Charity Gala Dinner

January 10, 2017





Charity Gala Dinner

Author’s Name

Institutional Affiliation






The charity gala dinner had been organized to facilitate the fundraising process purchasing electric wheelchairs for children suffering from paraplegia. Paraplegia is a spinal condition that affects the spinal code and subjects the individual to paralysis. Paraplegia is a condition that affects an individual from childhood and it graduates as a person grows. In this relation, the paraplegia condition affects the legs of an individual and the lower part of the body. There is a need to embrace the development of the children who suffer the condition of paraplegia by helping them in the sense of mobility (Rogers & Davidson, 2015). The children are not able to move from one point to another of a location without the help of another person. It exposes the children to greater risk and may endanger their lives. For this reason, there was a need to make the children access equipment, the electric wheelchair that could help them with the element of mobility.

The charity gala dinner is used to facilitate the fundraising projects of helping individuals that are disabled in the society. Charity gala dinners are ways of delivering support to the less fortunate in the society as well as experiencing fun during the activities that take place.

The Summary of the Entertainment aspect of the event

Entertainment characterized the charity gala dinner for the fundraising project of buying electric wheelchairs for the children suffering from paraplegia. The function was a formal organization, hence the entertainment that was featured in the function was jazz music. Besides, there would be a big band that would perform at the event. The element of formality was characterized by the wearing of black ties, though it was optional. Some people came into the function wearing bow ties. Three different forms of music were played in the charity gala dinner. Quiet jazz combo would be played during the cocktail period. The dinner would be characterized by playing soft background music at the time of dinner (Rogers & Davidson, 2015). After the dinner, the charity gala dinner had been scheduled to have a big band that could play a dance song. There would be food and wine that would be provided by the first class wineries and donations. The first class restaurants would donate food for the event that would take place.

Background including scope and objectives

The charity gala dinner would be a development that aims at raising funds for the purchase of electric wheelchairs for the children that suffer paraplegia. The event would be held at a five-star hotel in New York City.  The purpose of scheduling the event in a luxury hotel would be because; the event is intended to be attended by dignitaries and very high profile people in the society (Rogers & Davidson, 2015). The purpose of inviting the high profile people in the society is to facilitate the high collection of resource that could help in achieving the set target of money. The location of the event was chosen because it is characteristically defined that the people who hold a high-profile position in the society associate themselves with the high-end facilities. On the aspect of time, the event would be held in the evening (Wilson et al., 2012). Evenings are the best time for summoning people to attend a function. Besides, many guests shall have enough time to arrive at the event, as they would have finished the activities of the day. The event would be scheduled to begin at eleven o’clock in the evening.

The aim of the fundraising project would be to achieve:

  • Attendances of seven hundred people from New York City
  • The sale of the tickets would not be less than seven hundred thousand dollars
  • Achieved net profit of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars would directly go to a paraplegic research center in the United States
  • Raising awareness of the case of paraplegia
  • At least three hundred people in the event would have attended a previous similar function

Research and Information Sources

The information about the development of the charity gala dinner for the children suffering from paraplegia was acquired from a variety of sources. Some journals had been written for creating awareness in the social domain. The development of websites that enlighten the public about the risks if paraplegia would be useful in the planning process of the event (Wilson et al., 2012). It allowed for the acquisition of adequate information that could be useful for presentation purposes in the event. There would be a need to highlight to the public about the sense of supporting the people of the condition, paraplegia. The deficiency of adequate information would result in a bad presentation and hence the event would not achieve an aspect of its objectives.

There was a need to acquire substantial information about the needs of the people with paraplegia. It could help in realizing the ways of helping them and support the programs that are aimed at studying the developments of their lives (Wilson et al., 2012). The charity gala dinner had to be researched about the conditions of the people of paraplegia. It was done to make the society to understand that in the event of helping them, the society could increase the output of production in economic and social perspective without limitation. I trusted the information that had been gathered from the journals and the books from the fact that the writers and the authors of the sources highlighted similar experiences that had been successfully carried out by understanding the needs of the society.

Summary of target groups for the event

The targeted people in the event planning would be high profile individual in the society as well as the renowned business people in the world. The groups of the high profile people in the society would come from the United States regions and specifically New York City (Wilson et al., 2012). On the other hand, the renowned business people from around the world would be invited because they have at; least featured in the Forbes Magazine and it is possible to estimate the amount they are likely to spend at the charity gala dinner. The targets were chosen because there would need to raise funds for the benefit of the research processes on paraplegia as well as buying equipment for the already affected individuals. The targets were chosen based on the moral perspective of the society. The societal belief is inclined toward the idea that the fortunate people in the society have a responsibility to support the less fortunate in the community.

The Project Management Tool and Techniques including schedules, outcomes, and deliverables

Because the event would be formally organized, there would be a need to select the choice of using invitations as the deliverable. In history, the mode of inviting individuals to a formal event was using invitation cards. The invitation cards would be delivered to the recipients either in the softcopy or by the hardcopy forms (Hollensen, 2015). It is because the technological development of the world allows for fast and reliable communication networks. The guests would be sent emails through a common email hence they would be able to receive the invitations from their places of choice. The development of a corporate email would help in the fast access of information in its original form.

The delivery of the emailed information of inviting the guests would be checked by integration of the technical expertise.  The technological advancements being complicated, it would be necessary to invite the help of the technological experts to help in the process of verifying the deliveries. There are high profile people invited to the events; hence their level of security is very high (Hollensen, 2015). It means that they are unable to access information from just any organization or an individual. For this reason, there is a need to engage the technical expertise to develop a corporate email address from which they can access the information about the event. Cyber crime is a major problem that affects the society due to the choices that people make regarding the use of technology. Some individuals use the technological understanding to disturb the peaceful coexistence in the society by delivering emails that are threats to others. Besides, there are cases in which people spread computer viruses into other peoples’ computers by sending them spam emails.

The use of the Critical Path Analysis would be effective in the delivery of invitation information because it helps in the planning of the tasks. The integrated tasks in the plan must compete as part of the project (Hollensen, 2015). This method acts as the basis for preparation and scheduling of the resource planning.

Project team management and structure

In the project management, there would be a team of technological experts and a team of professional linguists. The team of the technological experts would be assigned the role of seeking means of encoding data that is fed into the computers. Besides, they would be important in the process of making the list of the guests who would be invited to the event. The guests being high profile people in the society, there would be a need to research about them (Hollensen, 2015). The extensive research would be facilitated by the fact that the technological experts are reliable. On the other hand, the linguistic group would be equally important in the composition of the document for the invitation.

The use of correct grammar and choice of words is critical in the process of attracting a group of high profile people. The linguists would be effective in the formulation of the initiation to maintain the original purpose of inviting the guests and communicating the expected activities. Guests need to receive prior information about the activities that would take place in an event and the roles that they would be expected to play in the same function (Kotler et al., 2015). In this connection, the collaboration between the linguists and the technical experts would make the event effective.

Budget for the Project

The budget for the project would have a highlighted list of the items that would be sold to the charity gala dinner.  The tickets would be sold for two hundred and fifty dollars each, and there would be tables for booking. Each table would sell for three hundred dollars, but the highest end table would sell for four hundred and fifty dollars. The catering services would also be categorized on the aspect of differences in price. The lucrative dishes would be served at the high-end tables while the normal tables would have the common prices (Kotler et al., 2015).  Wineries would provide the most expensive wines at the rates of seven hundred and fifty dollars at the high-end tables while the other tables would be served at five hundred and fifty dollars.

There would be different products for sale at the charity gala dinner. The items for auction services would be made available to the guests. The items for auction services would be artistic paintings and the different brand by diverse textile companies. In this relation, the organizations would be given an opportunity to market their products to the large population that would attend.

Project communication and stakeholder management

The communication with the managers would be through the organization of meetings and manuals.  The managers would be internal, and this mode of communication would be effective as it encourages one-on-one participation.  The staff is in the internal category; hence the mode of communication would be through meetings.  The suppliers and the vendors would be communicated to, using the formal briefings.  The entertainers of the event would be communicated to by use of phone calls and scheduled meetings (Kotler et al., 2015).  The local authorities would be informed through the email while the event partners would be met face to face.

These modes of communication to the stakeholders of the event would be supportive in that they would help in the effective operation of the events of the charity gala dinner. They would play a significant role in the organization and development of events. In this relation, the event would be successful as every stakeholder would be able to understand the role that they are expected to play independently in the charity gala dinner organized to fundraise for the children suffering from paraplegia (Kotler et al., 2015). The condition is regarded to be serious as it limits an individual. The intervention of the program would help in the minimization of the rate at which the children would be affected by the condition of paraplegia.

Risk management plan

It is important to understand that all the stakeholders in the event, charity gala dinner for the children suffering from paraplegia would hold risks.   There are different types of risks that the stakeholders would hold.  In this relation, there are health risks, the health risks that that stakeholders bear is the fact they are exposed to the cold weather at night. The time that the event would be held would be at night. In this relation, there are guests who allergic to the cold. The promotional risk would be significant in the risk management plan. In this relation, the suppliers may bring their goods for sale and marketing, but they may not be sold out (Lusch & Vargo, 2014). To solve this problem, there would be a pre-established package for every supplier. It would make them not go back with the goods.

The financial risk would be that the event may be strained in the period of planning.  In the solution of the problem, the risk would be dealt with by allocating extra security funds. Technical risks may be characterized by the failure of equipment or complete breakdown of operation. The risk of technicality would be approached by developing a backup plan to ensure smooth operation and completion of the event Lusch & Vargo, 2014).  The project management team would face the reputational risk; this would be on matters of effectiveness. The management team would approach the risk by ensuring they actively participate and deliver the expected services to facilitate the effect of the charity gala dinner.

Evaluation and control of Project

The event would be successful, and there would be a necessity to acquire feedback from the participants. The invited guest would be requested to submit their evaluation feedback through the same corporate email that they receive the invitation. The feedback would be attained through the process of allowing interaction between the event organizers and the participants. The suppliers would also be expected to deliver their feedback about the experience that they had in the event Lusch & Vargo, 2014). The feedback would be delivered after the event. It is because it is important to allow the participants to experience the event before requesting for the feedback. In the event a feedback is given before an event, there are chances that the feedback may be inappropriate. The feedback given after the event shows the truth that the person had either enjoyed or was discontented with the operation of events in the charity gala dinner.


The event organization would be effective upon the integration of every relevant stakeholder’s effort. The stakeholders would perform different roles to satisfy the objective in which the event had been set (Lusch & Vargo, 2014). Selection of the target groups to perform in the event, charity gala dinner is an effective way of ensuring that the event achieves the purpose that it was set to achieve. The development of the charity gala concert was planned to provide the research programs on paraplegia are made possible. Also, the primary objective of the charity gala dinner was to fundraise for the children suffering paraplegia to acquire electric wheelchairs. It was because; the electric wheelchairs would help them with matters of mobility. The electric wheelchairs are also environment-friendly as well as making them feel independent, as they would not depend on a second person to help them in movement.



Hollensen, S. (2015). Marketing Management: A Relationship Approach. Pearson Education.

Kotler, P., Burton, S., Deans, K., Brown, L., & Armstrong, G. (2015). Marketing. Pearson Higher Education AU.

