Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

critique on Performance and accountability

March 26, 2017


Gaining knowledge on the utilization of different performance management components enhance a non-profit organization enables them meet their managerial objectives, and those of their frontline staff. This includes adhering to different practices and lessons that foster the organization to plan for improving their performance in the future. Renz argues that the management is expected to conduct performance assessments to explore the alignment of employees to achieving the organization’s success (Renz, 2016). This also helps in introducing favorable management models learnt through the study. Researchers argues that managers often use assessments outputs and performance inputs through training its employees to meet the current demands of the organization in achieving success (Renz, 2016). Managers are mandated to align employee’s individual performance to that of the organization, and ensure that they lead to achieving similar goals and objectives (Selden and Sowa, 2011).


Renz supports Sally and Jessica’s argument that non-profit organizations in the private and public sector encounter many challenges as they are hit with the pressure of proving its capabilities to improve their performance and plans in the future (Renz, 2016). Non-profit organizations are expected to foster and measure their effectiveness through assessment of the organizational members (Renz, 2016). The authors compare the non-profit to the profit sectors in the private and public sector. They argue that their performance management is studied extensively to overcome all challenges that deter their development practices (Selden and Sowa, 2011). Prentice argues that managers are able to approximate an organization’s performance, capacity, and financial health through simple measures, from an empirical basis (Prentice, 2016). These activities are based on its predictability to fund opportunities and activities in the organization, and prevent its failure in the future. Internal Revenue Service For, 990 explores the question whether accounting measures can be used theoretically to intuitive defensible and constructs that improves the organization’s likelihood to succeed (Selden and Sowa, 2011). Christopher explains that the current financial performances of non-profit organizations is evaluated through careful examination if its solvency, liquidity, profitability, and margin (Prentice, 2016). These constructs are always useful as they guarantee how the non-profit organizations accrue their debts, monitor the finances of the organization, and measure their progressiveness towards attaining a sustainable future. The non-profit organization managers are mandated to understand the profitability, margin, liquidity, and solvency concepts and examine them to understand their performance (Prentice, 2016).

Sally and Jessica supports these claims, arguing that performance appraisals in human service organizations are as necessary, as in the profit organizations, from a staff and managerial perspective (Selden and Sowa, 2011). The authors argue that managing individual performances in the organization starts from the top to bottom levels. Every employee in the non-profit organization is expected to abide to the stipulated managerial standards to increase their performance. Employees must meet the organization goals, keep to its priorities and expectations in order to achieve success in the long-run. Renz argues that performance management processes in the organization also foster competitiveness (Renz, 2016). This includes adhering to different practices and lessons that foster the organization to plan for improving their performance in the future. Sally and Jessica supports these claims, arguing that performance appraisals in human service organizations are as necessary, as in the profit organizations, from a staff and managerial perspective (Selden and Sowa, 2011). Introduction of performance appraisals ensure that employees develop unique theories and ideas on how to make themselves better. This is effective as it leads to better organizational performance (Selden and Sowa, 2011).

“The ultimate objective of a performance management process is to align individual performance with organizational performance; the process should signal employees about the organization’s goals, priorities, and expectations and how well they are contributing to them. (252)” (Selden and Sowa, 2011)

Renz supports Tuckman and Chang’s argument that the non-profit organization is always vulnerable in its financial health (Chang and Tuckman, 1994). Consequently, managers need to often carefully evaluate the practices needed to achieve an overall improved financial health. The authors argue that probabilities of vulnerability in the non-profit organizations include the use of efficiency variables including the administrative total expenses, the revenue variables such as diversification, and accounting variable that support improvement for the majority (Renz, 2016). The authors provides an account of the nine common accounting measures that aim are enhancing the dimensional reduction process. This include the factor analysis, subsector analysis, index construction, and correlation analysis, among others (Prentice, 2016).

Jessica and Sally explain that performance management refers to set of activities that are adopted to enhance performance improvements of individual employees in the organization (Renz, 2016). The human resource team is expected to develop processes that motivate employees towards being better (Selden and Sowa, 2011). Commonly, setting employee expectations and ensuring that they provide frequent feedback on essential issues affecting the organization motivate them towards being exceptional. Target training in the organization should be conducted to improve employee weaknesses in their identified areas of growth (Renz, 2016). This increases the likelihood for potential success. Research argues that compensation systems are always rewarding to employees, as they motivate them towards attaining organizational goals (Renz, 2016). Employees are also more satisfied when the human resource team maintains a close relationship with each of them. This includes offering formal and non-formal information that improves their performances. Their turnover rate is also expected to increase steadily (Selden and Sowa, 2011). Research carried out in a number of public organizations prove that performance appraisals are very necessary to the organization, in a staffing and managerial perspective. The informal consent is expected to stimulate the formal consent to achieving satisfaction in human service evaluations (Selden and Sowa, 2011).

“Given the shortcomings of the traditional conceptualization of financial measures, this
section applies inductive reasoning to explore the viability of establishing underlying
constructs from a purely data-driven perspective. Multiple exploratory factor analyses
were performed to uncover latent constructs, and once again, the results affirm the
disjunction between our conceptual understanding of the accounting measures and
empirical data (726)” (Prentice, 2016).

Young lee examines the nature of non-profit organizations, and their ability to achieve success through implementation of good governance policies. Research conducted from the National Center for Charitable Statistics in the year 2010 proved that organizations that were engaged on lobbying activities and those that operated in metropolitan regions were more likely to achieve success through adoption of good policies and governance systems that steered high profile standards (Renz, 2016). The United States federal governance is determined in ensuring that all non-profit organizations meet the state legal mechanisms of good governance policies. “The US federal and state governments have legal mechanisms to ensure good governance in
nonprofit organizations. State nonprofit corporation law enables a nonprofit “to exist as a
legal entity, with its board as its animator (97)”

“Indeed, empirical research finds that the reported ratings affect the financial support an organization receives (Gordon, Knock, and Neely 2009 ; Silvergleid 2003 ; Sloan 2009 ). Hence, the failure to have such policies in place may lead to a loss of funding or damages to an organization ’ sreputation in the increasingly competitive marketplace (Eaton and Akers 2007 ). (97).


Conclusively all non-profit organizations should embark on collectively invest strategies that grant them competitive advantages in the market. All non-profit organizations are also expected to meet the required external characteristics and conditions in order to survive. This is only possible through written and good governance practices (Renz, 2016). Christopher argues that all financial measurements must convey a long term sustainability plan for the non-profit organization. All financial measures must also be examined to ensure that they meet the underlying concept of profitability construct. Annual surplus expenditures must be reduced to ensure that the percentage of operational spending reduces (Prentice, 2016). Commonly, setting employee expectations and ensuring that they provide frequent feedback on essential issues affecting the organization motivate them towards being exceptional. Conclusively, the current financial performances of non-profit organizations must be evaluated through careful examination if its solvency, liquidity, profitability, and margin (Prentice, 2016). These constructs are always useful as they guarantee how the non-profit organizations accrue their debts, monitor the finances of the organization, and measure their progressiveness towards attaining a sustainable future. The managers in non-profit organization are mandated to understand the profitability, margin, liquidity, and solvency concepts to steer the firm towards achieving success (Selden and Sowa, 2011).




Racism in America and Strategies to Curb On Racism and Stereotypes in the USA

March 26, 2017

Racism in America and Strategies to Curb On Racism and Stereotypes in the USA


Brief Description of the Problem

Racism from the definition is about the belief that one’s skin color, race, a group, or religion is more superior to the other on humanity grounds. Racism has been a topic that has raised concern from the international community, the civil society, the communities that define our existence and many other stakeholders. The issue of racism has had topics of confrontation in the past years, and nothing, in particular, has happened to either to curb racism and its prominence in the American society. Racism has its roots from time immemorial in the American history and all along, the impact of racism has been felt in society.[1] The repercussions are evident right from the lowest ranked individual in society to the top most. Moreover, racism manifests itself in many ways and the list and manner in which it shows up differ greatly in many ways. Important is that racism exists in American society and has been in existence all the way back to 17th century. There have been activists that stood at the outposts to malign the acts of racism in all efforts that they could. Nothing was forthcoming, and in the event of time, some were assassinated in the event of carrying out the noble duty if saving the population and more specifically the undermined and an inferior lot of people that make up the society. America is one great nation in many spheres, but racism has taken a huge percentage of their problems. Racism has been in America for Native Americans, African Americans, Jewish Americans, and Islamophobia and against the Japanese Americans.[2] It can be understood that racism has taken roots in the society and has impacted negatively on the larger percentage of the American Citizens. It is a national disaster that has hit the nation mercilessly and is not at any point giving the nation a break. It is a malady that eats the nation from within, a nation that is destined for greatness and one that other nations revere in leadership and levels of competency it depicts in its institutions of change for the better society.[3]

Research Question

What should be the best alternatives that can be applied to help rescue America from the malice and humiliations of racism as a national disaster that has gotten the better part of the nation from time immemorial?

Thesis Statement

Racism is a counterpoint to all the prevalent practices and beliefs of equality in most developed nations. It exists despite the efforts used to combat it in all manners possible. It has gained ground in the societal setup and clings to human life and coupled with stereotypes that are the agents of doom to societal progress. It is so entangled in the society that it forms the fabric of the same society.

Summary Argument

Defining the concept of stereotype and racism helps one to think about how the two relates to each other and the way they influence the social interaction. Racism as a universal concept happens if individuals’ in the society have affective or emotional response to people of a particular social group. On the other hand, stereotype as another major aspect that has been passed over time refer to the belief that certain people have regarding the characteristics, attributes, and behaviors of specific members of a particular group in the society.[4] Today, the American society is far more diverse than at any other time in the nation’s history. Despite the tremendous change in the society, it can be revealed that many people, especially the minorities continue to encounter racism through disparate treatment, which is affecting the life of many individuals in several ways. Thus, the government through its legal framework and the society should take the defying initiatives to deal with racism under any circumstance for the well-being of the society members.

Frame Work and Roadmap

          The paper will address the contemporary issues that the American society is experiencing in as far as racism is concerned. It will help expose the ill associated with racism in society and work on provision of the remedies to the problem to be assured of a unified society that has a common history and one that lives on utmost believe of highest social and political morality. The paper will explore the pertinent issues that are leading to uproars in the public domain as well as what contributes to the stalemate of the matter. In any sense thereof, the paper will try to bring out the truth that is hidden behind falsehoods on which community propagates racism the most and the way to calm down the situation amicably. The paper, however, will not hold anyone at ransom but work on proving that every community is responsible for the problems associated with racism and the only solution is to own up and work on remedies. Issues, as stipulated in the outline, will follow each other concurrently to bring out the exact meaning of the main objective of the paper in the most congruent manner possible.[5]

The main objectives to meet is to ensure that the issue of racism has got the ultimate solution basing reference to the earlier experiences on the matter and working on the best way out to bringing a lasting solution to the American population that is overburdened with the state of affairs. It will be for everyone’s joy if the nation heals from the malady that has been eating it from within and for any reason contributing to its low scores as compared to other nations out there that seek the same position as America.

Prevalence of Racism in the United States

Racism in the United States became more prevalent in the 1950s and 1960s, where reports claim that the African Americanss people were the subject of racism in the 19650s and 1960s era. Despite the implementation of overtly racist policies such as disfranchisement laws and Crow segregation laws, racism in the U.S. continues to spread intensively.[6] Further, racism in the U.S. is spreading mostly in areas where people of different races meet that include in the learning institutions, workplaces, as well in the prison and it has become difficult for the people in the U.S. to follow the rule of segregation laws in these areas. The measure of racism prevalence has been difficult since report claims that the pattern of racism prevalence has been shaped by the various levels that may be difficult to observe. However, it is believed that the operating individuals, organizations, and society have accelerated the spread of racism in the United States. Each level contains a certain range of dynamic that is instigating the spread of racism. Most of the organizations operate under the aspect of inequality, which is one of the immense factor that is making racism to increase within the employment sector.[7] From the context of organizational inequality, members of the minority groups in the U.S. are the subject here, as working opportunities and constraints favors the White people over the minority groups such as African Americans and Hispanic community. The issue of racial profiling is also encouraging racism in the U.S. specifically for African Americans. This is making people in the society to encounter gendered racism, as many African Americans are being searched in every sector of the society.

The aspect of disagreement in the society is also causing racism prevalent more than people can imagine. Experimental survey reveals that by the year 2012, 53% of the African Americans people reported that discrimination against minority community is a major issue in the America.[8] Contrarily, only 17% of the Whites who acknowledge that racism inform discrimination in the one of the prevailing problem in the America and it is affecting the minority groups. As it is a fact that the White people are finding it hard to accept the prevalence of racism over the past years, this is making the American society more biased with the major victims of the racism issue being the Africa-American people.

Reason for the Mistreatment of People Basing on Stereotypes

In most of the stereotypical issues, women are the victims, as they are more judged according to stereotype perceptions. In the United States, the victims of the stereotype are women from the minority groups, and if people are discriminating others because of their stereotypical perception, this is violating the standard of rationality. One of the primary reason that makes women from the minority group to encounter stereotype is self-esteem or the desire to rationalize inequality in the society.[9] In essence, as many people in the society use their self-esteem to make an accurate judgment about others, this may make some individuals feel weak and lose motivation. When people, especially women, are given weak judgment, it makes them feel threatened, which make them get the feeling of discrimination and mistreated by their colleagues within the society.

