BUSINESS MODELS FOR IOT

February 12, 2018

BUSINESS VALUE FOR IOT AND VALUE FOR CUSTOMERS

Coding and Analysis of Interviews

            This research study entails an in-depth analysis of the value proposition associated with the use of business models for IOT. The paper seeks to unravel and outline the economic value delivered to customers by various IOT business models or applications, subsequently explaining the economic value of information acquired from the internet.

Included herein is a coded transcript of interviews conducted with eight participants from eight different business organizations based on the seven laws of information and the VoI attribute. They entail accessibility, usability, timeliness, accuracy, completeness, relevance and reliability. The coding and analysis process entailed three levels which necessitated the assigning of Anchor codes to my interview questions. Relevant statements were then coded, respectively under their Anchor codes where I used the “comment” function in Ms Word application. After transcribing the interviews from all participants, I read through each participant’s response making notes, comments, or noting short phrases and words at the margin to sum up the information that was prevalent in the text (Open coding). At some point the participants could deviate from the phenomena in their response or provide answers that could not constitute a concept or theme; such responses were left unmarked for purposes of relevance. To break down the data into basic concepts or units, I highlighted information, facilitating an easy process in the distinction of categories and concepts.  The second stage entailed collecting together short phrases and words from the interviews onto a blank page, where duplications and irrelevant comments were crossed out. This promoted a considerable reduction in the number of concepts as all overlapping categories were eliminated. The concepts and themes were then grouped together based on relativity, having been informed by theoretical and analytical ideas in line with the research question and the phenomena under review (Axial coding). The final themes and concepts were then transferred into a data table against each interviewee and the description of the theme in view of the interviewee provided respectively to provide a visual insight on how the data was collected and compiled. To avoid bias, inter-rater reliability of the results was conducted by an independent qualitative researcher.

NAME OF INTERVIEWEE NAME OF THEME Description Law of Information Attribute References
CONNECTRA Accuracy and quality business models for IOT and the data and information they relay in business organizations   The value of information increases with accuracy Accuracy 5
  Business company anchored in technology   The value of information increases with use and it does not provide any value if not used at all Usability 1
  Data, knowledge and information sharing     Accessibility 2
  Integration of various IOT business models to business operations   Information is infinitely shareable and can be shared with others without loss of value Accessibility 1
  IOT business Value for the customer   The value of information increases with use and it does not provide any value, if it is not use at all Usability 7
ANDRIES Integration of IOT business models in service delivery His organization does not include IOT in the delivery of services but it engages with companies that use IOT business models

He views IOT as anything that is connected to other devices and can read out data to clients that need it

The value of information increases with use and it does not provide any value, if it is not use at all Usability  
  IOT business Value for the customer Some innovations such as the Nest, Sonos are for fun while some have a lot of value in data collection and storage.

Enable business organizations to be more data driven while enabling administrators make information driven decisions.

More information is not necessarily better Relevance  
  Data, knowledge and information sharing and IOT value There is no value in sharing data but sharing of information, data and knowledge do not reduce IOT value.

Information value increases if put into use

Integration of IOT information increases value

Information filtering to promote relevance and timeliness

Information is infinitely shareable and can be shared with others without loss of value

The value of information increases with use and it does not provide any value if it is not used at all

Accessibility

 

 

Usability

 
  Accuracy and quality business models for IOT and the data and information they relay in business organizations Accuracy and quality are equally important

Accuracy, reliability and accessibility of IOT information crucial in economic value

The value of information increases with accuracy Accuracy  
  IOT Economic Value in the contemporary business world Modern Factories enjoy less logistical errors; increased mobility, energy efficiency

It is the right time to employ the use of information from IOT as it is available

Information is not depletable

 

Information is perishable and it depreciates with time

Reliability

 

 

Timeliness

 
LAURENT LE PEN

Company-Omate

Sector-Telecom IOT

Date: 2017-06-03

 

Integration of IOT business models in service delivery Data sharing through telecom network The value of information increases when combined with other information Completeness  
  IOT business Value for the customer Connection of multiple devices and collection of huge data to meet client needs in a tailored manner More information is not necessarily better Relevance  
  Accuracy and quality business models for IOT and the data and information they relay in business organizations Value of information depends on its quality The value of information increases with accuracy Accuracy  
  Business company anchored in technology Security, oil, utilities, construction and transportation are most valuable enterprise using IOT. Information from IOT is much needed in this sectors More information is not necessarily better Relevance  
Interview 4 Triggi

 

IOT business Value for the customer You can do upgrades of a number of business  devices remotely, using relevant information from IOT business models Information is not depletable

More information is not necessarily better

 

Reliability

 

Relevance

 
  Data, knowledge and information sharing Different products work together. Sharing information has value because the outside of accompany is bigger than inside. The value of information increases with use and it does not provide any value if it is not used at all Usability  
  Accuracy and quality business models for IOT and the data and information they relay in business organizations Reliability, timeliness  and usability in that order are very crucial in a  business setting      
  IOT economic value Efficiency in business operation, future looks bright with smart devices. Information is not depletable

 

Reliability  
Interview 5 – Connecterra Founder 2 Integration of various IOT business models to business operations His business incorporated IOT in managing an efficient dairy farm. Information is not depletable

 

Reliability  
  Data, knowledge and information sharing Sharing information enables others improve  on previous work hence more valuable information The value of information increases with use and it does not provide any value if it is not used at all Usability  
  IOT economic value Demand and supply law. The more people use the shared information demand increases thus more economic value Information is not depletable Reliability  
  Integration of IOT business models in service delivery Use IOT in agriculture in managing a farm to improve accuracy, efficiency and usability of agricultural products. The value of information increases with use and it does not provide any value if it is not used at all Usability  
  The most important attribute of IOT application Accuracy according to algorithms      
Interview 6 – 30mhz- Jurg van Vliet

 

Integration of IOT business models in service delivery His business integrates IOT in various stages in managing sensors mostly used in agriculture Information is infinitely shareable and can be shared with others without loss of value Accessibility  
  Integration of IOT business models in service delivery Sharing information adds value as more people work with your data. Information is infinitely shareable and can be shared with others without loss of value Accessibility  
  Most important IOT attribute Accuracy and reliability. Accuracy in more important as the data has to be trusted Information is not depletable

The value of information increases with accuracy

 

Reliability

 

Accuracy

 
  Importance of IOT to customers The  data helps customers make informed decision on climate change The value of information increases with accuracy Accuracy  
Interview 7  The Grid – 28 juni 2017

 

Integration of IOT business models in service delivery Uses IOT in sensors. This increases efficiency accuracy  in real estate optimisation Information is infinitely shareable and can be shared with others without loss of value Accessibilty  
  IOT business Value for the customer Monitors utilization of office space to increase efficiency and save energy. Information is not depletable

 

Reliability  
  Data, knowledge and information sharing Sharing information helps in generating more insights on sensors Information is infinitely shareable and can be shared with others without loss of value Accessibility  
Interview 8 Barends IOT business Value for the customer Provides information on payment services just like search engines Information is perishable and it depreciates with time

More information is not necessarily better

 

Timeliness

 

 

Relevance

 
  Integration of IOT business models in service delivery Links the customer using IOT to other companies who need data The value of information increases with use and it does not provide any value if it is not used at all Usability  
  Data, knowledge and information sharing Everybody benefits from accessing good data Information is infinitely shareable and can be shared with others without loss of value Accesibility  
  IOT economic value Derive revenue by selling data to businesses that uses data to reach consumers. Information is not depletable

 

Reliability  

 

 

 

Findings

Business models of IOT and its Economic Value to Customers-Reliability and Timeliness

The coding of this concept, as per the responses of the interviewees, was majorly aligned with reliability and timeliness attributes even in the definition of IoT. The laws of information aligned with the concept are “Information is not depletable” and “Information is perishable and, it depreciates with time”.  Essentially, it was in the interviewees’ opinion that the delivery of the right business model of IoT that meets client needs goes a long way in guaranteeing the economic value that customers enjoy while increasing revenues to the organization. However, this is limited to reliability and timeliness of information that an IoT model provides. The interviewees delineated multiple perspectives on their understanding of IOT business models in a business-organizational setting. The Grid (2017) believe that IoT entails connecting objects or items to digital sources or platforms. Jurg van Vliet from 30 MHZ, a company dealing with generic sensor products using the SAAS business model, considers the term IOT limiting in scope with regard to the services and products they deliver which are not only restricted to data and information but also hardware sales to increase economic value.

Andries, an interviewee from STECC company, when asked to explain in his opinion what IoT stands for, answered that it entails “Everything that is connected and For me… thing you make into this smart thing where you can read out data and influence and use data and connect with other devices”(Andries, 2017).

            While the answers were quite variant, the most prevalent issue was that IOT creates economic value to customers and business companies at large depending on the level and mode of implementation adopted by a the user. In his opinion, Gigs Barends argued that:

Paypal is a very big client of ours. They use us worldwide and they use us to help find new potential online stores who don’t use Paypal yet.  But also we have a lot of scores,  we know how big a website is, how much it updates, so we help them also score leads when they ….  when somebody comes in and says, I want to become a client we can say well this you should.. we can help them with data so they can give the appropriate attention to the different kind of leads.”

Gigs further reiterated that in regard to the economic value created from data that is processed into information, efficient decision making is guaranteed as long as the information is not shared to a larger extent. Jorg Van Vilet however believes that the economic value of IoT applications can only be evident if the user has data, which is then processed to information and subsequently adopted or translated to a human brain as knowledge. According to The Grid (2017), the information gained through the IoT application has provided additional value which could not have been experienced in its absence; hence the economic value in most business organizations and amongst users. This is because, she further argued, IoT creates “a basic layer for this kind of model and services… we will be able to recognize patterns in a building with important insight regarding maintenance” (The Grid, 2017).

The Grid creates economic value through the monthly subscription model which includes deployment of sensors after which customers pay a monthly fee for installation and configuration. As argued by other interviewees, IoT ought to be considered the solution to data analysis and information delivery probably through the use of sensors. The 30MHZ Company on the other hand creates economic value through selling hardware which requires a subscription using a typical SAAS model.

Integration of Various IoT business models to Business operations-Accessibility, Relevance and usability

The responses were both unique and interesting as some interviewees believed that information should not be shared to limit its accessibility hence increasing the economic value that it is intended to have on customers. Although it was not easy to explicitly get the answers from the interviewees at first, there openness to the question was prevalent as we proceeded with the interview process. The concept, drawing from the interviewees’ responses was more aligned to the law of information which emphasizes that “Information is infinitely shareable and can be shared with others without loss of value” and “More information is not necessarily better” as well as “The value of information increases with use and it does not provide any value, if it is not use at all.”  For instance, Connectera explained her view on the accessibility of information based on the ability of the user to process the information in making decisions. According to her, the knowledge on how to apply information is paramount and a vital ingredient to the successful integration of an IoT system or application to a given business operation.

“its definitely worth to note about ability I mean we have like Ph D. level you know scientists working in the company because they need that depth so how to use that knowledge that information is a very important ingredient in another very important one is I call it Hustle is basically hard work yeah I mean there’s a lot of effort that’s needed and there’s a million ways to take information and build decisions from it and doing it efficiency efficiently cost in a cost effective manner” (Connectera, 2017).

Andries in his response emphasizes the importance of integrating IOT business models in the delivery of services, accentuating that IoT entails anything connected to other devices and can read data to clients hence increasing the economic value of both the customer and the client. As such, information from IoT applications should be employed relevantly, in his opinion, as the lack of its use can only decrease its value.

Business Companies anchored in technology-Relevance

The interviewees revealed came from companies with various types of IoT models except Andries’ although he reported that his company engages with business organizations dealing IoT applications. Prevalent in the interviews is the fact that the companies focused on delivering relevant information tailored to meet the specific needs of their clients. For instance, Connectra’s company provides IoT information fit for agriculture, while Omate deals with data sharing through telecom network. Laurent Le Pen revealed that her company focuses on the relevance of information provided by connecting multiple devices and collecting huge, data which is then relayed to clients through active subscriptions in which they choose their preferred data sets. Hence “More information is not necessarily better” as relevance is key to meeting customer needs and increasing economic value of IoT information. Triggi on the other hand believes that through the business model of IoT the company delivers, remote upgrading of devices is only possible through the use of relevant information. This, according to Andries, can only be achieved through filtering of information to promote relevance and timeliness of information to meet customer needs at the required time. This is based on the law of information “information is perishable and it depreciates with time”. Barends and Connectra’s second founder emphasized that reliability is crucial in increasing economic value through the use of information from IoT applications that are both relevant and reliable because “information is not depletable”. Through embracing IoT applications in various companies, more people will use information, increasing its demand and reach hence more economic value.