Lusch, R. F., & Vargo, S. L. (2014). The service-dominant logic of marketing: Dialog, debate, and directions. Routledge.

Rogers, T., & Davidson, R. (2015). Marketing destinations and venues for conferences, conventions and business events (Vol. 14). Routledge.

Wilson, A., Zeithaml, V. A., Bitner, M. J., & Gremler, D. D. (2012). Services Marketing: Integrating customer focus across the firm. McGraw-Hill.

Role of Women as Depicted In “Oedipus Rex” and “The Chronicles of Death Foretold”

January 9, 2017

Gender plays a central role in the lives of human beings from the time of their birth all through their lives on earth. From the time of their first breaths, humans learn to follow a strict code of conduct defined by their sex. In a patriarchal society, this mainly implies that males will lead better lives in which they are regarded as standards for human experience (Sultana, 2012). On the other hand, women will tend to lead subjugated, subservient lives in which they are defined concerning males. Forcing men and women to operate within the confines of gender roles has a negative influence in their lives since it leads to the perception that these roles are a representation of the truth, which in turn results into gender stereotypes. It also restricts humans to experience life from a limited point of view in which men will experience the world purely as men whereas women will experience the world as women. The representation and characterization of women in Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex and Marquez’s Chronicles of Death Foretold gives a glance of the different ways in which patriarchy is constituted, constructed and re-invented in the social context. Women are generally portrayed as unnecessary beings whose existence is purely for materialistic purposes and to satisfy men’s desires. However, in the two novels, women show resistance to the oppressive subjugation and appear to play roles that are more dormant. Therefore, while the authors of the two novels share some similar views on women, they differ in some aspects. This analysis entails a comparative analysis of the different roles that these women play in the novels. In presenting their stories, both authors use a number of literary devices such as irony, diction and metaphors to achieve their intended effect on the readers.

One similarity between the two novels concerning the role of women is that the women are repressed sexually. The women in both novels are supposed to take instructions without questioning and no one cares whether they consent or not. They too are afraid of speaking out due to the fear of victimization from the society. Sophocles in Oedipus Rex employs irony in presenting this concept in Oedipus’ attempt to avoid a prophecy that he would kill his father and marry his mother. Oedipus ironically slays a man he meets on his way not knowing that it is his real father and is later offered Queen Jocasta’s hand in marriage who is actually his real mother. Jocasta is used like an object in this case since after her husband gets killed, her ownership is taken over by the person who killed her husband. Even though she is a queen, she has little say on the occurrences in her life. This sends a picture that women easily forget what is dear to them either for the fear of the society or for their own selfish gains. Similarly, Marquez uses irony in communicating the serious repercussion of the gender-based pressure on female characters in which they were expected to remain virgins until they got married. Just like in Oedipus, women in this case are also used as objects with their sex being used to determine their purity or worthiness. Given an opportunity, no one would purchase an object that is already used and so in this case, women who are not virgins are treated as second-hand objects. Victoria Guzman, after falling in love with Ibrahim Nasar does many things for him including making love to him in secret for several years in the stables of the ranch. This shows how much sacrificial women can be in the name of love. The diction of the word love is important as it shows that she had fully committed herself to him and was willing to please him sexually despite their love being illegitimate. However, after they got married, and Nasar’s affection for her melted off, he converted her to a cook in his household. She moved from being a wife to being a servant. There was a shift in objectification of Guzman from being an object of pleasure to a cook and this made her an emblem of the victim woman.

Women in both stories are subjected to double standards. In this case, the authors use symbolism to expose the poor judgment of the society and that recipients of these judgements, who are women, end up bearing the burden of the misjudgement. Even though they commit the same sins or wrongs, women end up suffering consequences of their actions. For instance, in Oedipus, Creon walled Antigone alive inside a tomb. Her imprisonment is a symbol of Creon’s lack of judgement and hence that of the society in which he hails. Creon prefers to keep Polynices’ rotting body in day light whereas keeping Antigone’s live body in a tomb. In the chronicle, the author also used symbolism to determine or to show the state of women purity. When Angela makes artificial flowers with a hope of redeeming herself, she hopes that creating these flowers will hide her impurity. The flowers in this case also symbolize the double standards with which women are treated. Women are demonized for inability to maintain their virginity without considering that it is the same men who deflowered the women. It is a classic case of when a man cheats on his woman, it is considered as a normal occurrence. On the other hand, when a woman cheats on her man, it is considered an abomination. Thus, the circumstances that women go through are used to symbolize the social inequity in the social set up. Women are also used as symbols of power. When a man gets wealth and power, he is able to win over any woman he wishes. As earlier highlighted, Oedipus gets Jocasta as a token after killing Jocasta’s husband who was the reigning king. Therefore, the woman in this case symbolizes that a man is powerful enough to concur anyone around him. Similarly, in the Chronicle, for Bayado, it is simply a matter of conquest for the woman that he chooses. After he acquires wealth and position, Angela Vicario becomes his object of sexual desire. From the beginning of the novel, it is clear that Angela does not have any feelings towards Bayado since at one point she confessed that she did not want to marry him, as he appeared to be too much of a man for her. However, she is not in a position to make a decision due to immense pressure from her family. When she tries to tell her mother of her lack of love for him, her mother quickly shuts her down with the phrase that “Love can be learned.” This showed how women were conditioned and taught to align their emotions and feelings with the expectations of the patriarchal society.

The authors use diction to portray women as victims of circumstance and to achieve different purposes in their stories. Sophocles employs diction to enhance his plot line and the character in his play. He uses this concept to set up the faults of the characters that eventually lead to a tragic ending. He makes use of several words that relate to the sight and pride, to the truth and darkness. He lets the readers guess in their minds with the choice of words he uses. For instance, the leader tells Oedipus to put his requests to Creon as he is the sole defence of the country in his place. Through this, Sophocles easily draws the attention of the reader through the use of the word choice with “sole defence of the country.” Unfortunately, the author also uses diction against women in which following the realisation by Jocasta that Oedipus is her son, and that they had committed incest, she decided to hang herself leading to her tragic end. Marquez, on the other hand, also uses diction in the description of a number of his characters most notably Maria Alejandrina whom he potrays as a holy character in a number of occasions in the novel. At the beginning of the novel the author uses the word “apostolic” awards as an introduction to the character of Maria. He introduces her as a holy and respectable character in spite of her impure character as a prostitute. The paradox of holy and impure is a stunning information that exemplifies the inconsistency of women. The author goes further to credit Maria’s holiness through the manner in which he described his encounter with her. The author states that as soon as he went into the room, with the lights out, he caught the smell of a warm woman and noted the eyes of an insomniac leopard in the darkness. The author states that, “I didn’t know anything else about myself until the bells began to ring”(41). The flamboyant imagery of a woman who is sexually appealing and burning with warmth via a multitude of metaphors would only be comparable to a fierce leopard. In this case, the narrator acknowledges Maria’s power as a female partner. In addition, the author uses diction to bring out the nature of the relationship between Guzmam and Nasar. For instance, her relationship with Ibrahim Nasar kicked off when “she had been seduced in the fullness of her adolescence”(10). This sentence contains the diction and the syntax that is pivotal as it displays the nature of the relationship as explotative. Men use women only for their satisfaction. Sophocles also employs imagery and just like Marquez, who praises women, perceived to be a weak group of people, he also praises the superiority of the Tiresias, a blind prophet who, physically, passes as weak. For instance, in the novel, Oedipus, despite being able to see, is oblivious of what is taking place around him. Oedipus has the ability to see physically but chooses to remain ignorant about what his family is going through. This is an aspect of sight against blindness imagery. Tiresiass, who is physically blind, is fully aware of what is happening around him. From this episode, it is apparent that while Oedipus has sight, Tiresias has insight, which enables him to see what Oedipus cannot see. It is a form of irony that Oedipus is not able to see and yet he has a perfect physical eye but rather makes a decision on what he wants to see and what he does not want to see.

Women in these novels are depicted as culprits and instigators. A major difference between the two novels is that unlike in the chronicle, women in Oedipus were given a much bigger role. Jocasta, the main female actor, is given the role serving as a queen. However, Sophocles puts the blame for the unfortunate events entirely on her after she sent away her son Oedipus. The author employs diction and the tone shifts to a sympathetic tone, which makes the viewers to sympathize with Oedipus. This is also envisioned in other Greek literacy pieces where women come across as temptresses and seductive. They are in most cases linked to the failures or total demise of heroes. On the other hand, in the Chronicle, Marquez unlike Sophocles shows some sympathy towards the subjugation of women. He is against the senseless violence perpetuated on women and makes use of his important women to make an effort to end the senseless violence. For instance, Clotilde Armenta urges the twins to stop the murder when Santiago takes a walk through her teashop. When she meets Bedoya, she informs him to pass a warning to Santiago and goes ahead to inform the Bishop and the authorities. She even goes ahead to make a physical intervention holding Vicario’s collar to avert the murder. Marquez acknowledges the potential of women through Clotilde who believes that it is the solitary nature of women that prevents them from making changes in their bid to stop senseless violence and exploitation.

Another difference between the two novels is that Sophocles paints women as heartless. According to the novel, all that they care for is for their wellbeing. This is evident through Jocasta’s decision to abandon Oedipus after giving birth to him. While it was common for children to be abandoned, mothers usually have a stronger bond to the children and so disposing off the child in such a manner can haunt any mother.  The author presents women as hypocritical through the manner in which Jocasta is behaving. As the play continues, she is seen praying to the god Apollo, giving offerings and requesting for his protection. This scene depicts the hypocrisy in her character. She appears not to be weary of the gods she is praying at, but the supposed servants such as Tiresias. Ideally after the death of her husband, one would expect that she would be mourning and that should not accept to move into another marriage. However, the opposite happens. Jocasta agrees to get married to the person who killed her husband. This indeed raises many questions about her morals and conscience. She appears not to have any conscience at all and being a woman, this is the perception she creates about women to the audience. The author allows the audience to believe that women are not to be trusted and that as soon as they get an opportunity to be at a better place, they would do anything without harbouring guilt in their conscience. On the other hand, Marquez depicts women as sympathetic. Women in Chronicles are more concerned about the welfare of their children and are bold enough to take steps to ensure that the society becomes a better place. For instance, the women have the extreme responses to the guilt of murder in the novel.  Hortensia Borte, whom the nearest she came to the murder was seeing two bloody knives was so much distressed by the entire experience that she suffered a nervous breakdown until one day, being unable to take it any longer, ran out into the streets naked. Santiago’s fiancée took off with a lieutenant of the border patrol whereas Aura Villeras suffered a severe bladder spasm.

Finally, the two novels present women differently in the Foucauldian paradigm of power. According to Michel Foucault, power is everywhere. He challenges the belief that people through their acts of domination or coercion wield power (Daldal, 2014). Joscata, the major female character in Oedipus Rex, despite having the ability to, does not use her power appropriately. Instead, it is the blind prophet Tiresias, who, despite being perceived to have no power, is able to influence Oedipus decisions. On the other hand, Marquez explores the Foucauldian paradigm of power through his female characters. Women, appearing as powerless in the society, use different strategies of direct and indirect forms of resistance to subvert the patriarchal order. For instance, the Vicario sisters, growing under a strict surveillance system resisted this style of growth through female bonding. The non-virgin status of Angela can be perceived as her refusal for her life to be dictated by the system that required women to be a part of pre-marital celibacy. When Bayado reject her, Angela actively pursues him with determination out her sexual desire for him without fear of going against the societal expectation. As such, Marquez enables a subversive comprehension of the women’s practices outlined as deceptive under the patriarchal system.