The social hierarchy is another factor that has been identified as a major cause of mistreatment of people based on stereotype concepts. For example, in the U.S. many women are primed as kind and nurturing, which is making them accept the treatment from men who views them as weak and individuals who can make decisions according to what they are told to do by men.[10] This makes women get lower status in the society and viewed as people who are less powerful compared to their colleagues. From this argument, it is open that women in the American society are being discriminated by the system justifying attitude, where men view them as individuals who depends on the decision that men make. For instance, if people in the America view the individuals from the minority community as a being shrewd, the Whites’ people are likely not to see the ability of the people from the minority ethnic groups.[11] This kind of stereotypical attribute can make the U.S. people fail to see the range of characteristics that the people from minority groups have, which make minorities becomes the victim of the issue of discrimination.

The Ways to Heal the Nation from Racism

There should be put measures to help reduce and if at any cost stamp out racism in the American society if the nation has to move forth and adopt the proposals laid out below. Healing from the injustices performed in the name of racism and stereotypes have to be brought to an end by concerted efforts from everyone including the federal governments, national government, the civil society, and more importantly, the people. The American society should encourage the interracial and intercultural communication in many setups of the society to help reduce on the sharpness of the effect of racism. The move will allow for closer interaction with the people as a whole and a build-up of relations in the longrun. Good relationship among people from various divide would result in finer interactions that would help eliminate the animosity that exists in society on the grounds of racism.

Reduction of the incidents of hate crimes on the minorities in the country would help cool down the racism and encourage multiculturalism, which is the main institutional practice to help curb the disaster. Avoiding judgment at individual levels about certain races as it has been done before basing on stereotypes, and instead judgment be based on one’s performance and level of competency at work. Moreover, the proclamation of one being lazy and underperforming without getting a personal feel for the problem would only make the state of things for the country worse. The civil society should come in on the same issue for this is where it performs based. Institutions of learning should also be involved in controlling of racism by setting up a syllabus to be learned in a class by students on the benefits of social cohesion through the elimination of racism. It will serve the country a big deal since the knowledge will gain ground right from the grass roots. Politicians spreading the gospel of cohesiveness and opposition to racism in society should be encouraged and be elected to leadership positions as their visions get upheld for the future generations. Politicians should be at the forefront of the anti-racism campaign.[12]

Government Acts and Laws of Racism

The United States government has taken the initiatives of making sure that no individuals in the U.S. encounter the issue of racism regardless of his or her race. The federal government has initiated several laws over the years as a way of curbing racism and stereotype mistreatment. In 2001, the U.S. Congress introduced a bill that is meant to counter or end racial profiling as one of the most prevalent racial discrimination concept.[13] In this year, the “End Racial Profiling Act (ERPA)” was introduced in every U.S. Congress, where the lawmakers proposed through the Act, to ban the aspect of racial profiling and if any individual is found doing racial profiling, he or she will face a legal hearing.[14] Although the bill is yet to be implemented into law, through such policies, it can be affirmed that the U.S. government is doing all it can to end racism and make the American society a place for every member of the society no matter the color.

In areas of the labor sector, the U.S. government has implemented legislation policies such discrimination law and occupational laws that are responsible for creating a better working relationship between employers and people of color. The regulatory frameworks in the workplaces are set to end the aspect of Labor-Hire Contracting, where all members of the society will be treated equally regardless of their races. The reason why the U.S. government introduced such form of legal framework was that most of the Africa-American people has reported that under contract work, their supervisors treat them favorably because of their race, which makes the working environment intolerable.[15] Other policies that are being used by the U.S. government to end discrimination in the working sector include the Affirmative Action Controversy and The Affirmative Action Laws that were established in the 1960s. The two policies are set to regulate the employers against spreading racism based on color, race, or nationality. The VII Civil Right is another law that is being used by the American Federal government to curb on racism. The Act was introduced in 1964, and it has broadened the Affirmative Action where people in the U.S. are subjected to benefit from different activities that relate to the federal financial assistance.[16] The policy has been efficient in the U.S., as it has banned any forms of racial discrimination and it has reduced the segregation life aspects of the Africa-American people.

Individuals Contribution toward Propagation on Racism

Racism is acquired largely by what people are writing and what they are talking about other people or certain groups of people in the society. The press or the media has been identified as a major contributor of racism in the United States. For instance, in the U.S. newspaper, magazines, and televisions have their own White people agenda, which makes the society view the minority people as the problem and individuals who are judged stereotypically.[17] Most of the press companies do not focus on reporting things pertaining the African Americans people such as discrimination, segregation, and racism, which makes the community to ignore such frameworks. When the society do not pay attention to issues affecting the African Americans people as the press do not present their coverage, racism, and aspect of stereotype continues to spread in the community, as the White people view the African Americans as less privileged individuals.[18]

The structural forces such as social acts are also identified as key contributors of racism in the United States. Social acts refer to the behavior of individuals in the society. Key examples of the social acts are things such as stereotyping, discrimination in the hiring processes, job promotion, stigmatization, and admission in the learning institutions. These acts are actions of people or group exercising power over the others. Since racism is a common issue in the U.S., the Africa-America people are always the victims of such event, which makes them go through a rough time dealing with the issue of racism inform of social acts. In addition, in the U.S. social processes are endorsed as the other forms of fundamental forces contributing to racism, which is affecting the minority groups. The key form of social processes that has been recognized within the American history includes processes such as Jim Crow segregation laws, voting restrictions, as well as racial profiling.[19] In each of these processes, the people who are set to be protected are the minorities. Consequently, this led to the creation of differences in the society where some groups view themselves superior than the others under the aspect of color and race. Typically, whenever there is a difference in the society one group is likely to encounter racism and this has been a major issue in the America. Thus, it can be argues that the social process that are set to promote public safety are in some ways contributing to racism in the America.

The Ultimate Solution to Racism

The most effective solution for racism is for both the White and minorities in the U.S. to come together and work toward abolishing stereotypes. Racism is not a White problem alone, as it never functions in one way. From the historical reports and record about racism, it is evident that for racism to spread over, it manifests itself in both the culprit and the oppressed.[20] Therefore, since most cases of racism are based on the stereotypical views of others, policymakers and society need to create a cooperation where people will work together and try to come up with a universal view of racism. Changing the social institutions is another ultimate solution that the American people should focus on if they want to curb racism in most efficient manner. As such, the U.S. Federal government should focus on encouraging the discussion of racism in learning institutions, as this will change the perspective of young students concerning stereotyping as well as the social structural. Moreover, to do away with racism in the U.S. the community should initiate forums such as creating new agendas that will promote integration between minorities and White people, allowing the people to determine their roles and functions, regardless of their color and gender.

Civil Society Response on Racism

The American civil society groups are the actors involved in combating racism and discrimination within the community. The civil society groups in the U.S. are viewed as anti-racism actors working in a wide arena through the public policy and legislation supporting the civil society and any other social movement taking the task of combating racism.[21] The civil society and social movement in the U.S. use specific strategies such as mobilizing the ethnic minority groups and getting into the grassroots position so that they can come up with factors causing racism and then initiates the relevant solutions to curb the problem.

Racism is also known for its negative contribution to the America’s welfare, where some communities are underrepresented while others are overrepresented. As the community continues to become more racially biased, the welfare policies designed in the U.S. are likely to benefit the majority groups and fails to put the minorities group into the welfare of the country.[22] Evidently, the African Americans and Hispanics people are underrepresented in most of the social programs and overrepresented in more insufficient programs that are designed as country welfares in the America. From this argument, it is clear that the minorities groups are harshly treated when it comes to the access of welfare programs that can give them greater benefits all because they belong to a specific minority group.

Civilian on Racism

As the aspect of racism may affect many people psychologically, it is important for the civil society movement to consider the best ways that are applicable in treating the victims. In this context, the civil society may respond to the matter by hiring a mental health practitioner as an individual who will conduct post-victimization counseling to the victim involved and offer emotional support after the initial crisis.[23] When the civil movement responds in this way, the racism victims will confront the crisis as a usual challenge and embrace the journey to recovery in a positive way.

Summary of the Data

It would comprise of most of the statistics that have been initially carried out by any research institution on every sub-topic highlighted beforehand. This would help in giving a projection of what should be done to bring the negative impacts of racism to a standstill. Figures used in this section and other parts of the paper would be based on the true findings, and surveys mostly carried out by the independent civil society and Non-Governmental Organizations. Other research and reports that concur with the paper would also be of value in the provision of leading information for the final draft of the paper and relevance.[24]

From an often-cited review focusing preventing prejudice, it is found out that at about 15% of the White people in the America are racist, largely because of the aspect of authoritarian personality.[25] Despite the effort to curb racism in the U.S., only 25% of the American White adults who are consistently supporting the rights of the African Americanss, thus making almost 75% of the White in the U.S. to be a key driver of racism within the society.[26] Besides, more research on the issues of racism in the U.S. shows that the police officers in the U.S. can make arrest decision based on the race of individuals, which is making racism to increase in the American society. For instance, in a study where a African Americans teenager was shot by a White police officer, 18% of the African Americanss reported that the act was promoted by the fact that the young boy was from a minority group. On the other hand, 52% of the Whites responded the race of the boy was not the reason why the boy was shot.[27] From various studies on the subject of racism, it is demonstrated racism is shaped by specific factors that are based on the difference between the Whites and African Americanss people.


It would serve the nation better if took part in the procedures for remedies and correction of the problem that is amongst the people. It is also wise to for every citizen at their levels to work on the eradication of the problem that undermines our country in many areas. Following the understanding of the racism subject and it is prevalent, the following recommendation will be important in the quest to search for a solution concerning this matter.

  1. The U.S. government should become more vigilant on the aspect of changing the stereotype culture. Although changing stereotype culture is difficult, the society and policymakers should take actions on teaching and support or reinforce for new stereotype for change to occur.
  2. To make the society a better place for every person, the government should make sure that in the society there is no superiority of races. This means that people will see each other as equal, as no race will be controlling another group, especially the minorities. When superiority of races is eliminated, the society will be made up of equal opportunities where people from the Hispanic, African Americans, and Whites will get equal chances.
  3. The need of resolution about racism factors is another recommendation that will make the society become discrimination-free and a place where the African Americanss and Whites can interact without defining who is superior to control the other.


This study presents the concept of racism and stereotype with the aim identifying the ways that the American people can use to counter racism. As one of the prevailing concept, racism has negative impacts on the society, mostly to the victims who are being discriminated in different ways. From the study, it is identified that stereotype is a common cause of racism and if the U.S. government wants to counter this problem, it should focus on changing the perspective of people toward certain groups. Although the American people are more diverse, African-American people, women, and other minority groups appear to be more vulnerable and exposed to the cases of racism. As racism continues to be prevalent in the U.S., it is affecting the specific group, and this may ruin the life and the life of the future generation.


1Sidanius, Jim, Lawrence Bobo, and David O. Sears. Racialized politics: The debate about racism in America. Chicago University Press, 2000.


3Jonas, Gilbert. Freedom’s sword: the NAACP and the struggle against racism in America, 1909-1969. Routledge, 2005.

[4]Khan, Saera R., Teena Benda, and Michael N. Stagnaro. “Stereotyping from the perspective of perceivers and targets.” Online Readings in Psychology and Culture 5, no. 1 (2012): 1-10

5Jonas, Gilbert. Freedom’s sword: the NAACP and the struggle against racism in America, 1909-1969. Routledge, 2005.

6Mutua, Athena D., ed. Progressive Black Masculinities?. New York , NY : Taylor &  Francis Group. 2006.

7Pager, Devah, and Hana Shepherd. “The sociology of discrimination: Racial discrimination in employment, housing, credit, and consumer markets.” Annu. Rev. Sociol 1, no. 34 (2008): 181-209.

8Ponterotto, Joseph G., Shawn O. Utsey, and Paul Pedersen. Preventing Prejudice: A Guide for Counselors, Educators, and Parents. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications, 2006.

9Danielson, Chris. The Color of Politics: Racism in the American Political Arena Today. 2013.

10Uhlmann, Eric Luis, Victoria L. Brescoll, and Edouard Machery. “The motives underlying stereotype-based discrimination against members of stigmatized groups.” Social Justice Research 23, no. 1 (2010): 1-16.

10Blum, Lawrence. “Stereotypes and stereotyping: A moral analysis.” Philosophical Papers 33, no. 3 (2004): 251-289.

11Glaser, Jack, Katherine Spencer, and Amanda Charbonneau. “Racial Bias and Public Policy.” Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1, no. 1 (2014): 88-94.

12Jonas, Gilbert. Freedom’s sword: the NAACP and the struggle against racism in America, 1909-1969. Routledge, 2005.

13Van Dijk, Teun A. Racism and the Press. Vol. 5. Routledge, 2015.

14Wilson, William Julius. “Toward a framework for understanding forces that contribute to or reinforce racial inequality.” Race and Social Problems 1, no. 1 (2009): 3-11.

15Nye, Doug. Racing Cars. Rexdale, Ont: J. Wiley and Sons Canada, 2006

16Das Gupta, Tania. Race and Racialization: Essential Readings. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, 2007

17 ibid

18Piven, Frances Fox. “Why welfare is racist.” Race and the politics of welfare reform (2003): 323-335.