Accuracy and quality business models for IOT and the data and information they relay in business organizations-Accuracy

Accuracy and quality of IOT business models are the major models that stood out throughout the interview. As the law of information associated with the accuracy attribute goes “The value of information increases with accuracy”. The participants emphasized on the accuracy of data. They argued that in making comparison on the IOT values accuracy is vital in ensuring the information and data shared is not misleading and can be used by customer to enhance efficient, accessibility and reliability in meeting their needs. For example, Saad argues that as much as quality is important, it is derived from the accuracy of the data and information provided therefore precision and recall in data are important in measurement of data depending on the sort of data one is looking for. When asked to compare between quality and accuracy, the fifth respondent thinks that it is a better metric than quality.   He states

“So if we take again of our industry if we’re going to train machine learning algorithms and if you train them with poorly accurate information you’re going to get bad algorithms. So it is important that the information is accurate“.

Therefore, it exemplifies the need to be precise in information data. Additionally Jurg van Vliet of 30mhz company argues that accuracy is crucial among the seven attributes of IOT accuracy is important because one needs to trust the data provided. If the data is not accurate then the customers will not get a solution to their problem by integrating IOT in their work.

Data, knowledge and information sharing- Usability and accessibility

One of the main focuses of IOT is on data sharing knowledge and information from the originator to the consumer. “The value of information increases with use and does not provide any value if not used at all”. Additionally, “ Information is infinitely sharable and can be shared with others without loss of value.” However it is not all persons who share nor all data generated that is shared. The data or information shared should meet the 7 prongs of IOT. Therefore, in sharing of data and information, the accessibility and usability of data is paramount. All the interviewees emphasized on the importance of sharing data and information which include ease of information access, knowledge integration in business operations as well as meeting the needs of customers on a usable basis. In Connecterra Company, the owner stated that sharing of information enables others to improve the previous work hence making the information more valuable. Moreover the value of information increases when put into use thus integration of IOT makes data and information sharing even better each day hence making It more valuable. The forth responded emphasized on the importance of different business entities sharing information to improve in their service delivery.  Additionally, Andries states

“Accessibility;
If you cannot access to data then you cannot use it. The timeliness depends completely on the used case. Well, that counts for all probably. The think usability is important and relevance”.

The outside world of information is bigger than information within the company or organization thus sharing helps in expanding and improving information thus better service delivery.

 

References

Burnard, P., Gill, P., Stewart, K., Treasure, E., & Chadwick, B. (2008). Analysing and presenting qualitative data. British dental journal204(8), 429-432.

 

 

 

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Analysis of a Project Leadership Challenge

February 12, 2018

Introduction

Some of the top leadership challenges within organizations are similar regardless of firm diversity, the situation being faced, organization culture and the context. Organization leaders are responsible for the direction and strategy as well as the ultimate performance. A leader has the ultimate role of directing the team or the organization (Larson & Gray, 2013). Leaders must provide direction and the innovation that would mean growth of an organization and maintenance or raising performance. Additionally, leaders are expected to motivate a diversified group of people, developing future leaders for the achievement of long-term performance. In dealing with the challenges faced by organizations, leaders must first take into account process of skill development. It is worth for the leader to lead with integrity and purpose. Diversity tends to encourage innovative and creative solutions for ideas and problems that strengthen organization performance (Jiménez, 2016).

This paper will explore analyses of challenges that project leader met while running projects. Also, the paper will address how leaders may deal with the challenges and recommend for a similar incident in future.

Key Leadership Challenges for the Project

The first arrival of Apple iPhone was in the year 2007, and since then, the company has been able to entirely change the manner in which the world operates. This project meant new challenges for other app developers. Senior leaders of Apple were faced with various leadership challenges that allied with issues such as style, structure, strategy, skill, system, and staff. An organization with the idea to manage such a project will be faced with similar leadership issues that faced Apple during iPhone development. For instance, leaders at Apple Inc faced challenges of application compatibility. Certainly, it was easier to deal with the aspect of Apple compatibility but a vigorous process in the iOS. By then, it was challenging for the leaders to decide the best version that would have been supported by the iOS application. Idyllically, the benefits associated with versions tend to be wider clientele. App compatibility for the iPhone was a challenge that the project leaders faced (Snyder, 2014).

IPhone demos were made in January 2007 and audience agreed that the project was remarkable and faultless. Steve Job would take a bare working iPhone prototype and with simple engineering skills. However, simple engineering skills were not able to achieve excellence when the iPhone was able to go to the market on June 29. Clients had expectations that it would have worked faultlessly as the case presented by Steve Job. However, the entire iPhone team understood that they required every hour to deliver the best. The fact is that Apple had only prototypes that were fragile and could not have withstood the normal shipping process from the Asian Apple factories (West & Mace 2010).

Apple leaders had to account on how they would have build iPhones in collection amount. Leaders heading the iPhone project development had no skills on how test antennas would have been developed. In fact, all quantities that come out of the company production line were required to be tested and well characterized. This was based on reasoning that there was greater variability upon how the antennas were built in an assembly line. This was impacting the radio performance (Rose, 2013). However, Apple leadership team remained fanatical of not giving any chance for not coming up with their testing setup to deal with the issues. Despite the move, the key features of the iPhone were not perfect. The virtual keyboard of iPhone (divisive feature) was not working as expected. For instance, when one touched the letter “e,” it caused all additional inscriptions to go off on the keyboard. Rather that emerging immediately after it was typed; the letters would take a lagging time. The team leaders at Apple were almost to declaring the project as a failed product development since it failed to have a physical keyboard. As well, the company executive remained worried. Neither, they were uncomfortable when using the keyboard. In fact, they were concerned with the process of touching a thing that didn’t have physical feedback (Komives & Wagner, 2016).

As well, Apple project team was faced with a challenge of system application with memory and performance. It was challenging for the team to have managed the memory since the iPhone device was not innovative to accommodate the trash collection utility. Apple was faced with risks of having the application terminated if it was a source of control. At a time when the developer would have decided developing the app to cover one iOS version, Apple would have accounted that multiple devices have to run the version, with a different level of storage and degree (Nahavandi, 2016). Some of the iPhone games covered various gigabytes regarding size and required huge memory. Having a target to develop such a project, the organization then would be forced to consider that such iPhones will not have the capacity of running such games. The organization must be cautious on the application needs to ensure that wider clienteles base are met. In fact, initial iPhone apps were reported to have the capacity of absorbing an extensive quantity of the battery. Hence, the organization had to make sure that the apps were operating excellently with avoidance of irrelevant processes. However, it was not easier for Apple to have optimized the app and it faced challenges of making sure that the battery was friendly (DuBrin, 2015).

What was done to deal with the Challenges?

Apple executives considered the fact that the initial step was to reengineer the iPhone’s display screen. Initially, Job had considered it to be from glass and not plastic and had found the source of materials (Jiménez, 2016). Glass was deemed as heavier than the plastic and hence the company Engineers’ requested for a strong adhesive to ensure that assembly was held in place. In fact, the Engineers were forced to readjust the way the buttons were working. They considered ways of rebalancing the device considering the differences that existed between the screen weights. Also, Apple had to account ways of innovating call-setting protocol to ensure that the phone was accepted into the AT&T network. Apple wished to have its data to avoid complaints on iPhone call quality (Oke, Munshi & Walumbwa, 2009).

Regarding leadership, the firm organized the team well to ensure that there were coordination and management of all the issues. The project managers were assisting Steve Jobs in coordinating and editing the work for various teams before the entire marketing plan was developed. The Engineers assisted in deciding the product DNA while nurturing the DNA all through the development process. After this, the process was translated into a clear message that the product had to incorporate (Jiménez, 2016). Team leaders provided a greater insight into all aspects of the job for the iPhone project. Leaders were ready to take more responsibilities than ever. They considered the fact that they were the core players upon the public presentation on what the company created.

Leaders in the project were responsible for the direction and strategies. They decided after consulting each other an aspect that resulted in ultimate success for the unit. In fact, they used to share their thoughts with the team and the organization leaders (Jiménez, 2016). The fact was that the project leaders at Apple were working on the issue of time management since the job was too big. Leaders were able to pay significant and effective solutions by stepping up from the level of leadership and took leadership mindset to remain effective and focused on role priorities. Leaders remained more strategic and were able to step far away from the operational roles that they priory held (Cameron et al., 2014).

Skill development was the initial idea for the leaders in remedying the problems. Leaders collaborated well with their peers to ensure they created a supportive team with diversified network and various perspectives that assisted in making a great difference. As well, there was closer working between leaders which was helpful in discussing the challenges (Kaiser, McGinnis & Overfield, 2012). Through this, leaders were able to build up managerial efficiency. Significant skills such as strategic thinking, time management, decision-making, prioritization and getting up to the speed of the work ensuring that there was effectiveness in the project phases (Cameron et al., 2014). Leaders invested in the process of inspiring and motivating the employees. They ensured that all staffs were satisfied with the job. As well, Apple invested widely in the process of team development, team building and team management. In this, leaders were able to instill pride in the team and supported the team. Apple leadership team was dedicated in management, understanding, leading changes and mobilizing the staff reaction toward changes (Nohria & Khurana, 2010).

Recommendations for future projects with similar challenges

Despite the situation the project is facing, it is recommendable for the leaders to take the right strategy while exercising stern control of the challenges being faced. It is always right to think “outside the box” being a case that is unexpected but quite effective. It was worth for the leader to have turned their idea to ensure that the project still flowed. The situation ought to have been considered from all perspective with the search of extraordinary ways to get things done (Lussier & Achua, 2015). Leaders need to search for opportunities where they can collaborate. This is significant internally and externally in the organization. Within the project team, leaders need to incorporate other staffs in decision-making and ensure that they take control of what they group undertakes. Leaders must ensure that the teams own their roles within the project. Making sure that the team is enthusiastic would mean that the project would be more effective. Externally, leaders need to have a tie with other groups. Allow these groups to have an understanding of what is being in the project and extend support and be ready to work with others. It is worth to carry a common cause with other interest group holding parallel interests (Thamhain 2013).

It is good to have an ear to other people responses, ideas, opinions, and plans. Leaders should listen as well rather than having all time talking. Leaders must assume that everyone around them has a significant thing to say. It is recommendable to keep an eye, make frequent communication of the vision. A Leader is the guardian of the team vision, and the leader has the role of reminding the team the vision of the project. Additionally, leaders must set an example to others. If a leader wishes others in the team to have mutual respect, hard work and embrace the firm vision, it is relevant to incorporate everyone in the team thinking and decisions. Leaders who are capable of acting collaboratively and inclusively tend to create organization functions (Allio, 2012).

Organization leaders must maintain effectiveness via monitoring what is done and working toward improving that and ensuring that there is the enthusiasm of work within the group. The leaders have the roles of maintaining self-drive and communicating to the team. It is good for a leader to be around people with similar vision (Cameron et al., 2014). Finding competent and committed people who can be delegated some tasks of leadership would assists in the eradication of pressure and make the team more strong. Indeed, sharing of responsibilities with capable team ensure that everything is effective while leadership is strengthened. Organization leadership is easier with people who are competent and who can be relied upon in coming up with systems.

 

References

Allio, RJ, 2012, Leaders and leadership–many theories, but what advice is reliable?. Strategy & Leadership, 41(1), pp. 4-14.

Cameron, KS, Quinn, RE, DeGraff, J &Thakor, AV, 2014, Competing values leadership. Edward Elgar Publishing.

DuBrin, AJ, 2015, Leadership: Research findings, practice, and skills. Nelson Education.

Jiménez, ES, 2016, A general view of the localization of apps for mobile devices: status, challenges and trends. Formats and customary processes in the translation of iOS and Android apps. Tradumàtica: traducció i tecnologies de la informació i la comunicació, (14), pp.5-15.

Kaiser, RB, McGinnis, JL & Overfield, DV, 2012, The how and the what of leadership. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 64(2), p.119.

Komives, SR & Wagner, WE, 2016, Leadership for a better world: Understanding the social change model of leadership development. John Wiley & Sons.

Larson, EW & Gray, C, 2013, Project Management: The Managerial Process with MS Project. McGraw-Hill.

Lussier, RN & Achua, CF, 2015, Leadership: Theory, application, & skill development. Nelson Education.

Nahavandi, A, 2016, The Art and Science of Leadership -Global Edition. Pearson.

Nohria, N & Khurana, R. eds, 2010, Handbook of leadership theory and practice. Harvard Business Press.

Oke, A, Munshi, N & Walumbwa, FO, 2009, The influence of leadership on innovation processes and activities. Organizational Dynamics, 38(1), pp.64-72.

Rose, KH., 2013, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide)—Fifth Edition. Project management journal, 44(3).

Snyder, CS, 2014, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: PMBOK (®) Guide. Project Management Institute.

Thamhain, HJ, 2013, Changing dynamics of team leadership in global project environments. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 3(2), p.146.

West, J & Mace, M, 2010, Browsing as the killer app: Explaining the rapid success of Apple’s iPhone. Telecommunications Policy, 34(5), pp.270-286.