In conclusion, contrasting the roles that women play in “Oedipus Rex” and “The Chronicles of Death Foretold” has unfolded the fact that the aspect of gender roles and gender issues existed even from ancient civilizations. Another significant point to note in this case is the use of literary devices in achieving the desired effect on the audience. The authors have employed several literary devices ranging from diction to metaphors and imagery to involve the audience into the flow of the story. For instance, Sophocles effectively used diction to make the audience have sympathy on Oedipus. He also used tonal variations to direct the audience on who to blame for certain occurrences. For instance, he used tonal variations to lay blame on Joscata for abandoning Oedipus when he was still a very young child. Similarly, Marquez has employed similar literary devices to dictate the mood of the audience. For instance, the use of diction, metaphors and imagery to describe Maria in such a way that the audience could literally see what he saw the moment he entered the dark room. Marquez effectively used these devices to create a vivid picture of what was going on in the novel making the novel quite interesting.  In the end, we can say that while Oedipus brought out the characterization of women and gender relations in the Greek context, Marquez characterization was a unique and complex gender relation that is reflected in the Latin American society. The unifying aspect of the two novels is that both the authors wrote the books in a male perspective.














Daldal, A. (2014). Power and ideology in Michel Foucault and Antonio Gramsci: A comparative analysis. Review of History and Political Science, 2(2), 149-167.

Dawe, R. D. (1982). Sophocles: Oedipus Rex. Cambridge University Press.

Márquez, G. G. (1996). Chronicle of a death foretold. Penguin Books India.

Sultana, A. (2012). Patriarchy and women’s subordination: A theoretical analysis. Arts Faculty Journal, 4, 1-18.


Diversity Statement

January 6, 2017

Diversity is an invaluable asset to any university worth its salt. This owe to the fact that, in different higher-level education settings, especially universities and colleges, diversity plays a significant role of enriching such institutions with adequate resources to brim cultures. It is a host of different skillsets, languages and historical backgrounds. Ultimately, the aspect of encountering and experiencing diversity is today an essential aspect to every individual, specifically in sense that it critically influences a better understanding of the contemporary generic human society.

I am confident of my ability to offer diversity given the fact that it has been like a stamp on my life. I spend most of my childhood in Newton, Massachusetts. Pertaining my junior academic cycles, I attended several different high schools in Jerusalem. I also camped throughout Alaska examining science and society’s role in mitigating hazards, studied culture and ancient history in Egypt, and received my Masters of Public Health in Tel Aviv, Israel. All my life I have been surrounded by different cultures and have thus learned to identify and value the different languages, values and characters of the peoples with whom I have interacted. In essence, these social experiences are significantly some of the major building blocks that have influenced my sociable character and the generic personal attributes I appreciate today. As such, nothing I value more than the opportunity to meet, interact and share my knowledge, principles and experiences with different people from all different type of social, cultural and ethnic backgrounds.

Novel experiences have critically contributed in shaping me into the person I am today. I believe true life to life scenarios will add value to classroom discussions. My travel in the Middle East, specifically in Israel and Egypt, and particularly my immersion into Israeli society over the past three years has been enlightening and has contributed to my appreciation for diversity and desire to embrace people from different backgrounds.

I am confident that my experiences will not only be of benefit as a nurse practitioner, but will also enable me add a unique dimension to the institution’s student body. First, living abroad has enhanced my cultural knowledge, awareness and sensitivity, but perhaps most importantly, it has fostered a deep sense of empathy. I understand what it feels like to be alone in a foreign country, both as an adolescent and as an adult, separated from friends, family and support systems. Living in Jerusalem, one of the world’s most diverse cultural capitals, exposed me at a young age to the value of multiculturalism and the vibrancy of the Middle East. It also provided me with the tools needed to adapt to new environments and tackle new challenges, including how to navigate communication and cultural barriers. For instance, I recall one day walking down the street, surrounded by religious Jews cloaked in long skirts, robs and hats. On the same road were Muslim men and women wearing burkas and mafias, responding to their Call to Prayer announced throughout the city. I saw Christian and Armenian churches lined up alongside each other. Similarly, I spotted Greek Orthodox churches next to Synagogues and mosques. While living in Tel Aviv, I have appreciated the challenge of being a foreign visitor and a new immigrant. As a foreign worker, the need to learn new languages, figure out where to fit and live, set up job interviews and obtain employment, proved significantly essential and profound.


January 3, 2017










Table of Contents

1     Introduction. 3

1.1      Background of the case. 3

2     Critical analysis of the internationalisation strategies. 4

2.1      Current Internationalisation pattern. 4

2.2      Theories of Internationalisation. 6

2.2.1       Sequential Theory (Uppsala model) 7

2.3      Critical assessment of the current Internationalisation strategies. 8

2.3.1       Joint ventures. 9

3     Recommendation. 10

3.1      Recommended Future strategic direction. 10

3.1.1       Proposed strategy. 10

3.1.2       Porter’s Generic Strategy. 11

3.1.3       Ghemawat’s Strategic choices. 12

4     Conclusion. 13

5     References. 14











1          Introduction

The first part of the current report is a critical analysis of the internationalisation strategies embraced by Petrobras, a petroleum company headquartered in Brazil. The background section presents the major patterns and trends in the international business activity of this company. The current internationalisation pattern in the company is identified and categorised into the appropriate internationalisation theory. A critical assessment of the current internationalisation strategies is provided and the specific strategy in current use identified as development of joint ventures. It is recognised that Petrobras enjoys a number of benefits by using joint ventures as an internationalisation strategy. This analysis is followed by a recommendation on the most appropriate strategy to allow Petrobras to maintain or improve its competitive advantage. This is classified as a differentiation strategy and linked to the right Ghemawat’s strategic approach.

1.1       Background of the case

Petrobras is a multinational corporation doing business in the petroleum industry and headquartered in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Fleury & Fleury 2011). It has operations in six business areas, each contributing a certain amount of revenue to the total revenue collection of the company. To begin with, Petrobras generates most of its revenue from refining, transportation and marketing of oil in Brazil. Another significant source of the company’s revenue is exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas liquids (NGLs). It is also involved in the distribution of oil products such as biodiesel, natural gas, and ethanol to various wholesalers in Brazil. Production of biofuels such as biodiesel and related products has been another revenue-generating activity associated with Petrobras (Musacchio, Goldberg & Pinho 2009). Excess electricity and sugar are produced by the company using sugarcane bagasse. Petrobras is challenged by the increased competition in the international oil market especially in the regions it has launched international investments. It has to consider better ways of improve its competitive advantage since almost 10% of its production is based outside Brazil. Most of this production takes place in South American countries such as Chile, Colombia, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Bolivia. Other international investments are in Japan, United States, Mexico, Namibia, Gabon, Benin, and Nigeria (Clifton, Comín & Díaz-Fuentes 2011). These areas, just like the rest of the world, are experiencing an increase in the desire for a carbon-free world.  The fear of changes in the world’s climatic conditions as a result of inappropriate use of energy has encouraged environmentalists to advocate for the use of less fossil fuel and more of renewable energy (Gupta 2013). At the same time, Petrobras has to operate in a market characterised by an increase in the demand for energy and slumping oil prices.

2          Critical analysis of the internationalisation strategies

2.1       Current Internationalisation pattern

The internationalisation pattern used by the Petrobras can be described as a systematic one since it uses a single strategy at a go. Once one strategy has been explored extensively, the company considers pursuing another strategy. At the same time, the company prefers expanding to a single country at a time to avoid the risks associated with expansion to multiple countries in a simultaneous manner. In 1972, for example, Petrobras expanded into Colombia to with an aim of exploring and producing oil and gas. This was the initial aim of expanding into Colombia and can be described as a resource-seeking strategy. After acquiring the resources, the company was to be involved in retailing and distribution of the acquired resources. Therefore, it can be said that the second reason why Petrobras expanded into Colombia was to seek a new market. As argued by Ang & Ding (2006) resource-seeking strategies should be pursed before marketing-seeking strategies if a company is to succeed in its internationalisation process. This may be the major reason why Petrobras embarked on resource-seeking expansions into Libya, Iraq, Angola, and the United States in 1974, 1978, 1979 and 1987 respectively. Although the company was involved in some market-seeking and strategic asset-seeking activities, resource-seeking activities were its major focus (Cuervo-Cazurra & Dau 2009).

Every phase of the sequential expansion embraced by Petrobras was determined by the prevailing national or international conditions. The first phase, the phase majorly based on resource-seeking activities, started in the early 1970s mainly due to the prevailing oil crisis. Petrobras wanted to minimise the country’s dependence on external sources of oil and oil products. Banalieva & Dhanaraj (2013) avowed that an internationalisation strategy must start with experimentation, which was considered by Petrobras before market liberalisation took place in 1988. In this first phase, Petrobras was able to acquire resources in with countries known to have friendly relations with Brazil. This was an opportunity to internationalise into Colombia, North America, and the Middle East.

The second phase of Petrobras started after the market liberalisation that took place between 1988 and 1997. This is described as defensive internationalisation and was mainly based on strategic-asset-seeking. During this period, the company was involved in a number of acquisitions of foreign ventures in the oil industry. The government aimed at protecting Petrobras from the local economic crisis that followed the economic crisis. Political instability prevailed during this time and there were fears of reform reversals.

2.2       Theories of Internationalisation

According to Cuervo-Cazurra et al (2014), there are three major theories of internationalisation, which include the Network Model, the Transaction Cost Theory, and the Upssala Model. It should be appreciated that the internationalisation process is very complex, making it necessary for different scholars to develop these theories to allow companies achieve internationalisation with ease. According to the Uppsala theory, firms must pursue success in their home country before expanding into neighbouring and other countries of the world in that order (Kuramoto Gonzalez & Kindl da Cunha 2012).  Therefore, the first approach is to expand into geographically or culturally close countries before expanding into geographically and culturally distant countries. As far as Petrobras is involved, the strategy was the most appropriate in making sure that challenges were minimised in the process of expanding into Latin American nations and the rest of the world. When this theory is embraced by a company, it is important to start with traditional exports before implementing demanding modes of operation such as sales subsidiaries in the foreign nation or at the company level.

Petrobras had also to consider the transaction cost theories when expanding into foreign markets. This theory focuses on costs involved in the internationalisation process and possible effects of these costs on the firm’s choice of a certain market. The effect of the costs on the mode of entering in the new market is also considered in the Transaction Cost theory. Transaction cost is the most important factor affecting the success of an internationalisation strategy. In the internationalisation process, costs may be incurred in information search about the target foreign market, customers, products, and negotiation (Bass & Chakrabarty 2014).

The network model or theory of internationalisation has an influence on the internationalisation process at Petrobras. This theory views the market as a system of industrial and social relationships (Dantas & Bell 2009). The new markets targeted by Petrobras are made up of different players such as suppliers, customers, competitors, friends, and friends. Therefore, Petrobras should assess its relationships with other parties in the market before making any strategic decision.