20Craig‐Henderson, Kellina, and L. Ren Sloan. “After the hate: Helping psychologists help victims of racist hate crime.” Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 10, no. 4 (2003): 481-490.

21 ibid

[19] ibid

[20] Lee, Woojin, and John E. Roemer. “Racism and redistribution in the United States: A solution to the problem of American exceptionalism.” Journal of public Economics 90, no. 6 (2006): 1027-1052.

[21] Nelson, Jacqueline K. “Denial of racism and its implications for local action.” Discourse & Society 24, no. 1 (2013): 89-109.

[22] Piven, Frances Fox. “Why welfare is racist.” Race and the politics of welfare reform (2003): 323-335.

[23] Craig‐Henderson, Kellina, and L. Ren Sloan. “After the hate: Helping psychologists help victims of racist hate crime.” Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 10, no. 4 (2003): 481-490.

24Hernton, Calvin C. Sex and racism in America. Anchor, 1992.

25Ponterotto, Joseph G., Shawn O. Utsey, and Paul B. Pedersen. Preventing prejudice: A guide for counselors, educators, and parents. Vol. 2. Sage Publications, 2006.

26Carter, Evelyn R., and Mary C. Murphy. “Group‐based Differences in Perceptions of Racism: What Counts, to Whom, and Why?.” Social and Personality Psychology Compass 9, no. 6 (2015): 269-280.


Self Concept and Perception Essay

March 26, 2017

Definition of self-concept

Self-concept can be termed as self-perspective, self-construction, self-structure or self-identity. All these terms could mean a collection of attitudes, values and beliefs of the self that include factors like sexual identity, gender identity, academic performance, racial identity among other individual identities (Huitt 2011). Self-concept can be distinguished from self-awareness which refers to the extent of self-knowledge that is consistent, defined by an individual and applicable to one’s dispositions and attitudes. At the same time, self-concept is different from self-esteem because the former is a descriptive or cognitive component of the self; for instance-I am an exceptional runner. The former is an evaluated opinion of the self; for instance I feel so good about being a brilliant runner. In simple terms, self-concept is the idea that an individual holds in regard of herself. How we communicate with others is highly dependent on how we compare ourselves to others, those around you, personal anxieties and the larger environment. For instance, if you have a friend who is homosexual, it is very common to find them communicating freely with other homosexuals (Larson 2012). When in a communication surrounding that has another person being homophobic, the communication would be strained because one party is trying to hide who he really is basing on internal shame.

Role of self-concept in communication

Just like the example presented above, a homosexual would be comfortable in a conversation that involves other homosexuals. Another instance of a communication that could be strained is one that one party feels uncomfortable because of the racial environment. An African American would find it hard to be on the same communication platform with Latinos because African Americans might feel inferior to Latinos. Self-concept is the notion about self and it applies in our day to day interactions. When involved in group communication, there are those people who superior and would want to take charge of the whole discussion while those who feel inferior would try to fit into such conversations though not comfortable.  People who have strong self-concepts would be free in any kind of communication at any time because nothing makes them have an ‘out of place’ feeling in a social setting (Howell 2016).

Definition of my self-concept

I choose to stay true to myself even at the expense of attracting ridicule from my friends rather than be false and detest myself (Freund & Kasten 2012). I do not choose to worry about what other people think of me, I do not care how they perceive me and my personality because for one, I have knowledge of myself and my demons. As an individual living a life of my own, I focus on my gains and benefits, engaging in activities that aid in individual betterment and advancement. At times I could be egocentric and self-seeking. I care about others but I place myself first. I am more introverted, conservative, ignored and unstained because I value myself. Just like everyone else, I make mistakes and that is just who I am. However, I also believe that is am good and have the ability to bring out the best in me. I am not out to be loved by everybody because I think less of what they do. For me self-awareness is adopting a clear perception about your feelings, thoughts, beliefs, emotions, motivation and personality and I also believe this is what makes me understand those around me, how they view me and we respond to each other at a moment. I could confidently say that I am fully aware of my strengths and weaknesses, my potentials, my weak spots, my assets and my friends. I think I am my own best resource, I am confident of my abilities, appearances and for that reason I have formed a good image of myself and so I have the ability to value others.

Influencing self-concept of others

Growing up as a child and learning to involve in many activities, I have always been given the post of a leader. I have learnt to bring out the best in other, motivate them to get to the highest of their potential and believe in them. As a leader I focused on working together and ensuring no one is superior and no one is inferior. This helped me turn introverts into outgoing group members with full participation in groups.

Difference between perception and self-concept

Self-concept is basically knowledge about oneself. It is also similar to knowing what others feel and how they react to certain things (Fournier 2016). Perception on the other hand is self-evaluation on a scale that ranges from positive to negative. Perception is based on the feedback we receive from significant people in our lives about how they think of us and what they hold as our self-worth.

Improving perception and communication

Creating and maintaining supporting friendships could help improve perception and self-concept. Apart from self-prophesying to self, being around friends who build your self-esteem is a way to increase how you view yourself (Stinson et al., 2011). We have the ability to make a choice in deciding who sticks around us and who does not. Secondly, self-concept and perception can be increased by staying aware of distorted thinking and action patterns. Learning about the dangers of negative thoughts and actions could help us acknowledge and intervene in creating a change. Instead of negative thinking, individuals can engage in overcompensation and building self-esteem.


Fournier, G. (2016). Self-Concept. Psych Central. Retrieved on March 20, 2017, from

Freund, P. & Kasten, N. (2012). “How smart do you think you are? A meta-analysis on the validity of self-estimates of cognitive ability”. Psychological Bulletin. 138 (2): 296–321. doi:10.1037/a0026556

Howell, G. (2016). Personality self-concept affects processing of trait adjectives in the self-reference memory paradigm Journal of Research in Personality. 66(2017); 1-13.

Huitt, W. (2011). “Self and self-views”. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University.

Larson, P. C. (2012). “Sexual Identity and Self-Concept”. Journal of Homosexuality. 7 (1): 15. doi:10.1300/J082v07n01_03

Stinson, D. A., et al., (2011). “Rewriting the Self-Fulfililng Prophecy of Social Rejection: Self-Affirmation Improves Relational Security and Social Behavior up to 2 Months Later,” Psychological Science 20, no. 10 (2011): 2.

Time and place to use Emojis in Business Communication

March 23, 2017


Communication is an important aspect required for the success of any business. Many forms of communication exist, and it is upon the business to choose a form that will play a role in its success. However, given that a business is an official activity, there is a need to choose a communication method that will suit the formal setting of the business. With the emergence of emojis as a form of communication, it is required that stakeholders in business employ the correct use of this form for it remain within the communication methods boundaries as required in a business setting. Emojis are small icons used as contemporary tools of communication through digital which includes electronic means (Bliss-Carroll, 2016). This paper will focus on when and where it could be appropriate to use emojis in business communications.

Given the wide variety of these icons, they can also be applied in different situations depending on the nature of the prevailing circumstances. The icons are used when there is a need to convey a certain tone. Using the icons makes experts appear friendly and competent (Bliss-Carroll, 2016). Communications between managers can take this form especially if the person sending a text message or an email wants to be perceived to be cheerful. By simply adding an icon expressing excitement, the sender will be perceived to be, for instance welcoming and good to work with which might not be the case. The use emojis used in a setting like this, however, be face-like icons which are considered official (Barbieri, 2016).

Considering business as a relationship of social and emergence interaction, it creates structures that affect the process of communication. Emotions, in this context, results from the how the employees in a business relate to each other. The icons thus can be used when there is a need to conceptualize a business in new ways (Alshenqeeti, 2016). In a clear form of expressing emotions, employee use messaging platforms like text messaging, WhatsApp and Messenger to illustrate their emotional state or show how they feel sorry for the unappealing incidences affecting their colleagues.

With the level of competition in business so high, Business is using the emojis to outdo the competitors. For example, the ‘PAKER’S CRAZY COOKIES’ company is even making the cookies resembling the customer in customers face. Business can use emoji to capture the minds of those they are supplying goods (Barbieri, 2016). Service providing companies can use the icons to improve on customer attitude by installing friendly looking emojis in receptions areas. A recent trend in business is the use of emojis in an advertisement. Business is embracing the method because of they are mobile-friendly and using them keeps their company voice go across platforms. The use of the icons in advertisement improves communication. The social nature of humankind and the fact that gestures and facial expressions form part of communication makes it necessary to have their effects carried to billboards and other advertising platforms. The transfer of gestures and facial expressions from an advertising company to potential customers happens through the use of emojis. Because as humankind is a social creature, and the use of facial expressions and gestures is complimented by this icon.

Many businesses provide motivation means to the employees in different ways. A business that gives alternatives to employees leads to the need of a slack voting that will enable a decision made on to be for majority. If employees are required to choose between swimming and boating, it saves time when employees organize platform and vote by using a skiing or boating icon. The two icons help reduce the bulk of reading written views given that a single image may represent thousands of words (Babin, 2016).

When there is need to communicate in a simple manner, emojis work well in such cases. While emojis is used to show the emotional undertone of a message, they leave a plenty of room for misinterpretation. This was confirmed by a survey which indicated a difference between the interpretation of single icon by different people. The difference in interpretation was attributed to the varying features of the communication platforms. Big screen phones with a different font from the small screen phone would lead to complete distortion of intended message.

The use of emojis should be limited to certain occasions (Kaye, et al., 2016). If a junior staff wants to communicate to the senior, there are always a procedural approach employed. However, the juniors can use emojis to soften message they intend to deliver to the seniors. These icons thus help when there is a need to soften a message before delivering it to the intended recipients.  If for instance, your co-worker gets engaged, a heart symbol of emoji can be used to signify your acknowledgment and support to the love between your co-worker and the partner.

There are high chances of an emoji icon to be misinterpreted. Because of the high chances of misinterpretation, the icons are used well when they understand the actual meaning of a given icon. For instance, the crying while laughing emoji show a completely different case from the crying emoji and one should not exchange in the use of the two It is also advisable to use those icons only with team members and other people that you communicate with regularly (Bliss-Carroll, 2016). Different people will use one icon in two circumstances. Emojis are thus best used between individuals who already understands what a particular emoji from a particular friend means in different circumstances.

Generally, the use of emoji in business communication has not been completely accepted. The use of this icons in informal business setting helps in saving time that would have been taken if those using it would choose to describe their emotions. If one wants to use the icon, then he must consider the prevailing conditions of. However, good selection of items to use be a factor to avoid distortion of intended message.






Alshenqeeti, H., 2016. Are Emojis Creating a New or Old Visual Language for New Generations? A Socio-semiotic Study. Advances in Language and Literary Studies7(6), pp.56-69.

Babin, J.J., 2016. A Picture Is worth a Thousand Words: Emojis, Computer-Mediated Communication, and Trust.

Barbieri, F., Kruszewski, G., Ronzano, F. and Saggion, H., 2016, October. How Cosmopolitan Are Emojis?: Exploring Emojis Usage and Meaning over Different Languages with Distributional Semantics. In Proceedings of the 2016 ACM on Multimedia Conference (pp. 531-535). ACM.

Bliss-Carroll, N.L., 2016. The nature, function, and value of emojis as contemporary tools of digital interpersonal communication (Doctoral dissertation, Gardner-Webb University).

Durante, C.B., 2016. Nonverbal Communication in Mobile Phone Text Messages: Redefining Nonverbal Coding for the Digital Conversation.

Kaye, L., Malone, S. and Wall, H., 2016. Emojis: Insights, Affordances and Possibilities for Psychological Science. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.




Critical Reflective Essay

March 22, 2017

While with effective parent-child relationships families are extremely rewarding, in most cases, it is challenging to maintain good relationships. A successful family is built on love, care, support, and respect from both the parents and children. Parents are expected to guide their children and discipline them when they go astray so as to grow as responsible adults. Unfortunately, families do not grow as it is expected. As evidenced in today’s society, brothers are killing each other, children are turning against their parents to the extent of killing them, and parents are severely punishing their children to the point of death. Families are no longer founded on love and care. Even when born to the same mother, today’s families have siblings who are the worst of enemies. This is the reason a brother would be immersed in wealth while his siblings and parents are languishing in poverty. While there are some families in the Bible that evidence effective parent-child relationships, most of them are not very different from what is evidenced in today’s families.

A good example of a family in the Bible with ineffective parent-child relationship is that of Isaac, Rebekah, Jacob, and Esau. While Isaac loved Esau more because he was obedient and responsible, Rebekah preferred Jacob to Esau. Even though Isaac was close to Esau, this did not mean that he hated his other son, Jacob. However, Rebekah’s behaviour towards Esau is questionable. Even though he was his son just like Jacob, she preferred the latter. As a result, Rebekah not only favoured Jacob but also connived and schemed against Jacob. This shows how families can get messed up when a parent gets close to one of the child and makes it clear that he loves and favours him over others. Through her manipulation, Rebekah used Jacob to trick Isaac to rip Esau of his birth right[1].

According to the Bible, Ephesians 6:4 says, “And, ye fathers, provoke not your children to wrath: but bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord”[2]. This is a verse that applies to both parents who are supposed to be their children’s guidance. In the example of Esau and Jacob, Rebekah should have acted as a good mother who directed both sons to grow loving each other, loving both parents, and live in a happy family. Since the traditions during those times required that the first born had some birth rights, Rebekah should have respected this and bring Jacob up understanding that his brother, Esau, was his big brother and entitled to some privileges as the first born. Instead, she decided to connive with Jacob to rip Esau of his birth right. This way, Rebekah, just as evidenced in most of today’s families misguided Jacob by showing him that there are shortcuts to making his life better.