 

 

Mixed Gender in Rescue Team

February 11, 2018

Table of Contents

Introduction. 3

Background. 3

Analysis. 3

Conclusion. 4

 

 

 

Introduction

The right proportion of men and women form a good team in all types of fields. This fact is because the thinking process of males and females varies. Research shows that the brain arrangement in women is slightly different from that in men. According to Gregory (Gregory, 2014), there are four major regions of the brain in which the researchers base their research namely: processing, chemistry, structure, and activity. For example, the male gender utilizes seven times more gray matter while the female utilizes almost ten times more white matter in processing. This difference influences the decision-making process, aggressiveness, stress release strategies and character of an individual.

This report will evaluate issues that influence the demography of rescue teams for complex and simple tasks. It will also give a brief description of the responsibilities of a rescue team. Lastly, there will be the provision of solutions to the identified problems or how they can be minimized.

Background

The rescue teams in hazards, disasters, and catastrophes work best if they have mixed gender. These teams are trusted with the following tasks or responsibilities. First, the team is expected to keep businesses running in the affected area. Secondly, the team is expected to respond to the impacts of the event (Alexander, 2015). In addition to that, the team is expected to develop emergency plans in response to future contingencies. A mixed team in rescue operations has been criticized in the past especially in complex operations. Among the issues that have been brought up include segregation of duties based on sex and gender, an act that is commonly known as gender stereotyping. Complications in social interactions determine how people develop an attitude of self and towards others. Lastly, gendered occupations with regards to society’s attitude compel some institutions to practice gender stereotyping (Knarr, Tumley, Stewart, Rubright, & Quirin, 2014). These factors influence the nature of demography in a rescue team.

Analysis

Men and women differ from each other in various ways including their communication and behavior. Each of these genders has advantages and disadvantages associated with how they do things. All teams should, therefore, focus on utilizing these differences in their human resource. The rescue team is one of the teams where gender stereotyping is common. This stereotyping is especially the case for complex rescue missions (Knarr, Tumley, Stewart, Rubright, & Quirin, 2014). The team members should consider the following solutions when solving their human resource gender segregation issues.

First, allocation of duties should always be done based on capabilities and not gender. This approach will reduce chances of poor allocation of duties and hence avoid segregation of duties on the basis of gender. The female gender is known to have good communication skills, and in most cases, the females are posted in the customer care services while men are allocated field work. This allocation does not serve social interactions well. Mixed teams help a team solve its problems and reduce cases of staff burnout as well as improved performance.

The human resource management team should ensure that the males and females are mixed in their job allocations to foster social interactions and at the same time utilize behaviors that are gender oriented. Research has shown that the innate social construct of females and males influences the social interactions of both genders (Module 4, 2018). Therefore, having a healthy ratio of males to females will lead to healthy interactions and as such, the teams will be successful in their allocated duties.

Conclusion

As a recap, women, and men have different levels of competencies which should not be ignored when forming a team. The human resource managers should utilize the behavior and communication techniques of feminine females and masculine females when allocating duties. The same case should apply to males. In addition to that, job evaluation is necessary when assuming different roles in rescue teams. This evaluation will help organizations to reduce gender stereotypes in rescue teams.

 

 

References

Alexander, D. (2015). Oxford Research Encyclopedias. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199389407.013.12

Gregory, J. L. (2014). Psychology Today. Retrieved from Brain differences between genders: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/hope-relationships/201402/brain-differences-between-genders

Knarr, W., Tumley, J., Stewart, D., Rubright, R., & Quirin, J. (2014). SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES MIED-GENDER ELITE TEAMS.

Module 4. (2018). Module Notes: Diversity in the Workplace: Women in Business. Retrieved from https://excelsior.instructure.com/courses/3204/pages/module-4-module-notes-diversity-in-the-workplace?module_item_id=289315

 

Human Resource Management

February 10, 2018

 

  • Contents

1     Chapter 1: Introduction. 3

1.1      Background of the Problem.. 3

1.2 Purpose of the Study. 4

1.3 Scope of the Study. 4

1.3 Limitation of the Study. 4

1.4 Order of the Report 4

2     Chapter 2: Literature review.. 5

2.1      Culture. 5

2.2      Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension Issues  5

2.2.1       Power Distance Index. 6

2.2.2       Individualism vs. Collectivism.. 6

2.2.3       Masculinity vs. Feminity. 6

2.2.4       Uncertainty Avoidance. 6

2.2.5       Indulgence vs. Restraint 6

2.2.6       Dynamic Confucianism (LTO) 6

3.0 Discussion. 7

4.0 Conclusion. 8

4.1 Summary. 8

4.2 Recommendation. 8

4.3 Implementation Plan. 8

References. 10

 

 

Diagrams

Figure 1 Hofstede’s Dimension of Culture (Piepenburg, 2011 ) 5

Figure 2 Summary of the Hofstede Model (Piepenburg, 2011 ) 7

 

1       Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1        Background of the Problem

No Name aircraft is a multinational corporation headquartered in Australia with subsidiaries in China, Singapore and Vietnam. No Name Airlines company specializes in the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of aircraft and aircraft parts to over 50 worldwide countries. The China and Vietnam subsidiaries specifically deal with the production of the airline portions, while the design engineers, operate from the state of Singapore. The assembly of the aircrafts takes place in both Australia and Singapore. The company trades its products to both countries and individual investors.

According to No Name Airlines CEO, Adam O’Meara, the company is facing a possible takeover due to the lower returns the company, targets to achieve and set a record in the adjacent future.  The imminent takeover would take an enormous toll regarding profit realization of the enterprise, and a possibility of Adam losing his job. Adam seeks to streamline the organization’s international operations amidst the common issues the company is facing. No Name Airline customers are constantly complaining about the quality of the products and are threatening to withhold payments of up to 100%, due to the absolute deterioration in quality.

According to internal investigations, the airline company is experiencing a communication breakdown both internally and horizontally. The breakdown in communication is evident amongst all the subsidiaries as Adam claims he receives numerous calls which seek to clarify the desired products. The company employees have also developed a culture where quality is not a core value in their line of work and decide to settle for good enough products, which are a direct contradiction of the company’s strategic vision, mission and core values. The Australian assembling firm, for instance, claims that the products they are receiving from China are of poor quality, hence negatively impacting on the quality of their products. One of the supervisors in the wire harnessing team claims that there is a lack of adequate communication and integration amongst the various groups involved in the production, consequently, affecting the efficiency of the other teams in the line of production.

No Name International Airlines company bases its operations in different countries. The activities amongst different cultures result in interactions with people from distinct backgrounds. Different cultures have several communication patterns as a result of their cultural and ethnic backgrounds. No Name is facing problems when it comes to diversity management along the chain. Despite the company’s declaration as a non-discriminatory organization, most of the younger generations are looked down upon their seniors, a situation which resolves to inefficiency along the production chain. Additionally, a significant number of the managerial team discriminate people with disabilities and opt not to employ them despite their over qualifications to particular tasks. Notwithstanding, the HRM team has failed to address the issue of workplace diversity, and how to accommodate different people in regards to their cultural backgrounds. The lacking of diversity management along the company chains has resulted in the lag of quality currently being experienced in the enterprise.

To a considerable extent, No Name Airlines lacks international performance management. The international performance management closely relates to the overall performance of the organization, specifically, regarding the quality of output. A global performance management impacts the performance appraisals of the organization.  The Australian headquarters is the only branch which undertakes performance management, while all the other subsidiaries opt out of the scheme. Correspondingly, the lack of international performance management drastically impacts the production and subsequently the overall profitability of the company.

The HR department of No Name Airlines fails to address sufficient training and development. Training and development is a pre-requisite to efficiency along chains and improving the overall quality of the products. Expatriates training, for instance, is limited to only half a day since the HR assumes that the requirements of the workers are the same despite the origin of the employee. No Name Airlines lacks an internal workforce management and development. The lack of proper career management places employees in turmoil as they are sure about their career prospects and therefore do not work towards achieving any career goals as there are no outlined goals.

1.2 Purpose of the Study

The study seeks to evaluate the prevalent cultural issues facing No Name International Aircraft Corporation. As a multinational company, No Name airline’s workforce consists of persons from diverse backgrounds. The paper pursues to assess how best the HR department of No Name Airlines can handle the culture diversity problem. The paper seeks to address the negative culture which the workforce has recently adopted. The new culture within the office does not emphasize quality, but instead is willing to produce inferior goods in the name of being good enough. The paper also aims to address on how best the company can improve both lateral and horizontal communication within the enterprise.

1.3 Scope of the Study

The study encompasses the cultural disparities prevalent in No Name Airline Company. The report will focus on the four countries of operation which are; Australia, China, and Vietnam. The study will consider communication differences, cultural integration as well as the revolutionizing of the company’s internal culture.

1.3 Limitation of the Study

The study will be within a strict time frame as the issues which face the company may affect the profitability ratio within the next few years. Travel costs between the different countries will be a great limitation. Communication amongst the different lines may also be a problem relating to the lack of sufficient lateral communication. The various time zones may pose a problem when it comes to the information collection and consolidation.

1.4 Order of the Report

The report begins by providing a brief introduction about No Name Airlines Company. The paper goes ahead and provides a summary of the problems which the multinational corporation is currently facing. The report then identifies the main cultural issues affecting the organization. The report defines the scope of study as well as the limitations of the analysis. The report reviews Hofstede’s national six dimension model and relates the model to the situation at hand. Chapter three advises on how the HRM should deal with the issues they face. The paper ends with the concluding section which is a summary of the all-inclusive paper and provides useful recommendations and the possible implementation plan.

2       Chapter 2: Literature review

2.1            Culture

According to most scholars, culture refers to the summation of beliefs, customs, and attitudes which differentiate one group from another (Ferreria & Antwerpen, 2016). Culture is the key conception of anthropology as it encompasses all that pertains to human learning. Other sources indicate that culture is broadly the social heritage of a community, group or society. Culture may also refer to the Response patterns invented during the various team’s history of problem handling, if and when problems arose from interaction with the environment and amongst themselves. Such responses acclimatize to the group as the right way to think, perceive or react to various situations which are then passed down to new members of the society, either by teaching or by immersion (Baek, 2017). Culture assist in to determine what is wrong with right, behavior, dressing, values, norms, dressing and language model (APT Bulletin, 2016).

Figure 1 Hofstede’s Dimension of Culture (Piepenburg, 2011 )

2.2            Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension Issues

Geert Hofstede undertook a study which sought to establish cultural issues and differences which occur in different work environments. The study has become an integral part of our community, and many international organizations use the Hofstede’s findings in the understanding of the cultural disparities (Huang & Lin, 2017). The six dimensions model also assists foreign corporations in evaluating the best strategy for dealing with different cultures in the same organization. According to Geert Hofstede, culture refers to the interactive programming of the mind, which differentiates the associates of a particular group from another (Eren & Jimenez, 2015). In his book, Differences in Work-Related Environments, Hofstede was able to incorporate the paradigm of the dimension concept of culture, where fundamental problems in international societies developed their method of developing different solutions to the problems (Beblo et al., 2015).

According to Geert Hofstede, National culture refers to the value disparities which occur between groups in different regions or countries. In his research, which involved participants in over 60 countries, Hofstede was able to identify four main independent paradigms. These include; Power Distance, Individualism vs. Collectivism, Masculinity vs. Felinity, and Uncertainty avoidance (Catana et al., 2013).

2.2.1       Power Distance Index

The power distance works towards expressing the degree to which the less powerful members of organizations and societies alike expect and accept of unequal power distribution. The underlying issue with this model is the dominant fact of how communities can handle inequalities which present themselves when dealing with multitudes of people (McMurray & Scott, 2013). The power distance quantifier establishes that people, who hail from regions and societies which exhibit to a great extent power range, readily accept tier management, where every individual has their place and function, which occurs without any necessary justification. As such, the people from societies with weak power distribution demand for the rationale of the power inequalities (Liu et al., 2012).

2.2.2       Individualism vs. Collectivism

The individualistic concept refers to the preference of a loosely knit societal framework, where every individual takes care and is expected to care for only themselves and that of their immediate families only. Individualism is the direct opposite of collectivism, which is a tight wound societal framework, in which members of the society to look after each other and their relatives with absolute loyalty. The individualism vs. collectivism is a reflection of I vs. we notion (Schmitt & Biesebroeck, 2013).

2.2.3       Masculinity vs. Feminity

The masculinity paradigm is a model oriented towards assertiveness, achievement, and awards, often material, for success or achievement. On the other hand, the feminity index, strives for preference in cooperation, caring for weak, quality of life, as well as modesty. In a business scenario, the measurement index is articulated towards the disparity between the tender vs. the strict standard in an organization (Olmstead & Sigman, 2015).