2.2.1     Sequential Theory (Uppsala model)

Among the identified theories of internationalisation, the sequential theory or the Uppsala model is the most important in explaining the expansion journey followed by Petrobras. This theory proposes that the firm must gain experience in the domestic market before expending into foreign markets. This model was well considered by Petrobras in its internationalisation strategy. This is because the company initially focused on establishing production bases in geographically close nations such as Colombia in 1972 and Argentina in 1993. According to the Uppsala model, a country may be considered close to another in terms of culture and allow a firm to expand into such a country in its initial stages of expanding into foreign markets. For this reason, culturally close countries were initially considered by Petrobras in its internationalisation process. For example, the company expanded into nations such as Libya in 1974, Iraq in 1978, and Angola in 1979.

The Uppsala model insists that a company expanding into a foreign country should initially trade in its traditional exports before considering trade in other areas, products, and services. This provision was considered by Petrobras in its internationalisation process since the initial aim was to seek resources in regional and global markets. Later, the company started developing and trading in more innovative products and services.

Although the Uppsala model has continually allowed Petrobras and other companies to successfully expand into foreign markets, it is associated with some drawbacks. To being with, it is evident that the model is very deterministic since its principles are determined by time evolution. The country where the firm is located or it is planning to expand to has a great influence on the approach to be taken in the expansion process. Therefore, the interdependencies between markets in Brazil and markets in other nations are not recognised by the Uppsala model.

2.3       Critical assessment of the current Internationalisation strategies

There are different modes of entry to a foreign market to be considered by a company interested in improving its global presence. Each of these modes or strategies has its own advantages and disadvantages, which must be considered before selecting the most suitable internationalisation strategy (Duanmu 2014). Petrobras has used most of the strategies to some extent, although a specific strategy is currently in use since its strategies are utilised in a sequential manner rather than in a simultaneous manner.

The use of wholly owned subsidiaries can be used by oil companies and companies in other industries to expand into a foreign market. In this mode of entry, the extending company owns all the stock of the subsidiaries. The company can either achieve this by setting up another operation in the foreign land or acquiring all the assets of an established firm in the target country. Petrobras has used this strategy to some extent, with the examples of Petrobras Netherlands BV in the Netherlands and BRASPETRO Oil Services Company in Cayman Islands.  The company also acquired an energy group in Argentina known as Perez Companc in an effort to expand into the oil market in Argentina. The disadvantage associated with this mode of entry into a foreign market is that it is associated with a high initial cost. However, wholly owned subsidiaries are easier to control than joint ventures (Cantwell, Dunning & Lundan 2010). Therefore, Petrobras can find it easy to make strategic decisions.

As another method of entry into a foreign market, Petrobras embarked on exporting its oil products to countries such as Chile, Uruguay, and Bolivia. This was done to avoid the high cost involved in the establishment of manufacturing operation in a new market in the initial stages of the internationalisation process. After a good capital base was established, the company considered other capital-intensive entry modes. Formation of joint ventures is another method that can be used by firms to penetrate foreign markets and is described below.

2.3.1     Joint ventures

The internationalisation in current use at Petrobras is formation of joint ventures. A joint venture is involves coming together of two or more companies through a formal arrangement to be carry out a business activity that will yield mutual benefits (Cerny 2010). The benefits associated with joint ventures have allowed Petrobras to deal with political, economic, and legal issues that arise when a business has an international presence. A good example of a joint venture has been the partnership between Petrobras and BTG Pactual, with business activities in various parts of Africa. BTG Pactual has a better understanding of the political, social and economic challenges of the African countries involved, including Namibia, Angola and Tanzania. Therefore, information from BTG Pactual about such issues is of great importance to Petrobras when making political, economic, and social decisions. The same case applies to other joint ventures maintained by the company.

Joint ventures have also allowed Petrobras to deal with the challenges associated with international HRM. Some people may not be willing to relocate from their country to serve work in a wholly owned subsidiary in a foreign country. By setting up joint ventures, Petrobras has given most of these individuals an opportunity to serve a global company while in the home country. International marketing issues have also been handled by some of the joint ventures maintained by Petrobras. For example, Petrobras has been able to trade with nations that have poor relationships with Brazil. This is achieved by developing a joint venture with a company based in a country with a good relationship with Brazil. As far as international logistics issues are concerned, the company uses the joint ventures in different countries as warehouses for products meant for other destinations. Therefore, it can be concluded that the joint venture strategy has been highly successful since Petrobras has gained access to diverse human resources, technology, distribution networks and new markets. However, the success of this strategy has been challenged by some issues, such as cultural and communication barriers.

3          Recommendation

3.1       Recommended Future strategic direction

Despite the fact that the previous and current strategies have allowed Petrobras to gain some competitive advantage in the international market, a better strategic direction is required in the future.

3.1.1     Proposed strategy

Research shows that more and more companies are taking advantage of green packaging materials regardless of the sector or industry they are operating in (Campos, Tolmasquim & Alveal 2006). Green packaging materials are materials that can allow the product users to reduce the level of environmental pollution. Therefore, Petrobras can take advantage of this preference to become more competitive in the oil and gas industry. Paperboard dispensers can be used to replace plastic materials used to create storage materials for oil-based products. Such dispensers are environmentally friendly since they are biodegradable. Moreover, this strategy should be extended to cover a change in the aspects of labels on packaging materials used by the company. The amount of glue utilised and the weight of the labelling material should be considered when implementing the changes.

A company involved in sustainable packaging is in a better position to acquire more customers than a company in the same industry that does not embrace such a strategy (Carvalho, Costa & Duysters 2010). This is especially true for companies in the oil and gas industry since most of the customers in this industry are educated and differentiate between a packaging material which is friendly to the environment and the one with the potential to pollute the environment (Choudhury & Khanna 2014). The cost benefit of using green packaging materials will allow Petrobras to reduce its cost of operation. A reduction in the cost of operation will translate into improved profits. Consequently, the increased profits will be used by the company in production improvement and provision of better services or even after sale services. Such changes have a great potential to attract more customers. The cost-benefits may involve a reduction in improper packaging-related lawsuits and lower price of green packaging materials than conventional packaging materials.  This strategy can be made more effective by making sure that the label on the packaging materials has a message advising the user to dispose the material in the right way. When making these changes, Petrobras must do a research on the packaging materials and messages used by its competitors to make sure that the changes embraced will be unique.

3.1.2     Porter’s Generic Strategy

There are three Porter’s generic strategies that can be used by companies to gain competitive advantage in their respective markets. The three are focus, differentiation and cost leadership. Cost leadership involves lowering the price of product or service below the market price through a reduction in the cost of production (Murray 2008). Differentiation strategy involves improving the firm’s products and/or services to make the more attractive and different from those of its competitors. Companies using the focus strategy concentrate on serving a specific niche market. They make effort to understand the factors that shape demand and supply in that market to develop niche-specific products and services (Hood 2015). From these definitions, the strategy recommended for Petrobras should be categorised into the class of differentiation strategies. This is because the primary reason for making these changes will be to make the firm’s products more environmentally friendly than those packaged by their competitors, hence making them more attracting.

3.1.3     Ghemawat’s Strategic choices

According to Ghemawat’s global strategy framework, there are three generic approachs to be considered by companies when creating a global value. These include adaptation, aggregation and arbitrage. Adaptation is achieved through a change in one or more aspects of the product or service offered by the company (Ghemawat 2002). On the other hands, aggregation involves creation of economies of scale to deal with differences. In such a case, the company takes advantage of similarities among various geographies as opposed to making adaptations to meet a certain specification. Lastly, arbitrage is where a company exploits the differences among markets, such as buying goods at a low price in one market and selling them at a higher price in another market (Ghemawat 2002). From these definitions, it is clear that the differentiation strategy recommended for Petrobras falls on the adaptation approach. This is because the company will be required to make changes in its packaging material and label to take advantage of the increasing demand for environmentally friendly packaging materials. Consumers in markets served by Petrobras are expected to recognise a change in the packing material used by the company a few days or months after the implementation of the changes. Most of them will shift from their current supplier to Petrobras, allowing Petrobras to gain a competitive advantage in its markets.

4          Conclusion

It can be concluded that Petrobras has enjoyed a significant level of success in its effort to expand into foreign markets. From the report, it is clear that the use of joint ventures to penetrate new markets is more effective than other approachs. Furthermore, companies in the gas and oil industry can successfully enter a foreign market if a sequential strategy is embraced. Petrobras will need to rethink its role in minimising environmental pollution. This should involve making appropriate changes to the packaging materials and product labels as described in the report.












5          References

Ang, J, & Ding, D 2006, ‘Government ownership and the performance of government-linked companies: The case of Singapore’, Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Vol.16, No.1, pp.64-88.

Banalieva, R, & Dhanaraj, C 2013, ‘Home-regional orientation in international expansion strategies’, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol.44, No.2, pp.89-116.

Bass, A & Chakrabarty, S 2014, ‘Resource security: Competition for global resources, strategic intent, and governments as owners. Journal of International Business Studies, Vol.45, No.8, pp.961-979.

Campos, F, Tolmasquim, T, & Alveal, C 2006, ‘Restructuring the oil segment in South America: Public policy, private capital and energy integration. Oil & Gas Science and Technology-Revue de l’IFP, Vol.61No.3, pp.415-431.

Cantwell, J, Dunning, H., & Lundan, S 2010, ‘An evolutionary approach to understanding international business activity: The co-evolution of MNEs and the institutional environment. Journal of International Business Studies, Vol.41, No.4, pp.567-586.

Carvalho, F, Costa, I, & Duysters, G 2010, Global Players from Brazil: drivers and challenges in the Internationalisation process of Brazilian firms, Maastricht: UNU-MERIT, Maastricht Economic and Social Research and Training Centre on Innovation and Technology.

Cerny, P 2010, ‘Paradoxes of the competition state: The dynamics of political globalization. Government and opposition, Vol.32, pp.2, pp.251-274.

Choudhury, P, & Khanna, T 2014, ‘Toward resource independence – Why state-owned entities become multinationals: An empirical study of India’s public R&D laboratories’, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol.45, No.8, pp.943-960.

Clifton, J, Comín, F, & Díaz-Fuentes, D 2011, ‘From national monopoly to multinational corporation: How regulation shaped the road towards telecommunications internationalisation. Business History, Vol.53, No.5, pp.761-781.

Cuervo-Cazurra, A, & Dau, L 2009, ‘Promarket reforms and firm profitability in developing countries’, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.52, No.6, pp.1348-1368.

Cuervo-Cazurra, A, Inkpen, A, Musacchio, A, & Ramaswamy, K 2014, ‘Governments as owners: State-owned multinational companies’, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol.45, No.8, pp.919-942.

Dantas, E, & Bell, M 2009, ‘Latecomer firms and the emergence and development of knowledge networks: The case of Petrobras in Brazil’, Research Policy, Vol.38, No.5, pp.829-844.

Duanmu, J 2014, ‘State-owned MNCs and host country expropriation risk: The role of home state soft power and economic gunboat diplomacy. Journal of International Business Studies, Vol.45, No.8, pp.1044-1060.

Fleury, A & Fleury, M 2011, Brazilian Multinationals: Competences for Internationalisation, Cambridge University Press.