As noted in most families, parents are no longer playing their role as parents. Instead, parents are encouraging their children misconduct. For instance, Climie and Mitchell argue that most parents are playing a great role in their children misbehaviour as they encourage their vices. A good example is when a child steals or bullies others in the neighbourhood and at school and after the parent is informed, instead of investigating and correcting his child’s misbehaviour, he supports his child. In most schools for example, teachers are banned from punishing their students and upon reporting the student’s misconduct to the parents, no action is taken. In fact, some parents defined their children even without further asking. They argue that they trust their children and thus are incapable of doing what they are accused of. While parents think that by defending and supporting their children they are enhancing their relationship, they are only bringing up all sorts of criminals and would be blamed later[3].

According to Birditt et al, the example demonstrated by Rebekah and Jacob is evidenced in a number of today’s families. Even when with several children, it is unfortunate that a parent might prefer one over others[4]. While this favouritism did not lead to enmity between Jacob and Esau, it creates great rifts in today’s families. When the children in a family are convinced that their parent loves one child over others, hate grows between the children and the preferred one as well as for their parents. It is also possible for children to scheme against one of them if they feel that he is closer to the parents than they are. Popov and Ilesanmi also argue that such children are more likely to grow hostile and disobedient to their parents[5]. Even after a child wrongs and is punished by the parents, he would not consider it done out of love to correct his ways but rather done to show him how much he is hated since he is not the preferred one.

This can be explained using the example of Joseph and his brothers. It is because the brothers felt that Joseph was loved more by their father that they tried killing him but later changed their minds to sell him off as a slave. Even though Joseph could elaborate dreams, his brothers could not see this talent in him because for them, everything he did was to win their father’s love even more[6]. Every time his father approved what Joseph did, he was only hated the more. The brother saw him as an enemy and thought that by eliminating him, they would get their right place in their father’s heart. Without Joseph, the brothers thought that their father would show them equal amount of love and grow closer to them.

It is therefore evident that parents are more likely to provoke the behaviours evidenced by their children. Colossians 3:21 say, “Fathers, provoke not your children to anger, lest they be discouraged”[7]. This means that in order to maintain a close and healthy relationship between parents and their children, parents should mind what they do. Some of the actions by parents can be very genuine while they end up provoking their children. As a result, while it is easy to provoke them unknowingly, parents should consider the consequences of their actions. If parents are in close relationship with their children, Stafford  et al argue that they would easily note any negative change in children behaviours and through discussions in the family, they would come up with causes and solutions to the evidenced problems[8]. This is to avoid a situation in which a parent would provoke his children to hating one another or drifting away from the parents.

Based on the example of Joseph in which children feel that their parents are closer and love one child more than others, the relationship among the siblings and between the less preferred siblings and their parents is adversely impacted. In this case, the parents lack the skills or time to sit down with their children and work on their relationship. When a parent realises that the children are drifting away from him or her, he or she should look for ways of improving the relationship. Such discussions are meant to prevent severe consequences in which as it happened to Joseph, the less preferred siblings might plot on harming one of their own. While the family should be based on love and care, with hate, the family members would be celebrating when one of them is facing challenges rather than helping him[9].

As argued by Stafford et al, with negative parenting, the parent-child relationship is strained. In today’s families in which parents are busy working and leave their children under the care of nannies, there is reduced supervision and decreased parent involvement in a child’s life. In most families, even when living in the same house with their parents, some children live for days without seeing their parents. This is mostly for working parents who have to live their houses before their children are awake and get back home when the children are already asleep. In other cases, some parents have very busy work schedules involving travelling for several days. As a result, children lack the time and attention they require from their parents[10].

Parent-child relationships are also strained by increased punitive discipline that leads to antisocial behaviour of the children. Aggressive behaviour in parents in terms of corporal punishment results to poor behavioural and emotional adjustment in children. When children consider their parents hostile and with negative affectivity, they become less close to them and form relationships outside the family. In todays’ society, this is evidenced more in families in which children are happier in the absence of their drunkard and abusive parents and immediately they get home, the children grow numb. In such families, children grow with more resentment and guilt and the families are characterized by poor communication skills. Children with unsupportive and uncaring parents would have no one to share their problems with and would even seek friendship anywhere even from their misleading peers.  When children are brought up by parents who have negative affectivity, they are more likely to indulge in substance abuse, exhibit depressive symptoms, and have suicidal attempts or thoughts[11].

Even though current families are facing challenges that lead to hate and distance between children and parents, there are recommendations to strengthening the relationship. It is notable that parents should guide their children all their life. This is what is referred in various Bible verses as use of the rod to correct the child’s behaviour. However, literal use of the rod might lead to rebellion by the children. As a result, parents should look for ways to get close to the children. As the elders in the family, parents should show their children love, support, and care. Parents should ensure that the environment at home is comfortable and conducive. Even at their young ages, children should be very comfortable at home and the company of their parents. It should not happen that children are happy at their relatives’ places, at school, or when their parents are not at home[12].

It is expected that every action or decision taken by any family member should be to enhance parent-children relationships. As explained in Malachi 4:6 “And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse”[13]. This means that enhancing relationships is the responsibility of both the parents and the children. For it to be successful, the relationship should be created at very young ages. A child should grow up knowing that his parents are his best friends. Before a child considers sharing her or his problems with her or his friends, she or he should have her or his parents as the first confidants. Blondal and Adalbjarnardottir note that when a parent is friendly and approachable to the child, the relationship lasts forever. The child feels so secure and attached to her parents that she will trust and grow close to them even at her adulthood[14].

By replacing socio-centred family structures with person-centred families, parent-child relationships are enhanced. In socio-centred families, child’s needs and values are ignored and as a result, the child is only accepted in the family is she agrees to the point of view of the parent. This way, children feel coerced and would do anything to get far from their parents. On the contrary, with person-centred families, parents pay attention to the personality and inner world of the child. They respect the child’s values and needs and exhibit unconditional acceptance for a child’s individuality. This way, even though a child would be guided, he would not feel oppressed. The parent would only guide but not decide for his child. He would advise him to take the right decision rather than force him into something he is not interested in[15].

The failure of a socio-centred family is evidenced in the family of Joseph and his brothers in which the brothers defected from what their father wanted. Their father wanted a socio-centred family in which the children agreed to what their father said. Instead of the father considering the need and values of his children, he forced them into being like Joseph since for him, he was socially accepted.  According to Climie and Mitchell, when a child’s individuality is overlooked and instead he is forced to behave and act in a certain manner, he would defy and keep distance from his parents. On the contrary, when children are allowed to be themselves, they will be happy even in the absence of their parents[16]. This is explained in Ephesians 6:4 “Parents, do not treat your children in such a way as to make them angry. Instead, raise them with Christian discipline and instruction”. This advocates for respect of children based on their individuality and personality.

It is therefore clear that the challenges faced in today’s families are evidenced in families in the Bible. While children should be close to their parents, it is not possible when parents lack time for their children or children feel that they are forced into doing things they consider to be against their values and needs. It is only after parents respect their children views and also have time with them that their relationship would be enhanced. When children consider their parents their best friends, they grow close to them. If children are brought up with their parents as their confidants, they feel comfortable with them and would always be close to them. Parents should therefore engage their children in discussions to learn their challenges and solve any problems between them. This is to avoid a situation in which children feel that their parents prefer one child over others.







Birditt, K.S. et al., ‘Tensions in the Parent and Adult Child Relationship: Links to Solidarity and Ambivalence’, Psychol Aging, vol 24, no. 2, 2009, pp. 287-95.

Blondal, K.S., and S. Adalbjarnardottir, ‘Parenting practices and school dropout: A longitudinal study’, Adolescence, vol. 44, 2009, pp. 729-49.

Climie, E.A., and K. Mitchell, ‘Parent-child relationship and behavior problems in children with ADHD’, International Journal of Developmental Disabilities, vol. 63, no. 1, 2017, pp. 27-35.

Mangeli, G., and M. Toraldo, ‘Parent-Child Relationships and Psychological Challenges during Adolescence: Which Solutions?’ Journal of Psychological Abnormalities, vol. 4, 2015, pp. 145-7.

Popov, L.M., and R.A. Ilesanmi, ‘Parent-Child Relationship: Peculiarities and Outcome’, Review of European Studies, vol. 7, no. 5, 2015, pp. 253-63.

Stafford, M. et al., ‘Parent–child relationships and offspring’s positive mental wellbeing from adolescence to early older age’, The Journal of Positive Psychology, vol. 11, no. 3, 2016, pp. 326-37.



       [1] Genesis 25:19-36.

       [2] Ephesians 6:4

      [3] E.A. Climie and K. Mitchell, ‘Parent-child relationship and behavior problems in children with ADHD’, International Journal of Developmental Disabilities, vol. 63, no. 1, 2017, p. 31.


      [4] K.S. Birditt et al., ‘Tensions in the Parent and Adult Child Relationship: Links to Solidarity and Ambivalence’, Psychol Aging, vol 24, no. 2, 2009, p. 289.

      [5] L.M. Popov and R.A Ilesanmi, ‘Parent-Child Relationship: Peculiarities and Outcome’, Review of European Studies, vol. 7, no. 5, 2015, p. 254.

      [6] Genesis 37

      [7] Colossians 3:21

     [8] M. Stafford et al., ‘Parent–child relationships and offspring’s positive mental wellbeing from adolescence to early older age’, The Journal of Positive Psychology, vol. 11, no. 3, 2016, p. 329.

      [9] K.S. Blondal and S. Adalbjarnardottir, ‘Parenting practices and school dropout: A longitudinal study’, Adolescence, vol. 44, 2009, pp. 731.


      [10] M. Stafford et al., ‘Parent–child relationships and offspring’s positive mental wellbeing from adolescence to early older age’, The Journal of Positive Psychology, vol. 11, no. 3, 2016, p. 32.

      [11] G. Mangeli and M. Toraldo, ‘Parent-Child Relationships and Psychological Challenges during Adolescence: Which Solutions?’ Journal of Psychological Abnormalities, vol. 4, 2015, p. 145.

      [12] K.S. Birditt et al., ‘Tensions in the Parent and Adult Child Relationship: Links to Solidarity and Ambivalence’, Psychol Aging, vol 24, no. 2, 2009, p. 291.

        [13] Malachi 4:6

      [14] K.S. Blondal and S. Adalbjarnardottir, ‘Parenting practices and school dropout: A longitudinal study’, Adolescence, vol. 44, 2009, pp. 742.


      [15] L.M. Popov and R.A Ilesanmi, ‘Parent-Child Relationship: Peculiarities and Outcome’, Review of European Studies, vol. 7, no. 5, 2015, p. 255.

      [16] E.A. Climie and K. Mitchell, ‘Parent-child relationship and behavior problems in children with ADHD’, International Journal of Developmental Disabilities, vol. 63, no. 1, 2017, p. 29.


Impact of Climate Change on Business Performance

March 22, 2017

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction. 3

1.1.     Research Background. 3

1.2.     Problem Statement 3

1.3.     Research Objectives. 6

1.3.1.     Objectives. 6

1.3.2.     Specification. 6

1.4.     Research Question. 7

1.5.     Significance of the Research. 7

1.6.     Scope of the Research. 8




1.     Introduction

1.1.           Research Background

The 20th and 21st Century business faces multiple challenges arising from climate change. Due to climatic changes associated with global warming, various incidents have occurred leading to an increase in the rate of business risks, low profits/sales and high operating costs among other forms of negative impacts on business performance.

The United Kingdom is not isolation when it comes to how climate change affects businesses worldwide. As a result of climate change, the United Kingdom faces weather changes such as increased rainfall, hotter weather, rising sea levels, threats to wildlife and high maintenance costs (Parkinson, 2015). This study will look into some of the major ways in which climate change affects business operations and performance in the United Kingdom.

1.2.           Problem Statement

As most Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) strive to expand their market boundaries and aim for larger market niches, the issue of climate change becomes a necessary issue. It is mandatory for an entity to understand the current challenges posed by climate change.

There have been numerous studies conducted in relation to impacts of climate change on the nature of business operations in various parts of the world. According to Shresha (2014), for example, climate change on Nepal businesses is responsible for the increased risk and low returns to enterprises. Focusing on the small-scale retain family businesses, the study investigated into the step-by-step ways in which climate change has affected the sales levels in small-scale businesses in Nepal. There currently exists limited information on how climate change has affected business performance across the United Kingdom’s SMEs. This study will focus on these areas to provide relevant information that can be used for business decision-making and creation of innovative ways to mitigate the risks associated with climate change.

A mix of primary and secondary studies will be used to investigate into the effects that climate change has on the United Kingdom’s SMEs. Secondary research will be done through a review of literature on the past related studies associated with climate change and its impacts on various regions of the world. In addition, the review will seek to identify the missing issues with regards to the topic analysis. Journal articles and company annual reports will be used as the fundamental sources of data for this research. The secondary study will focus on sources published not earlier than 2005. Due to the need to cover the latest information, historical facts will not be actively taken up for decision-making by the research.