2.2.4       Uncertainty Avoidance

Risk avoidance measures the degree to which members of a particular society have a sense of discomfort as a result of the change. The underlying core is how different organizations adapt to uncertain situations with a tumultuous future. Nations with high Uncertainty Avoidance Index ratings tend to maintain rigid beliefs and codes which are both intolerant and pertain to unorthodox behaviors and ideologies. Weak UAI nation’s exhibit relaxed attitudes, where practice accounts more than principles (Harzing & Ruysseveldt, 2015).

2.2.5       Indulgence vs. Restraint

Indulgent societies allow for the free gratification and enjoyment of life and basic human needs while control corporations work towards suppressing the gratification needs and regulates by restricting the social norms (Outreville, 2014).

2.2.6       Dynamic Confucianism (LTO)

Change is an inevitable phenomenon. However, particular societies prefer to maintain linkage with its past while it deals with the challenges of the present and future times. Nations, which are weak in the aspect, maintain time-honored customs and view social change suspiciously. Cultures which score high in the index rating take a pragmatic approach and encourage efforts of modern education as a means to prepare for the future (Sheikh, 2017).

Geert Hofstede in the company of other scholars was able to conduct research involving ten Dutch and Ten Danish organizations. Organizational culture refers to the disparities which occur between agencies and subsidiaries of the same corporation. The research resulted in the development of six dimensions. The author, noted that the values are not an underlying phenomenon in all countries and neither do they affect all corporations. The six dimensions of the organizational structure, lack a succinct basis of values, but more on the strategic practices and choices which organizations may take (Vivacqua et al., 2015).

Figure 2 Summary of the Hofstede Model (Piepenburg, 2011 )

3.0 Discussion

The HRM should first begin by collecting data on the cultural background of the workers under the organization’s umbrella. The data can be collected via questionnaires, distributed to the entire workforce of the company. Having basic knowledge of the ethnic and cultural backgrounds of the individuals will aid in recognition of the social interpretation of problems, about Hofstede’s model (Swaidan, 2012). The HRM should then conduct weekly talks about respect for people of different cultures and how best to cope with individuals from various backgrounds. The HRM team should educate the workforce within the organization on the best method of dealing with stressful situations, as difficult circumstances are bound to occur in the course of working with other members (Wang & Li, 2016).

The second issue the HRM at No Name Airport faces is the breakdown of communication both horizontally and vertically. The communication breakdown is as a result of integration between different cultures. Certain cultures prefer brevity and specify when it comes to communication. Whereas other cultures may not necessarily reveal all information, they assume that the other parties know what they imply. Consequently, assumptions in communication create erroneous levels of bias and prejudice within organizations. The HRM should conduct, communication training sessions, where the workforce learns about various tactics on how to appreciate the differences between people and to be able to recognize how different people communicate. The training sessions should also improve on how individuals within the workplaces interact, and that cultural consideration should be the key aspect in ensuring that the parties communicate efficiently (Vivacqua et al., 2015).

The HRM should work towards ensuring the eradication of the negative culture which has developed in the company. The HRM should insist on the core values of the enterprise such as accountability. When every individual is accountable for their actions, the quality of production benefits positively, thereby, improving the overall sales and averting the looming company takeover (Kertzer & Tingley, 2018).

4.0 Conclusion

4.1 Summary

No Name international airlines corporation is facing numerous issues in the line of work which are affecting the company’s profit margins. The company is also on the verge of having an organization takeover. The paper considers the cultural issues which are currently facing the team. The cultural issues include dissolve of the company’s values regarding quality, communication breakdown both horizontally and vertically as well as cultural disparities within the organization. The report goes ahead and analyses Hofstede’s model on the national cultural dimensions. The report specifically utilizes peer-reviewed journal articles. Hofstede’s model provides a framework for understanding the disparities within No Name Airlines. The report analyses the cultural problems a No Names corporation and finally provide a useful recommendation and implementable action plan.

4.2 Recommendation

No Names Airlines should streamline the HRM division to ensure that the department is active in implementing the action plan. The HRM team is weak and requires a pro-active manager who will make sure that everyone takes their work with clear and formidable HRM practices (Kertzer & Tingley, 2018). The company should invest in an empowerment scheme which aims at promoting the quality of work within the organization (Salter et al., 2013).

4.3 Implementation Plan

The implementation of the plan will take effect immediately upon affirmation by the proper No Name managerial organs. The managers will also be required to evaluate the HR department, and to reshuffle, the entire unit about the needs of the organization (Kertzer & Tingley, 2018). The plan will first establish the cultural disparities of the employees from where the teaching sessions will commence. The creation of an educational program will be mandatory to ensure that every group has an HR session while other employees in other departments strive to work. The education sessions can ensue on a weekly basis in the company’s conference rooms, where every employee will be required to attend without fail. The final part of the plan will be an overview of the sessions as well as a review of the effectiveness of the teaching sessions.

 

 

References

Antwerpen, S. V. & Ferreira, E., 2016. Contributing factors to poor service delivery by administrative employees in the Gauteng public service in South Africa. Africa Development, 41(1), pp. 81-98.

APT Bulletin, 2016. The Association for Preservation Technology International. The Journal of Preservation Technology, 47(1).

Baek, K., 2017. Professional Construction Of Diversity Management In Korea. Development and Society, 46(1), pp. 25-53.

Beblo, M. et al., 2015. Efficiency-equality tradeoff within French and German couples. Annals of economics and statistics, pp. 233-252.

Catana, D., Pucko, D. & Krzykala-Schaefer, R., 2013. How future managers view societal culture. Journal of East European management, pp. 463-481.

Eren, M. T. & Jimenez, A., 2015. Institutional quality similarity, corruption distance and inwards FDI in Turkey. Journal of East European Management, 20(1), pp. 88-101.

Harzing, A.-W. & Ruysseveldt, J. V., 2015. International Human Resource Management. Fourth Edition ed. London: Sage.

Huang, C.-K. & Lin, C.-Y., 2017. Flipping business education. Journal of educational technology and society, 20(1), pp. 323-336.

Kertzer, J. D. & Tingley, D., 2018. Political Psychology in International Relations: Beyond the Paradigms. Political Psychology in IR, 1(21), pp. 1-23.

Liu, W., Liu, X. & Zhang, S., 2012. Investigating the relationship between Protestant work ethic and Confucian dynamism. Journal of Business Ethics, pp. 243-252.

McMurray, A. & Scott, D., 2013. Work values ethic, GNP per Capita and country of birth relationships. Journal of Business Ethics, pp. 655-666.

Olmstead, S. M. & Sigman, H., 2015. Damming the Commons. Journal of the association of environmental and resource economists, 2(4), pp. 497-526.

Outreville, F., 2014. Risk Aversion, risk behavior and demand for insurance. Journal of insurance issues, 37(2), pp. 158-186.

Salter, S. B., Kang, T., Gotti, G. & Doupnik, T. S., 2013. The role of social values, accounting values, and institutions in determining accounting conservatism. Management International Review, pp. 607-633.

Schmitt, A. & Biesebroeck, J. V., 2013. Proximity strategies in outsourcing relations. Journal of international business studies, pp. 475-503.

Sheikh, A. Z., 2017. The political economy of agency employment. World review of the political economy, 8(2), pp. 162-189.

Skerlavai, M., Su, C. & Huang, M., 2013. The moderating effects of national culture on the development of organizational learning culture. Journal of East European Management, pp. 97-134.

Swaidan, Z., 2012. Culture and Consumer Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, pp. 201-213.

Vivacqua, E., Vecchi, A. & Piana, B. D., 2015. Innovation, institutions and cultures. Management Revue, pp. 5-24.

Wang, Z.-S. & Li, H.-Y., 2016. A study on the correlations among internal marketing, organizational member interaction and organizational performance of an organization. Economics and its development, 30(15), pp. 4287-4295.

 

 

East Timor Solar Project Risk Management Plan

February 8, 2018

ASSESSMENT I

Introduction

Risk management incorporates both systemic and integrative mechanisms that ensure successful implementation of projects. Project managers and administrators must have predisposed knowledge to identify, analyze and respond to the risk factors associated to the life cycle of the projects (Burke, 2013). The process of risk management incorporates setting up the onset solutions to the possible risks that the project might face (Koster, 2009). The East Timor solar program is a vital project that would benefit the country citizens immensely. Due to the importance of the project, it is imperative to develop a risk management program taking heed of developments within every phase to meet effective implementation (Caiado et al, 2016). Due to the nature of the project, the potentialities can arise from multiple factors including the environment, resources and costs. Therefore, prioritizing is an integral part as the plan will incorporate the identification, categorization, and planning based on the identified risks and their potentiality to meet completion (Koster, 2009). The major points of deliberation within the East Timor solar project would be the stakeholder engagement and management in the projects undertaking. The evaluation will also engage an effective risk factors evaluation on the projects undertakings and implementation.

Stakeholder engagement and Management

The stakeholder engagement and management process is an integral part of the risk management plan (Glendon et al, 2016). The East Timor Solar project involves several shareholders who play varied roles in the project’s implementation. Additionally, due to their varying roles in the projects, the stakeholders can either expedite or slow down the implementation of the program. The varied stakeholders of the project confer significance to its undertakings based on the different phases of the project. Within the onset of the project, it is imperative to incorporate a change manager due to the cultural disposition of East Timor. The solar project seeks to benefit the residents of the area and therefore, it is vital to communicate any changes that would affect the area residents’ way of life (Javani & Rwelamila, 2016). Therefore, engaging a change manager at the onset of the project would ensure cooperation from the area residents to its completion. It is also important to understand the key stakeholders and those that confer minimal interests in the project (P.M.I, 2013).

In the East Timor Solar project, the government, Google Inc., Alternative Technology Association (ATA) and the East Timor residents are the major stakeholders within the project. However, other stakeholders that also play minor roles include the local authorities, the small-scale solar projects within the area. In order to ensure that the project roll out is smooth, it is vital to ensure that there is a constant communication within the stakeholder network. Through regular communications within the varied stages, the stakeholders are able to operate within similar goals to meet the project completion successfully.

Another issue to address in the stakeholder engagement is the mechanisms of publishing and promoting regular project communication within the project launch and the performance phases (P.M.I, 2013). Such promotion would attract broader stakeholder groups that would gain interests in the distribution of electricity to the East Timor residents. About 35% of the area residents do not have electricity, which would require more stakeholders to join in the efforts of meeting the full electricity needs of the residents.

Risk Identification

The East Timor Solar project faces multiple risks within the different phases that require address before execution. Addressing the potential risks factors is subject to understanding the level of risk in the project (Hopkin, 2017). In order to understand how to take the risk management exercise, it is imperative to understand the implication of each stage in the cycle. The first stage within the risk management cycle is to identify and analyze the potential threats relative to the project (Edelenbos et al, 2017). Based on the information provided on the developments of the project, some of the potential risk factors that may impede the project schedule include language barriers, cultural and historical dispositions within East Timor. Another implication established is the engagement of a contractor within the project. The project management has to ensure that the contacted party is able to exercise accountability and transparency when working with ATA. Another major risk is relative to the duration that the licensing durations and how long the Australian installation experts could stay in East Timor. Therefore, the risk identification aims at evaluating the factors that would interfere with the scheduling of the project from the start to the completion. The risk matrix below incorporates the risk factors based on the implication they confer in the project.

 

Impact H Lack of government cooperation Lack of coopetration from the community members Shortage of installation Equipment
M Language  barriers Lack of Transparency from the contractor The inability to secure licence in time
L Cultural clashes Installation experts inconvenience Installing solar power in locations with power projects I place
  L M H
  Probability

Fig.1 Risk Matrix

Impact

  • High – Risk that has significant potential to greatly impact project cost, project schedule or performance
  • Medium – Risk has slightly impact on cost, project schedule or performance
  • Low – Risk has little impact on cost, schedule or performance

 

Probability

  • High – Higher than <70%> probability of occurrence
  • Medium – Between <25%> and <60%> probability of occurrence
  • Low – Below <25%> probability of occurrence

Risk Analysis

Based on the identified potential risks, it is imperative to analyze their implications on the project (Kerzner, 2017). The prioritized risks factors within the red boxes must meet a justified resolution. In dealing with the factors, the project management would eliminate their causative factors. Within this stage, it is important to establish the possibility of vandalism of the installation. This stage would also incorporate the understanding of which companies can avail the solar panel materials needed for the installation and the possible costs. The phase also incorporates contacting the government bodies, which are also key stakeholders in the project. After the verification on security provision, the next step would be mitigating the moderate risk factors. ATA would develop terms with the contractor to ensure transparency and accountability of the organization through government database. ATA would have to accept the low risk factors, which include language barriers, climate and installation inconveniences. Therefore, it will incorporate mechanisms to meet low risk factors but with less impacts.

