THE US ELECTION OF 1968

Political campaigns significantly rely on the historical and contemporary events. The presidential candidates constructed their campaigns using several emerging issues at the time. In 1967, the Democratic senator Eugene McCarthy questioned President Johnson on his Vietnam War policies.[1] This moment was significant in the upcoming 1968 election. For instance, the Vietnam War and the consequent antiwar movement shaped the political campaign adverts. Richard M. Nixon, who was the Republican candidate, constructed his campaign to promise that he will ensure the conclusion of the Vietnam War, the restoration of law and order, and the re-establishment of the traditional American ideals. Nixon’s campaign used the unrest caused by the Vietnam War and the civil rights movement to promise an end to the riots and a return to stability in the country.

1968 was a tumultuous year in American history. There was a significant lack of advancement in the Vietnam War. Within five years, American troops in Vietnam had increased from 16,000 to over 500,000.[2] The death toll of the American forces steadily increased hence resulting in rising unpopularity of the war. The “living-room war” received nightly coverage throughout the country thus igniting an antiwar movement. On March 31, President Johnson announced that he would not seek reelection. Additionally, the slow progress of civil rights implementation caused unrest among the African Americans.[3] There was an increase in sporadic violence and crime in various cities. On April 4, the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. after just four days triggered riots in over 100 cities in the country.

The assassination of Robert F. Kennedy occurred in June after he won the California Primary. The assassinations influenced the perception of the population.[4] Many Americans believed that the social fabric of the country was in shambles. Markedly, Vice President Hubert Humphrey became the Democratic nominee even though he had not won any primaries. Factionalism threatened the unity of the Democratic Party. Consequently, the Democratic convention in Chicago was chaotic due to the aggressive altercations between the police and antiwar protestors.

The Republicans nominated Nixon who branded himself as the voice of the “silent majority” of law-abiding citizens.[5] The campaign targeted the middle-class white Americans who supported the status quo rather than the radical movements that occurred at the time. He claimed to speak for them in the middle of the social upheaval due to the war. Nixon pledged to restore the country’s stability to what it used to be during the rule of Eisenhower. The slogan for his campaign was “vote like your whole world depended on it.” The statement gave the illusion that the country is in deep crisis that only Nixon can salvage. The contemporary issues, especially the Vietnam War and the civil rights movement played a pivotal role in molding the structure of the campaign advertisements.[6]

Eugene Jones, a filmmaker, was the creator of Nixon’s campaign advertisement. The adverts entailed the use of montages of still photographs and jarring music.[7] The campaign team portrayed an image that showed that the country is out of control. The pictures illustrated an increase in crime rates and violence all over the country. The campaign clearly associated the Democratic administration to these challenges. Since Humphrey was part of the government, the adverts directly linked him to the problems. Notably, an advert contained purposefully orchestrated images of a smiling Humphrey next to photographs of the war in Vietnam and the turbulent Democratic convention. The Nixon campaign adverts aimed at insinuating that Humphrey was either the root of these problems or was indifferent towards them.

Jones used the upheavals that resulted from the existence of the Vietnam War and the increase in the involvement of American troops.[8] Consequently, the controversial nature of some of the adverts determined the understanding of the events by various sections of the public. For instance, the majority of the white population responded positively to the idea of restoring law and order and American values. The surge of violence due to riots during the civil rights movement made more Americans embrace the notion of stability.[9] Additionally, the rising death toll of the American troops in the Vietnam War decreased the popularity of the Johnson administration that Humphrey was the vice president.[10] The carefully structured campaigns emphasized the notion that Nixon would provide the much-needed change that Humphrey and the current government had failed to deliver.

Political campaigns play a major role in how the society assesses contemporary events. Political candidates analyze the perceptions of the public towards the events to determine the direction that their campaign advertisements will take. There is interdependence between the public’s understanding of an issue and the political campaigns. For instance, the unpopularity of the Vietnam War was already increasing even before the campaign intensified. However, the broadcasting of Nixon campaign adverts made a larger section of the population blame the challenges on Humphrey since he was part of the ruling administration.

 

Bibliography

Hall, Jacquelyn. “The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past.” Journal of American History, 91(4), 1233 (2005):  http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3660172

Latham, Michael. “Redirecting the revolution? The USA and the failure of nation-building in South Vietnam.” Third World Quarterly, 27(1), 27-41 (2006): http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01436590500368743

“The election of 1968.” Khan Academy, 2018. Web. 5 Apr. 2018.

“The Living Room Candidate – Commercials – 1968 – Vietnam.” Livingroomcandidate.org, 2016. Web. 5 Apr. 2018.

            [1] “The election of 1968.” Khan Academy, 2018. Web. 5 Apr. 2018.

            [2] “The Living Room Candidate – Commercials – 1968 – Vietnam.” Livingroomcandidate.org, 2016. Web. 5 Apr. 2018.

            [3] Hall, Jacquelyn. “The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past.” Journal Of American History, 91(4), 1233 (2005):  http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3660172

            [4] “The Living Room Candidate – Commercials – 1968 – Vietnam.” Livingroomcandidate.org, 2016. Web. 5 Apr. 2018.

            [5] “The election of 1968.” Khan Academy, 2018. Web. 5 Apr. 2018.

 

            [6] Latham, Michael. “Redirecting the revolution? The USA and the failure of nation-building in South Vietnam.” Third World Quarterly, 27(1), 27-41 (2006): http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01436590500368743

            [7] “The Living Room Candidate – Commercials – 1968 – Vietnam.” Livingroomcandidate.org, 2016. Web. 5 Apr. 2018.

            [8] Latham, Michael. “Redirecting the revolution? The USA and the failure of nation-building in South Vietnam.” Third World Quarterly, 27(1), 27-41 (2006): http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01436590500368743

 

            [9] Hall, Jacquelyn. “The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past.” Journal Of American History, 91(4), 1233 (2005):  http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3660172

            [10] “The election of 1968.” Khan Academy, 2018. Web. 5 Apr. 2018.

 

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THE IMPACTS OF BREXIT IN THE UK’S GLOBAL ECONOMY COMPETITIVENESS

 

THE IMPACTS OF BREXIT IN THE UK’S GLOBAL ECONOMY COMPETITIVENESS

 

The United Kingdom has been hailed as a haven for starting business and different investment ventures, but this stands to be significantly affected by the current vote to exit the European Union with the move severing the free trade ties between the UK and EU’s economies. As a trading bloc, the EU has helped translate benefits through access to high-quality goods and services at lower expenses. Reduced cost of products, services and labor movement has seen increased sales and profits. Increase trade has in response spearheaded higher productivity, better incomes, and living standards (Finck, 2017). The Brexit has significantly aggravated the economic well-being of the United Kingdom. Increased instability is predicted to negatively impact on the consumption, foreign trade and even reduction in investments. The exit from the Single Market is anticipated to put strains on the economy due to increased costs of business and movement of labor. The British pound fell to the lowest level in three decades after the exit vote with inflation expected to rise consequently.

With the UK exporting almost half of the total global exports it is supposed to sustain losses worth billions of euros if a new trade agreement with EU is not in place when they leave the single market. As a result, the country’s competitiveness in the EU and global markets is anticipated to take a plunge with increased operational tariffs translating to low profits. The move also digs into the country’s GDP with implications taking a share between 1.5 to 3.9% while 8.8% lowers the exports. The rate of unemployment is, besides expected to rise with estimates recording an increase to 6.5% attributed to the recession (PATHMARAJAH, 2016). The numbers of immigrants considering jobs outside the UK has dramatically increased and could compromise the nation’s labor competitiveness, with huge gaps expected to add stress in demand for skilled workers and suppliers. This will profoundly lower the productivity of its systems.

Besides, half of UK’s foreign investments come from the rest of the European Union with trade relations after Brexit expected to decrease investments’ prospects in the UK significantly. Analysts predict a 22% decrease in the foreign direct investments (FDI) following the exit with lower trade owing to greater obstructions to trade. Besides losses in the United Kingdom, the rest of European Union members will also feel the pinch with estimated combined losses amounting to between 12 and 28 billion euros. Countries deeply hit by the Brexit trade the most with the UK, such as Ireland, Netherlands, and Belgium (Ponzano, 2016). After the Brexit, the UK is set to miss out on trade deals and future market integration within the EU as well as any future reductions in intra-EU trade costs which have been declining at a rate of 40% faster compared to OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries.

The Brexit will enable the UK to control and prohibit the free flow of immigrants from the EU, disregards the EU guidelines when taxing and even do away with EU membership fees and budgetary contributions (KOCH, 2017). However, choosing to remain in the Single Market would require the UK to make payments to the EU as does Norway, a member of European Economic Area. Furthermore, the European Union needs members in the Single Market allow free flow of labor even if they are not members of European Union’s Customs Union like Norway and Switzerland. Though the UK could adopt Norway’s trade relations, significant changes in the market would not strengthen its competitiveness as an outside member. This is the ‘soft Brexit’ hypothesis, and most trade relations would be maintained with no dire implications on the cost of doing business. In the ‘hard Brexit’ analogy trade would be governed by World Trade Organization guidelines and would impose higher trade costs (Chalmers, 2017). It would, however, save on much of its present financial obligations to the EU, being outside the EEA. Included are public finance components excluding those made to higher learning institutions, firms and non-governmental bodies, sponsored by the agricultural grants in the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy.