Primary research will be carried out across randomly selected SMEs within London. A survey will be useful in generating first-hand information from the businesses and operations that most small-scale commercial businesses engage in. An original study through the issue of questionnaires based on the research question and objectives will help in retrieving important information relating to climate change and its impact on business transactions in the United Kingdom. To produce unbiased and coherent results (Cochran, 2014), a random sampling technique will be used to identify the participants from the entire population of SMEs across London. This will also make it easier for the researcher to work within the limits of available time and resources.

The study will obtain both qualitative and quantitative information on business performance in relation to climate change in United Kingdom. This will provide for a complete evaluation of business challenges arising from the major world problem. Qualitative analysis will be done through comparison and tabulation of various elements of business performance for the past 10 years. The sales trends, profitability and customer retention capacities will be used as some of the major determining factors in evaluating the impacts of climate change. Quantitative analysis, however, will concentrate on the financial and accounting aspects of business performance in relation to climate change. For instance, impact on investment risk and return, profitability index and business goodwill will be investigated into through an evaluation of the business financial records and performance.

To vividly analyze quantitative information, different techniques will be used. A simple regression analysis will be done to compare the relationship between increased climate change and business risks. A hypothetical equation will be developed based on the information generated from the primary survey. The relationship established will inform on the best approaches towards mitigating the most severe impacts associated with climate change (Kahn & Kotchen, 2011). Furthermore, t-test will be used to determine whether there is an association between climate change and business performance through the application of different data sets and variables. Quantitative analysis is important in business research since it provides accurate and specific results in a given research problem (McMurray, Scott & Pace, 2014). The results obtained from the selected study samples will be generalized across all the United Kingdom’s SMEs.

The study will actively involve developing SMEs since they are the set of organizations that carry out multiple instances of risk and investment. Since investments are associated with risks and return, this population is rich in facts related to climate change. In a bid to expand their operations, the countering forces constantly disrupt their operations and lame the capability of their investments to take shape. The research problem will, therefore, best be solved by concentrating on SMEs that become adversely affected by the slightest challenges within the business supply chain. The study will report its results formally, taking into account results from both primary and secondary studies. The report will also identify the limitations and challenge encountered in the process of survey.

1.3.           Research Objectives

The primary aim of the study is to evaluate the ways in which climate change affects business performance, focusing on the SMEs in the United Kingdom. This is broken down into specific objectives.

1.3.1.      Objectives

The study will strive to:

  1. Identify the ways in which climate change affects business sustainability and development in the United Kingdom.
  2. Measure the effects of climate change disasters on business risk and return on investments.
  • Measure the effects of climate change on sales volumes and profitability within a financial year.

1.3.2.      Specification

The study will be modularized into smaller tasks each of which will have its unique steps and set of objectives. For example, sampling will have a unique set of objectives some of which will be to use as relevant respondents as possible in the research. Specifically, the research will focus on issues such as business risks, profitability, returns on investments, sales volumes, sustainability, customer retention and preferences, business growth and expansion and management among others. These will be aligned to the primary objectives.

1.4.           Research Question

What is the impact of climate change on business performance across SMEs in the United Kingdom? This will be the primary research question. Sub-questions will be derived to meet each of the three research objectives.

1.5.           Significance of the Research

Climate change is a major cross-industry disaster worldwide. According to Clark (2013), temperatures across the UK have risen by about one degree since the 1970s. Given the rate at which greenhouse gases are produced from commercial and industrial operations, further warming is expected. Carrington (2016) explains the manner in which the UK government was poorly prepared for the severe impacts of climate change that currently hits the country. Instances of floods and displacements have been seen across some parts of the country (Great Britain & Great Britain, 2010).

The incidents of climate change have at some point paralyzed transport operations within major cities such as London. This has had negative impacts on the supply chain leading to direct effects on the enterprises across UK (George, 2010). Furthermore, due to the need to combat effects of climate change, businesses are expected to act within the scope of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) to mitigate the impacts associated with climate change (MARSH, 2006). This form of investment reduces profitability in the short-run despite being a promising investment in the life cycle of most growing enterprises.

Given the different incidents associated with climate change and business performance, this study will use useful in identifying the specific ways in which climate change affects businesses. The report will not only be relevant to the SMEs but also be an important reference point to aspiring entrepreneurs. In addition, multinational corporations (MNCs) will also be beneficiaries of the provisions of this research. The research will also be a reference point for academicians willing to explore issues of climate change in relation to business operations and performance. The report will be open to citation by future researchers. This will act as a secondary data source for future studies related to its objectives.

1.6.           Scope of the Research

The study will limit its scope to the case of United Kingdom. In fact, it will only concentrate on the London SMEs. It will only be focused on climate change and its impact on business performance. To keep up with its primary aim, each step in the study will be evaluated on the basis of conformity to the main objectives. This will aid in keeping the study relevant to its course. The data collection process will be limited to issues related to the primary research question.




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Carrington, D. (2016). UK poorly prepared for climate change impacts, government advisers warn. London: The Guardian. Retrieved from

Clark, D. (2013). What are the potential impacts of climate change for the UK? The Guardian. Retrieved from

Cochran, W. (2014). Sampling Techniques. S.L.: Wiley India.

George, D. G. (2010). The impact of climate change on European lakes.

Great Britain., & Great Britain. (2010). Adapting to climate change: Sixth report of session 2009-10 : report, together with formal minutes, oral and written evidence. London: Stationery Office.


Kahn, M.E. & Kotchen, M.J. (2011). Business cycle effects on concern about climate change: the chilling effect on recession. Climate Change Economics Journal, vol. 2 (3): 257-273. Retrieve from

MARSH (2006). Climate change: Business risks and solutions. Climate change, vol. 5 (2): Retrieved from

McMurray, A., Scott, D., & Pace, R. W. (2014). Research: A commonsense approach. Southbank, Vic: Thomson/Social Science Press.

Parkinson, J. (2015). Five ways climate change could affect the UK. BBC News. Retrieved from

Shresha, D. (2014). The impacts of climate change on businesses. International Journal of interdisciplinary studies, vol. 2 (2): 93-112. Retrieved from

Critical Reflective Essay

March 21, 2017

Parent-children Relationships


Institutional affiliations:


Different parents have their different ways of relating and dealing with their kids. You will find one parent who has more than one kid, and they treat all of them differently. In the world, disobedience from complicated to parents usually makes relationships harder. This essay will compare how the different parent-children relationships serve as lessons to today’s parents and children. In the Bible, there are various relationships from one family to the other. Some relationships between parents and their children are encouraging while others seem difficult. Either way, these relationships have an almost similar reflection to today’s parent-children relationships. In the Bible, some parents related well with their kids and both parents and children of the world today have an example to emulate or one they can identify with (Oakes, Lipton, Anderson, & Stillman, 2015). Besides, there are difficult relationships in the Bible which the parents and children of today have something to learn from. The story of Rebekah and her two sons, Esau and Jacob, will be used to portray both important and challenging relationships. Those who wish to train their children to obey have an example from the Prodigal son’s text. For parents who favor some children over their brothers and sisters can learn from Rebekah, the mother of Esau.

The customs – prodigal son’s story.

In the New Testament, Luke 15: 11-32, the story of the prodigal son is given in details concerning the younger son who went against not only the authority of the father but the community. There are two kinds of customs for the Jewish people of the first century which had a significant effect on the kind of relationship that the prodigal son had with his father. First of all, the son vacated from home after he asked for his inheritance at the wrong time only to misuse it all. It was not allowed for a father to share his belongings before his old age nearing death. (Hempenius, 2015). The younger son portrayed rebellion to the culture and also to his father by insisting that he wanted his share before the time was right. With this kind of disobedience to the Father and the customs, the younger son made the relationship between his father and self; difficult. It is not easy to deal with a child of yours that heeds no ear to the teachings of the community or yours as the parent. Thus with this kind of rebellion, it typically became a challenging parent-child relationship. When the father ran towards his lost son to welcome him back, he went against the custom of the then Jewish tradition. Any man was not supposed to show his barefoot and saw it would be shameful. The father bore the shame, by running (Luke 15:20), so as to save his son from being disowned by the community. His sacrifice displays another kind of parent-child relationship which can be termed as loving or read as helpful to many parents in the world today.

Prodigal son and the father.

When the prodigal son asked for his inheritance from his father it was wrong of him (Luke 15:12) He out rightly showed not only disobedience but also lack respect to his father and the community. His rebellion was an embarrassment to the father as he went to waste all the inheritance he asked for. He can be viewed as a rebellious and hard to deal with child by any parent. On the other hand, the Prodigal son also portrays respect and humility towards his father at the end of the text when he realized his mistakes and went to seek for forgiveness. His repentance shows humility and honor to a parent, and thus another kind of parent-child relationship is portrayed

When you consider the father, you may want to use his treatment of the son for another kind of parent-children relationship. For the father to agree to share his inheritance before his proper time, two kinds of virtues are portrayed for the existing parent-child relationship. The father could have chosen not to give out the inheritance to his younger son, but he decided otherwise. By so doing, he puts his son into the risk of wasting himself as he knew he was a spendthrift. If the father had no enough knowledge concerning his son’s reckless behavior of overspending, it could be read as his ignorance of his parental obligations. If he knew his son was a spendthrift and went ahead to give him all his inheritance, he then portrayed himself as a less caring parent who spoils their children way too much.

Comparison of the parent-child relationships based on the Prodigal son’s story and today’s and how it can be applied to both the parents and the children.

There are various helpful and stressful situations in the prodigal son’s story. In comparison to today’s relationships between parents and children; there is a lot to learn from (Oakes et al., 2015). First, there are very rebellious children in today’s generation. You will find a son wicked enough to plot his parents’ murder so as to get the inheritance. Others go haywire for the sole reason of disagreeing with the parents and end up on the streets after running away from home. Such rebellious children can be instructed or counseled using this story of the prodigal’s son. The prodigal son would not have eaten with the pigs if he only followed rules of the community and obeyed his father. Disobedient children of today can avoid future desperations and shame by following teachings of their parents and the community. Hence, from the Prodigal son’s disobedience, a challenging parent-child relationship can be dealt with using the story.

Again when considering how the father treated the lost son (Luke 15:20), parents have a lesson to learn on how to relate to a rebellious child. It is not easy for any parent to tell off their child because of a rebellious and humiliating thing they might have done. However, the pain sometimes becomes so much that a parent disowns the child to suffer out there. If there is a parent, who has difficulty in coming to terms with forgiving their children, the father from the prodigal son’s story can be a teaching for them.

The traditions – Isaac and Rebekah against Esau and Jacob

When considering an example of parents-children relationships, the story of Jacob and Esau suffices. When you go through the biblical accounts found in Genesis 25: 19 – 26, you will read about the family of Isaac and Rebekah and their twin. It was the custom of the Jews for the father’s blessings to go the son who had the birthright (Hempenius, 2015). Birthright naturally belonged to the firstborn son in a family. Following the line of the Jewish traditions, Esau who was the first child to Isaac and Rebekah automatically deserved the double portion from his father. However, through favoritism and deceit, Rebekah and Jacob managed to take away Esau’s blessing from the father. For Jacob to receive the father’s undeserved blessings, he had to play his brother. He ensured to impersonate his elder brother because he did not deserve the double portion as the younger son of Isaac. Rebekah as the parent, who favored Jacob more than her firstborn, helped him execute the plan so as to scoop Esau’s blessings. The whole incidence led to a long-term separation of the brothers to prevent Esau’s vengeance. (Genesis 27: 5-16), the kind of favoritism Rebekah portrayed indicates a type of parent-children relationship that you find in today’s families. Some parents who are materialistic love some of their children than others because they can help financially. Some of the other reasons you find favoritism in today’s relationships of parents and children include, but not limited to; education intelligence, familial backgrounds, and children’s personalities.

Rebekah and the two sons.

From the time Esau and Jacob were born and throughout their upbringing, Isaac loved Esau more while Rebekah loved Jacob (Genesis 25:27). This story is found in the Old Testament. The much love Rebekah had for Jacob led to her favoritism for Jacob and deceit of Esau which brought disputes between the two brothers. This kind of favoritism for one child than the other leads to indifferences and possible danger for the whole family. (Pillemer, Suitor, Riffin, & Gilligan, 2015). Favoritism of a parent to one child over the other quickly leads to family separations as we see in the case of Jacob and Esau when the former had to run to Haran to escape Esau’s wrath. Rebekah’s plan to deceive his son Esau shows an intricate relationship between her and the latter. When one fell hey are not preferred anywhere you feel out of place and unloved. Esau was inhumanly deceived which was made possible by Rebekah’s plotting. The deception (Genesis 27:35), of Esau did not end so well for either of the sons and thus the kind of relationship Rebekah had with her sons can be read as hard.

Another kind of relationship in this family can be adapted from Jacob’s obedience to his father and mother. Jacob did not deserve Isaac’s blessing for it was his brother who was older than him. However, Jacob stayed closed enough and followed his mother’s teachings, and that’s how he ended up getting the double portion. He escaped the wrath of his brother for he listened to his parents by running to hide at his mother’s brother, Laban, home (Genesis 27:44).He was also careful to marry from the desired tribe, and that’s why he saw to his family continuity.

Instructive accounts from the relationships between Isaac and Rebekah, and, Esau and Jacob.