Execution

Within the execution phase, ATA would follow up on the possibility of the government contributing to secure the installation process and offer security to personnel within East Timor. It would also be important to engage scrutiny of the companies that manufacture resources needed to complete the project at this stage. Additionally, the phase will incorporate getting the contact of the bodies and institutions that would secure the licenses needed for the project completion. ATA would send personnel within the regions to interact with the locals and communicate with them with the help of a translator. More importantly, the stage would engage understanding the necessities for the monitoring.

Risk Response & Execution Monitoring

While the project is underway, the administrators would set mechanism to monitor the progress of the project. East Timor has varied terrains that might impede proper installation. Therefore, within this stage, the management would establish what parts of the country to recall the project and reschedule the installation to later dates. It is also vital to understand the level of appreciation from the locals that live within areas with finished installations. Through the recalls, ATA would engage improved strategies to inform all stakeholders in order to complete the installations within the areas with unfriendly terrains.

 

ASSESSMENT II

Methodology of Cost and Schedule Tracking

Monitoring and controlling the project is vital and therefore, it is important for ATA to develop mechanisms that would accomplish the two factors. It is imperative that the East Timor solar project governance incorporate cost and schedule tracking methods in order to meet its successful completion (Kotetunov, 2017). The monitoring tool that ATA would use in the monitoring and controlling objective is the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT). Through incorporating PERT, the project manager would be able to understand the specific activities and milestones of the project and their varied implications in meeting costs and schedules of the project (Koster, 2009). The tool would also enable the determination of proper sequence of activities under the project. However, due to the need to meet a faster roll out of the programs, it would be more effective to engage both the activities and the project milestones within the first step in the monitoring and control. The incorporation of PERT in the project monitoring and control would produce better results due to the ability of developing a network diagram, which incorporates implementing parallel activities within the varied phases of the project (Kerzner, 2017). Therefore, through using parallel lines to represent activities and bubbles to represent milestones, the project management would ensure successful monitoring and control mechanisms. Another important factor in using PERT is the ability to estimate the time by which to complete the identified activities and determining the critical paths that require expedited measures (Edelenbos et al, 2017). Due to the possible changes, that the project might undergo during its roll out, the PERT tool would enable ATA to update information and new values to meet optimization.

Alternative Report Tools

A Gantt chart would also be an effective tool to incorporate in meeting the control and monitoring of the project (Kotetunov, 2017). The framework incorporates the use of graph charts in tracking the progress of the project. However, unlike the PERT framework, the Gantt chart incorporates the use of graphs in benchmarking the milestones and activities within the project. Therefore, its nature of complexity would confer major incompatibilities in understanding the implications of risk factors within the phases of the project. Another imposition of the Gantt chart is in the sequential demands within the project. The tool requires that the project manager follow a sequential formula in rolling out the programs (Martinelli & Milocevic, 2016). The nature of the project and the factors of uncertainty relative to undertaking the tasks would impose major challenges in using the tool for the control and monitoring functions. Therefore, unlike PERT, the Gantt tool would impose major challenges in understanding the implication of the project within its varied stages.

Format and Structure of report (Manager& Team)

When undertaking a monitoring and control process, it is imperative that the project manager and other administrative units understand the format and structure to incorporate when undertaking the project report (P.M.I, 2013). The format and the structure of the report will incorporate beneficial details for the stakeholders with interests in the project. Due to the need to engage brief but precise indications on the progress of the report, the best format to use is a project management planning software (PMPS). The software incorporates integrative functions that allow the manager and the administrative team to evaluate the average rate of the project performance through the evaluation of the data presented within its data entry units (Furlong et al, 2017). Due to the high reliability of the software, the entry detail will incorporate the financial resources used in the varied phases of the project and that of the remaining work. Therefore, the structure entry will engage a weekly update of the funds incorporated in the project and the amount of resources to meet completion. Through evaluating the costs of the materials within the immediate time lapse, the stakeholders would be able to establish whether the remaining resources are sufficient in meeting the demands of the project (Virine, 2016). The choice to incorporate timeframe schedules and the costs incurred is due to the software processing qualities of the PMPS, which has the capacity to inform the stakeholders and give updates on the project.

Frequency of Governance Board Meetings

Due to the possible changes within the project undertaking, it is important to hold governance board meetings to ensure smooth progress of the project. The governance meeting is vital especially in decision making and evaluating the progress of the East Timor solar installation program. Establishing a regular frequency on the meeting is also important especially in evaluating the project positions and the need to optimize the project (Martinelli & Milocevic, 2016). Due to the nature of the East Timor solar project, it is imperative to call the meeting within a monthly basis to ensure that the operations run smoothly. The ATA is a foreign organization and operates in East Timor for a limited time and therefore, stakeholders require constant updates to complete the project. Moreover, the installation experts are also in the country within the limitations established by the licensing bodies of East Timor. Therefore, holding meetings within monthly basis would ensure that the project does not meet major hindrances to its completion stage. Another major point of deliberation is the stakeholders that should participate in the meetings and their relevance within the new undertakings.

Attendees of the Governance Board Meetings

The project governance meeting must incorporate the agents that engage in the scrutiny of the project to implement the necessary decisions to meet effective completion. Another important stakeholder that should participate in the meeting is a representative of the contracted company in undertaking the solar installation. The relevance of the representative is the brief on the finances spent from their undertakings. Through analyzing the costs and comparing them to the ATA records, the management would establish transparency within the resource utility. A representative from the East Timor community is also an important entity within the project governance meeting. The undertakings of ATA within East Timor have some cultural implications and it is important for the rest of the stakeholders to get a response from the residents that the project aims to benefit. Moreover, due to language barrier, the community representative would help by presenting the possible negative implications of the installation within the various localities in East Timor. Through collecting information on the various stakeholders, the board can make informed decisions on how to proceed within the varied project phases.

 

 

Format and Structure of Report (C.E.O and Board Members)

The CEO and the board project report must incorporate the appropriate information that would allow for effective decision-making (Martinelli & Milocevic, 2016). The structure of the reports presented to the CEO of the project must reflect the overall progress and status of the project. The best format of the report would be real time reports that would incorporate both performance and costs incurred in the project undertaking. Through logging into the ATA database and viewing the ongoing reports, the stakeholders would understand the progress. Moreover, the real time reports are the most effective as they would enable the C.E.Os and the board members check in on the project at any time. After receiving the real-time dashboard reports on the go, the CEOs, the board members are able to contact the team managers to make decisions on how to ensue with the related undertakings. The report will accommodate updated information from the PMPS to ensure that the decision from the senior management bodies has positive impacts on the project. Moreover, the CEO and the board members are within different countries and the real-time reports would be most appropriate in meeting the completion of the project.

 

References

Burke, R. (2013). Project management: planning and control techniques. New Jersey, USA.

Caiado, R. G. G., Lima, G. B. A., de Mattos Nascimento, D. L., Neto, J. V., & de Oliveira, R. A. M. (2016). GUIDELINES TO RISK MANAGEMENT MATURITY IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. Brazilian Journal of Operations & Production Management13(3), 372-385.

Edelenbos, J., Van Buuren, A., Roth, D., & Winnubst, M. (2017). Stakeholder initiatives in flood risk management: exploring the role and impact of bottom-up initiatives in three ‘Room for the River’projects in the Netherlands. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management60(1), 47-66.

Furlong, C., De Silva, S., Gan, K., Guthrie, L., & Considine, R. (2017). Risk management, financial evaluation and funding for wastewater and stormwater reuse projects. Journal of environmental management191, 83-95.

Glendon, A. I., Clarke, S., & McKenna, E. (2016). Human safety and risk management. Crc Press.

Hopkin, P. (2017). Fundamentals of risk management: understanding, evaluating and implementing effective risk management. Kogan Page Publishers.

Javani, B., & Rwelamila, P. M. D. (2016). Risk management in IT projects–a case of the South African public sector. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business9(2), 389-413.

Kerzner, H. (2017). Project Risk Management. Project Management Case Studies, 355-422.

Koster, K. (2009). International project management. Sage.

Kotetunov, V. Y. (2016). Risk management in projects. Cherkasy University Bulletin: Economics Sciences, (1).

Martinelli, R. J., & Milosevic, D. Z. (2016). Project management toolbox: tools and techniques for the practicing project manager. John Wiley & Sons.

Project Management Institute. 2013. A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK guide) (5th ed.). Newtown Square, Pennsylvania: Project Management Institute.

Shrivastava, S. V., & Rathod, U. (2017). A risk management framework for distributed agile projects. Information and Software Technology85, 1-15.

Virine, L. (2016). Risk Management, from Projects to Portfolio: Step by Step Guide to Project Risk Management. World Scientific Pub.

 

 

 

 

 

Case Study

February 8, 2018

Case Study

Who were the key leadership players for this project?

The key leadership players for this project were the market traders who included the growers and wholesalers, the Melbourne Market Authority and the Victorian Government. The AUSVEG Victoria state manager Kurt Hermann, confirmed that despite the many teething issues they faced when they first opened the new Epping site, the vegetable growers were working with the Melbourne Market Authority to ensure that tenants and buyers were able to conduct business smoothly (Cross, & Brohman, 2015). Additionally, the chief executive of Melbourne Market Authority, Mark Markell said the market had done all it could to make the relocation process as pain-free as possible for its tenants despite a couple of snags received from the a couple of people.

What were the key leadership attributes needed to make the market’s relocation a successful project?

The first key attribute is having confidence in the project. By being confident the leaders will be able to make tough decisions, hold meetings with authority, and come up with constructive ideas that will make the relocation a successful project. In addition to this, a leadership that is confident is also associated with competence. Therefore, it will be easier for the parties involved to trust the leadership if they feel that it is confident enough with the relocation idea. The second key leadership attribute needed is the ability to manage the finances effectively. The relocation process should be budgeted appropriately to avoid misuse of finances. The leaders should also ensure that all the activities conducted are as per the drafted budget.

What impact did stakeholder perspectives have on the project’s success?  What impact did project leadership have on stakeholders?

Most of the stakeholders reacted very positively to the project. Most of their feedback included, “why didn’t we do this earlier?” and “it’s been an interesting change in the dynamics”. The impressive way in which they embraced the change and new environment contributed a lot to the success of the project. On the other hand, the project will benefit the stakeholders in many ways. For instance, the market at Epping is in close proximity to Melbourne’s freeways (Kotter, & Schlesinger, 2008). This will allow easier inbound delivery from farm to market and outbound delivery locally, interstate and overseas. This will open up a lot of opportunities for traders to export. Additionally, there will be a reduction in the handling, transport and labor costs.

In your view, what leadership lessons can be taken away from the delivery of this major project? What would you do in a similar situation?

The most important leadership quality that one can take away from the delivery of this major project is risk taking. Relocation of a business from one part to another is usually faced much uncertainty. Also, moving to a new location involves dealing with new neighbors and a new market, and there is no guarantee that the business will prosper in this new environment. Despite these uncertainties, the leaders of the project did not back down on the relocation. They took the risk which ended up in the benefit of the company. When faced with the same situation, I would do thorough research on the market before taking the risk to relocate. I would also compare the cost of relocation and the potential profits the company stands to earn after relocation. I would only recommend the relocation after considering all the factors involved.

How well do these lessons reflect the concepts and theory that are introduced on this subject?

The company took a whole ten years dealing with the uncertainty over the market’s relocation. They only decided to move forward with the project after ensuring that all factors worked in their favor. This teaches the importance of patience and thorough research before jumping on a business idea just because you think it’s good. There should also a proper budget and finance management plan put in place before any action is taken.

References

Cross, B.L., & Brohman, K. M. (2015). Project leadership: Creating value with an adaptive

Project organization (pp. 129-134). CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.

Kotter, J. P., & Schlesinger, L. A. (2008). Choosing strategies for changeHarvard Business

Review, July-August 2008, 130-139.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Outline and critically assess ‘Collective Behaviour’ approaches to protest

February 7, 2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Collective Behavior

Name

Institution

 

 

Outline and Critically Assess Collective Behavior Approaches to Protest

Brinkerhoff defines collective behaviour as a spontaneous action by groups of people who are in situations where the cultural rules of behaviour are vague, debated, as well as inadequate. In this regard, collective behaviour is a term that has been used by sociologists to refer to the various miscellaneous set of human behaviours that involve a large number of people. It should be noted that the behaviour can be relatively spontaneous implying that the behaviour could be spontaneous although somewhat planned. Also, the behaviour could be relatively unstructured implying that the behaviour could be somewhat organized and predictable although somehow unpredictable. Collective behaviours have different implications within a crowd and can lead to different reactions. As explained by sociologists Herbert Blumer, a group has different characteristics thereby leading to mixed reactions (Blumer, 1969). A protesting crowd, which is the focus of this essay analysis regarding collective behaviour, entails a group of people who gather in a place to protest against a social, political, cultural, or even an economic issue. This paper will evaluate various theories and approaches including the social psychological approach, the role of emotion and strain in protests as well as value added theory and contagion theory approaches to protest. In this regard, I will argue that all the approaches towards a protesting crowd indicate that emotion plays a central role in the group’s behaviour.