Ghemawat, P 2002, ‘Competition and business strategy in historical perspective’, Business history review, Vol.76, No.1, pp.37-74.

Gupta, N 2013, ‘Partial privatization and firm performance’, The Journal of Finance, Vol.60, No.2, pp.987-1015.

Hood, C 2015, ‘Contemporary public management: A new global paradigm?. Public Policy and Administration, Vol.10, No.104-117.

Kuramoto Gonzalez, R, & Kindl da Cunha, S 2012, ‘Internationalisation process and technological capability trajectory of Iguaçu’, Journal of technology management & innovation, Vol.7, No.2, pp.117-130.

Murray, A, 2008, ‘A contingency view of Porter’s “generic strategies’. Academy of Management Review, Vol.13, No.3, pp.390-400.

Musacchio, A, Goldberg, L, & Pinho, R 2009, Petrobras in Ecuador, Harvard Business Review.





December 30, 2016






Institutional Affiliation

Student’s Name

Course Name

















Dilemmas plus emotional conflicts are native to the condition of humans and to life itself. The relationship between professionals (like physicians, counselors, and therapists) and those that they are serving have always been viewed as having particular importance and meaning. In all cases, there is a difference of power, and the person with lesser power assumes that the professional will act in their best interest (American Counseling Association, 2014). Unfortunately, in most cases, this has been found to be untrue. Majority of the dilemmas faced by addiction counselors revolve around ethical issues.

Ethical Principles

The NAADAC Code of Ethics stipulates that professional alcoholism & drug abuse counselors need to adhere and comply with the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence and justice (National Association of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors, 2011).


Confidentiality between a counselor and the patient is vital towards the success of the counseling relationship. The patient’s beliefs regarding confidentially shall determine the degree & the type of the information revealed during the counseling session.  Addiction counselors are mostly faced with unique ethical circumstances regarding confidentiality because the identified client is usually more than one person. The alcoholism and drug abuse counselor are required to embrace the duty of safeguarding the privacy of the patient and should not disclose confidential information acquired, in teaching, practice, or investigation. However, the counselors are faced with the dilemma of whether to reveal or not to reveal certain information to 3rd parties when there is clear and imminent danger in the life on the patient. A case in point is when the patient is taken to court.


The alcoholism and drug abuse counselors are required by their professional code of conduct not to discriminate their patients based on their ethnicity, religion, gender, or economic condition. However, there are those professionals who are unable to act professionally. This especially applies to those counselors who have a negative perception towards drug addicts. As a result of this, they may be forced to decline to offer their services to such kind of patients.

Informed Consent

Informed consent is another important ethical dilemma facing drug addicts’ counselors. Counselors are required to seek the consent of the patient before releasing their information to 3rd parties. Informed consent & confidentiality complement each other. However, there are those instances whereby the consent of the patient is not sought after and which go against the ethics or the principle of Informed Consent plus it violates the rights of the patient (Scott, 2010). A case in point when a counselor is asked to appear before the court to give their verdict or provide information regarding the health status of the patient. Such a situation brings about a dilemma to the work of the counselor.


The alcoholism and drug abuse counselor are not required to enter into a professional relationship with their patients since by doing so; they may be jeopardized by the dual relationship plus it is unprofessional. The dilemma faced by the counselor is that being humans with feelings, they might be tempted or forced to start relationships with their patients. During the counseling session, the patient reveals a lot of private information to the counselor, and it is from this that they begin to know the patient better .In such a situation the counselor may find it hard not to become friends with the patient and which slowly grows into a relationship.


American Counseling Association. (2014). ACA code of ethics. Retrieved from

National Association of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors. (2011). Ethical standards:

    Specific principles. Retrieved from       

Scott, C. G. (2010). Ethical issues in addiction counseling. Rehabilitation Counseling

Bulletin, 43(4), 209-214. Doi: 10.1177/003435520004300405





December 30, 2016










By Name














Response to Question 1:

Audit Committees that are most efficient are very much informed with respect to their responsibilities, comprehends them, integrates them, and identify what is essential to effectively fulfill them. The audit committee’s work keeps developing in light to the business’ leading practices and environment changes. Efficient corporate governance relies on collaborative and active participation of it entire major stakeholders namely the management, internal auditors, independent external auditors, director’s board and the audit committee. Making sure that the aforementioned collaboration happens efficiently, effectively and economically is important to the success of the audit committee. The responsibilities of auditing communities vary in different organizations owing to their mandate as sanctioned by the director’s board. However, the auditing committee’s main responsibilities are basically similar. The main responsibilities of the audit committee are discussed below (KPMG 2009).

Overseeing the financial risk‘s process of a company

A significant role is played by the audit committee in maintaining the financial integrity of a company. Members of the audit committee have to fully understand and embrace critical awareness over their oversight duties. The way the responsibilities are conducted may differ, nevertheless the board, shareholders and the audit committee could have consequences for failing to handle them. Risk management incorporates risk identification that could hinder companies from realizing their goals. Risk management also involves risk analysis, avoidance of particular risks and controlling the remaining risks. The director’s board is eventually in charge of the systems for risk management and evaluation of its efficiency. The responsibility of monitoring, management, assessment and identification of risks, and monitoring, operating and developing internal control systems, and furnishing the board with assurance belongs to the management of the company (KPMG 2009).

The risk management and identification process of a company incorporates management and identification of a company’s financial risks that could negatively impact on the financial reporting of a company. The audit committee considers this matter to be of fundamental importance. Not only do audit committees oversee risks affecting the financial reporting of a company directly, but a at times the board also directs them to scrutinize the level of overall management of risks, suitability of the strategy of risk management, adopted processes to handle these duties and  the effectiveness and adequacy the process’ support system integrated by a  company’s management. Based on KPMG (2009), this is achieved by the audit committee via asking the management probing questions to assist in bringing clarity to the risk management process employed and responsibilities’ assignment to react and monitor a company’s risk profile changes.

Internal Control Oversight

It is the duty of the auditing committee to oversee the process of financial reporting including the process’ controls and risks. On the other hand. Internal control integrates financial reporting, operational and regulations compliance controls. Generally, the duty of a company’s controls and overall risks lies with the board thus the audit committee can be mandated by the board to take oversight responsibility in ensuring adequate operational controls and regulations and laws compliance. As noted in the UK’s Smith Report, broader aspects of risk management and internal control systems should only be reviewed by the audit committee unless expressly decreed by the risk committee consisting of independent directors or the board. In addition, if decreed by the board or the risk committee, the audit committee could examine or approve all statements incorporated in a company’s annual report with respect to internal control and risk management (KPMG 2009).

Implementation and the designing of an efficient internal control system is the responsibility of the management. It is the duty of the auditing committee to determine the policies implemented by the management are capable of identifying financial reporting risks and the availability, proper functioning and adequacy of controls. During assessment, it is important that the audit committee considers asking the company’s management for risks’ overview, controls, procedures and policies surrounding financial reporting integrity. Representations furnished to them by the management should be supplemented with assurance and further information from the external and internal auditors by the audit committee (KPMG 2009).

The senior management’s and the board’s attitude and integrity together with its committees’ (management’s ‘tone at the top’) is the utmost fundamental factor amounting to the internal controls integrity together with factors surrounding the process of financial reporting.  The tone constitutes a company’s cultural core and every level’s appropriate conduct model. Therefore, it is the duty of the auditing committee to evaluate annually whether the proper tone is set, documented and communicated by the management. In conducting this review, the audit committee needs to consider asking the relevant employees and the management briefings and updates on how ethical policies compliance and particular relevant procedures of the company is being realized (KPMG 2009).

Financial reporting oversight

Monitoring formal announcements regarding the final performance of the company before they are released and financial statements’ integrity is the auditing committee’s duty. To facilitate this review, the committee needs to ascertain its member’s awareness of disclosure issues and accounting policy, and that they acquire this information in time to facilitate requisite action to be undertaken as required. In addition, the committee needs to find out from auditors and the management concerning recommended disclosure changes and auditing adjustments either made by the company’s management or not, unusual transactions, the company’s accounting principles, key accounting principles embraced by the company’s management and accounting estimates and provisions incorporated in the company’s financial statements. A comprehensive understanding of the aforesaid factors is essential to the ability of the audit committee to realize its oversight duties. Finally, it is prudent that that audit committees concentrate on present issues and those emerging and act accordingly.

Response to Question 2:

The responsibilities of the management for financial statements related matters and comprehensive consideration of particular matters is highlighted via signing a representation letter. However, in certain circumstances, a company’s management may consider that they are incapable of signing a representation letter on particular or every matter addressed. These circumstances could further outline areas where the auditor’s or the management’s extra effort could be necessary. According to ISA 580 written representations supersedes oral representation  and can be in the form of management’s representation letter, auditor’s letter illustrating his comprehension of representations from management duly approved and acknowledged by management, relevant  minutes of board or directors  meetings, or an executed copy of a company’s financial statement. From the above argument, it is apparent that there isn’t conclusive evidence allowing options requiring a written representation letter from the management.

According to ISA 580, when a company’s management declines to furnish relevant representations, the auditor is required to disclaim or qualify his opinion. The management’s refusal to furnish written representations infers the unwillingness of the management to accept accountability and responsibility for the company’s financial statements. Therefore, there is a great probability that an auditor would not arrive at conclusions without a management’s signed representation letter. However, an auditor could be able to form inferences as to the fairness and accuracy via referring to alternative sources especially in circumstances where controversial judgement were slim, but could not be established. Refusal by a company’s management to sign a representation letter might imply the existence of tension between the management’s and auditor’s working relationship or r challenges in a company that the management is attempting to hide.  An auditor can thus proceed in the following manner.

To start with, an auditor has a right to access the vouchers, accounts and books of a company at all times and the right to request a company’s officer for explanations or information of such nature considered to be essential in performance of his responsibilities as an auditor. The auditor can proceed by identifying relevant individuals responsible for governance that he can communicate to with respect to audit matters. As such, the auditor can acquire the flexibility required to determine individuals required to furnish particular representations and inform them that they are accountable and responsible for making particular financial statements. Further,  the auditor can employ ISA 580 section 16-20 in his actions which dictates that if in any way the auditor  has doubts with respect to the enforcement, commitment, diligence, ethic values, integrity and competence of the management  he shall establish the impact that  these doubts  may have on the audit evidence or on written  and oral representations generally. Particularly, if the management’s written representations are not in accordance with some of the audit evidence, the auditor is required to undertake audit procedures in order to find resolutions to the matter.  If the auditor fails to find resolutions on the matter, he needs to reconsider his assessment of the management’s diligence, ethical values, integrity, competence or of  the management’s commitment or implementation of  the aforementioned factors and establish the impact of these factors on  the audit evidence or presentations reliability generally. If an inference is arrived at by the auditor that  the management’s written representations are unreliable, the auditors is required to undertake requisite action including establishing the probable impact on the opinion in his report in line with ISA 705 whilst considering ISA 580’s paragraph 20 requirements.  Finally, the auditor can disclaim an opinion if not furnished with any written representations by the management or he comes to a conclusion that the management’s integrity is in doubt.