In the story of Jacob and Esau, you find some of the parents- children relationships that exist today. When you consider Rebekah’s favoritism for Jacob over Esau, you can well relate to a story you heard from a neighbor or from a family you know about a favored child. As much as it is hard for a parent to hate on a child they have born, it gets different when it comes to the context of two or more sons of the same father. Most folks tend to lean on one child more than the other(s) for different reasons. You will find a parent who punishes one of their children often because they hate that they don’t perform in school when compared to other siblings. Another parent hates one child for the simple reason of naming from either of the grandparents’ sides. When you have such favoritism and hatred for own child you risk losing them and also causing fights in your family. When violent children like Esau are hated on, they can cause danger to the extent of killing their siblings. No one out there is born with the same personality with another (Mischel, 2013). It is not in anyone’s capacity to determine the kind of children they will bear. Parents are thus urged to learn to love each of their every child and treat them equally despite their differences (Psalm 127:3). The relationship between Rebekah and Esau can be used to counsel parents who favor one child over the other and help parents love their children the same way for otherwise; deeds can be dangerous to both the children. Favoritism as in the case of Rebekah will cause harm to the favored and the unfavored children. The separation of the brothers and Esau’s wrath shows the kind of harm a parent can cause their children out of favoritism.

When considering the beautiful relationship Jacob had with his parents, a sort of essential relationship between parents and children comes to mind. Jacob’s obedience for his father to marry a non-Canaanite saw to the family’s decent continuity. Children who are disobedient can be counseled using this account to motivate them to change for the better. In reading Jacob’s obedience to his mother (Genesis 29:1), two kinds of lessons can be given to children in relating to their parents. For one, Jacob managed to get the double portion thanks to his obedience for Rebekah his mother. For good things to happen, children can be taught to obey their parents as Jacob followed Rebekah’s teachings. On the other hand, this same obedience can be used to help children learn how to relate to their parents especially when they feel favored. Since Jacob knew it was not in his place, he was not the firstborn, to acquire the double portion he would have respectfully but firmly said no to his mother’s plot. It would have been possible to avoid the long separation between him and his brother Esau. Thus, children who have to favor parents can learn from Jacob to avoid following teachings of their favoring parents blindly to avoid harming their other siblings, themselves and the family at large.


From the two stories of the prodigal son together with Rebekah, Isaac, Esau and Jacob you get diverse kinds of parents-children relationships that are educative and helpful for the generation today. When you go throughout these stories, you very first and amazingly find today’s parents-children relationship that you can identify with (Oakes et al., 2015). You can almost find a neighbor or a family relative to relate with when it comes to the challenging and admirable relationships between parents and children in the biblical texts. When you use some of the stories given here to deal with the different relationships that exist today, change can erupt. The sacrificial, forgiving and real love for the prodigal son shown by his father is a text that can help counsel parents. A parent can be motivated to love, take in, and forgive their lost children who have brought them shame as it is in any parent’s place to love their children unconditionally. The story can also be used to counsel parents who love their children so much to the point of spoiling them. If the father denied the prodigal son the inheritance, which he was not supposed to share with him at that time, he would have saved his son the shame of desperation, eating with pigs. At the same time, children can be taught that sinning and separating from your parent does not mean the end of the relationship. A straightforward and humble sorry, repentance, can bring back the love between the parent and the child. When you put into consideration Rebekah’s favoritism for Jacob, you find two or more things that can help shape a parent-child relationship today. Rebekah caused the separation of his two sons due to her favoritism towards one of them. She could have avoided the wrath of Esau towards his brother and their eventual separation if she chose to love Esau as she did Jacob. Jacob did not have to run from Esau if Rebekah did not help Jacob deceive his brother. Some parents nowadays, favor or love one child more than the other which affects all the family members in the long run or even the community (Pillemer et al., 2015). The unfair dividing of inheritance has seen the death of some siblings, hatred between families and long-term separations. Besides, children who feel they have their parents favoring them more than their siblings can use the story of Jacob and Rebekah. Jacob could have avoided the sibling rivalry, between him and his brother, had he been careful and bold enough to say no to his mother’s plotting. Thus children can be counseled using Rebekah-Jacob’s relationship to avoid following teachings, from their favoring parents, against others as it could cause separation of families and related danger. From the prodigal son’s story, and, the family of Rebekah and her children, warning, motivation, and instruction to various kinds of parent-children relationships are portrayed.


The Bible: king James Version

Carlson, D. H. (2013). Jewish-Christian Interpretation of the Pentateuch in the Pseudo-

Clementine Homilies. Fortress Press.

Hempenius, E. J. (2015). Subsequent tale of the birth of eleven sons and one daughter is

Fundamental for the people of Israel, and also fundamental for the church of Christ. The sons of Jacob became the tribes of Israel and their names will be written on the gates of the New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven (Rev. 21: 1-27, especially Rev. 21: 12). more important: Judah is born (Gen. 29: 35). He is mentioned in the lineage of Jesus Christ (Mt.

Mischel, W. (2013). Personality and assessment. Psychology Press.

Oakes, J., Lipton, M., Anderson, L., & Stillman, J. (2015). Teaching to change the world.


Pillemer, K., Suitor, J. J., Riffin, C., & Gilligan, M. (2015). Adult Children’s Problems

and Mothers’ Well-Being: Does Parental Favoritism Matter?.Research on aging, 0164027515611464.

Critical Reflective Essay

March 21, 2017

Parent-Child Relationships

University’s Name

Submitted by Names:




When growing up, I experienced both cordial and complicated relations with my parents. Parents relate to their children in unique ways which contribute to the development of different relationships. In the Bible, different parent-children relationships are portrayed, and some depict the dynamics of modern day relationships. In most cases when children are obedient and treated equally by their parents without any preferential treatment, their relations become easy to manage. Relationships between parents and their children are dynamic and challenging when either of the parties is difficult and antagonistic. Mostly, when kids reach adolescence, they become rebellious since this stage is characterized by confusion and desire to discover their self-identity. In the process, this affects their relationships not only with their parents but also with other adults. They find themselves constantly disagreeing with their parents, and they always demand the freedom to run their lives without external interference.

Parents also contribute significantly to deterioration of relations with their children. In particular, a family that has more than one child and parents decide to implement preferential treatment whereby they treat their kids differently causes jealousy and insecurity among the siblings. These relationships become complicated, and both the children and the parents suffer dire consequences. The effects associated with complicated child-parent relations in the modern world includes mental disorders such as depression and anxiety for both the parties. Hatred and resentment are prevalent among such parents which cause the children to develop low self-esteem since they are insecure about whether there are loved, they also experience suicidal thoughts which lower their performance in schools. However, not all relationships are broken and difficult, just like in the Bible, today some families enjoy cordial and warm relations between children and parents. This enables them to co-existence in happiness and attains growth in all aspects of their lives. Recent studies have proven that children who are raised in loving and caring are more self-confident and positive about life. Those who grow up in broken families are usually insecure and are negative towards life. The relations between parents and children both in the Bible and the contemporary world are dynamic and provide fundamental lessons to help mend the ever increasing number of broken families across the globe.

The Father and Prodigal Son’s Relations compared to Parent-child Relationships Today

In the modern times, many parents are facing hardships raising and dealing with their children. Children are commonly defiance and difficult to manage them; their environment has changed, and they are more susceptible to many dangers resulting from peer pressure. In the Bible, the prodigal son account is a good example of antagonistic children who end up moving out of their homes on their own. Teenagers and young adults tend to cause more problems in the relationships they have with their parents. Out of their strong desire for independence and freedom, these adolescents cause difficulties in their relations with parents and other family members. Most young people disagree with their parents and downplay their advice and therefore, fail to heed their warnings. The children do not want to be guided by their parents as they want to be up to date with what other peers are doing.

The modern world is complex and social media has been the most sort after platform for youngsters’ communication1. Children begin to behave like their favourite celebrities and desire to acquire their unorganized lifestyles. In order to live independently, an individual must be financially stable. Most young adults, however, lack the means to finance themselves since they have no jobs and lack income and hence, are highly dependent on their parents. These children decide to demand their share of the family inheritance at a young age. The parent can choose to yield to the child’s demand and give them the inheritance without considering the grave consequences attached. The majority of the young adults tend to be impulsive buyers and exaggerative in spending. Thus, parents withdraw their support towards such children since they are aware of the repercussions that result from spendthrift lifestyles of young adults. Therefore, the children become resentful which affects children-parent relationships negatively. In the extreme cases, children may plot murders against their parents as means to acquire the inheritance2. The story of the prodigal son, therefore, provides relevant lessons for this situation.

Young people go through emotional turmoil as they experience the subsequent development changes. This affects them, and they become easily irritated and inconsiderate when their demands are unmet. Children do not care if they offend their parents or not as long as they do what their peers are doing. Peer pressure is prominent at this stage and is associated with adverse consequences on teenagers and young adult; adolescents who prefer to follow the ways of their peers end up fighting their parents. The majority of college students waste their time and money in parties and clubs. Partying and clubbing have many serious consequences that make parents deny their children permission to attend to such events. Frequent partying takes up a lot of learners’ time which could be spent in personal development activities. For the college students, intoxication which is prevalent in parties has adverse effects on education and general life. The killing of innocent young people is rampant and mostly involves school students. I recall a young campus mate who was murdered in a nightclub fighting over a girl. The parent of the murdered student sobbed painfully seeing where her son’s disobedience had led to. The rebellious nature of the prodigal son resulted in his ruin while his father and brother continued to live in wealth. Today, the prodigal son analogy provides key lessons for both the parent and the children.

Children waste their parent’s resources in efforts to fit in certain groups of their peers who are living lavishly. Girls and boys in campuses are the most affected since they want to be at the top of the game. Boys are commonly driven by their need to lure girls into liking them. However, not all parents can afford to fund their children’s extravagant lifestyles. The financial constraints that affect families deteriorate the relations further3. The deviant children choose to engage in criminal activities to support their lavish lifestyles. Girls end up in prostitution to get enough money to buy fashionable clothes and also fund their expensive lifestyles. Brutal murders and kidnapping of such girls occur since the activities they engage in are dangerous. Most boys participate in drug trafficking which exposes them to external dangers and legal sanctions including serving jail terms. Such children end up losing their lives as they try to feed their greed for lavishness and upper social class. The prodigal son was motivated by his impulsive behavior, dissatisfaction of what his father offered, and disobedience. Such campus students who go to the extent of drug trafficking and prostitution are dissatisfied and face emotional upheaval. They are rebellious to the commands of their parents in which case just like the prodigal son they end up in misery.

Children are usually forced out of their homes due to their antagonistic nature. This creates distance between them and their family members causing too much suffering. Children are always in need of their parents’ guidance, and separation produces negative outcomes. Due to lack of guidance, children are left to handle life on their fails and experience many pitfalls. The prodigal son became hopeless and desperate after he left his father’s house in his will4. Parents suffer the loss when their children run away from home due to disobedience and non-compliance. The parents experience emotional pain which may cause them to experience disabling condition such as depression. In most cases, parents begin to doubt their parenting abilities and blame themselves for the children’s adverse outcomes. However, the parents should always be willing to take back their children after then learn their mistakes. The prodigal son’s father was forgiving and caring enough to allow his lost son back home. Today, parents might find it hard to forgive their children thereby create barriers in mending their already broken relationships. Parents should be willing to show unconditional love to their sinful children and help them recover from their downfall. The prodigal son’s father was able to restore his son’s mental, physical and even financial status. For relationships to work between parents and children, there must exist unconditional love. If the prodigal son’s father failed to give his son a second chance, their relationship would have remained broken. In order to have better parent-children relationships, the kind of forgiveness portrayed by the prodigal son’s father is necessary and should be emulated by all.

The primary factor that contributes to difficulties in today’s relationships between parents and children is pride. When one of the parties wrongs the other, they fail to apologize and ask for forgiveness. Lack of repentance and failure to grant forgiveness leads to more suffering for both sides. If the prodigal son did not swallow his pride and seek his father’s forgiveness, he would have never repaired the broken relationship. The impact of his repentance manifested through the establishment of new and better relationship between him and his father. This shows that parents need to allow their children to make mistakes and learn from them to heed their advice. Children should always ask for forgiveness just like the prodigal son and take part in their rescue after they have realized their mistakes. Parents should also apologize to their kids whenever they wrong them. This is key in establishing closer and more open relationship.

Fundamental Lessons in the parent-children relationships between Rebekah, Esau, and Jacob

Children’s defiance is one factor that makes relationships between them and parents difficult. However, children are not always the reason why relationships become hard; parents too can play a central role in making the relationship between them and their children difficult. Parents sometimes fail to balance the love among all their children and therefore fail to treat them equally. This disparity causes emotional pain to the kids as they feel rejected and unloved. Each and every child desire the unconditional love of the parents; however, situations may deprive children such tender and affection5. Whenever I feel afraid and insecure, I always run to my parents for reassurance. This helps me to face the challenges courageously. It is natural for people to be worn out along the way and we all need emotional support, particularly from our loved ones. Children are not treated equally by their parents tend to grow up resenting themselves as well as their family. This situation leads to complicated relations between the parents and the child. Preferential treatment should not be incorporated in our families. Jacob was separated from his brother due to their mother’s dislike and contributed to the deception of Esau which made him swear to kill Jacob. In today’s world, parents’ favouritism stems from a difficult parent-children relationship and contributes significantly to siblings’ rivalries and family break-ups. Many reasons make parents favour some children over the others; good academic performance, a personality that resonates with that of the parent, physical appearance including the complexion of the child. Parents should learn to deal with issues that cause disparities in the way they treat their children to save and enhance their relations with all of their children.