Development of emotions in a group plays a critical role in collective behaviours that lead to protest. In his research, Jasper (1998) noted that sociology locates the emotions in the group, not in the individual and the role that it plays in influencing the collective behaviour of a group. It was noted that the interaction between the individuals in a group has a role in the collective behaviour. Such interactions could be influenced by the hierarchies, cultural expectations, and organizational commands, among other formal or informal rituals (Jasper, 1998). In this regard, people tend to have emotions that can be socially predicted concerning their feelings. Members of a protesting group will, therefore, tend to show similar emotions at the same time which cannot be looked at regarding automatic contagion. Such people have same expectations and are affected by social structures as well as interactive processes that create a particular sensational feeling thereby impacting on their emotions. The finding by Jasper is consistent with the arguments by Blumer who defined a crowd as a group of people gathered together with a common purpose.

Additionally, Boutcher, Jekins and Dyke (2017) explained that a protesting crowd gather due to various emotional excitements that trigger them to behave in a similar way. This implies that a different emotion will trigger a different reaction. Such arguments are consistent with the findings by Kimball Young (an American Sociologist) who explained that a passive crowd could turn active if their emotions are excited. In this respect, a protesting crowd can be seen as an active crowd which is triggered by the same emotion on a particular issue such as political. For example, when employees feel offended by the employer, they are likely to take into streets to protests his actions. As Ormrod (2017) indicated, protesting crowds are a representation of socially shared beliefs that are triggered by common emotions. Due to the shared emotions, the crowd depicts identity fusion that is a coordinated as collective behaviour. This demonstrates the ideas by Durkheim (a French Sociologist) that an emotional communion that results from the interplay of various participants’ emotions is the heart of different social rituals such as protests.

The concept of shared emotions can be identified on the structural strain theory analysis and the ideologies by Blumer and Smelser. It can be noted that the views by Smelser reveal that collective behaviour needs to be explained. His theory suggests that the social movements that take place in the society are as a result of strain in the social structure (Crossley, 2012). Smelser posits that people are likely to join radical movements due to their experience of social dislocations in the form of social strain that creates emotions of grievance. In this regard, his notion of strain is identified to be the most critical component of the model regarding collective behaviour. It can be identified that he assumes that social structural strain excites the feelings of fantasy, anxiety, and hostility that plays a critical role in protests. Such notions are consisted of structural strain theory by Robert Merton that claims that deviance in the society is a result of a society’s distributed means to achieve the cultural goals. Strain causing deviance emotion that leads to protest results as a mismatch between the cultural goals and the institutionalized means used to reach the goals.

The fundamental question of deviance role in the society has been prevalent among scholars and sociologists who subscribe to the school of structural functionalism. Emile Durkheim solidified this approach noting that structural functionalism emphasizes on social solidarity that cannot be comprehended without investigating deviance. Therefore, a protesting crowd is a group of people who depict deviance on a particular issue thereby disrupting societal norms. This is illustrative of the social strain theory which states that social structures put pressure on people which makes them commit crimes. In this respect, a protesting crowd experiences pain thereby looks for means to satisfy their needs. The arguments made by Blumer regarding crowd psychology agree with the notions of Smelser grievances that result from strain impacts on people’s violent actions.

According to the value added theory approach by Neil Smelser, particular conditions must be in place for social movements to take place. The theory argues that combination of some determinants promote collective behaviours. Smelser suggested that grievances turn into a set of generalized beliefs that later turn into social movements (Crossley, 2012). The generalized beliefs and feelings have been termed as strains that refer to cycles of inadequate regulations within the societal level that have a negative impact on individual perceptions and opportunities. In this regard, individuals are likely to join hostile as well as radical social movements due to the social strain. Therefore, value added theory explains the collective behaviours that predict collective hostile outbursts. In this regard, even though there are no standard typologies regarding the social movements, emotions take an important role in their formation. This explains that a protesting group experiences religious, political, or economic influences that develop common emotions of resistance to a particular issue.

Another illustration suggested by the value-added approach is that politically motivated protests are more likely to take place in the societies that have limited access to the cultural goals. This implies that the cultural goals could be achievable, but they are inaccessible. The inaccessibility creates a strain with the efforts by members to attain them. In response, the structural strain causes a grievance among a group of people. As Smelmer argued, such people are likely to join radical movements of protest since they experience some forms of social dislocations (social strains). In a different view, strain theory sees crime as a function of a given conflict that exists between people and their recognizable goals as well as the means that are available to access them legally. While the legal means are limited, individuals turn to different avenues that are not legitimate with the aim of social achievement. This is explained by the different forms of deviance including innovation, conformity, and rebellion. In this respect, Blumer arguments concur with those of Smelser regarding grievances that result from the social strain.

Emotional causes of crowd protests can also be looked into from a contagion theory perspective. Contagion theory, as explained by Gustave Le Bon sought to explain crowd psychology particularly explain why people in a group tend to behave in a particular manner (Stolley, 2005). According to his arguments, crowds create certain emotions that make people behave in a particular manner. In this regard, crowds exert kind of a hypnotic influence on their members. Such a hypnotic influence together with the anonymity of belonging to a vast group of individuals leads to irrational as well as emotionally charged behaviour. This makes a frenzied crowd be somehow contagious with the contagion feeding itself and growing as time passes. This makes the crowd to assume their unique life that stirs emotions that drive people to behave irrationally and violently. An example of a contagion protest is the French Revolution of the 18th century that was exacerbated by hard economic times. Similar feelings spread among people who had similar suffering thereby making them protest against the government.

Herbert Blumer further developed the contagion theory with the introduction of the term milling. According to his arguments, individuals become extremely conscious during milling thereby making them respond to each other spontaneously while avoiding external provocations (Blumer, 1969). An independent action of an individual will result in displaying curious behavioural patterns. This creates emotions that make the group have common behaviour that would have deemed impossible. Such arguments support the explanations by Le Bon that emergent characteristics of a crowd result from an emotional invincible power. A crowd’s realization of numbers’ strength creates a sense of omnipotence which is coupled with an individual feeling of anonymity that yields instincts to behave in a particular manner. In this regard, a protesting crowd has an emotional stance that spreads through the crowd thereby impacting on their actions.

The study of emotions in social psychology has become an area of interest concerning protests. According to Stekelenburg (2013), anger is the common prototypical emotion that causes protest. This implies that group anger leads protests. In a group, the individual grievances, as well as feelings, are changed into shared grievances as well as emotions in a social network. This leads to social embeddedness that forms informal relationships between members of a particular group. For example, the effect of interaction within a social network concerning propensity to participate in politics is contingent regarding the quantity of political discussions that takes place in social networks about the politics. This explains why people belonging to a particular political party are likely to behave in a certain manner when something unpleasant is done to their party member. In this respect, a social-political world is created that mobilizes people towards a political protest. Being in the group makes one to have a high likelihood of being targeted with a mobilization message that creates common emotion among the members thereby leading to a protest. In this regard, social networks create emotions that function as communication channels for certain shared emotional messages.

In conclusion, emotions play a critical role in collective behaviour that leads to protest. A protesting crowd participate in collective behaviours that are motivated by various political, social, or economic issues that trigger a common emotion among the group members. The analysis of the theories and ideologies by Smelser and Blumer show similar conclusions that a common emotion triggers a particular reaction in a group. For example, it was noted from the value-added theory that social movements result from structural strains in society. Such social conditions made people angry and frustrated thereby resulting in a grievance. Without the structural strain, then people would have no reason to protest implying that the social movements would not arise. Besides, a focus on social psychology noted that a generalized belief creates a common feeling (emotion) that triggers people to come up with solutions to improve their condition. By so doing, they end up reacting violently. Also, the contagion theory posits that group phenomena are different from individual phenomena thereby suggesting unique psychological laws that govern different dynamics of a group. In this regard, emotions of strain created by various social situations make the group to react uniformly in a protesting manner.

 

 

References

Blumer, H. (1969). “Elementary collective groupings,” chapter 19 in a McLung Lee and (ed.)       Principles of Sociology. New York: Barnes and Noble Books.

Boutcher, S., Jekins, J., & Dyke, N. (2017). Strain, ethnic competition, and power devaluation:     white supremacist protest in the US, 1948-1997. Social Movement Studies, 1-15.

Crossley, N. (2012). “Smelser’s value added approach,” chapter 3 in Making Sense of Social         Movements. Open University Press: Birmingham, pp. 39-55.

Jasper, J. (1998). The emotions of protest: affective and reactive emotions in and around social     movements. Sociological Forum, 13(3), 397-424.

Ormrod, J. (2017). Smelser’s theory of collective behavior. Fantasy and Social Movements, 184-   199.

Stekelenburg, J. (2013). The political psychology of protest. European Psychologist, 18(4), 224-   234.

Stolley, K. S. (2005). The Basics of Sociology. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.

Outline and critically assess ‘Collective Behaviour’ approaches to protest

February 7, 2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Collective Behavior

Name

Institution

 

 

Outline and Critically Assess Collective Behavior Approaches to Protest

Introduction

Brinkerhoff defines collective behaviour as a spontaneous action by groups of people who are in situations where the cultural rules of behaviour are vague, debated, as well as inadequate. In this regard, collective behaviour is a term that has been used by sociologists to refer to the various miscellaneous set of human behaviours that involve a large number of people. It should be noted that the behaviour can be relatively spontaneous although somewhat planned. Collective behaviours have different implications within a crowd and can lead to different reactions. As explained by sociologists Herbert Blumer, a group has different characteristics thereby leading to mixed reactions (Blumer, 1969). A protesting crowd, which is the focus of this essay analysis regarding collective behaviour, entails a group of people who gather in a place to protest against a social, political, cultural, or even an economic issue. This paper will evaluate various theories and approaches including the social psychological approach, the role of emotion and strain in protests as well as value added theory and contagion theory approaches to protest. In this regard, I will argue that all the approaches towards a protesting crowd indicate that emotion plays a central role in the group’s behaviour.

Emotional Order Analysis

Development of emotions in a group plays a critical role in collective behaviours that lead to protest. In his research, Jasper (1998) noted that sociology locates the emotions in the group, not in the individual and the role that it plays in influencing the collective behaviour of a group. It was noted that the interaction between the individuals in a group has a role of creating similar emotions in the collective behaviour. Such interactions could be influenced by the hierarchies, cultural expectations, and organizational commands, among other formal or informal rituals (Jasper, 1998). In this regard, people tend to have emotions that can be socially predicted concerning their feelings. Members of a protesting group will, therefore, tend to show similar emotions at the same time which cannot be looked at regarding automatic contagion. Such people have same expectations and are affected by social structures as well as interactive processes that create a particular sensational feeling thereby impacting on their emotions. The finding by Jasper is consistent with the arguments by Blumer who defined a crowd as a group of people gathered together with a common purpose.

Additionally, Boutcher, Jekins and Dyke (2017) explained that a protesting crowd gather due to various emotional excitements that trigger them to behave in a similar way. This implies that a different emotion will trigger a different reaction. Such arguments are consistent with the findings by Kimball Young (an American Sociologist) who explained that a passive crowd could turn active if their emotions are excited. In this respect, a protesting crowd can be seen as an active crowd which is triggered by the same emotion on a particular issue such as political. For example, when employees feel offended by the employer, they are likely to take into streets to protests his actions. As Ormrod (2017) indicated, protesting crowds are a representation of socially shared beliefs that are triggered by common emotions. Due to the shared emotions, the crowd depicts identity fusion that is a coordinated as collective behaviour. This demonstrates the ideas by Durkheim (a French Sociologist) that an emotional communion that results from the interplay of various participants’ emotions is the heart of different social rituals such as protests.

Structural Strain to Grievance

Smelser also argues that emotions have an important role in triggering collective behaviors. He argues that collective behaviour needs to be explained to understand how it happens. His theory suggests that the social movements that take place in the society are as a result of strain in the social structure (Crossley, 2012). Smelser argues that people are likely to join radical movements due to their experience of social dislocations in the form of social strain that creates emotions of grievance. In this regard, his notion of strain is identified to be the most critical component of the model regarding collective behaviour. It can be identified that he assumes that social structural strain excites the feelings of fantasy, anxiety, and hostility that plays a critical role in protests.

Structural strain theory by Robert Merton claims that deviance in the society is a result of a society’s distributed means to achieve the cultural goals. Strain causing deviance emotion that leads to protest results as a mismatch between the cultural goals and the institutionalized means used to reach the goals. The fundamental question of deviance role in the society has been prevalent among scholars and sociologists who subscribe to the school of structural functionalism. Emile Durkheim solidified this approach noting that structural functionalism emphasizes on social solidarity that cannot be comprehended without investigating deviance. Therefore, a protesting crowd is a group of people who depict deviance on a particular issue thereby disrupting societal norms. This is illustrative of the social strain theory which states that social structures put pressure on people which makes them commit crimes. In this respect, a protesting crowd experiences pain thereby looks for means to satisfy their needs.

