by civilization the barter system is in use. Trades would exchange their goods for other commodities highly valuable in modern market structures. It is worth noting that the identification of the monetary system in the early civilizations required observation training. In such regions, the trained observers would decipher the use of primitive monetary systems. For instance, based on the desirability and scarcity of the valuable modern goods exchanged, the uncivilized tribes may choose a certain commodity as their currency. Close analysis reveals a host of commodities used previously by people as a form of currency, money. Notably, most of the commodities used for the purpose lacked a common denominator regarding features except that at one period and place, their market was assured by the users. As such, the market availability and outlets was a major factor towards the selection of the currency to be used by the people. This explanation refutes the punitive belief about the inconveniences and difficulties associated with the barter system of trade as having led to the development of money.

Consequently, just like other observers, Mommsen, a great German historian of Rome the selection of money commodities was ornamental and not based on their usefulness. Such basis of choice held for both the early civilizations and the modern societies.  The motive behind the choice of ornamental money commodities depicts a major characteristic of money. There is a major difference between necessary commodities and luxury. The human desire for necessary commodities is satiable. On the other hand, the human desire for the luxury and ornamental commodities is insatiable. This explains the fact that the demand for money can never get satisfied fully.  Normally, the priority for people is often the necessities. Along the hierarchy of wants, the luxuries would come second. As such, with sufficient quantities of necessities, it can only be natural for an individual to increase the supply of luxuries and not necessities.

Technically speaking, the demand for the metals used in making the ornaments used as money is elastic while that of the necessities is inelastic. The elasticity of the demand for the ornaments is also associated to the surety of their outlets and market. Further, such money commodities also experience a less variable value across the market than counterpart necessities among the communities engaging in less foreign trading activities. Hence, the use of money did not necessarily arise from the existing challenges that faced the barter system. It existed concurrently with the barter system in many early civilizations as ornamental commodities.

Report Paper Accounting: Leases

December 6, 2017

In a lease, the lessee gets considerable control and right of use over the asset. From the scenario given, both yachts are set to be transported through Evergreen’s transport channels. Given they both have either the right of use or any degree of control, it is a lease contract. A financial lease is where the owner buys an asset for the lessee and hires it out for a specific period. At the same time, an operating lease is where the risks and returns are not transferred in their entirety to the lessee. The owner operates with the hope of disposing off the asset at a given residual value. That said, with the criteria set forth by the FASB, the lease is an operational, not a financing one.

According to the Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 840-10-05 by FASB, the factors to be considered where lease classification is concerned include:

  1. Transfer of ownership
  2. Bargain purchase option
  3. Lease term
  4. Minimum lease terms

The economic life of leased property is normally indeterminate. As such, it is often difficult to determine the exact and fair value of the underlying assets. The guidance given by 842-10-65-1 is tied to whether or not the following conditions are met:

  1. The asset in question is owned by an authority or a governmental unit.
  2. The underlying asset is operated in behalf of the lessor and is part of a larger facility.
  3. The underlying asset is part of a permanent structure or is a permanent structure that ideally could never be moved to a new location.
  4. The lease does not transfer ownership of the equivalent asset or the underlying asset to the lessee.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

FASB. (2016). Leases. Overview and Background (Topic 840). Retrieved from

http://www.fasb.org/jsp/FASB/Document_C/DocumentPage?cid=1176167901010&acceptedDisclaimer=true