Some parents are driven by love for material things which makes them favour children who are financially stable over the others. This creates emotional torment among the children which breaks the family. Children are endowed differently concerning talents, career interests, and capacity; when the parent treats one child better than the others, children feel unloved and uncared for. The children who are unable to immerse great success in live find it hard to seek their parents’ support. The emotional disconnection between the disadvantaged children and the parent takes as a result and lead to more suffering for the children. The feelings of hatred towards the parent and envy for the esteemed sibling erupts and makes the child resentful. Feelings of vengeance like in the case of Esau may compel the child to hurt the family members to relieve the emotional pain6. It is thus important for parents to embrace equity when dealing with their children. Parents should disregard any differences that make them treat their children unequally since equality enhances parent-children relationships.

The case of Rebekah’s deceit and preferential treatment towards Jacob over Esau is not new in the contemporary world. Some parents today prefer to have some of their children get advancements in life than the other siblings. When a child performs well in various activities like school, the parent typically invests heavily on that single child while ignoring the rest. When the parents disregard the children who are not successful in life and focus on a single child is detrimental to their relations. Such children are filled with the emotions of hatred and anger towards their parents. Children who have parents with favouritism tendencies grow up hating one another as they perceived each other to be a threat to their success and progression. Like Jacob was separated from his brother due to their mother’s favouritism, children in the world today face the same consequences. Separation, hatred, and vengeance are some of the critical issues experienced in contemporary families7. Equal treatment of children is thus a necessity to enhance the parent-children relationships.


The parent-children relationships are threatened by diverse challenges in the contemporary families. Both the parent and the child need to learn from the kinds of relationships presented in the Bible. Issues like forgiveness and unconditional love should be adopted to repair the broken relationships. The unwillingness to accept one another makes the parent-children relationship complicated and hard to improve. Children’s defiance to the set values and norms is a significant threat to parent-children relationships; children, therefore, should participate in maintaining good parent-children relationships. There is a lot to learn from the Bible regarding the parent-children relationships and incorporate the lessons to eradicate the increasing number of broken families.


Carlson, D. Jewish-Christian Interpretation of the Pentateuch in the Pseudo-

Clementine Homilies. Fortress Press, 2013.

Mischel, W. Personality and assessment. Psychology Pres, 2013.

Oakes, J., Lipton, M., Anderson, L., & Stillman. Teaching to change the world.

Routledge, 2015.

Pillemer, K., Suitor, J. J., Riffin, C., & Gilligan, M. Adult Children’s Problems

and Mothers’ Well-Being: Does Parental Favoritism Matter?.Research on aging, 0164027515611464, 2015.

The Bible: king James Version

1 Oakes, J., Lipton, M., Anderson, L., & Stillman. Teaching to change the world. Routledge, 2015.

2 Mischel, W. Personality and assessment. Psychology Pres, 2013.

3 Carlson, D. Jewish-Christian Interpretation of the Pentateuch in the Pseudo-Clementine Homilies. Fortress Press, 2013.

4 The Bible: king James Version

5 Pillemer, K., Suitor, J. J., Riffin, C., & Gilligan, M. Adult Children’s Problems and Mothers’ Well-Being: Does Parental Favoritism Matter?.Research on aging, 0164027515611464, 2015.

6 The Bible: king James Version

7 Oakes, J., Lipton, M., Anderson, L., & Stillman. Teaching to change the world. Routledge, 2015.

The Relationship between HIV Infection and Cardiovascular Diseases

March 20, 2017

The Relationship between HIV Infection and Cardiovascular Diseases


There have been more than 30 million people across the world, that have been diagnosed as living with HIV today.  According to data from the NCBI, 2 million new infections are reported every year. Additionally, HIV infections have often been directly linked to numerous amounts of cardiovascular diseases when compared to infections found in uninfected people.  For this reason, cardiovascular diseases continue to be recognized as some of the major reasons for mortality among patients suffering from HIV.  Studies have found that patients that are treated under antiretroviral therapy have higher risks of suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Studies have yet to prove whether HIV itself may be associated with the increasing number of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases.


The Human Immunodeficiency Virus is spread when the virus is directly inoculated into the blood or when there is direct contact with large amounts of mucosal fluids. Once the virus is introduced into the body, it attacks the CD4 cells and attaches itself onto these cells and other receptors such as the CCR5 and the CXR4 (UNAIDS). The virus then begins to infect the cells by transcribing the viral RNA onto the DNA. A series of activities then occur and eventually, the virus integrates into the host genome (Rivera, Grevious, Rodriguez et al., 2017). The virus may remain dormant or may begin to cause viral translation, which then leads to the various symptoms associated with the disease. When the virus begins to replicate, it leads to the destruction of the CD4 cells. This in turn affects the immune system of the infected patient and its dysfunction. When the CD4 cells decrease to a level less than 14%, the patient is said to be suffering from AIDS which is the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Once the patient is diagnosed as suffering from AIDS, it means that numerous amounts of opportunistic infections and malignances begin to develop on their body (MMWR, 1992).

Different patients experience different forms of infection depending on various underlying factors that can be allied with the different strains of HIV. For most people that suffer from the infection, they can continue to live with the disease for a long time, even as the virus continues to replicate and destroy the CD4 cells. The differences between this patients is whether they go through this time being clinically latent or suffering chronically (Hui, 2003). For some, theyare even able to control the levels of replication of the virus over time without the use of medication. However, without the necessary medication, most people develop HIV-related complications within 2 or 3 years after contact. It is estimated that the infections continue to increase through the years, and those living with the virus above the age of 50 years has also continued to rise (CDC, 2017).

Antiretroviral Therapy

The FDA in America has approved several Anteretroviral agents for use, amounting to sis in total. These are;

  1. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). These work by blocking the transcription process between the viral RNA and the host DNA.
  2. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). These work by blocking the operation of the transcriptase enzyme.
  3. Fusion inhibitors. These work at the initial point of contact. they are aimed at inhibiting the infusion of the virus with the host
  4. Entry inhibitors. These work at the entry point and block the entrance of the virus into the body of the host. They do this by blocking the CCR5 which is the surface co-receptor.
  5. Integrase inhibitors. These are aimed at preventing the integration of the DNA of the virus into the genome of the host.

Sometimes, patients are required to have a combination of the various ARV agents. The aim of the treatments is to ensure that the patient reaches an undetectable HIV viral load.

Although majority of the patients have grown tolerant of the ARV drugs, they still continue to face several side effects. Most of the side effects are mild, including nausea, diarrhea and vomiting  (Paula, Falcão and Pacheco, 2013). However, some of the drugs such as the Efavirenz affect the central nervous system and can cause symptoms such as vivid hallucinations and other related symptoms. Some of these drugs, especially the PIs are responsible for several severe side effects such as Lipodystrophy syndrome, which is manifested in the form of fart wasting in the peripheral area of the human body as well as accumulation of visceral fat (Feingold, Krauss, Pang, Doerrler, Jensen and Grunfeld, 1993).

Clearly, from the various studies that have been conducted in the past, the most difficult side effects in terms of management have been those that deal with the metabolism of the patients. The different drugs offered for treatment and management of HIV lead to complications with the metabolism. For this reason, patients often suffer from abdominal obesity, hypertension, and other related illnesses associated with the ARV therapies, especially the PI therapy. According to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP), the metabolic syndromes exhibited by the patients can become risky to their health of they exhibit any of the following characteristics:

  1. If; for women, the waist circumference is greater than 88 cm and if it is greater than 102 cm for men
  2. If the blood pressure is higher than 130/85 mm Hg or if they are receiving drug treatment for hypertension.
  3. If the triglycerides levels are higher than 150 mg/ dL
  4. If the fasting glucose is higher than 100 mg/dL
  5. If; the  HDL cholesterol is less than 50 mg/dL in women or less than 40 mg/dL in men (Moyle, 2007).

Further studies indicated that a majority of the HIV patients started suffering from metabolism related complications after they started receiving their ARV treatments. After a study by INITIO, it was discovered that, patients that developed metabolism complications during therapy had a higher chance of developing cardiovascular complications that could eventually lead to their death during treatment. Other studies found that incidences of metabolic complications increased by 14% among adults suffering from HIV (Lifson,  et al, 2013). As discussed easier, many of these incidences are often more than likely to end in cardiovascular complications. These incidences in HIV infected adults have been linked to high levels of leptin and C-receptive proteins coupled with the decrease in the levels of adiponectin (Samaras, Wand, Law, Emery, Cooper and Carr, 2007). Additionally, according to various amounts of research, an increase in the levels of exposure to NRTIs and PIs among patients has been associated to an increase in insulin resistance. For this reason, patients taking PIs and NRTIs were seen to have higher levels of Insulin resistance as compared to patients that atazanavir. This is because these drugs contained stavudine that was seen to significantly reduce the levels of insulin resistance among patients (Fleischma, Johnsen, Systrom., et al,.. 2007).

Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors Are Increased In HIV Patients

Additionally, even without considering how the intake of the various ARV drugs affect the metabolism rates among HIV patients, various studies have found that the traditional  cardiovascular risk factors are increased among HIV patients (Bernal, Enrique et al., 2008). For instance, people without HIV are less likely to suffer from cardiovascular infections as a result of smoking when compared to HIV patients (Ingle, et al, 2014). Similarly, because of an increase in stress and other life altering factors, HIV patients are more likely to form the habit of smoking than the general population (Marks, Gardner, Craw and Crepaz, 2010). This, coupled with the fact that HIV infections lead to a change in lipid metabolism increases the chances of HIV patients from suffering from cardiovascular infections. Levels of cholestral begin to heighten even further among HIV patients once they are subjected to ARV treatment therapies. Studies have found that patients’ levels of cholesterol began to rise once they began to take their ARV drugs. These levels were significantly higher than when they did not take the drugs even if they had already been infected (Lo and Grinspoon, 2008). Data analyzed from various SMART projects has also led to the conclusion that HIV infection and its treatment with ARV drugs lads to an increase in the levels of D-dimer and cytokine II-6. These two factors are known to be very proinflamatory and are thus directly associated with an increase in cardiovascular infections among HIV patients (Dau and Holodniy, 2008).

Further studies have indicated that CVDs seem to develop earlier in life for people infected with HIV. Data from the Swiss cohort studies showed that after accounting for various risk factors in both HIV infected and HIV_uninfected persons, the persons with HIV showed a twofold increase in myocardial infarction. In even more recent studies, patients with HIV showed a higher risk of suffering from coronary related diseases when CD4 cell counts were less than 200 cells/µl.  Inflammation is one of the main contributors in the formation of artherosclerosis and other CDV related complications. HIV, being viral in nature, is known to increase inflammation within those that are infected. Elevetated levels of s-CRP and IL-6 as well as endothelial dysfunction are all HIV related issues that point at inflammation. HIV enbles inflammation through various methods including the direct work of the HIV RNA as well as tat and gp 120, both of which are proteins associated with HIV. Of course, these inflammation markers go hand in hand with the viral load and thus the CD4 count.

Sililarly, HIVs effect on blood lipids.  Data showing the occurrence of dyslipedemia on HIV patients before their cART treatments have been recorded and proven many times. The data has shown that within these patients, there is decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol. These decreases go hand in hand with elevated levels of triglycerides. Whether this increases in the levels of triglycerides are the cause of an increase in the cases of CVD even in the uninfected population has been greatly disagreed upon, however, the elevation of these levels in HIV patients is indicative of this fact.

Regardless of the controversies on whether patients on stable cART are prone to CDV more than uninfected persons, studies have proven that these patients often show early signs of subclinical atherosclerosis. Although patients on cART have similar myocardial perfusion reserves to those in the normal population, a longitudinal study of patients that have not been treated has proven that their myocardial perfusion reserves decrease upon the initiation cART.  Myocardial perfusion levels have been linked with endothelial function or dysfunction. The fact that studies indicate that they are affected when cART is introduced proves that cART may be linked to CDV in HIV patients.

Pathophysiology of HIV-Associated Cardiovascular Disease

Through out this essay, drugs offered to HIV patients as ARV therapy have been linked to various issues regarding the metabolism such as; chronic inflammation and hypercoagulability (Wang, et al. 2007). Another issue that has been addressed is the fact that some of these drugs, especially the PIs affect insulin sensitivity among patients. It has also been mentioned that these issue are the most likely link between HIV infections and cardiovascular diseases (Boccara, Franck, Lang et al., 2013). HIV patients, even without the influence of ARV treatment therapies, have higher chances of getting cardiovascular related diseases  (Brooks, Kaplan, Holmes, Benson, Pau and Masur, 2009). This is because HIV influences endothelial functions through activated monocytes and cytokine secreted as a result of the activation. It is easy to calculate the differences between inflammation in healthy patients and those suffering from HIV. This can be done simply by studying the higher levels of more sensitive C-reactive proteins among HIV patients (Freiberg. et al., 2007). This is an indicator of the fact that HIV patients are more likely to suffer from Cardiovascular diseases (Hsue, Lo, Franklin, Bolger, et al., 2004). Additionally, other factors that affect inflammation may be considered to study patients suffering from HIV. These include interleukins whose levels increase among patients suffering from HIV. In addition to these, endothelial markers increase in their amounts as well. These are manifested in the form of soluble vascular cell adhesion among others (Wolf, Tsakiris, Weber, Erb and Battegay, 2004). These increases act as the best indicators of the likelihood of the occurrences of cardiovascular cases among HIV patients (Carrieri, Protopopescu, Roux et al., 2010).