Income drops by 1.28% based on the present and predicted dynamics in non-tariff barriers in the former while the losses rise to 2.61% in the latter. The exit of the United Kingdom puts it in a position where it can liberalize its import policies with protagonists asserting the abolition of all tariffs on imports into the UK would reflect on the low pricing of imported goods (de Witte, 2017). This, however, remains to be seen with the relatively low political motivation for such policy changes. Nevertheless, trade can be robust by increasing competition but cuts down on supernormal profits while fostering efficiency. Such market operations promote innovation and even the quality of good and services offered. Also, if the UK joined another market, such as the EFTA (European Free Trade Association), the trading outcomes would fall by a quarter by trading with countries in the European economies. Besides, joining EFTA would bring down the UK’s incomes by points ranging from 6.3 and 9.5%. This undermines its economic credibility taking into account that UK’s GDP skyrocketed between 8.6 and 10.6 % when in the European Union.

With no obligations to its largest trading partner, the United Kingdom could pursue trade relations with other countries such as the United States, China, India or even other emerging economies. These trade partnership, however, do not come close to offset the United Kingdom’s plummeting competitiveness (Fugazzi, 2015). This owed to the fact that almost half of the UK’s trade transactions are with member countries within the EU. With an overall GDP fall estimated at between 26 to 55 billion euros, stable and more formidable trade partnership could take years for a turnaround.

The economic repercussions of the UK parting ways with its largest trading partner can only be assessed by analyzing the policies that the country puts into action to counter the financial imbalance already at play. Reduced trading capabilities will be synonymous with the exit as the European bloc was the preferred destination for most of its exports. The workforce relations will also affect how goods and services are delivered with the United Kingdom taking a strongly defiant stand on imposing stronger border controls against EU citizens, a fact not well received in the Single Market (HAQUE, 2017). How the nation prefers to trade will also determine the kind of investment and partnership developed besides the motivations underlying the associations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Chalmers, D. (2017). LSE Law Brexit Special #4: Trade after Brexit. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Dallago, B. (2016). The future of European integration and Brexit: Is Brexit only Brexit?. Acta Oeconomica, 66(s1), pp.111-136.

de Witte, F. (2017). LSE Law Brexit Special #1: Negotiating Brexit. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Eliot, G. (2016). The mill on the Floss. New York: Open Road Integrated Media.

Finck, M. (2017). LSE Law Brexit Special #3: Brexit and the European Institutions. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Fugazzi, S. (2015). Brexit?. [S.l.]: ABC Economics.

HAQUE, F. (2017). BREXIT. [S.l.]: ERLY STAGE STUDIOS LTD.

KOCH, I. (2017). What’s in a vote? Brexit beyond culture wars. American Ethnologist, 44(2), pp.225-230.

PATHMARAJAH, S. (2016). BREXIT. [S.l.]: NEW GENERATION PUBLISHING.

Ponzano, P. (2016). Borderless Debate: After Brexit, What Will Happen? After Brexit, What Should the European Union Do?. The Federalist Debate, 29(3).

Reward Analysis in Coca-Cola Company

Introduction

The paper analyzes the critical factors in a successful reward environment. For starters, it is crucial to understand what a reward system is. It is a project of motivating employees who attain the required objectives. A reward can be explained as a token of appreciation for a work well done or to encourage improvement.

Reward analysis

(Key factors in a successful reward environment)

A successful reward environment has to consider equitability and contentedness of employees. Motivation is a critical factor in business success. A successful organization is the one that attains profit and wealth maximization objectives for shareholders and investors. Motivation entails employees’ engagement and wellbeing through rewarding to increase their productivity and a feeling of ownership towards an organization. Motivation is the key reason as to why a firm should adopt a reward policy.

There are fundamental factors in a successful reward environment. Management plays a key role in a reward system. A firm needs to inherit good management skills while conducting day to day activities. The recruitment of high profile workers is subjected to proper management. There has to be the employment of excellent managerial skills, and a firm has to ensure that there is a regular training of employees so that they can adjust to the requirement of a firm and enhance accountability (Stephens, 2010).

Organizational culture can also play a significant role in successful reward environment. It consists of the way an organization conducts its business on the basis of how it builds relationship among employees, how the organization relates to its external environment, how the performance is monitored, how to create transparency among others.

Another factor in a successful reward environment is the organization’s external environment. External environment consists of the customers and the general public. An organization has to analyze the attitude of its surroundings for successful reward. The analysis is supposed to help a firm to ascertain the intensity of customer loyalty in reference to the firm’s image externally. Through understanding the external environment an organization should proceed and set goals that employees should achieve, the ones that can successfully attain the target should be rewarded.  A reward can either be in financial form and non-financial which are extrinsic and intrinsic rewards.

The appraisal process is a key factor in successful reward. The process entails examining and assessing an employee’s current and past performances to determine his /her effectiveness.  A reward is not only given to the best-performed, employees, but also, those that have less performed are subjected to training programs.

The relevance and availability of data to Coca-Cola Company

The paper applies factors in a successful reward environment to Coca-Cola Company. Coca-Cola was formed in 1888 in the USA currently; it is the world’s largest non-alcoholic beverage company. It is known for its soft drinks including Coca-Cola, Fanta, Sprite, and others (more than 300 brands). James Robert is the chief executive officer alongside other regional managers who make the company efficiently managed (Hays, 2010). The production process is partially automated with a large number of employees involved. There is a need to ensure that efficient work is done and can be achieved by the motivation of employees through rewarding. The rewards can either be tangible such as bonuses, allowances and pay rise or it can be intangible; personal satisfaction, personal development (training) and sense of accomplishment.

The paper analyzes the reward process of the company. The reward data are readily available on the internet. Externally, the company has donated $70 million to about 250 community groups worldwide (Hays, 2010). The data shows the amount the company generated as a reward offering scholarship to students from marginalized communities. Internally, the company has to begin with categorized job groups according to experience, work done, the level of an employee, level of education and scale of the task. The job groups are used in remuneration of employees. Employees are also given challenging tasks and are rewarded with allowances for extra hours worked (overtime). The reward process of Coca-Cola is relevant because employees are rewarded according to work done (Hays, 2010).

Links between reward and business strategy considering internal and external context and culture

There are links between reward and business strategy in Coca-Cola Company. The paper analyzes the Company’s business strategies and links them with the reward system. Coca-Cola is focused on profit maximization and hence ensures that it comes up with ways to achieve the objective. The company exercises penetration pricing model that accommodates relatively low and affordable prices of the beverages (Hays, 2010). Value creation is another business strategy used by the company. Value creation not only emphasizes customers value creation, but also employee’s value creation in making sure that the company extracts maximum value from the employees.

Identification of attainable goals can link up reward and business strategy. The company has given goals one of them being consumer satisfaction. By knowing the goals, Coca-cola can set a target work rate for employees and reward them when the target is attained and at the same time maximizing profit and satisfying customers due to the production of high-quality products by the motivated employee (Hays, 2010).

Communication is an essential aspect of the success of any business. Communication plays a significant role in linking up reward and business strategies. For instance, in Coca-Cola Company communication process is efficient both internally and externally. Internally, management allows conveying of information from all directions, downward and upward. Employees are informed of where to report a burning issue. Externally, the company has been able to reach customers worldwide through advertisements.

A critique of the Coca-Cola reward system and why it is successful

Coca-Cola offers a financial reward as a reward strategy to the hard working employees. The financial reward includes bonuses, an increase of salaries, plane tickets and scholars for the employees’ children. The reward strategy is not fair to underperforming employees. It is discouraging because the Company is supposed to come up with training programs and relaxation leave off and encourages employees (Thorpe, 2000). Instead of low esteemed employees feeling discriminated and motivated; they feel challenged and encouraged to work hard. However, the reward system is successful because of the environment and nature and of the company; the company has built an excellent reputation and goodwill, the company has a set of clear and attainable objectives, a significant market share and efficient management (Thorpe, 2000).

Key reward principles and how they are applied

There is a need to evaluate important reward principles and to discuss how they are applied in Coca-Cola Company.

Total reward policy

Total reward is a concept where an organization makes an effort of motivating and retaining employees to get maximum result in return. Coca-Cola has a program known as cloud-based technology whereby, employees are given the freedom to make choices of rewards (Thorpe, 2000). The choice of one may differ from another. For instance, some employees may consider trips, holidays, and vacations necessary while others may like allowances and scholarship for their children.