Value Added Theory Approach

According to the value added theory approach by Neil Smelser, particular conditions must be in place for social movements to take place. The theory argues that combination of some determinants promote collective behaviours. Smelser suggested that grievances turn into a set of generalized beliefs that later turn into social movements (Crossley, 2012). The generalized beliefs and feelings have been termed as strains that refer to cycles of inadequate regulations within the societal level that have a negative impact on individual perceptions and opportunities. In this regard, individuals are likely to join hostile as well as radical social movements due to the social strain. Therefore, value added theory explains the collective behaviours that predict collective hostile outbursts. In this regard, even though there are no standard typologies regarding the social movements, emotions take an important role in their formation. This explains that a protesting group experiences religious, political, or economic influences that develop common emotions of resistance to a particular issue.

Another illustration suggested by the value-added approach is that politically motivated protests are more likely to take place in the societies that have limited access to the cultural goals. This implies that the cultural goals could be achievable, but they are inaccessible. The inaccessibility creates a strain with the efforts by members to attain them. In response, the structural strain causes a grievance among a group of people. Smelser identified that when people experience social strain, they are likely to join radical movements of protest. In this regard, strain theory sees crime as a function of a given conflict that exists between people and their recognizable goals as well as the means that are available to access them legally. While the legal means are limited, individuals turn to different avenues that are not legitimate with the aim of social achievement. This is explained by the different forms of deviance including innovation, conformity, and rebellion.

Contagion Theory Approach

Emotional causes of crowd protests can also be looked into from a contagion theory perspective. Contagion theory, as explained by Gustave Le Bon sought to explain crowd psychology particularly explain why people in a group tend to behave in a particular manner (Stolley, 2005). According to his arguments, crowds create certain emotions that make people behave in a particular manner. In this regard, crowds exert kind of a hypnotic influence on their members. Such a hypnotic influence together with the anonymity of belonging to a vast group of individuals leads to irrational as well as emotionally charged behaviour. This makes a frenzied crowd be somehow contagious with the contagion feeding itself and growing as time passes. This makes the crowd to assume their unique life that stirs emotions that drive people to behave irrationally and violently. An example of a contagion protest is the French Revolution of the 18th century that was exacerbated by hard economic times. Similar feelings spread among people who had similar suffering thereby making them protest against the government.

Herbert Blumer further developed the contagion theory with the introduction of the term milling. According to his arguments, individuals become extremely conscious during milling thereby making them respond to each other spontaneously while avoiding external provocations (Blumer, 1969). An independent action of an individual will result in displaying curious behavioural patterns. This creates emotions that make the group have common behaviour that would have deemed impossible. Such arguments support the explanations by Le Bon that emergent characteristics of a crowd result from an emotional invincible power. A crowd’s realization of numbers’ strength creates a sense of omnipotence which is coupled with an individual feeling of anonymity that yields instincts to behave in a particular manner. In this regard, a protesting crowd has an emotional stance that spreads through the crowd thereby impacting on their actions.

Social Psychological Approach

The study of emotions in social psychology has become an area of interest concerning protests. According to Stekelenburg (2013), anger is the common prototypical emotion that causes protest. This implies that group anger leads protests. In a group, the individual grievances, as well as feelings, are changed into shared grievances as well as emotions in a social network. This leads to social embeddedness that forms informal relationships between members of a particular group. For example, the effect of interaction within a social network concerning propensity to participate in politics is contingent regarding the quantity of political discussions that takes place in social networks about the politics. This explains why people belonging to a particular political party are likely to behave in a certain manner when something unpleasant is done to their party member. In this respect, a social-political world is created that mobilizes people towards a political protest. Being in the group makes one to have a high likelihood of being targeted with a mobilization message that creates common emotion among the members thereby leading to a protest. In this regard, social networks create emotions that function as communication channels for certain shared emotional messages.

Conclusion

In conclusion, emotions play a critical role in collective behaviour that leads to protest. A protesting crowd participate in collective behaviours that are motivated by various political, social, or economic issues that trigger a common emotion among the group members. The analysis of the theories and ideologies by Smelser and Blumer show similar conclusions that a common emotion triggers a particular reaction in a group. For example, it was noted from the value-added theory that social movements result from structural strains in society. Such social conditions made people angry and frustrated thereby resulting in a grievance. Without the structural strain, then people would have no reason to protest implying that the social movements would not arise. Besides, a focus on social psychology noted that a generalized belief creates a common feeling (emotion) that triggers people to come up with solutions to improve their condition. By so doing, they end up reacting violently. Also, the contagion theory posits that group phenomena are different from individual phenomena thereby suggesting unique psychological laws that govern different dynamics of a group. In this regard, emotions of strain created by various social situations make the group to react uniformly in a protesting manner.

 

 

References

Blumer, H. (1969). “Elementary collective groupings,” chapter 19 in a McLung Lee and (ed.)       Principles of Sociology. New York: Barnes and Noble Books.

Boutcher, S., Jekins, J., & Dyke, N. (2017). Strain, ethnic competition, and power devaluation:     white supremacist protest in the US, 1948-1997. Social Movement Studies, 1-15.

Crossley, N. (2012). “Smelser’s value added approach,” chapter 3 in Making Sense of Social         Movements. Open University Press: Birmingham, pp. 39-55.

Jasper, J. (1998). The emotions of protest: affective and reactive emotions in and around social     movements. Sociological Forum, 13(3), 397-424.

Ormrod, J. (2017). Smelser’s theory of collective behavior. Fantasy and Social Movements, 184-   199.

Stekelenburg, J. (2013). The political psychology of protest. European Psychologist, 18(4), 224-   234.

Stolley, K. S. (2005). The Basics of Sociology. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.

Outline and critically assess ‘Collective Behaviour’ approaches to protest

February 7, 2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Collective Behavior

Name

Institution

 

 

Outline and Critically Assess Collective Behavior Approaches to Protest

Introduction

Brinkerhoff defines collective behaviour as a spontaneous action by groups of people who are in situations where the cultural rules of behaviour are vague, debated, as well as inadequate. In this regard, collective behaviour is a term that has been used by sociologists to refer to the various miscellaneous set of human behaviours that involve a large number of people. It should be noted that the behaviour can be relatively spontaneous although somewhat planned. Collective behaviours have different implications within a crowd and can lead to different reactions. There are different types of collective behaviors that result from different reactions. A protesting crowd, which is the focus of this essay analysis regarding collective behaviour, entails a group of people who gather in a place to protest against a social, political, cultural, or even an economic issue (Blumer, 1969). This paper will evaluate various theories and approaches including the social psychological approach, the role of emotion and strain in protests as well as value added theory and contagion theory approaches to protest. In this regard, I will argue that all the approaches towards a protesting crowd indicate that emotion plays a central role in the group’s behaviour.

Emotional Order Analysis

Development of emotions in a group plays a critical role in collective behaviours that lead to protest. In his research, Jasper (1998) noted that sociology locates the emotions in the group, not in the individual and the role that it plays in influencing the collective behaviour of a group. It was noted that the interaction between the individuals in a group has a role of creating similar emotions in the collective behaviour. Such interactions could be influenced by the cultural expectations among other formal or informal rituals (Jasper, 1998). In this regard, people tend to have emotions that can be socially predicted concerning their feelings. For example, members of a protesting group will tend to show similar emotions at the same time. Such people are affected by social structures as well as interactive processes that create a particular sensational feeling thereby impacting on their emotions. Jasper (1998) argued that people who share similar emotions form social movements and take collective action towards protesting a particular issue. An example of social movements include the Iranian Revolution. In the revolution, many people who shared the same emotions of grievance took to the streets to protest. As Jasper (1998) noted, emotions accompany all forms of social actions implying that social movements are influenced by context-specific emotions. In some cases, the emotions may arise in an individual before joining the protesters. When several people who share similar emotions meet, they are likely to behave in a similar way.

Additionally, Boutcher, Jekins and Dyke (2017) explained that a protesting crowd gather due to various emotional excitements that trigger them to behave in a similar way. This implies that a different emotion will trigger a different reaction. Such arguments are consistent with the findings by Kimball Young (an American Sociologist) who explained that a passive crowd could turn active if their emotions are excited. In this respect, a protesting crowd can be seen as an active crowd which is triggered by the same emotion on a particular issue such as political. For example, when employees feel offended by the employer, they are likely to take into streets to protests his actions. As Ormrod (2017) indicated, protesting crowds are a representation of socially shared beliefs that are triggered by common emotions. Due to the shared emotions, the crowd depicts identity fusion that is a coordinated as collective behaviour. This demonstrates the ideas by Durkheim that an emotional communion that results from the interplay of various participants’ emotions is the heart of different social rituals such as protests.

Structural Strain to Grievance

Smelser argues that emotions have an important role in triggering collective behaviors. He argues that collective behaviour needs to be explained to understand how it happens. His theory suggests that the social movements that take place in the society are as a result of strain in the social structure (Crossley, 2012). Smelser argues that people are likely to join radical movements due to their experience of social dislocations in the form of social strain that creates emotions of grievance. In this regard, his notion of strain is identified to be the most critical component of the model regarding collective behaviour. It can be identified that he assumes that social structural strain excites the feelings of fantasy, anxiety, and hostility that plays a critical role in protests.

Structural strain theory by Robert Merton claims that deviance in the society is a result of a society’s distributed means to achieve the cultural goals. Strain causing deviance emotion that leads to protest results as a mismatch between the cultural goals and the institutionalized means used to reach the goals. The fundamental question of deviance role in the society has been prevalent among scholars and sociologists who subscribe to the school of structural functionalism. Emile Durkheim solidified this approach noting that structural functionalism emphasizes on social solidarity that cannot be comprehended without investigating deviance. Therefore, a protesting crowd is a group of people who depict deviance on a particular issue thereby disrupting societal norms. This is illustrative of the social strain theory which states that social structures put pressure on people which makes them commit crimes. In this respect, a protesting crowd experiences pain thereby looks for means to satisfy their needs.

Value Added Theory Approach

According to the value added theory approach by Neil Smelser, particular conditions must be in place for social movements to take place. The theory argues that combination of some determinants promote collective behaviours. Smelser suggested that grievances turn into a set of generalized beliefs that later turn into social movements (Crossley, 2012). The generalized beliefs and feelings have been termed as strains that refer to cycles of inadequate regulations within the societal level that have a negative impact on individual perceptions and opportunities. In this regard, individuals are likely to join hostile as well as radical social movements due to the social strain. Therefore, value added theory explains the collective behaviours that predict collective hostile outbursts. In this regard, even though there are no standard typologies regarding the social movements, emotions take an important role in their formation. This explains that a protesting group experiences religious, political, or economic influences that develop common emotions of resistance to a particular issue.

Another illustration suggested by the value-added approach is that politically motivated protests are more likely to take place in the societies that have limited access to the cultural goals. This implies that the cultural goals could be achievable, but they are inaccessible. The inaccessibility creates a strain with the efforts by members to attain them. In response, the structural strain causes a grievance among a group of people. Smelser identified that when people experience social strain, they are likely to join radical movements of protest. In this regard, strain theory sees crime as a function of a given conflict that exists between people and their recognizable goals as well as the means that are available to access them legally. While the legal means are limited, individuals turn to different avenues that are not legitimate with the aim of social achievement. This is explained by the different forms of deviance including innovation, conformity, and rebellion.

Contagion Theory Approach

Emotional causes of crowd protests can also be looked into from a contagion theory perspective. Contagion theory, as explained by Gustave Le Bon sought to explain crowd psychology particularly explain why people in a group tend to behave in a particular manner (Stolley, 2005). According to his arguments, crowds create certain emotions that make people behave in a particular manner. In this regard, crowds exert kind of a hypnotic influence on their members. Such a hypnotic influence together with the anonymity of belonging to a vast group of individuals leads to irrational as well as emotionally charged behaviour. This makes a frenzied crowd be somehow contagious with the contagion feeding itself and growing as time passes. This makes the crowd to assume their unique life that stirs emotions that drive people to behave irrationally and violently. An example of a contagion protest is the French Revolution of the 18th century that was exacerbated by hard economic times. Similar feelings spread among people who had similar suffering thereby making them protest against the government.

Herbert Blumer further developed the contagion theory with the introduction of the term milling. According to his arguments, individuals become extremely conscious during milling thereby making them respond to each other spontaneously while avoiding external provocations (Blumer, 1969). An independent action of an individual will result in displaying curious behavioural patterns. This creates emotions that make the group have common behaviour that would have deemed impossible. Such arguments support the explanations by Le Bon that emergent characteristics of a crowd result from an emotional invincible power. A crowd’s realization of numbers’ strength creates a sense of omnipotence which is coupled with an individual feeling of anonymity that yields instincts to behave in a particular manner. In this regard, a protesting crowd has an emotional stance that spreads through the crowd thereby impacting on their actions.