Cardiovascular Diseases and  HIV Infection

Researchers have for a long time known the links between HIV infection and endothelial functions. One such example is the fact that nitric oxide acts as a mediator between endothelial dysfunction and the HIV infection (Marianna et al., 2006). When a patient is infected NO is produced excessively due to the reduction in the expression of endothelial NO synthase known as (eNOS) and, as a result, the increase in appearance of an incredible NO synthase (iNOS) (Leuven, Franssen, Kastelein, Levi, Stroes and Tak, 2008). When this occurs, the excess NO produced reacts with oxygen radicals leading to the production of peroxynitrate. Peroxynytrate is destructive to the vascular endothelium. The destruction of this endothelium then leads to the reduction in the flow of the mediated dilation (Torre, 2006).

In the beginning of the use of ART drugs, mortality was high especially for the first year. However, these mortality rates decreased thereafter. Afterwards, many of the mortality cases occurred for reasons that were not directly linked to HIV infections (Salyer, Jeanne, Debra, Settle et al., 2006). However, it has been found that some of these mortality cases may in fact be connected after all. for HIV patients, there have been numerous cases of premature coronary artery pathology. Studies conducted on those that have already passed on have shown that there is some connection between HIV and vascular endothelial pathology (Passalaris, Sepkowitz and Glesby, 2000).  Reports have indicated that since the introduction of PIs in the year 1996, there has been an increase in the number of clinically evident cardiovascular diseases among HIV infected persons (Zanni, Schouten, Grinspoon et al.,  2014). According to a recent study in the United States, HIV infected patients have higher risks of MI when compared to those that are not infected ( Triant, Lee, Hadigan and Grinspoon, 2007). Another Danish study also found that patients that underwent highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were at a higher chance of being admitted into hospitals after suffering from ischemic heart diseases when they were compared to patients that were not undergoing the same kinds of treatments (Obel, Thomsen and Kronborg, et al., 2007). Similarly, studies by Kaiser Permanenete found that there were more cases of cardiovascular diseases in HIV patients that were not under any ARV treatment programs when they were compared to uninfected cases (Klein, Hurley, Quesenberry and Sidney, 2002). A combination of this studies leads to two conclusions

  1. The first is that HIV patients are more susceptible to being affected by cardiovascular diseases than those members of the society that are not infected
  2. The second is that HAART and ARV treatments increase the cases of cardiovascular diseases among HIV patients.


The studies regarding HIV patients undergoing HAART and ARV treatments indicated that it was important for these patients to have high CD4 counts if proper prognosis was to be made. Thus, for future references, patients must also be offered care for diseases that are not connected to their HIV infections. Additionally, due to the fact that the infected population, especially in more developed countries, continues to age, it is important that the relevant professionals are prepared to be able to deal with more cases of cardiovascular diseases. For this reasons, professionals will have to include HIV care with Cardiovascular care. Research must also be done to further ensure that ARV programs do not continue to endanger the lives of HIV patients by creating environments that encourage cardiovascular related complications. HIV studies must include the study of other diseases that appear to affect patients and that have been the leading causes of mortality among those who are infected.






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Land laws: Mortgages

March 20, 2017



















Land laws: Mortgages

A mortgage is a loan given by a creditor to a debtor with a consideration of a property that belongs to the debtor. Once the debt has been cleared, the title in the property will revert back to the debtor. The property in this case (land) is transferred to the lender, but is subject to redemption. According to Lord Lindsey, a mortgage is “a transaction under which land or chattels are given as security for the payment of a debt or discharge of some obligation.”[1]The mortgagor (giver of the loan) enjoys ownership, even if is joint ownership of the asset in question until the mortgagee can fully pay back the loan.

The major laws that govern mortgage transactions are found in the Law of property Act 1925 and the Law of registration of Land 2002. Mortgages can either be legal mortgages or equitable mortgages. The difference being that; in a legal mortgage,the debtor has a legal interest in the property and most jurisdictions have a legislation to regulate them. An equitable mortgage on the other hand is one that is majorly implied, the court will therefore be left with the task of deciding if it meets the elements of a valid legal mortgage. The courts will give priority to the legal mortgage over the equitable mortgage in enforcement when both appear on the same property[2].

Looking at the history of mortgages during the common law, one will notice that there has been a significant change. Before 1926, once a party had committed to payment of a loan by a certain date the property would pass to the debtor automatically in case of default. Equity came in to try and remedy this defect and allowed for the equitable right of redemption. This principle allowed for the repayment of a mortgage loan even after the expiry of the contract duration. [3]

In a mortgage contract, both the mortgagor and the mortgagee reserve certain rights. The rights that protect the mortgagor are majorly based on the equity of redemption. The equity of redemption was developed by the courts of Equity to remedy a defect in the common law. This equity principle came to allow a debtor to still be able to redeem their property in case of lapse of payment duration.

The other aspect of this principle is that a mortgagor has a right to early redemption. This was shown in the case of Fairclough v Swan Brewery Co. Ltd[4], which involved a mortgage contract that was expected to last for twenty years with monthly installment payments.  The contract also contained a provision that the last installment was payable about six weeks before the lease ended. The mortgagor purposed to redeem the mortgage earlier and therefore went to court. The court held that the particular clause made the mortgage irredeemable and that the mortgagor was entitled to redemption of the mortgage.

Case law shows that any fetter or clog that may seek to prevent the equity of redemption is majorly considered to be void. A mortgagor is by law protected from any oppressive contractual terms, any collateral terms that may favor the mortgagee and undue influence. In case involving Cityland and Proprety Holdings v Dabrah, a tenant borrowed a loan from the landlord to buy the freehold of his house. The landlord imposed a premium on the interest and Dabrah was to pay back the loan at an interest rate of twelve percent. The court held that the interest rate of twelve percent was unfair since the parties had unequal bargain power and that the most appropriate interest rate was seven percent.[5]

According to the Land Property Act, a mortgagor reserves the right to sell the property and also the right to lease the property.  The borrower will have to inform and get approval of the mortgagee before they perform such an action. This right is also possessed by the mortgagee when they have possession of the property or if the foreclosure allows it to happen. This was seen in the famous Horsham case that involved the debate on two issues that the mortgagor’s rights provided by the European Convention on Human Rights had been violated when the mortgagee’s right to sell the property was enforced.

The mortgagee also enjoys certain legal rights. They have a right to sue for breach of a contract and that will be limited to a twelve year duration after which they lose the right.[6] The mortgagee will have a right to possession of the property that has been mortgaged. In the case of Four-maids Ltd v Dudley- Marshall[7] that involved a defendant who charged his property worth six thousand pounds; the contract terms provided that the principal sum would not be recalled earlier than December 17, 1958 if the defendant paid the interest within seven days when it was due. On failure to comply with the terms the plaintiff served, the defendant with a written notice for payment of both the interest and the principal sum and later applied for an order for possession of the property. The court held that the mortgagee’s right to possession of property was valid in the absence of implied or expressed terms that contract the right.

The court in the case of HorshamProperties Group Ltd v P Clark & C Beech[8] was of the opinion that the lender reserved the right to sell the property. In the case, the plaintiff was seeking the declaration by the court that the lender’s action of appointing a receiver to sell the house pursuant to section 100(1) of the Law of property Act was contrary to article 1 of Protocol 1 that provided the right to peaceful enjoyment of property. This case enforced the mortgagee’s right to possession of property as provided for in the Law of property Act. In the case of White v City of London Brewery Co[9], the court of appeal held that a mortgagee in possession of the property had to account for any profit or rent received. In the case of Silven Properties Ltd v Royal Bank of Scotland[10], where the plaintiff went to court to have the defendant make the property valuable when selling it, the court held that the mortgagee had no such duty.

The courts have however been empowered by the Administration of Justice Act[11] which allows the courts to suspend, postpone or adjourn proceedings foran order of possession provided that the mortgagor appears to have the potential to pay or ability to amount due in reasonable time. In the case of Cheltenham& Gloucester Building Society v Norgan, the presiding judge LJ Waite expounded on the AJA stating thata judge should give the mortgagor a period that is favorable so as to avoid repeated applications by the mortgagors on the same issue and a just hearing for the mortgagee at the lapse of the extended time.[12]

In the question involving Rees, who took a mortgage from Grantwill bank to complete payment on a house he purchased at Lovenest in Watfield and has now defaulted in payment for six months the advice given to him by the bank is unreliable. Mr. Rees got advice from the back that in the case of early redemption he needed to pay a penalty. He can take Grantwill bank to court seeking that the bank upholds his equitable right of redemption and relaying on the section 36 of the AJA seek a time extension on payment.

Mr. Rees using the case of Cityland and Proprety Holdings v Dabrah can claim that the Grantwill in imposing such a term in the redemption clause that would make him pay a penalty was an infringement of his right to redemption.  In the case, the court held that the mortgagee had a greater bargaining power which was detrimental to the plaintiff. Grantwill being the lenders are at an advantaged position since they can set the terms of the contract that may disadvantage the borrowers.Mr. Rees can also show undue influence by the bank since the advice given was not recommendable to the client.

Using the Administration of Justice Act[13] Mr. Rees can seek the extension of time for his payment of the debt. He can show the court that the two options of selling his business or pursuing the trust fund are enough for probability of payment of the mortgage with time extension. The trust that Mr. Rees relies upon may be challenged by Grantwill claiming it to be mere speculation. In Hastings and Fanning v Goddard the court decided that mere speculation of a trust will not be considered a valid trust.The court in considering the time extension will have an obligation to extend by a period that is favorable to Mr. Rees. Mrs. Rees being pregnant can hinder the bank from possession of the house to violate her right to special case and protection. Being that Mr. Rees is a beneficiary under a trust from the will of his late aunt, he can use this to prove to the court that she has the capability of making the required payments if he is granted an extension.

Evidently, there are very many laws that are governing the mortgages and the way they should be carried out. This is not in a bid to discourage its taking up. On the contrary it is so as to protect the interests of both parties and make the transactions involved as fair as possible. It is a very controversial field but as time goes by, there are different laws and amendments being made in a bid to make it more accessible, affordable and reliable.

The mortgage contract between the Mr.Rees and Grantwill bank needs to have fair and equitable terms to allow both parties to comply with the contract. The law protects both the mortgagor and the mortgagee giving the court the task in making sure that no one who comes to court will feel that justice has been served to them[14].













  1. Santley v Wilde1899 A 2 Ch 474
  2. Fairclough v Swan Brewery Co. Ltd(1912)A.C. 565
  3. Limitations Act 1980 section 20
  4. Four-maids Ltd v Dudley-Marshall 1957 1 Ch 317
  5. Horsham Properties Group Ltd v P Clark & C Beech 2008 H.C
  6. White v City of London Breweries Co 1889 42 Ch D 237
  7. Administration of Justice Act 1970 Section 36
  8. WOOD, P., & WOOD, P. (2007) Comparative law of security interests and title finance. London, Sweet&Maxwell. SINGER, J. W., BERGER, B. R., DAVIDSON, N. M., & PEÑALVER, E. M. (2014). Property law: rules, policies, and practices.
  9. TYLER, E. L. G., YOUNG, P. W., CROFT, C. E., & FISHER, W. R. (2005). Fisher & Lightwood’s law of mortgage. [Sydney], LexisNexis Butterworths.
  10. SINGER, J. W., BERGER, B. R., DAVIDSON, N. M., & PEÑALVER, E. M.(2014). Property law: rules, policies, and practices
  11. AMERICAN BANKRUPTCY REVIEW, INC. (1932). Conduct of mortgage foreclosures during bankruptcy. New York, N.Y, American Bankruptcy Review




[1]Santley v Wilde1899 C.A 2 Ch 474

[2] TYLER, E. L. G., YOUNG, P. W., CROFT, C. E., & FISHER, W. R. (2005). Fisher & Lightwood’s law of mortgage . [Sydney], LexisNexis Butterworths.

[3] SINGER, J. W., BERGER, B. R., DAVIDSON, N. M., & PEÑALVER, E. M.(2014). Property law: rules, policies, and practices.

[4]Fairclough v Swan Brewery Co. Ltd(1912)A.C. 565

[5] AMERICAN BANKRUPTCY REVIEW, INC. (1932). Conduct of mortgage foreclosures during bankruptcy. New York, N.Y, American Bankruptcy Review.

[6]Limitations Act 1980 section 20

[7]Four-maids Ltd v Dudley-Marshall 1957 1 Ch 317

[8]Horsham Properties Group Ltd v P Clark & C Beech 2008 H.C

[9]White v City of London Breweries Co 1889 42 Ch D 237

[10]Silven Properties Ltd v Royal Bank of Scotland[10][2003] EWCA Civ 1409,4 All ER 484

[11]Admininstration of Justice Act 1970 Section 36

[12] WOOD, P., & WOOD, P. (2007) Comparative law of security interests and title finance. London,  Sweet& Maxwell.

[13]Administration of Justice Act 1970 section 36

[14] SINGER, J. W., BERGER, B. R., DAVIDSON, N. M., & PEÑALVER, E. M.(2014). Property law: rules, policies, and practices.