The contribution of total reward in Coca-Cola is fruit bearing. Employees feel motivated, and through that, the company can utilize their labor to the fullest. A motivated employee will produce more than expected results which are the reasons why the company is doing well in the market regarding sales due to the production of high quality (Thorpe, 2000). The organization performance is impacted positively, and that is why Coca-Cola is currently the best performing beverage company worldwide.

Best practice policy

Another reward principle that is evaluated in the paper is best practice in regards to equitable, fair, consistent and transparent. Best practice enhances equitability and fair treatment of employees. The company applies best practice policy through ensuring the undertaken operations are transparent and can be accounted for. Corporate social responsibility is also practiced by the company (Dreher, 2009). It intends to give back to the society which enables positive reputation and branding of the company’s name. Best practice, policy, and transparency compare through fairness and accountability.

Role of line manager

Line managers at Coca-Cola Company play a vital role in reward decision. To begin with, the line manager is responsible for overseeing employees and ensuring that the organizational goals are attained. The manager is a part of decision-makers in the case of determining the employees to be rewarded and how (Dreher, 2009). Also, the manager decides on the intensity of effort by an employee to be rewarded setting up standard and goals. The line managers build trust among employees in that employees feel free to give their grievances to them than to senior managers and human resource (Dreher, 2009).  The manager conducts a performance appraisal and analysis to determine the reward decision.

Through the given set of roles, line manager at Coca-Cola Company can contribute to decision making on a reward. They can determine employees’ performance since they are the only part of management that spends a long time with employees (Armstrong, 2011). The managers can be able to get information from employees about their attitude and conduct. This means that they can determine a perfect reward for any given employee. Line manager conducts a performance appraisal to provide feedback to every employee on their performance (Armstrong, 2011).

The roles mentioned above and contributions have an impact on morale, motivation, the psychological contract, and organization success. To begin with confidence, employees of Coca-Cola will feel appreciated and engaged because of their relationship with the line manager (Kumar, 2011). Motivation increases productivity and encourages employees to give their best efforts.  Psychological contracts are achieved in that when an employee gives a promise he/she ensures that they fulfill it. An organization’s success consists of a satisfied group of employees and satisfied customers (Kumar, 2011). Healthy communication between subordinates and management and courageous leadership by line managers of Coca-Cola reflect the success of the organization.

Recommendations

The Coca-Cola Company should not only reward the well performing and high profiled sub-ordinates but also encourage the less performing ones to build their confidence. Confidence is not an inborn trait, but is gradually implemented through a systematic process of learning. Extra-training services to underperforming employees are more than a reward (Watkins, 2010). The company should categorize reward and also diversify them in that employees should have a variety to choose from. They can either be monetary, non-monetary, performance-based or recognition rewards (Oling, 2011). Coca-Cola should also increase transparency and avoid biasness while rewarding in that any employee should be subjected to a reward for a task well done. Coca-Cola should also concentrate on value addition of their employees. The overall reward system should be well planned, clear and precise in that the implementers can comprehend.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the paper brings about the concept of reward system in Coca-Cola Company to a green light. Key factors of a reward of reward system have been displayed which entails motivation of employees towards attainment of organizational objectives. The paper also demonstrates the role of line managers at Coca-Cola Company in ensuring that the process of reward is successful. The paper has also evaluated total contribution reward and practice reward. Finally, the paper has recommended of the measure Coca-Cola should apply to enhance the effectiveness of the reward system.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Armstrong, M. (2011). Managing People: a practical guide for line managers. London: Kogan Page.

Dreher. & Tremblay, L. (2009).Handbook of reward and decision making. Amsterdam Boston: Academic Press.

Hays, C. (2010).Pop: Truth and Power at the Coca-Cola Company. London: Cornerstone Digital.

Kumar, R. (2011). Human resource management: strategic analysis text and cases. New Dehli: I.K. International. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=4OgyJ740KxMC&pg=PA297&dq=reward+system&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiW1rLjkpLaAhWpDcAKHQ-MA-c4FBDrAQglMAA#v=onepage&q=reward%20system&f=false

McGarvey, B. & Hannon, B. (2004).Dynamic modeling for business management: an introduction. New York: Springer.

Oling. (2011). Performance-Based Reward system.S.l: Lap Lambert Academic Publ.

Satvinder. Prem. &Santokh. (2010). Plant Pathology: A competitive vision. New Delhi: Kalyani Publishing. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=tDt47EQ40mAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=reward+system&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiW1rLjkpLaAhWpDcAKHQ-MA-c4FBDoAQgyMAM#v=onepage&q=reward%20system&f=false

Stephens, T. & McCallum, S. (2010). Employee reward. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Thorpe, R. & Homan, G. (2000).Strategic reward systems. Harlow, England New York: Financial Times/Prentice Hall. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=Nc2Riq5U9okC&dq=reward+system&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjgobnGkpLaAhVDa8AKHYOyBZcQ6wEINjAD

Watkins, R. & Leigh, D. (2010).Handbook of Improving Performance in the Workplace, the Handbook of Selecting and Implementing Performance Interventions.Chichester: Center for Creative Leadership.

 

 

 

 

Production of Liquor

Detailed Design and design calculations

Introduction

In this section, a detailed description of the distillation process used in the liquor production is clearly described with respect to the theory behind it, reasons why it was chosen as the distillation process and design approach. Distillation process can be categorized either as a batch distillation or continuous distillation. Batch distillation is used mainly in chemical (both biochemical and pharmaceutical) industries while continuous distillation is preferred majorly in separation of bulk chemicals such as petrochemical. Figure 1 shows the schematic representation of the two distillation process.

Batch distillation overview

Distillation is generally considered as a way of separating miscible liquids based on their varied physical properties and purifying the distillates based on waste or unwanted component removal (Rawlings, 2014). According to Simasatitkul et al., (2017), batch distillation consists of a process in which feed is loaded within the boiler while the distillates are recovered from the column top as shown in figure 2. The rationale behind the batch distillation method as a separation method is anchored on the distribution of components to be separated between the liquid and their corresponding vapor phases. At the point of boiling, the vapor phase is created for a particular component depending on it boiling point. During the process, all the heat generated within the reboiler by the coil will be applied in vaporizing the specific component at a particular temperature. It is assumed that no heat is lost during the process and at the same time, all the heat is channeled to only the component. Thus, as expected, the temperature stays constant during vaporization of a given component till all the liquid phase of that component have changed into the vapor phase. Nonetheless, the high temperature also makes the other components to evaporate even if they are not vaporizing yet, thus the vapor will equally be consisting of both the components though at varying proportion. As a consequence, the vapor becomes more of the volatile component (alcohol) while the liquid remaining within the reboiler becomes less of the volatile component Caldeira et al., (2017).

Just as mentioned earlier, distillation can be categorized as either batch or continuous distillation process. The preferences of either of the types is anchored on the unique advantages in one over the other depending on the desired outcomes as well as the chemicals to be separated. Batch distillation is preferred for separating small quantities of mixture with capacity which are smaller than required to justify the requirement of the otherwise expensive continuous distillation process. Secondly, batch distillation is flexible to handle a series of different feedstock resulting in a varied product range. Thirdly, batch distillation method is also attached to the possibility to obtain more than one product from a distillation process which effectively separates the products based on the characteristics. Batch distillation also makes it possible to attain different levels of purity from the same product with maximum elimination of fouling. In addition, batch distillation allows the separation of many products using only one column at a more convenient operation mode as compared to the continuous distillation (Kufer and Hasse, 2017). Nonetheless, batch distillation.

Batch distillation progress control

The separation of liquids in a batch distillation starts with a batch of liquid being charged at the reboiler followed by total reflux operation uniformity of the system. After the system has attained uniformity following total reflux, the overhead product portion is the withdrawn continuously with regard to the desired reflux policy (Rumpunen et al., 2015). The batch distillation method separates the liquids using column which acts as a section enrichment. Within the column, batch distillation column can be controlled through either constant reflux or constant overhead composition which is also called the varying reflux.

  1. In a constant reflux, the overhead composition is varied by setting the reflux at a predetermined value which is then maintained throughout the entire run. In the process the overhead composition must vary in accordance to the changing distillate composition.
  2. In constant overhead composition, on the other hand, varies the reflux by increasing the reflux amount returned to the column. As a consequence, the reboiler components is gradually depleted with time. The reflux ratio grows to maximum value where the receivers are then altered to minimize the reflux.

Batch Distillation Column Design

The fermented product to be separated and purified into alcohol of varying ABV is fed at the reboiler when the operation starts for the constant reflux. The heat content within the boiler is absorbed by the feeds making them to evaporate while generating vapor which then moves within the column till it reaches the condenser. At the condenser, the vapor is converted into liquid through the absorption of heat of vaporization from the vapor. The condensed liquid is collected at the reflux tank from where part of the distillate is redirected to the column in the form of a liquid reflux. The liquid reflux then falls through the column in a counter current manner to the rising vapor. The interaction of vapor and reflux liquid results in the mass transfer hence making the light components within the reflux liquid to rise with the vapor while the heavy counterparts fall together with the liquid.