Response to Question 3a:

The following information sources will be relevant in acquiring a comprehensive understanding of Dust & Rolls Stores Co. These include

The Audit file for the previous year

Information with respect to issues that emerged during the previous year company audit and how the problems that emerged were resolved can be obtained from this file.  I can also determine the policies implemented by the management and their capability of identifying financial reporting risks and the availability, proper functioning and adequacy of controls. In addition, I cannot also assess whether the management of Dust & Rolls have adequate operational controls and have complied with regulations and laws. Information on significant Dust &Rolls agreements can also be acquired.



Discussions with management

By engaging in discussion with the management, I would be able to acquire information relating to any critical issues that have emerged or company changes that have occurred in the course of the year and representations of Dust and Roll’s management for risks’ overview, controls, procedures and policies surrounding financial reporting integrity.

Dust & Roll’s website, different companies’ websites and google

Information on Dust & Rolls with respect to changes that have occurred to the business in the sources of the year and background information of the company could assist me in identifying extra audit risks. In addition, I can also use google and different websites to acquire information with respect to external information that may affect Dust & Rolls Information relating to Dust & Roll’s competitors such as financial statements can also be acquired. This will facilitate the assessment of Dust & Roll’s performance during the year and whilst conducting a review on the going concern.

Current financial statements and budget

From this source, I can acquire relevant Dust & Rolls’ financial information for the present year. In addition, from this information source I shall be able to identify whether there is material changes in Dust & Rolls’ compared to the previous year. Finally, this information can be fundamental for preliminary risk identification and analytical review.

Financial statements and management reports of the previous year

Information relating to Dust & Rolls’ size, disclosure notes, accounting policies and accounting systems can be found in a company’s previous financial statements and management’s report. In addition, information of the past year’s deficiencies in the internal control systems can also be obtained from management report. This is of great importance since similar deficiencies could emerge during the present’s year audit.

Response to Question 3b

Audit risk 1

Dust & Rolls has spent $2·4 m on refurbishing 32 food supermarkets it owns. There is need to review this expenditure to evaluate whether it falls under Capital and ought to be listed as repair expenses or integrated in the non-current assets.

Audit Response

The auditor ought to review the breakdown costs and agree to Dust & Rolls’ invoice to evaluate the expenditures nature, and whether the capital agree to asset register’s inclusion, and whether the income statement and repairs agree. The auditor will also need to assess whether there was proper removal of the asset from the property equipment and plant to ascertain that there is no overstatement of the non-current register and profit obtained after disposals incorporated in the income statement. Furthermore, there is need to assess the register of non-current assets to confirm removal of the asset and recalculate the disposal profit and confirm the proceeds from disposals. Finally, the auditor would consider if the disposal profit is substantial enough to merit a separate disclosure in the company’s income statement.

Audit Risk 2

Dust &Rolls has borrowed the bank $1·6m through a loan repayable in five years. Therefore, there is need to properly categorize the loan between non-current and current liabilities. Moreover, the bank may have obtained a charge on one of Dust & Rolls assets as security till full payment of the loan. Accordingly, there exists a risk of lack of completeness in disclosure of security provided by Dust & Rolls.

Audit response

In the course of the audit, the auditor would want confirmation that the $1.6m loan finance from the bank was received by the company. Moreover, the division between non-current and current liabilities for the loan needs also be comprehensively reviewed to confirm whether the company gave out any assets as security. Finally, the auditor needs to ensure that the financing bank is circularized to ascertain that the bank indeed issued the loan of such amount to Dust & Rolls

Audit Risk 3

Dust &Rolls will be conducting several inventory counts simultaneous on 31 December which shall comprise the 32 supermarkets and the warehouse. It is impractical that the auditor would be able to attend the simultaneous counts. Therefore, it could be impossible to acquire adequate proper audit evidence with respect to the inventory counts.

Audit Response

The auditor and his team thus needs to select a particular sample among Dust & Rolls supermarket to visit. It is highly probable that most goods are contained in the warehouse and thus it should be prioritized in the selection. With respect to Dust & Rolls’ 32 supermarkets, the audit team should pay visits to supermarkets having a history of issues regarding inventory counts and supermarkets having material balances in their inventory.

Audit Risk 4

Dust & Rolls’ policy of inventory valuation is selling price less an average profit margin. FRS 2 dictates that inventory needs to be valued at Net Realizable Value (NRV) and at Lower of Cost (LCM). If this accounting rules is not followed, a company’s inventory could either be overvalued or undervalued.

Audit Response

FRS 2 inventories permit this as a method of inventory valuation provided that it is the closest estimation to cost. If this is deviated from, the inventory may possibly be over or undervalued. Testing needs to be carried out to ascertain inventory NRV and cost and that the goods are correctly valued line-by-line. Besides, valuation testing needs to be emphasized on comparing the selling price less margin and the inventory cost to ascertain if this method amounts to a close estimation to inventory cost.

Audit Risk 5

Since there has been a transfer of each of Dust & Roll’s 32 supermarkets opening balances into the accounting records of the head office, at the year’s beginning, there exist a risk that the above transfer  was not undertaken completely and accurately, thus it is likely that the opening balances could be incorrect. In addition the finance department has experience increase workload owing to the financial controller’s departure and his replacement is scheduled to report for duty late in December. Thus, the inherent risk of the company is increased signs errors might have occurred as a result of work overload by members of the finance team.

Audit response

The auditor needs to discuss with the management regarding the testing conducted and the data transfer process to ascertain the accuracy and completeness of the transfer. Computer-assisted techniques of auditing could be employed by the auditor in sample testing the data transfer from every supermarket to Dust & Roll’s head office so as to recognize existing errors. The audit team also needs to stay vigilant through the process of auditing for extra errors arising from the department of finance. In addition, it is important that the finance director is informed on the need to furnish the auditor with any help of particular audit issues until the arrival of the novel finance controller.

Response to Question 3c:


Before creating the department of internal audit (IA) in Dust & Rolls the finance director need to take the matters below under consideration:

  1. There would be considerable establishment costs of a novel IA department, thus before committing to the management time and establishment costs, thus, it is vital that a cost-benefit analysis be conducted.
  2. Dust & Rolls complexity and size needs to be taken under consideration. This is because there is increased necessity for establishment of IA department I a more diverse and complex company. Therefore, a company like Dust &Rolls with 32 supermarket will benefit greatly from an internal audit department.
  3. The IA department’s role needs to be given considerable consideration. The director of finance should envisage whether he requires the IA department to conduct reviews of internal controls or conducting the stores’ inventory counts.
  4. The role of the IA department having been determined, it is important that the finance director considers whether the exiting personnel in Dust & Rolls could perform these tasks.
  5. The present control environment of Dust & Rolls needs to be assessed by the finance director and determination should be made whether there are stores or departments with a past of control problems. If the answer is affirmative, there is increased need for IA department establishment.
  6. Finally, the directors of finance should assess Dust & Rolls susceptibility to fraud. Dust & Rolls operates 32 supermarkets, thus there is a considerable fraud risk of cash and inventory.


KPMG 2009, The Role of the Audit Committee. Available from: Institute/Publications/Documents/toolkit/1_The%20role%20of%20the%20audit%20committee_eng.pdf [1 November 2016]


Housing Inequalities in the Perspective of Social Policy and Criminology and Economics

December 29, 2016

Housing inequality is described as the dissimilarity between the housing qualities that different people in a society experience. These differences are brought about by housing segregation, housing discrimination, and poverty and housing markets. This discussion will base housing inequality on two factors; social policy and criminology, and economics.


Social Policy and Criminology

The housing crisis in terms of the social policy stems from the failure of the respective governing body to provide adequate, stable, decent and secure housing for its citizens. For instance, in the UK every individual has a right to all mentioned factors regarding their housing, but the government has not facilitated implementation of these rights efficiently. This phenomenon has led to housing inequality and crisis that is characterised by a lack of housing security, evictions, housing shortages, and homelessness (Marcuse et al., 2016). Statistically, housing formation is occurring at a rate that doubles the rate of houses being built in the UK; which makes it difficult to reach the demand of housing.

In Britain, housing is categorised according to tenure; which includes local authority housing, owner-occupation, registered social landlord and the private rented housing. At the beginning of the previous century, the tenure has greatly changed, the rate of owner occupation grew from 10% to 67%, but this has recently dropped to 63%. There was a decrease in private renting from 90% to approximately 7% but recently has risen to 18% (English Housing Survey Team, 2015). The large social housing sector saw a growth of about 33%, but it has also dropped to 18%. Individuals characterised with low incomes occupy the social rented housing; since the average income of housing association tenants slightly exceeds the quarter of those buying houses through mortgages.

This growth of owner-occupation can be attributed to a history of tax advantages and stable finance between the 1960s and 1990s (English Housing Survey Team, 2015). This group of owner-occupiers are categorised into two main groups: older people who out-rightly own heir house, who have completed paying off their mortgages and are earn low incomes. The other group includes those who are on higher incomes and invest in the housing through taking more mortgages. Recently, low-income home ownership has become an essential aspect: Policies are now promoting ownership of houses by low-income earners since the individuals generating high-income were already buying their houses. Due to this development, several issues have arisen, for instance; financial drawbacks especially in cases where the finances are not stable, structural issues with the houses, market inflations and other legal problems.

Social housing

Housing policy in the UK changed after 1970 when the Conservatives eliminated their political support for council housing. In the next years, the council gained more residual responsibility, where it was concerned, and still is, with special needs and welfare issues (Hodkinson and Robbins, 2013). General subsidies have been removed and replaced with Housing Benefit. This policy that led to reducing the roles of council housing led to the mass transfers of stock to Registered Social Landlords.

Private rented housing

This sector mostly includes student accommodation, the government subsidies (Housing Benefits) and delayed sales of the houses by the owners. Short term letting of houses, such as holiday lets, is also included in this sector. The increase in private rented housing can be attributed to the rental demand for the people who cannot afford to purchase houses.

Problem estates

This regards the people living in poverty, where some of the problems they face cannot be experienced by rich people. Most of these problems are not individual, in the fact that, a person does not experience these problems because they are poor but because they live in an area surrounded by poverty (Spicker, 1987). These problems include accumulation of rubbish, as well as the high cost of removing it, vandalism due to the inadequate space required for play, high costs of home maintenance, a low quality design of houses and blocks (Spicker, 1987). The lack of community facilities and empty housing due to the unattractiveness of the area. These issues are not comm0n in high-income neighbourhoods.

Inner cities and Urban Deprivation

Most housing conditions in numerous cities can be described as unsatisfactory; such that houses found in inner cities are in poor condition and are old. Many policies in these areas have been focused on deprivation. However, there is criticism existing that states that the ethnic minority groups do not get their share of the resources allocated by such policies




Housing inequality and policy can be discussed in economic terms as a type of market. In economic terms, the housing market is present to accomplish the supply of housing facilities and match it with the level of demand (Glossop, 2008). Housing inequality, in this case, is brought about by a shortage of housing. In Europe and the UK, this statement may sound absurd due to the high surplus of houses. However, the fact is that housing has to be fit to live in, it has to be available, and the number of households is dependent on the quantity of dwellings. Due to the latter discussion, good housing is in low supply, which renders it costly. Since housing is dependent on this market, individuals with the last resources are bound to experience challenges in housing, hence, living in unfit accommodation and overcrowding. According to statistics, 17.3% of the population in Europe, which is approximately one person among six, live in overcrowded areas (Eurostat Statistics, 2015).