Social Psychological Approach

The study of emotions in social psychology has become an area of interest concerning protests. According to Stekelenburg (2013), anger is the common prototypical emotion that causes protest. This implies that group anger leads protests. In a group, the individual grievances, as well as feelings, are changed into shared grievances as well as emotions in a social network. This leads to social embeddedness that forms informal relationships between members of a particular group. For example, the effect of interaction within a social network concerning propensity to participate in politics is contingent regarding the quantity of political discussions that takes place in social networks about the politics. This explains why people belonging to a particular political party are likely to behave in a certain manner when something unpleasant is done to their party member. In this respect, a social-political world is created that mobilizes people towards a political protest. Being in the group makes one to have a high likelihood of being targeted with a mobilization message that creates common emotion among the members thereby leading to a protest. In this regard, social networks create emotions that function as communication channels for certain shared emotional messages.

Conclusion

In conclusion, emotions play a critical role in collective behaviour that leads to protest. A protesting crowd participate in collective behaviours that are motivated by various political, social, or economic issues that trigger a common emotion among the group members. The analysis of the theories and ideologies by Smelser and Blumer show similar conclusions that a common emotion triggers a particular reaction in a group. For example, it was noted from the value-added theory that social movements result from structural strains in society. Such social conditions made people angry and frustrated thereby resulting in a grievance. Without the structural strain, then people would have no reason to protest implying that the social movements would not arise. Besides, a focus on social psychology noted that a generalized belief creates a common feeling (emotion) that triggers people to come up with solutions to improve their condition. By so doing, they end up reacting violently. Also, the contagion theory posits that group phenomena are different from individual phenomena thereby suggesting unique psychological laws that govern different dynamics of a group. In this regard, emotions of strain created by various social situations make the group to react uniformly in a protesting manner.

 

 

References

Blumer, H. (1969). “Elementary collective groupings,” chapter 19 in a McLung Lee and (ed.)       Principles of Sociology. New York: Barnes and Noble Books.

Boutcher, S., Jekins, J., & Dyke, N. (2017). Strain, ethnic competition, and power devaluation:     white supremacist protest in the US, 1948-1997. Social Movement Studies, 1-15.

Crossley, N. (2012). “Smelser’s value added approach,” chapter 3 in Making Sense of Social         Movements. Open University Press: Birmingham, pp. 39-55.

Jasper, J. (1998). The emotions of protest: affective and reactive emotions in and around social     movements. Sociological Forum, 13(3), 397-424.

Ormrod, J. (2017). Smelser’s theory of collective behavior. Fantasy and Social Movements, 184-   199.

Stekelenburg, J. (2013). The political psychology of protest. European Psychologist, 18(4), 224-   234.

Stolley, K. S. (2005). The Basics of Sociology. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.

 

Outline and critically assess ‘Collective Behaviour’ approaches to protest

February 7, 2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Collective Behavior

Name

Institution

 

 

Outline and Critically Assess Collective Behavior Approaches to Protest

Introduction

Brinkerhoff defines collective behaviour as a spontaneous action by groups of people who are in situations where the cultural rules of behaviour are vague, debated, as well as inadequate. In this regard, collective behaviour is a term that has been used by sociologists to refer to the various miscellaneous set of human behaviours that involve a large number of people. It should be noted that the behaviour can be relatively spontaneous although somewhat planned. Collective behaviours have different implications within a crowd and can lead to different reactions. A protesting crowd, which is the focus of this essay analysis regarding collective behaviour, entails a group of people who gather in a place to protest against a social, political, cultural, or even an economic issue (Blumer, 1969). This paper will evaluate various theories and approaches including the social psychological approach, the role of emotion and strain in protests as well as value added theory and contagion theory approaches to protest. In this regard, I will argue that all the approaches towards a protesting crowd indicate that emotion plays a central role in the group’s behaviour.

Emotional Order Analysis

Development of emotions in a group plays a critical role in collective behaviours that lead to protest. In his research, Jasper (1998) noted that sociology locates the emotions in the group, not in the individual and the role that it plays in influencing the collective behaviour of a group. It was noted that the interaction between the individuals in a group has a role of creating similar emotions in the collective behaviour. Such interactions could be influenced by the cultural expectations among other formal or informal rituals (Jasper, 1998). In this regard, people tend to have emotions that can be socially predicted concerning their feelings. For example, members of a protesting group will tend to show similar emotions at the same time. Such people are affected by social structures as well as interactive processes that create a particular sensational feeling thereby impacting on their emotions. Jasper (1998) argued that people who share similar emotions form social movements and take collective action towards protesting a particular issue. An example of social movements include the Iranian Revolution. In the revolution, many people who shared the same emotions of grievance took to the streets to protest. As Jasper (1998) noted, emotions accompany all forms of social actions implying that social movements are influenced by context-specific emotions. In some cases, the emotions may arise in an individual before joining the protesters. When several people who share similar emotions meet, they are likely to behave in a similar way. As such, protests are manifestations of emotions.

Different emotions trigger different reactions or thoughts. Psychologist view thoughts as mental cognitions such as one’s beliefs, opinions and ideas about oneself or about the world. Human beings have the ability to bring any situation or experience to their point of view depending on the emotions. When a thought is repeated over and over again, it becomes and attitude. Thoughts are usually under conscious control despite the fact that they are shaped by education, life experiences and genetics. Boutcher, Jekins and Dyke (2017) observe that people behave the way they do depending on emotional excitements triggered in them. As such, the behavior of a person can be described in terms of their emotions. Different things arouse different emotions in different people. While a situation may arouse positive emotions in a person, the same situation may arouse negative emotions in another. Ormrod (2017) reveals that although people all over the world have differing opinions, beliefs and ideas, they have similar feelings. The feelings, however, change depending on the situation. Emotions can be contagious. One may be motivated to do something because another one is doing it. Although there is a shared factor of universality between emotions of different people, each person may experience them and respond to them in a different way. Some people may understand their emotions very easily but others may take some time before understanding their emotions.

Structural Strain to Grievance

People are motivated to do something by the prevailing environment. This is what the theory of structural strain to grievance seeks to explicate. The theory suggests that the social movements that take place in the society are as a result of strain in the social structure (Crossley, 2012). Smelser argues that people are likely to join radical movements due to their experience of social dislocations in the form of social strain that creates emotions of grievance. In this regard, his notion of strain is identified to be the most critical component of the model regarding collective behaviour. It can be identified that he assumes that social structural strain plays a critical role in protests.

Structural strain theory by Robert Merton claims that deviance in the society is a result of a society’s distributed means to achieve the cultural goals. Strain causing deviance emotion that leads to protest results as a mismatch between the cultural goals and the institutionalized means used to reach the goals. The fundamental question of deviance role in the society has been prevalent among scholars and sociologists who subscribe to the school of structural functionalism. Emile Durkheim solidified this approach noting that structural functionalism emphasizes on social solidarity that cannot be comprehended without investigating deviance. Therefore, a protesting crowd is a group of people who depict deviance on a particular issue thereby disrupting societal norms. This is illustrative of the social strain theory which states that social structures put pressure on people which makes them commit crimes. In this respect, a protesting crowd experiences pain thereby looks for means to satisfy their needs.

Value Added Theory Approach

According to the value added theory approach by Neil Smelser, particular conditions must be in place for social movements to take place. The theory argues that combination of some determinants promote collective behaviours. Smelser suggested that grievances turn into a set of generalized beliefs that later turn into social movements (Crossley, 2012). The generalized beliefs and feelings have been termed as strains that refer to cycles of inadequate regulations within the societal level that have a negative impact on individual perceptions and opportunities. In this regard, individuals are likely to join hostile as well as radical social movements due to the social strain. Therefore, value added theory explains the collective behaviours that predict collective hostile outbursts. In this regard, even though there are no standard typologies regarding the social movements, emotions take an important role in their formation. This supports another illustration suggested by the value-added approach which states that politically motivated protests are more likely to take place in the societies that have limited access to the cultural goals. This implies that the cultural goals could be achievable, but they are inaccessible. The inaccessibility creates a strain with the efforts by members to attain them. In response, the structural strain causes a grievance among a group of people. Smelser identified that when people experience social strain, they are likely to join radical movements of protests. This is because they develop a similar mindset. In this regard, strain theory sees crime as a function of a given conflict that exists between people and their recognizable goals as well as the means that are available to access them legally. While the legal means are limited, individuals turn to different avenues that are not legitimate with the aim of social achievement.

Contagion Theory Approach

Emotional causes of crowd protests can also be looked into from a contagion theory perspective. Contagion theory, as explained by Gustave Le Bon sought to explain crowd psychology particularly explain why people in a group tend to behave in a particular manner (Stolley, 2005). According to his arguments, crowds create certain emotions that make people behave in a particular manner. In this regard, crowds exert kind of a hypnotic influence on their members. Such a hypnotic influence together with the anonymity of belonging to a vast group of individuals leads to irrational as well as emotionally charged behaviour. This makes a frenzied crowd be somehow contagious with the contagion feeding itself and growing as time passes. This makes the crowd to assume their unique life that stirs emotions that drive people to behave irrationally and violently. An example of a contagion protest is the French Revolution of the 18th century that was exacerbated by hard economic times. Similar feelings spread among people who had similar suffering thereby making them protest against the government.

Herbert Blumer further developed the contagion theory with the introduction of the term milling. According to his arguments, individuals become extremely conscious during milling thereby making them respond to each other spontaneously while avoiding external provocations (Blumer, 1969). An independent action of an individual will result in displaying curious behavioural patterns. This creates emotions that make the group have common behaviour that would have deemed impossible. Such arguments support the explanations by Le Bon that emergent characteristics of a crowd result from an emotional invincible power. A crowd’s realization of numbers’ strength creates a sense of omnipotence which is coupled with an individual feeling of anonymity that yields instincts to behave in a particular manner. In this regard, a protesting crowd has an emotional stance that spreads through the crowd thereby impacting on their actions.

Social Psychological Approach

The study of emotions in social psychology has become an area of interest concerning protests. According to Stekelenburg (2013), anger is the common prototypical emotion that causes protest. This implies that group anger leads protests. In a group, the individual grievances, as well as feelings, are changed into shared grievances as well as emotions in a social network. This leads to social embeddedness that forms informal relationships between members of a particular group. For example, the effect of interaction within a social network concerning propensity to participate in politics is contingent regarding the quantity of political discussions that takes place in social networks about the politics. This explains why people belonging to a particular political party are likely to behave in a certain manner when something unpleasant is done to their party member. In this respect, a social-political world is created that mobilizes people towards a political protest. Being in the group makes one to have a high likelihood of being targeted with a mobilization message that creates common emotion among the members thereby leading to a protest. In this regard, social networks create emotions that function as communication channels for certain shared emotional messages.

Conclusion

In conclusion, emotions play a critical role in collective behaviour that leads to protest. A protesting crowd participate in collective behaviours that are motivated by various political, social, or economic issues that trigger a common emotion among the group members. The analysis of the theories and ideologies by Smelser and Blumer show similar conclusions that a common emotion triggers a particular reaction in a group. For example, it was noted from the value-added theory that social movements result from structural strains in society. Such social conditions made people angry and frustrated thereby resulting in a grievance. Without the structural strain, then people would have no reason to protest implying that the social movements would not arise. Besides, a focus on social psychology noted that a generalized belief creates a common feeling (emotion) that triggers people to come up with solutions to improve their condition. By so doing, they end up reacting violently. Also, the contagion theory posits that group phenomena are different from individual phenomena thereby suggesting unique psychological laws that govern different dynamics of a group. In this regard, emotions of strain created by various social situations make the group to react uniformly in a protesting manner.

 

 

References

Blumer, H. (1969). “Elementary collective groupings,” chapter 19 in a McLung Lee and (ed.)       Principles of Sociology. New York: Barnes and Noble Books.

Boutcher, S., Jekins, J., & Dyke, N. (2017). Strain, ethnic competition, and power devaluation:     white supremacist protest in the US, 1948-1997. Social Movement Studies, 1-15.

Crossley, N. (2012). “Smelser’s value added approach,” chapter 3 in Making Sense of Social         Movements. Open University Press: Birmingham, pp. 39-55.

Jasper, J. (1998). The emotions of protest: affective and reactive emotions in and around social     movements. Sociological Forum, 13(3), 397-424.

Ormrod, J. (2017). Smelser’s theory of collective behavior. Fantasy and Social Movements, 184-   199.

Stekelenburg, J. (2013). The political psychology of protest. European Psychologist, 18(4), 224-   234.

Stolley, K. S. (2005). The Basics of Sociology. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.