Mass transfer consequently subjects within the column a profile of varying temperature, concentration and pressures zones. At the upper section of the column, temperature and pressure are relatively lower since the lighter components have a lower boiling points coupled with the fact that the vapor losses pressure as it rises the plate packing within the column. As a consequence, the less volatile compounds tend to concentrate at the column bottom while the more volatile counter parts settles at the column top (Ding et al., 2015).

 

Batch Rectifier

A batch rectifier consists of a reboiler within which heating element is located to provide the vaporization temperature necessary for fractional distillation. As the vapor condenses on the upper part of the column, part of the distillate is directed back to the column as a reflux. The remaining distillate sequentially feeds the receiver tanks. Figure 3 shows the schematic representation of batch rectifier. The batch rectification assumes that within the column, there was only ethanol (spirit) and water components at one atmospheric pressure operation. At this operation description, a maximum of 95% ABV can be achieved hence there was no need for further purification. Only dilution was therefore, a requirement to meet the desired ABV concentration.

            Liquor production optimization

The optimization parameters of the plant mass are linked to the energy balances through the integration of heat. The aim of this optimization in the overall liquor production plant was to reduce the plant operation cost by limiting energy use and correlated cost, yield efficiency increment and minimizing the loss of liquor through the waste from the plant. By maximizing the yield efficiency and reducing the energy use, the cost of production and operation will undoubtedly be comparatively lower hence making the production process as economical and as profitable as desired. In addition, by making the production process to be effective, efficient and produce a sufficient fuel liquor production plant do not just become economical and profitable but also produces a safe and standard liquor as per the desires of the clients as well as per the required standards of production.

            Base case for spirit manufacture from cider

In this liquor production process, spirit is produced from the fermented product following the brewing of cider as the base material. At the end of fermentation process, beer is separated from the solid spirit and water mixture using stripping at the beer column just before subjecting the mixture to distillation. At the beer column, spirit is concentration is about 60% to 70% ABV and is further subjected to the batch rectifier to give an azeotropic water and spirit mixture (Jana and Maiti, 2013). The azeotropic mixture is further subjected to a centrifuge where additional separation of solid particles is which are then collected together with the first components then evaporated to dryness. The resulting solid matter is rich in animal nutritional requirements and are thus sold off as animal feed. This makes the production cost be lower as compared to situation where they are disposed-off as waste.

            The design model

The design of the spirit production from cider was modelled through the use of equations that correlates the parameters especially the volumes of the liquor from the total volume from the original cider fermented. This design was based on the effective mass flow, mass flows of the respective components, fractions of the components and the corresponding temperature within the batch distillation network. Such are the parameters necessary for liquor production optimization. The following are the variable description as per the designed project;

  1. F (Reboiler, Condenser) represents the total mass flow rate from the reboiler to the condenser in kg/s
  2. Fc (j, Reboiler, Condenser) represents the j component mass flow from the reboiler to the condenser in kg/s
  • X (j, Reboiler, Condenser) represents the mass fraction of the j component between the reboiler and the condenser
  1. T (Reboiler, Condenser) represents the temperature difference in 0C between the reboiler and condenser.

Note that j represents the components of the liquor produced and in this case, the components includes but not limited to starch, glucose, ethanol, water, lactic acid, acetic acid, proteins, glycerol, cell mass cellulose amongst other components. These components are sourced from either the base material or the fermentation or processing stages but are not removable within the waste elimination stages such as sieving and stripping (Harwardt and Marquardt, 2012). For instance, starch, glucose, proteins, cellulose are the products of the base material while cell mass comes from the yeast cells used to initiate the fermentation process (Johri et al., 2011). On the other hand, glycerol, acetic acid, fatty acid and ethanol are the major by-products of the brewing or fermentation process for cider. All these components are assumed to be water soluble with exception of starch, cellulose, oil, cell mass and ash. Gaseous components are not mentioned herein since they are allowed to escape or are rather trapped in different containers and thus are missing within the fermented cider in the form of liquid.

For every component j, component mass flow rate is correlated to the total mass flow rate by;

Fc (j, Reboiler, Condenser) = X (j, Reboiler, Condenser) * F (j, Reboiler, Condenser)

This implies that the total mass flow rate is the effective sum of the individual component mass flow rates. Thus;

F (Reboiler, Condenser) =

            Mass transfer or conversion processes during fermentation

Fermentation process can be explained using equations showing how the individual components changes from time to time and from one component to another till ethanol and water mixture are obtained (Kumar et al., 2013). The following are the major equations relating to the conversions;

Glucose to ethanol conversion equation;

By balancing the masses, it implies that for every one kg of glucose, about 0.5114 kg of ethanol and 0.4885 kg of carbon (iv) oxide gas will be produced. Part of the gas produced will be used in further reaction while the remaining part will be eliminated.

Glucose conversion to acetic acid equation;

While the mole ratio for glucose to acetic acid is 1:3, the mass of the three molecules of acetic acid produced will be equivalent to the mass of the glucose used in making them.

Glucose conversion to succinic acid equation

From the mole ratio, every 1 kg of glucose combine with 0.4885 kg of carbon (iv) oxide gas to produce 1.3191 kg of succinic acid while liberating about 0.1776 kg of Oxygen. There are several equation relating to a series of conversions that occur within the process of fermentation most of which are ignored herein.

McCabe Thiele Graphical Analysis

This analysis technique is necessary for the understanding and comprehending the compositional based changes that occur at the distillation column as separation continues (Mayer et al., 2015). McCabe Thiele method provides a faster and equally easier solution to the binary distillation problem. The method is anchored on the on the material compositional change with regard to the equilibrium line (Wang et al., 2016). The equilibrium line is used to show the composition of the materials variation beneath and over the plates. The McCabe Thiele operating line was plotted on the same graph as the equilibrium line to enable the determination of the equilibrium stages number by the graphical construction. For the spirit (ethanol) water mixture within the distillation column, figure 4 shows the McCabe Thiele graph used to determine the equilibrium stages. The operating line equation was developed from;

Where xD is the distillate composition while R represents the reflux

R is defined as the ratio of flow returned as reflux to the flow of the top product taken off. The rectification column operates at the line which depends on variation of R, hence the required number of equilibrium stages is equally dependent on R. For poorly insulated distillation column, the effective reflux ratio may be greater than the R value (Jana, 2017). This was the basis of lagging the column to enhance the efficiency of liquor production. Irrespective of the design, reflux always falls within the two extreme ends, namely total reflux and minimum reflux. Total reflux occurs when there is no uptake of the products as well as no addition of feeds coupled with all condensate being returned to the column. A relatively fewer stages are required in in the separation process when dealing with total reflux design (Jana, 2017). Fenske equation can be used to calculate the minimum number of stages required for the total reflux where all vapor is assumed to be condensed and then returned as liquid. Fenske equation is given by;

On the other hand, minimum reflux occurs when at least two operating lines have their intersection within the equilibrium curve as shown in figure 5. When the feed is a liquid at the point of boiling, the minimum reflux can be calculated as follows;

Optimum Reflux Ratio

For optimum operation, it is necessary to first understand the effect of varying R value on the required number of plates and the corresponding production cost. Increasing R for instance, makes the diameter of the column bigger and thus equally reduces the capital cost. As a consequence, the number of plates gets smaller with comparatively higher heat exchange to increase the boiling and condensation. On the other hand, decreasing R calls for more stages and corresponding higher capital cost though with relatively less condensation and boiling. Figure 6 shows the variation of reflux ratio as a factor affecting the total cost, operating cost and fixed cost (Penniston et al., 2018).

Production related calculations

In this section, the required calculations are done with respect to the desired liquor output. Third of the amount received from the fermenter was juice and the remaining two thirds were to enter the distillation column. With known composition of the desired alcohol by volume, the original volume of the mixture can be modeled in such a way that the desired parameters are manageable. Suppose that A represents the concentration of the vapor, B represents the concentration of the mixture within the reboiler and X represents the concentration fraction of the most volatile liquid (alcohol) within the reboiler, while its corresponding concentration fraction within the vapor is represented by Y, then;

Since changes within the reboiler as time increases also affects the changes in the vapor concentration. For instance, when distillation process proceeds the concentration of the liquid within the reboiler reduces while the corresponding concentration within the vapor increases. This can be represented mathematically as;

Hence, substituting in the above equation and expanding gives,

When the above immediate equation is rearranged, the following equation emerges;

Note that in the above equation, the subscripts f and i represents the final and initial conditions respectively for liquid within the still reboiler. The average distillate composition Xavr is given by the overall component as;

From the given situation, about 10.3/100 alcohol by volume approximately 95/100 by mass escapes to the top of the distillation column This forms 80/100 alcohol by volume in the distillate product. Therefore, it can be assumed that in the above equation, Bi is 0.95, Bf is 0.8, Xi is 0.103 while Xf is zero. Hence, the average distillate composition Xavr during the first batch of distillation is given by;

= 0.6523

The model was designed to carry out distillation with approximate 80% ABV spirit after which the desired concentration can then be diluted to form a saleable product at around 40% ABV. To calculate the required number of plates within the distillation column to be able to carry the distillation as per the planned concentrations, the following Fenske equation was used;

Note that within the Frenske equation given above, subscripts 1 and 2 represents the corresponding concentrations of the most volatile liquid (alcohol) and the less volatile liquid (water). Hence if X1 is 0.103 then this implies that X2 will be equal to 0.897.

n+1 = 3.4439

n = 3.4439 – 1

n = 2.4439

Since n must be a whole number this can be approximated to be 2.