Homelessness is another issue surrounding housing inequality, which is attributed to four main factors. They include a shortage of housing, entitlement to land and development of squatters, entitlement to housing and the existence of homeless persons due to factors such as alcoholism, illnesses and unemployment.

Deprivation in most cases is concentrated, and slum estates develop in the public and private sectors. In the private sector, poor individuals concentrate together while those with a choice are taken to areas they least chose. In the public sector, where each individual is allowed to choose, only those with high incomes of better previous housing are allowed choice. They are also allowed to wait for better housing options.


One of the major similarities in housing inequality is a result of high income and low-income differences. In the social policy aspect, those with high income are able to purchase houses of their choice, as well as live in attractive areas with numerous housing facilities. On the other hand, low-income earners are trapped in low-income areas and cannot afford to buy houses. In these areas, they experience numerous challenges including the high cost of living and increased risks to various negative activities.

In the economic aspect, high-income earners are able to afford high-end and good housing, while low-income earners are forced into overcrowded areas due to the lack of decent housing and shortage of housing facilities.

There are several differences regarding housing inequality in terms of social policy and economic aspect. For instance, in the economic sector, housing is regarded as a market while in the social account it is regarded as a basic need. For this reason, housing inequalities stem from different sources. In the social policy account, housing inequality may stem from the age of an individual, the level of education, the nature of their career as well as their welfare. These factors may dictate the policies that cover them, the areas to lie while they are studying or even travelling. In addition, the Housing Benefits that they receive may be based on their welfare.

In the economic sense, housing inequalities stem from the shortages of good housing. With individuals who can afford good housing purchasing or renting better housing facilities. Those with low income suffer the housing shortages and good facilities, rendering them to overcrowded areas. The level of income among this group also dictate the resources and incentives they are allowed compared to those lower than them in terms of economic endowment.





English Housing Survey Team, (2015). English Housing Survey: HOUSEHOLDS Annual report on England’s households, 2013-14. English Housing Survey Households. [online] London: Department for Communities and Local Government. Available at: [Accessed 19 Dec. 2016].

Eurostat Statistics, (2015). Housing statistics – Statistics Explained. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Dec. 2016].

Glossop, C. (2008). Housing and economic development: Moving forward together. Housing Corporation. [online] Available at:

Hodkinson, S. and Robbins, G. (2013). The Return of Class War Conservatism? Housing under the UK Coalition Government. Critical Social Policy, [online] 33(1). Available at: [Accessed 19 Dec. 2016].

Marcuse, D., Karp, M., Kilpatrick, C., Aschoff, N. and Ackerman, S. (2016). The Permanent Crisis of Housing | Jacobin. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Dec. 2016].

Spicker, P. (1987). Poverty and depressed estates: A critique ofUtopia on trial. Housing Studies, 2(4), pp.283-292.


Medicine and Health: Using cord blood in medical industry in the past 20 years

December 29, 2016

Hematopoietic cells can be defined as primitive cells that have the ability to disintegrate and further develop into a wide range of particular forms of cells. Due to this capability of the same cells, these same stem cells have been used for standard treatment in the present for a variety of immune and auto immune diseases which is evident from the very first introduction of chemotherapy in 1959. The Bone marrow cells are the main source for these stem cells for a number of years now. Treatment in the use of BM, hematopoietic stem cell is made possible from a direct harvest from the bone marrow of a donor before transplanting to the patient or from cryopreserved birth.

In the mid-70s, Knudtzon detected relatively mature hematopoietic progenitor’s cells in the cord blood of human. At birth placenta and umbilical cord both are opulence with hematopoietic stem cells, although the potency of human cord blood (CB) in clinical setting, was not deep until 1989, the first cord blood transplantation (CBT). The first reports for the (CB) procedure revealed the collection of cord blood as a trans-section of doubly ligated umbilical cord during (pending) labor in third stage following the baby’s birth, then suiting and dropping blood from the sectioned umbilical vein into a graduated glass beaker or bottle which contains sodium citrate anticoagulant. However, this technique has been substituted with a more contemporary way where venipuncture and (CB) placed into an integral plastic blood collection bag. There have been two approaches in the (CB) timing of collection, the most considered and used frequently is in the third stage of labor via venipuncture while the placenta is still in the uterus (Sullivan, 2008). To avoid interference with the conduction of birth, the umbilical vein bleeds in the ligated cord attached to the delivered placenta by gravity into a transfusion blood bag as an alternative technique. Though, this technique does not possess the risk of blood clotting in the vein, especially when the cord blood has been previously clamped or otherwise traumatized (Hayani, et al, 2007). On the other hand, this method may lead to lower volume and hence lower nucleated cell (TNC) in the cord blood (CB) collection comparing to the first method. The position of the newborn baby prorated to the mother, after the birth and the infant conserving the cord blood affects the volume of the blood that could be stored. If the newborn is placed at the same level as the mother then the volume of the placental transfusion would be bigger than if newborn placed above the mother. Contrary wise, if the infant is placed beneath the mother, production of greater placental blood flow to the newborn raises its blood volume, which ultimately its hematocrit and diminishing the amount of blood lost. There are other supplemental factors that may affect the blood volume, such as the concepts size, the period between the infant birth and the ligament of the cord, the length and conjuncture of the cord to the placenta (blood clots do to releases tissue factor because of the mechanical attrition).

The very first cord blood banking was set in New York in 1993 because of the need to store and free cord blood for long term and future use. The freezing and storage of cord blood would occur below 150 degree Celsius.  This procedure was simple and did not require any manipulation (Sullivan, 2008).

Cord blood hematopoietic stem-cell (HSC) unlike bone marrow transplantation could be replacement to a patient from unrelated donor to a patient who has been suffering from a complex of disease. This form of transplantation has been used successfully in diverse cancers that form in bone marrow and blood and this procedure has been showing promising results as well. The transplantation practicability earn the patient chemordiation or chemotherapy that eliminates the cancer cells, pursue the patient by casting of (HSC), reinstall the patient’s bone marrow and immune system graft-versus-leukemia  (GVL) or graft-versus-malignancy  which reduces the outcomes of cancer on the body (Hayani, et al, 2007). Until today, cord blood has been used as third source for alternative hematopoietic stem calls as well as bone marrow and mobilization of blood. With a superior percentage of stem cells in the cord blood compared to the percentage in the bone marrow or mobilized blood, this comparison acts as a standard therapy for patients who had been treated with cord blood stem cells to compare to patients who have been treated with bone marrow- derived hematopoietic stem cells. Patients with cut leukemia have also been treated and have shown have expressively better results (Hayani, et al, 2007).


Current medical treatment

Once upon a time, the umbilical cord could be discarded as a waste material but in the present, the cord and its contents are known to be useful as a source of stem blood cells. Cord blood ever since 1989 has been used in the treatment of children with specific blood diseases as well as conducting research that can be used to track the progress of adults in treatment.

Cord Blood is used in the treatment of children who have cancerous blood disorders such as genetic blood diseases like Fanconi anemia or leukemia.  The process of treatment begins by a transplant into the sick patient, where HSC makes healthy and new cells acting as a replacement of the damaged cells in the patient’s body. Cord Blood is also used in medical treatment and chemotherapy for cancer. In this manner, cord blood provides medical practitioners with a useful alternative in bone marrow transplants for ill patients. Cord Blood makes it easier to collect bone marrow transplants using cord blood and further makes it easier to store frozen bone marrow until its use in a frozen state (De Vries, et al, 2004). In the medical treatment of bone marrow replacement to create a change of immune responses to the individual receiving transplant. This means that in using cord blood cells, medical experts do not necessarily have to find a perfect match for the donor patient and the receiver patient. Even in its useful nature, Cord blood transplants have its drawbacks. Treating adults with the procedure of cord blood characteristically needs about two units of cord blood in treating a single adult. Previous clinical studies have revealed the use of double cord transplant in adults particularly in the bone marrow transplants. Current studies are being modeled to expand a single cord blood unit to be used in adults. Cord blood apart from treating cancer patients can also be used in the treatment of blood diseases such as blood infection (De Vries, et al, 2004).



Current research on blood diseases

In the present research particularly in transplants, a major limitation of cord blood transplant revolves around the inability for stem cells from a single umbilical cord to contain many haematopoetic cells in bone marrow donation (Rubinstein, 2009). Scientists and medical experts have developed a belief that the main reason for the difficulties in treating adult patients with cords blood because of the larger need for more HSCs than in children. A transplant that contains few HSCs might fail or might lead to slow down of the formation of new cells in the body especially in early times of transplantation. The serious complication in bone marrow transplant has been partially overcome by transplanting blood from different umbilical cords into adults and larger children. The outcomes from clinical trials of double cord transplants have revealed that this technique could be very useful in obtaining the number of HSCs needed the whole process of transplant (Rubinstein, 2009).

Current Research in treating other diseases

Scientists have developed a desire to look out for the benefits of using the double procedural transplant on patients. Numerous research teams have reported animal studies in the success of cord blood being used to repair other bodily tissues apart from blood. Body tissues present in medical issues such as strokes and heart attack are the new findings that medical practitioners have produced clear results on (Haller, et al., 2008). The clear results developed in the new research findings reveal positive effects on patients whose heart and nerve cells need replacement. Because of the fact that cord blood cells have the ability to release substances that enable repair of body organ, nerve and heart cells repair and replacement is made possible. A present clinical testing investigation trial of cord blood treatment in children with type 1 diabetes was successful as well (Haller, et al., 2008). However, from this clinical testing, scientists revealed that new cord transplants can make it possible for treatment of children with conditions such as traumatic brain injury and cerebral palsy.

The future of Cord blood cells in treatment

Scientists among other medical experts have believed that the blood in umbilical cord acts as a significant source of blood stem cells and are further expecting a full potential in the treatment of psychological disorders as well. Some other kind of stem cell like induced pluripotent stem cells might prove well suited in treated diseases that are not blood related but this issue can only be addressed in future research of cord blood stem cells. The new technique in the success and treatment using cord blood revolves around the combination of two blood units that would make adult treatment successful. The new practice of cord blood banking is also used by researchers presently to find out compatible samples before a donation of organs is requested (Sullivan, 2008). The cord blood bank acts as a biological insurance and assurance the transplant might be successful in specific life threatening diseases.












De Vries, E.G.E., Vellenga, J.C., Kluin-Nelemans., & Mulder, N.H (2004). The happy destiny of frozen haematopoietic stem cells: from immature stem cells to mature applications. European Journal of Cancer, 40(2004); 1987-1992.

Haller M J; Viener, HL; Wasserfall, C; Brusko, T; Atkinson, MA; Schatz, DA; et al. (2008). “Autologous umbilical cord blood infusion for type 1 diabetes.”. Exp. Hematol. 36 (6): 710–715. doi:10.1016/j.exphem.2008.01.009

Hayani, A; Lampeter, E.; Viswanatha, D.; Morgan, D.; Salvi, S. N. (2007). “First report of autologous cord blood transplantation in the treatment of a child with leukemia”. Pediatrics. 119 (1): 296–300. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-1009

Rubinstein, P. (2009). Cord blood banking for clinical transplantation.  Bone marrow transplantation; 44(2009); 636-643.