Component calculations

The variation of the components within the liquid was also subjected to calculations based on the concentration fraction to determine their corresponding variation during the distillation process and at the end of the distillation process. The calculations assumed that the residual components would all separate into the bottom product as they have a much boiling point and will therefore evaporate out of the solution into the bottom stream.

To be continued

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendices: Individual detailed design reports and others as appropriate

Appendix A: Figures

Figure 1: Schematic representation of distillation process types; Batch distillation a) and continuous distillation b) (retrieved from Bortz et al., 2017)

Figure 2: Batch distillation feed and distillate flow

Figure 3: Batch rectifier schematic diagram

Figure 4: McCabe Thiele graph

Figure 5: McCabe Thiele graph with two operating lines intersecting at the equilibrium curve

Figure 6: Reflux ratio optimization

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Ballesteros, M., Oliva, J.M., Negro, M.J., Manzanares, P. and Ballesteros, I., 2004. Ethanol from lignocellulosic materials by a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SFS) with Kluyveromyces marxianus CECT 10875. Process Biochemistry, 39(12), pp.1843-1848.

Bamforth, C. ed., 2016. Brewing materials and processes: A practical approach to beer excellence. Academic Press.

Bortz, M., Burger, J., von Harbou, E., Klein, M., Schwientek, J., Asprion, N., Bottcher, R., Kufer, K.H. and Hasse, H., 2017. Efficient approach for calculating Pareto boundaries under uncertainties in chemical process design. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 56(44), pp.12672-12681.

Caldeira, I., Lopes, D., Delgado, T., Canas, S. and Anjos, O., 2017. Development of blueberry liquor: influence of distillate, sweetener and fruit quantity. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture.

Christoph, N. and Bauer-Christoph, C., 2007. Flavour of spirit drinks: raw materials, fermentation, distillation, and ageing. In Flavours and Fragrances (pp. 219-239). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Ding, X., Wu, C., Huang, J. and Zhou, R., 2015. Changes in Volatile Compounds of Chinese Luzhou‐Flavor Liquor during the Fermentation and Distillation Process. Journal of food science, 80(11).

Gaden, E.L., 1959. Fermentation process kinetics. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 1(4), pp.413-429.

Gou, M., Wang, H., Yuan, H., Zhang, W., Tang, Y. and Kida, K., 2015. Characterization of the microbial community in three types of fermentation starters used for Chinese liquor production. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 121(4), pp.620-627.

Harwardt, A. and Marquardt, W., 2012. Heat‐integrated distillation columns: Vapor recompression or internal heat integration?. AIChE Journal, 58(12), pp.3740-3750.

Hu, X.L., Du, H. and Xu, Y., 2015. Identification and quantification of the caproic acid-producing bacterium Clostridium kluyveri in the fermentation of pit mud used for Chinese strong-aroma type liquor production. International journal of food microbiology, 214, pp.116-122.

Jana, A.K. and Maiti, D., 2013. Assessment of the implementation of vapor recompression technique in batch distillation. Separation and Purification Technology, 107, pp.1-10.

Jana, A.K., 2017. An energy efficient middle vessel batch distillation: Techno-economic feasibility, dynamics and control. Applied Thermal Engineering, 123, pp.411-421.

Jana, A.K., 2017. Bottom flashing with interreboiling action in a transient batch rectifier: Economic feasibility, dynamics and control. Separation and Purification Technology, 179, pp.320-327.

Johri, K., Babu, G. and Jana, A.K., 2011. Performance investigation of a variable speed vapor recompression reactive batch rectifier. AIChE Journal, 57(11), pp.3238-3242.

Kumar, V., Kiran, B., Jana, A.K. and Samanta, A.N., 2013. A novel multistage vapor recompression reactive distillation system with intermediate reboilers. AIChE Journal, 59(3), pp.761-771.

Lejeune, A., Rabiller-Baudry, M. and Renouard, T., 2018. Design of membrane cascades according to the method of McCabe-Thiele: An organic solvent nanofiltration case study for olefin hydroformylation in toluene. Separation and Purification Technology, 195, pp.339-357.

Liang, J., Huang, Y., Zhang, L., Wang, Y., Ma, Y., Guo, T. and Chen, Y., 2009. Molecular‐level dispersion of graphene into poly (vinyl alcohol) and effective reinforcement of their nanocomposites. Advanced Functional Materials, 19(14), pp.2297-2302.

Liu, D., Liu, D., Zeng, R.J. and Angelidaki, I., 2006. Hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste in the two-stage fermentation process. Water Research, 40(11), pp.2230-2236.

May, K. and Allen, J.W., Conecuh Springs Spirits Inc and Spirits Of USA, 2017. Artificial aging apparatus for spirits and other alcoholic beverages. U.S. Patent 9,840,687.

Mayer, F.D., Schettert, G.F., Júnior, M., Foletto, E.L. and Hoffmann, R., 2015. Operation parameters of a small scale batch distillation column for hydrous ethanol fuel (HEF) production. Ingeniería e Investigación, 35(1), pp.31-35.

Nicol, D.A., 2015. Batch distillation. In Whisky (Second Edition) (pp. 155-178).

Penniston, J. and Gueguim Kana, E.B., 2018. Impact of medium pH regulation on biohydrogen production in dark fermentation process using suspended and immobilized microbial cells. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, 32(1), pp.204-212.

Rawlings, J.B. ed., 2014. Dynamics and Control of Chemical Reactors, Distillation Columns and Batch Processes (DYCORD’95). Elsevier.

Reyes-Labarta, J.A., Serrano Cayuelas, M.D. and Marcilla, A., 2016. Supplementary Material: Analysis of the Connecting Zone Between Consecutive Sections in Distillation Columns Covering Multiple Feeds, Products and Heat Transfer Stages. Operaciones de Separación I.

Rumpunen, K., Ekholm, A. and Nybom, H., 2015, June. Swedish apple cultivars vary in traits for juice and cider making. In XIV EUCARPIA Symposium on Fruit Breeding and Genetics 1172 (pp. 255-258).

Saerens, S. and Swiegers, J.H., Chr Hansen AS, 2016. Production of cider with pichia kluyveri yeast. U.S. Patent Application 15/115,162.

Simasatitkul, L., Kaewwisetkul, P. and Arpornwichanop, A., 2017. Techno-economic assessment of extractive distillation for tert-butyl alcohol recovery in fuel additive production. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 122, pp.161-171.

Theodore, L., Dupont, R.R. and Ganesan, K., 2017. Distillation Design and Performance Equations. Unit Operations in Environmental Engineering, pp.569-585.

Vandamme, E.J. and Derycke, D.G., 1983. Microbial inulinases: fermentation process, properties, and applications. In Advances in applied Microbiology (Vol. 29, pp. 139-176). Academic Press.

Wang, Z., Li, S., Wang, C., Guo, X. and Bai, P., 2016. Dynamic-accumulative operation policy of continuous distillation for the purification of anisole. Polish Journal of Chemical Technology, 18(1), pp.33-39.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Production of Liquor

Table of Contents

Design Objective. 2

Executive Summary. 2

Table of Contents. 3

Chapter 1: Introduction. 5

Background. 5

Spirits distinction. 8

Liquor production methods. 8

Liquor production steps. 9

Chapter 3: Plant Mass and Energy Balances. 11

Chapter Introduction. 11

Base case for spirit manufacture from cider 11

The design model 12

Mass transfer or conversion processes during fermentation. 13

Glucose to ethanol conversion equation; 13

Glucose conversion to acetic acid equation; 13

Glucose conversion to succinic acid equation. 14

McCabe Thiele Graphical Analysis. 14

Optimum Reflux Ratio. 15

Chapter 4: Detailed Design. 17

Chapter introduction. 17

Batch distillation overview.. 17

Batch distillation advantages (Preference) 17

Batch Distillation Column Design. 18

Batch Rectifier 19

Appendices: Individual detailed design reports and others as appropriate. 20

Appendix A: Figures. 20

Nomenclature. 23

References. 24

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1: Introduction

Background

Fermentation industries are involved with a series of liquor production ranging from beer to spirits using a variety of methods depending on the alcohol content desired and the financial ability of the industry (Rumpunen et al., 2015). The liquor produced by such companies includes, but not limited to; distilled spirits, wines, brandy spirits, as well as the secondary products. The type of liquor produced depends on the raw material used while its quality depends on the effectiveness of the production method. In most fermentation industries, the commonly produced beverage distilled spirits includes; gins, rums, whiskies, vodka and brandies. Gins are processed from the fermentation of grains and its flavor is achieved through the addition of botanical extracts. Brandies on the other hand, are processed from the fermented fruits juices while the distilled spirit products are mainly processed from the fermentation of sugarcane and its by products such as molasses sourced from sugar cane processing industries (Hu et

al., 2015). The byproducts of fermentation and liquor processing are majorly used in production and processing of livestock feeds and additives necessary for various animal requirements. Table 1 shows the base ingredients for different distilled spirits.

Table 1: Distilled spirits and their corresponding raw materials (Adapted from Liang et al., 2009)

Raw material (Base ingredients) Type fermentable product required Distilled spirits and liquor produced
Sugar cane   Neutral spirits
Sugar beet Beet juice Neutral spirits
Sugar cane Molasses

Sugarcane juice

Arrack, Rum

Pinga, Basi, Cachao

Fruits Apples, plums, pears, dates, raspberry and strawberry Calvados, alcohol blanca, poire, slivovitz, Mirabelle, Arrack, Framboise and Fraise
Roots Ti-roots

Agave

Okolehao

Tequila

 

According to Caldeira et al., (2017), a spirit refers to an alcoholic drink with very high alcohol content and is the product of the distillation process of fermentable products. Spirits are distilled within their purification point, but they still contain the elements of the base material. This implies that if sufficient base material or the sufficient mother or raw material can get its way into the distilled spirit then the purity and standard assessment of the final product should be reviewed not only based on the fermentation and distillation process but also the raw material itself. Distilled spirits have been associated to a series of challenges, especially with the health ministries of various nation owing to the sudden rise in the demand that has made many suppliers to engage in dubious means of production. In most distilled spirit production industries, concern and interest has always been on the attached to the financial gain without taking care of the required health standards through following the recommended procedures. As a result, many users worldwide have lost their lives just by consuming wrongly prepared and the otherwise dangerous distilled spirits. As a consequence, there is a great interest that fermentation industries follow the right liquor production procedures and well laid standards in order to eliminate the possible loss of lives of the users.

The spirits liquor is manufactured using distillation which refers to a process of miscible liquid separation based on their physical properties. A liquid mixture, say the fermented sugarcane products in the form of a liquid, contain a series of liquids with individual physical properties variation. The variation of the physical properties, especially the varying boiling points enables the separation of the mixture into pure liquids. The word distillation was coined from a Latin word ‘destillare’ which mean to drip or to extract (Ballesteros et al., 2004). In production of liquor, distillation refers to the process by which liquor is extracted from the fermented materials using heat to vaporize them and exposing the desired vapor to condensation to retrieve the desired spirit (Nicol, 2015). Other than flavor addition after the distillation process to get the required flavor, concentration variation can also be achieved through dilution as well as mixing of different spirits in a given ration to achieve the required brand. Distillation can as well be considered as a method of increasing the alcohol content in the sense that before the distillation processes the alcohol content by volume is relatively low than the alcohol content by volume after the distillation process (Christoph et al., 2007). For instance, it is possible to achieve a 20% alcohol by volume distillate from 8% alcohol content by volume fermentable drink by boiling it off in a pot still. As a method of separation, distillation uses the fact that alcohol boils at a temperature (78 0C) relatively lower than the corresponding temperature at which water boils (100 0C). Thus, when an alcohol and water mixture are heated, when the temperature of the mixture reaches 78 0C, alcohol vaporizes and is condensed as a separate distillate (Liu et al., 2006). During vaporization of alcohol, temperature stays constant despite the fact that heating continues till all alcohol contents are vaporized. This implies that when the temperature just starts to rise, there is no need for further heating as the vapor that will be collected will be of a water.

Spirits distinction

The distinction of distilled spirits with regard to color (brown, white and or specialties), fermentation base or raw material (see table 1), method of distillation, alcoholic contents as well as the region or country of origin. The brown spirits mainly consist of whiskies while the white spirits involve the rum, vodka, gin and tequila. On the other hand, specialties include the spirituous beverages, cordials as well as the brandies. With respect to region of origin, spirits are also codified based on their origin. Example includes; Greece brandy from Greek, Swedish vodka from Sweden, Tequila which commonly associated to Mexico, Cognac and armagnac from France amongst other spirits attached to particular nations. In addition, the production methods majorly distinct the spirits depending on the purification method used rather than the natural fermentation process.

            Liquor production methods

Generally, liquor is produced from a combination of two major processes, namely; fermentation and distillation. The former method converts the sugar content stored within the base material such as fruits, roots or even vegetables to alcohol while the later process purifies the alcohol manufactured and also strengthens it to the required alcohol content per volume of the distillate through boiling. Through fermentation, the sugar components available naturally in organic substance is converted to ethyl alcohol during a naturally occurring chemical reaction catalyzed by yeast cells. In this process, sugar is broken down into carbon (iv) oxide and ethanol or ethyl alcohol. As the gas is allowed to escape or tapped for other uses, the fermented products left behind mainly in the form of beer or wine is normally of low alcoholic content per unit volume and in addition, it contains a great proportion of the underlying characteristics and flavor from the base material. The fermented liquid is then subjected to a distillation process which basically involves heating the fermented product to not only purify the alcohol manufactured but also to strengthen it (Vandamme and Derycke, 1983). The strength of alcohol after distillation id directly dependent on the number of the distillation process, the distillate is exposed to. According to May et al., (2017), the first distillation after fermentation normally gives about 20% alcohol content by volume while the second one gives about 60% alcohol by volume. With subsequent distillation process, it is possible to achieve about 96% alcohol by volume. In terms of the alcohol content or alcohol strengths, spirits are categorized as the alcoholic drinks with alcohol contents in the range of 60% to 80% alcohol by volume. Other than achieving the required alcoholic strength, subsequent distillation also greatly minimizes the effect of the underlying characteristics and flavor from the base material (Bamforth, 2016).

            Liquor production steps

While the major steps in the process of liquor production mainly consist of fermentation and distillation as described above and that is exactly what most literature provides. Nonetheless, depending on the specific spirit to be produced, there are a number of steps that occur before fermentation and even after distillation (Gaden, 1959). The steps before fermentation includes milling and mashing while the post-distillation steps includes Milling is a pre-fermentation process whereby the base materials are grounded into course meal so as to free the starch from the protective base material hull. Mashing involves the conversion of starch to sugar followed by a process where pure water is added into the product and further cooked to produce a mash which is then fermented (Gou et al., 2015).

For some spirits such as brandy, rum and whisky, additional maturity level is required in wooden casks to enable them develop a gradual distinctive aroma, color and or taste. This process is called ageing and is applicable to only some spirits after distillation. In addition, blending is also a post distillation process applicable to some spirits whereby two or more spirits of similar category are combined to give a distinctive blended spirits but within the category of the blending spirits (Saerens et al., 2016).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3: Plant Mass and Energy Balances

            Chapter Introduction

In this chapter, optimization parameters of the plant mass with regard to energy balances through the integration of heat is discussed. The aim of this section in the overall liquor production plant was to reduce the plant operation cost by limiting energy use and correlated cost, yield efficiency increment and minimizing the loss of liquor through the waste from the plant. By maximizing the yield efficiency and reducing the energy use, the cost of production and operation will undoubtedly be comparatively lower hence making the production process as economical and as profitable as desired. In addition, by making the production process to be effective, efficient and produce a sufficient fuel liquor production plant do not just become economical and profitable but also produces a safe and standard liquor as per the desires of the clients as well as per the required standards of production.

            Base case for spirit manufacture from cider

In this liquor production process, spirit is produced from the fermented product following the brewing of cider as the base material. At the end of fermentation process, beer is separated from the solid spirit and water mixture using stripping at the beer column just before subjecting the mixture to distillation. At the beer column, spirit is concentration is about 60% to 70% ABV and is further subjected to the batch rectifier to give an azeotropic water and spirit mixture (Jana and Maiti, 2013). The azeotropic mixture is further subjected to a centrifuge where additional separation of solid particles is which are then collected together with the first components then evaporated to dryness. The resulting solid matter is rich in animal nutritional requirements and are thus sold off as animal feed. This makes the production cost be lower as compared to situation where they are disposed-off as waste.