Sullivan, M. (2008). Banking on cord blood stem cells. Science and society, 8(1), 554.

Introduction to Accounting

December 28, 2016











My business is located in Singapore, the capital city of Singapore. With the beautiful scenery presented by the island, tourist attraction are a likely aspect that makes restaurant operations a successful venture in Singapore. My business, Marionette Restaurant, operates in the hotel industry and deals in offering quality foods and services. I started the operation at the main center, a strategic place, where sales are likely to boom. This due to expansive beaches that are near the center and contain tourists who would always want to quench their hunger. The major business suppliers are those dealing in fresh farm produce such as French beans, chickens and fruits.

I initiated the Marionnete Restaurant with a starting capital of $250000. The major products that I offer include egg meals, hot drinks, French fries, corporate merchandise, meeting area, Italian drinks, sodas and foreign cuisines. This business is considered a boom because most tourists prefer to taste foreign cuisines as part of their venture.

This Shop is named as “Marionette Restaurant”

The targeted customers are mainly the tourists, middle class citizens working along the beach, and college going students.

Suppliers:   Nestle (Credit Supplier)

Region Food ( Credit Supplier)

Ayamas ( Cash Supplier)

Customers: Jomalina(Credit Customer)

Simplot (Credit Customer)

UBF (Cash Customers)

Competitors:  KFC






Simulation of transactions

1/3/2016 Started a restaurant business “.Marionette Rest.”Deposited $2500000 to bank account opened forMarionette Rest’. $250,000
2/3/2016 Rented a space in TRM mall and paid $4000 by banker’s cheque to cater for one month of rental deposit and the rest for the month of March. $4000
3/3/2016 Issued a cheque of worth $600 to Kengen Bit as a fee for installing water and electric meters. $600
3/3/2016 Purchased a walk-in refrigerators, worth $400, from Jamaji shop by cheque $400
4/3/2016 Issued a cheque of $600 to Faruq designers for designing the restrooms $600
5/3/2016 Bought restaurant chairs by issuing a cheque of $4000 to Keen Comforters $4000
6/3/2016 Issued a cheque of $400 to Faruq designers for fitting the chairs in the dining rooms $400
7/3/2016 Issued a cheque of worth $200 to buy office equipments $200
9/3/2016  Gave out a cheque of $9000 for printing flyers to Owiti Printers. $9000
11/3/2016 Bought 20 fruit blender Ayamason credit each costing $45 $900
12/3/2016 Sold 120 Italian fries to Simplot on credit at the selling price of $60 $7200
16/3/2016 Received a cheque of $50000 from Jomalima $50,000
19/3/2016 Received a return inwards from Jomalima worth 11,000 $11,000


22/3/2016 Sold to Outward catering, 50 units, for a credit at the selling price of $600 $30000
25/3/2016 Bought a car Costing $20000 using Bank loan $20000
26/3/2016 Paid Insurance by Cheque $700 $700
28/3/2016 Paid Salary by cheque $2000 $2000
29/3/2016 Received Commission by Cash $400 from Simplot $400
30/3/2016 Settled the water and electrical bills by $1000 in form of cheque $1000






Cash Book
Date     Description Cash  Bank Date       Description Cash Bank
1/3/2016 Capital   250,000 2/3/2016 Rental deposit   5000
10/3/2016 Sales   37200 2/3/2016 Rent   2000
16/3/2016 Jomalima   50,000 3/3/2016 Installation   600
23/3/2016 Simplot   80,000 4/3/2016 Restrooms   600
27/3/2016 Jomalina   29,000 5/3/2016 Restaurant chairs   4000
29/3/2016 Commission 400   6/3/2016 Stationery   500
        7/3/2016 Office Equipment   300
        9/3/2016 Bill   9000
        26/3/2016 Insurance   700
        28/3/2016 Salary   2000
        30/3/2016 Bills   1000






Date Description RM Date Description RM
      1/3/2016 Bank 350,000





Rental deposit
Date Description RM Date Description RM
2/3/2016 Bank 5000      
Date Description RM Date Description RM
2/3/2016 Bank 2000      



Date Description RM Date Description RM
3/3/2016 Bank 600      


Date Description RM Date Description RM
4/3/2016 Bank 700      


Restaurant chairs
Date Description RM Date Description RM
5/3/2016 Bank 4000      




Office Equipment
Date Description RM Date Description RM
6/3/2016 Bank 200      


Date Description RM Date Description RM
9/3/2016 Bank 9000      








Date Description RM Date Description RM
8/3/2016 Bank 90,000 18/3/2016 Drawings 450
11/3/2016 Ayamas 9000      








Date Description RM Date Description RM
      10/3/2016 Bank 60,000
      12/3/2016 Jomalima 72,000








Jomalima Companies
Date Description RM Date Description RM
12/3/2016 Sales 72,000 16/3/2016 Bank 50,000
      19/3/2016 Returns Inward 11,000
      23/3/2016 Bank 80,000






Returns Inward
Date Description RM Date Description RM
19/3/2016 Jomalima 11,000      


Date Description RM Date Description RM
25/3/2016 Loan 20,000      



Date Description RM Date Description RM
26/3/2016 Bank 700      








Bank Loan
Date Description RM Date Description RM
      25/3/2016 Car 20,000







Date Description RM Date Description RM
28/3/2016 Bank 2000      


Date Description RM Date Description RM
29/3/2016 Cash 400      


Date Description RM Date Description RM
30/3/2016 Bank 1000      




Qualitative characteristics

The usefulness of the financial information presented for the business was enhanced through the use of various characteristics of accounting which include: timely, understandable, verifiable and comparable. The first characteristic is comparability. The information provided above enables comparisons to be made across entities and within the same business. When made within the same entity, the information provided is compared from one period of accounting to another. The second qualitative characteristic of the information provided is verifiability (Needles, 2013, 32). This is because it helps to assure the different users of the information provided. The data presented is supported by evidence and can be audited at any moment. I realized that verifiability represents faithfully what it is supposed to represent.

The third qualitative characteristic that was considered is timeliness. This is because the data was provided in good time for the purposes of influencing the decision maker’s decision. The last qualitative characteristic that was employed is understandability. The financial information is provided in a concise and clear manner. Generally, financial information should be comprehensible and understandable to various users with reasonable knowledge of economic and business activities (Horngret et al, 2006, 4). However, I did not exclude any complex items for the purposes of making the report understandable and easy.

Accounting concepts

Based on the rules of accounting, I followed keenly five fundamental concepts in the preparation of the accounting information. The first concept used is the accounting period concept. This is because, only data pertaining to a particular period was considered in the preparation of accounts for that period (Lung, 2009). To ascertain the financial position of the business, the balance sheets and the profit & loss accounts were prepared on regular interval of times. The main purpose of having the specific accounting period is for me to take corrective measures keeping in view the past performances of the business with the intention of nullifying the effects of different seasonal changes. The second accounting concept that was employed in the preparation of the above accounting information is the going concern. This means that this particular entity is in good condition and will still continue to be in operations in the projected future.

The third accounting concept is the cost basis. This means that the value of the business’s assets with which I recorded are the actual costs that were paid. Therefore, the assets recording were not based on their market value. Business entity concept is another concept used in the preparation of the financial reports. This means that the business and the owner are two separate entities (Larbardin & Marc, 149, 2009). This means that the accounting records tend to reflect the financial activities of the business and not of the employees or owner. The last concept that was used is objectivity. This means the financial statements are based on verifiable evidence specifically an audit trail.

Usefulness to external users

The financial information provided above has several benefits to the external users who include: investors, creditors, suppliers and the government. The first advantage is that the information provided tells the external users of how much the business is making. For example, the government would be able to identify the amount of tax that would be paid by the business based on the income statements. Secondly, the financial information reveals about the retained earnings (Oler & Christopher, 2010, 635). This means that it is able to tell the external users about the amount of net income revealed in the financial statement is re invested back into the business. The third benefit is that it tells the external users about the exact accounts that the business has, and the exact amount that it has in each account. This information is particularly useful to creditors who will know the amount of cash the business has, and where it qualifies for a loan or not. Another benefit is that the statement of cash flows tends to tell the external users about which activities brought in revenues and which activities expensed out revenues. This would help them make relevant and useful decisions (Droms & Wright), 2010, 18). This is particularly important for investors who gave up some of their personal money to invest in the business. For this reason, they are keenly interested in knowing about the activities that tend to generate income.









Needles B.E (2013) “Principles of financial accounting” Financial Accounting Series (12 ed)     Cengage learning

Lung H (2009) “Fundamentals of financial accounting” Elsevier

Labardin, P & Marc N (2009) “Accounting and the words to tell it: A historical perspecrive”     Accounting business and financial history 19(2): 149-166

Droms W.G &Wright J.O (2010) “Finance and Accounting for nonfinancial managers: All the   basics you need to know” Basic Books

Oler D.K, Mitchel J.O & Chistopher J.S (2010) “Characterizing Accounting Research”   Accounting Horizons 24(4):635-670

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The Three Cities I Want to Visit

December 28, 2016






The Three Cities I Want to Visit












The Three Cities I Want to Visit

Have you ever been to your dream cities on your vocation? It is an undeniable fact that there are many famous cities which attract a lot of tourists all over the world every year. As I have learned through the internet, different cities have different sources of attraction such as nightlife, breathtaking shopping experience, and exciting sites and beaches among other aspects. Hue, New York, and San Francisco are some of the favorite cities I would like to visit.

Hue, the national capital of Vietnam from 1802 to 1945, used to be the emperor’s home for the Empire of Vietnam. I am interested in visiting this old city so that I can lay my eyes on the Imperial City especially the legendary Ngo Mon Gate (Gate of the Noon) as well as the ancient temples within the City. I would also like to witness the seven imperial tombs alongside the famous Thien Mu pagoda. To cap it all, I would visit the adjacent Bach Ma National Park and the Hue Temple of Literature.

Another City I am so interested in visiting is New York. As one of the historical cities in the U.S., I have learned that New York has a lot to offer in terms of attraction. Of particular interest to me is the Empire State Building, the 1,454-foot-tall landmark, which was built in a record 11 months close to nine decades ago. I would not miss an opportunity to visit the Brooklyn Bridge, one of the oldest suspension bridges in the world, and no doubt one of the most famous historical architectural innovations. I would also be interested in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Statue of Liberty. On a sad note though, I would also visit Ground Zero, the site of the 9/11 attacks, just to show my sympathy with those who lost their loved ones in the incident.

The other city I would like to visit is San Francisco. Located in California, U.S., this City has numerous attraction sites that would be of much interest to me. One thing I would not like to miss is a visit to Chinatown especially due to its historical significance. Regarded as the largest town of the Chinese outside Asia, Chinatown brings back memories of the earliest Chinese immigrants to the U.S. Besides, I would visit Pier 39 from where I would get the exhilarating view of the Golden Gate, Bay Bridges, and Angel Island among other attractive sites. I would also make a visit to the California Academy of Sciences, the Cable Car Museum, and the historical Legion of Honor.

Basically, some of the most attractive cities for me include Hue, New York, and San Francisco. These cities have a lot to offer ranging from natural sites to manmade features. A common aspect is that all of them have a lot historical significance in different ways.