            The design model

The design of the spirit production from cider was modelled through the use of equations that correlates the parameters especially the volumes of the liquor from the total volume from the original cider fermented. This design was based on the effective mass flow, mass flows of the respective components, fractions of the components and the corresponding temperature within the batch distillation network. Such are the parameters necessary for liquor production optimization. The following are the variable description as per the designed project;

  1. F (Reboiler, Condenser) represents the total mass flow rate from the reboiler to the condenser in kg/s
  2. Fc (j, Reboiler, Condenser) represents the j component mass flow from the reboiler to the condenser in kg/s
  • X (j, Reboiler, Condenser) represents the mass fraction of the j component between the reboiler and the condenser
  1. T (Reboiler, Condenser) represents the temperature difference in 0C between the reboiler and condenser.

Note that j represents the components of the liquor produced and in this case, the components includes but not limited to starch, glucose, ethanol, water, lactic acid, acetic acid, proteins, glycerol, cell mass cellulose amongst other components. These components are sourced from either the base material or the fermentation or processing stages but are not removable within the waste elimination stages such as sieving and stripping (Harwardt and Marquardt, 2012). For instance, starch, glucose, proteins, cellulose are the products of the base material while cell mass comes from the yeast cells used to initiate the fermentation process (Johri et al., 2011). On the other hand, glycerol, acetic acid, fatty acid and ethanol are the major by-products of the brewing or fermentation process for cider. All these components are assumed to be water soluble with exception of starch, cellulose, oil, cell mass and ash. Gaseous components are not mentioned herein since they are allowed to escape or are rather trapped in different containers and thus are missing within the fermented cider in the form of liquid.

For every component j, component mass flow rate is correlated to the total mass flow rate by;

Fc (j, Reboiler, Condenser) = X (j, Reboiler, Condenser) * F (j, Reboiler, Condenser)

This implies that the total mass flow rate is the effective sum of the individual component mass flow rates. Thus;

F (Reboiler, Condenser) =

            Mass transfer or conversion processes during fermentation

Fermentation process can be explained using equations showing how the individual components changes from time to time and from one component to another till ethanol and water mixture are obtained (Kumar et al., 2013). The following are the major equations relating to the conversions;

Glucose to ethanol conversion equation;

By balancing the masses, it implies that for every one kg of glucose, about 0.5114 kg of ethanol and 0.4885 kg of carbon (iv) oxide gas will be produced. Part of the gas produced will be used in further reaction while the remaining part will be eliminated.

Glucose conversion to acetic acid equation;

While the mole ratio for glucose to acetic acid is 1:3, the mass of the three molecules of acetic acid produced will be equivalent to the mass of the glucose used in making them.

Glucose conversion to succinic acid equation

From the mole ratio, every 1 kg of glucose combine with 0.4885 kg of carbon (iv) oxide gas to produce 1.3191 kg of succinic acid while liberating about 0.1776 kg of Oxygen. There are several equation relating to a series of conversions that occur within the process of fermentation most of which are ignored herein.

McCabe Thiele Graphical Analysis

This analysis technique is necessary for the understanding and comprehending the compositional based changes that occur at the distillation column as separation continues (Mayer et al., 2015). McCabe Thiele method provides a faster and equally easier solution to the binary distillation problem. The method is anchored on the on the material compositional change with regard to the equilibrium line (Wang et al., 2016). The equilibrium line is used to show the composition of the materials variation beneath and over the plates. The McCabe Thiele operating line was plotted on the same graph as the equilibrium line to enable the determination of the equilibrium stages number by the graphical construction. For the spirit (ethanol) water mixture within the distillation column, figure 4 shows the McCabe Thiele graph used to determine the equilibrium stages. The operating line equation was developed from;

Where xD is the distillate composition while R represents the reflux

R is defined as the ratio of flow returned as reflux to the flow of the top product taken off. The rectification column operates at the line which depends on variation of R, hence the required number of equilibrium stages is equally dependent on R. For poorly insulated distillation column, the effective reflux ratio may be greater than the R value (Jana, 2017). This was the basis of lagging the column to enhance the efficiency of liquor production. Irrespective of the design, reflux always falls within the two extreme ends, namely total reflux and minimum reflux. Total reflux occurs when there is no uptake of the products as well as no addition of feeds coupled with all condensate being returned to the column. A relatively fewer stages are required in in the separation process when dealing with total reflux design (Jana, 2017). Fenske equation can be used to calculate the minimum number of stages required for the total reflux where all vapor is assumed to be condensed and then returned as liquid. Fenske equation is given by;

On the other hand, minimum reflux occurs when at least two operating lines have their intersection within the equilibrium curve as shown in figure 5. When the feed is a liquid at the point of boiling, the minimum reflux can be calculated as follows;

Optimum Reflux Ratio

For optimum operation, it is necessary to first understand the effect of varying R value on the required number of plates and the corresponding production cost. Increasing R for instance, makes the diameter of the column bigger and thus equally reduces the capital cost. As a consequence, the number of plates gets smaller with comparatively higher heat exchange to increase the boiling and condensation. On the other hand, decreasing R calls for more stages and corresponding higher capital cost though with relatively less condensation and boiling. Figure 6 shows the variation of reflux ratio as a factor affecting the total cost, operating cost and fixed cost (Penniston et al., 2018).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4: Detailed Design 

Chapter introduction

In this chapter, a detailed description of the distillation process used in the liquor production is clearly described with respect to the theory behind it, reasons why it was chosen as the distillation process and design approach. Distillation process can be categorized either as a batch distillation or continuous distillation. Batch distillation is used mainly in chemical (both biochemical and pharmaceutical) industries while continuous distillation is preferred majorly in separation of bulk chemicals such as petrochemical. Figure 1 shows the schematic representation of the two distillation process.

Batch distillation overview

Distillation is generally considered as a way of separating miscible liquids based on their varied physical properties and purifying the distillates based on waste or unwanted component removal (Rawlings, 2014). According to Simasatitkul et al., (2017), batch distillation consists of a process in which feed is loaded within the boiler while the distillates are recovered from the column top as shown in figure 2.

Batch distillation advantages (Preference)

Just as mentioned earlier, distillation can be categorized as either batch or continuous distillation process. The preferences of either of the types is anchored on the unique advantages in one over the other depending on the desired outcomes as well as the chemicals to be separated. Batch distillation is preferred for separating small quantities of mixture with capacity which are smaller than required to justify the requirement of the otherwise expensive continuous distillation process. Secondly, batch distillation is flexible to handle a series of different feedstock resulting in a varied product range. Thirdly, batch distillation method is also attached to the possibility to obtain more than one product from a distillation process which effectively separates the products based on the characteristics. Batch distillation also makes it possible to attain different levels of purity from the same product with maximum elimination of fouling. In addition, batch distillation allows the separation of many products using only one column at a more convenient operation mode as compared to the continuous distillation (Kufer and Hasse, 2017). Nonetheless, batch distillation

Batch Distillation Column Design

The fermented product to be separated and purified into alcohol of varying ABV is fed at the reboiler when the operation starts for the constant reflux. The heat content within the boiler is absorbed by the feeds making them to evaporate while generating vapor which then moves within the column till it reaches the condenser. At the condenser, the vapor is converted into liquid through the absorption of heat of vaporization from the vapor. The condensed liquid is collected at the reflux tank from where part of the distillate is redirected to the column in the form of a liquid reflux. The liquid reflux then falls through the column in a counter current manner to the rising vapor. The interaction of vapor and reflux liquid results in the mass transfer hence making the light components within the reflux liquid to rise with the vapor while the heavy counterparts fall together with the liquid.

Mass transfer consequently subjects within the column a profile of varying temperature, concentration and pressures zones. At the upper section of the column, temperature and pressure are relatively lower since the lighter components have a lower boiling points coupled with the fact that the vapor losses pressure as it rises the plate packing within the column. As a consequence, the less volatile compounds tend to concentrate at the column bottom while the more volatile counter parts settles at the column top (Ding et al., 2015).

Batch Rectifier

A batch rectifier consists of a reboiler within which heating element is located to provide the vaporization temperature necessary for fractional distillation. As the vapor condenses on the upper part of the column, part of the distillate is directed back to the column as a reflux. The remaining distillate sequentially feeds the receiver tanks. Figure 3 shows the schematic representation of batch rectifier. The batch rectification assumes that within the column, there was only ethanol (spirit) and water components at one atmospheric pressure operation. At this operation description, a maximum of 95% ABV can be achieved hence there was no need for further purification. Only dilution was therefore, a requirement to meet the desired ABV concentration.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendices: Individual detailed design reports and others as appropriate

Appendix A: Figures

Figure 1: Schematic representation of distillation process types; Batch distillation a) and continuous distillation b) (retrieved from Bortz et al., 2017)

Figure 2: Batch distillation feed and distillate flow

Figure 3: Batch rectifier schematic diagram

Figure 4: McCabe Thiele graph

Figure 5: McCabe Thiele graph with two operating lines intersecting at the equilibrium curve

Figure 6: Reflux ratio optimization

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Nomenclature

ABV   Alcohol by volume

B         Overall bottom flow rate

D         Overall distillate flow

F          Total feed

N         Number of equilibrium stages

Nmin       Minimum number of flow rate

R         Reflux ratio

Rmin     Minimum Reflux ratio

XB          Mol fraction of the component at the column bottom

XD          Mol fraction of the component within the distillate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

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Bamforth, C. ed., 2016. Brewing materials and processes: A practical approach to beer excellence. Academic Press.

Bortz, M., Burger, J., von Harbou, E., Klein, M., Schwientek, J., Asprion, N., Bottcher, R., Kufer, K.H. and Hasse, H., 2017. Efficient approach for calculating Pareto boundaries under uncertainties in chemical process design. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 56(44), pp.12672-12681.

Caldeira, I., Lopes, D., Delgado, T., Canas, S. and Anjos, O., 2017. Development of blueberry liquor: influence of distillate, sweetener and fruit quantity. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture.

Christoph, N. and Bauer-Christoph, C., 2007. Flavour of spirit drinks: raw materials, fermentation, distillation, and ageing. In Flavours and Fragrances (pp. 219-239). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Ding, X., Wu, C., Huang, J. and Zhou, R., 2015. Changes in Volatile Compounds of Chinese Luzhou‐Flavor Liquor during the Fermentation and Distillation Process. Journal of food science, 80(11).

Gaden, E.L., 1959. Fermentation process kinetics. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 1(4), pp.413-429.

Gou, M., Wang, H., Yuan, H., Zhang, W., Tang, Y. and Kida, K., 2015. Characterization of the microbial community in three types of fermentation starters used for Chinese liquor production. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 121(4), pp.620-627.

Harwardt, A. and Marquardt, W., 2012. Heat‐integrated distillation columns: Vapor recompression or internal heat integration?. AIChE Journal, 58(12), pp.3740-3750.

Hu, X.L., Du, H. and Xu, Y., 2015. Identification and quantification of the caproic acid-producing bacterium Clostridium kluyveri in the fermentation of pit mud used for Chinese strong-aroma type liquor production. International journal of food microbiology, 214, pp.116-122.

Jana, A.K. and Maiti, D., 2013. Assessment of the implementation of vapor recompression technique in batch distillation. Separation and Purification Technology, 107, pp.1-10.

Jana, A.K., 2017. An energy efficient middle vessel batch distillation: Techno-economic feasibility, dynamics and control. Applied Thermal Engineering, 123, pp.411-421.

Jana, A.K., 2017. Bottom flashing with interreboiling action in a transient batch rectifier: Economic feasibility, dynamics and control. Separation and Purification Technology, 179, pp.320-327.

Johri, K., Babu, G. and Jana, A.K., 2011. Performance investigation of a variable speed vapor recompression reactive batch rectifier. AIChE Journal, 57(11), pp.3238-3242.

Kumar, V., Kiran, B., Jana, A.K. and Samanta, A.N., 2013. A novel multistage vapor recompression reactive distillation system with intermediate reboilers. AIChE Journal, 59(3), pp.761-771.

Lejeune, A., Rabiller-Baudry, M. and Renouard, T., 2018. Design of membrane cascades according to the method of McCabe-Thiele: An organic solvent nanofiltration case study for olefin hydroformylation in toluene. Separation and Purification Technology, 195, pp.339-357.

Liang, J., Huang, Y., Zhang, L., Wang, Y., Ma, Y., Guo, T. and Chen, Y., 2009. Molecular‐level dispersion of graphene into poly (vinyl alcohol) and effective reinforcement of their nanocomposites. Advanced Functional Materials, 19(14), pp.2297-2302.

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Mayer, F.D., Schettert, G.F., Júnior, M., Foletto, E.L. and Hoffmann, R., 2015. Operation parameters of a small scale batch distillation column for hydrous ethanol fuel (HEF) production. Ingeniería e Investigación, 35(1), pp.31-35.

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Control Systems and Robotics Engineering

Reducing Uncertainties Using Robust Control

Introduction

There are many uncertainties that affect the functioning of control systems that are used in robotics.  It is for this reason that robust control is utilized to respond to these uncertainties to make sure that the functioning of the systems remains efficient and that disruptions are effectively eliminated. In robust control, the main concern of engineers is about improving safety, security, and convenience. With robust control, engineers can effectively deal with uncertainties that may mar controller design. In normal instances, robust control are made to perform optimally so long as some parameters and are found within a specific set. In the presence of bounded modeling errors, these systems can achieve robust performance.  During the years, several researches have been carried out to boost the robustness of the state-space robustness. In the past robust control was used along deterministic approaches. However, recently, there has been a fierce criticism of the approach on grounds that it is non-flexible and cannot be descriptive of uncertainties.  Ultimately, the targets and aims of robust control is to avoid disturbance. The main devices that are used include; automatic excavation and multiple manipulators. The remote control of robotics has since been significantly improved in their various uses in the environment.

Robust control happens to be a method that aims at bounding the available uncertainty instead of expressing it in a distribution manner. Following a bound of the uncertainty, it becomes possible to deliver results that are in line with the requirements of a system in all cases.  In robust control, some performance may end up being sacrificed to make sure that certain requirements of the system are met. However, this type of sacrifice is a common in cases involving robotic systems (Pothukuchi, Pothukuchi, Voulgaris & Torrellas, 2017).

Statement of Purpose

There is thus a need to research on robust control of systems as it is a chance to develop efficient control systemshelp solve the common problems that are being experienced in the robotics industry. The research will try to find out the available potential in robust control that can be manipulated to develop effective control. It is true that the available control systems are effective in the various roles where they are used but there is a need for more improvement of robust control.

There is a special concern for extreme operations that may occur in robust systems which are known to have safety implication. It is in such extremes that one may not be able to predict what happens to robust control which has a special application in this case. It is true that there have been a lot of research about robust control and through this; a various techniques have been developed. There have been a number of tools for use in the robotic industry but a number of issues to do with correctness of these tools especially when they are used to simplify system that are complex in nature. My enthusiasm with pure mathematics has been an inspiration to me and I have, once in a while been part of projects to build parts of robotics arm which was a programmable microcontroller supporting additional circuitry for driving the stepper motors for rotation. This is just one of the projects I have done. Others include a ball balancing beam. In my study days I began my research by co-authoring Blind De-convolution of blurred images with Fuzzy Size Detection of Point Spread Function which sought to find the point spread function dimension of an optical system. The kind of challenges that robust systems are marred with have inspired further research that is intended to make improvements on the current robust control method to make sure that improved processes and tools are in place as a good way to close or minimize the gap that exist between robust control theory and its varied application.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

Pothukuchi, R. P., Pothukuchi, S. Y., Voulgaris, P., & Torrellas, J. (2017, September).

Multilayer Compute Resource Management with Robust Control Theory. In Parallel Architectures and Compilation Techniques (PACT), 2017 26th International Conference on (pp. 376-376). IEEE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Considering the impact of media on all users and then the unique effects it may have on African Americans, how can media be used to positively impact African Americans, or is media more detrimental than it’s worth, and should African Americans be steered

 

 

 

 

 

Role of Media in Portraying African Americans

Institutional Affiliation:

Name:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Role of Media in Portraying African Americans

Introduction

The media plays an important role in the society, as it is the mirror through which vices can be highlighted and condemned (Tukachinsky, 2017). A successful democracy such as the US has heavily relied on media independence to highlight excesses even from a government point of view. The media, when used in the right way, can be a game changer as it gives the challenges that happen in the society. The media is a tool to having a moral society, highlighting corruption, racism, slavery and discrimination.  The way the media be it TV stations, newspapers and magazines portray African-Americans has a bearing on the living standards and social well-being of this group of people. Many researchers have appreciated the need of having media that is a true mirror of what is happening in the society (Tukachinsky, 2017). The media should be independent and one that is guided by integrity to air events of mistreatment and at times praising people for major milestones in life. The media is not supposed to work with the government of the day as vices such as corruption, racism and slavery may be hidden under the carpet. The media is able to positively impact the living standards of African Americans in US as described in the following review.

Literature Review

Media stations such as Al Jazeera, CNN and BBC have highlighted the suffering of the Africa Americans making the government of US rush and address the needs of this vulnerable group of people. Even though these media stations have been commended for a good job well done, there has been criticism on equal measure. The media can be used to impact positively to the African Americans in the US in the following ways.  African Americans living in the US get highlighted by a number of media ranging from local newspapers, television outlets and radio stations. The way the media portrays the status of the American Americans with regards to the employment and income can positively impact on the lives of this group of people (Graber & Dunaway, 2017). The country has a low unemployment rate despite enjoying a high participation rate from the large labor workforce that the country enjoys. The media is supposed to go deeper and determine the actual statistics of the number of African Americans that have been employed in European firms. The contracts of the employees, whether there are satisfaction and income earned can be used to impact the living standards. It is a general understanding that Africans Americans are not treated well by being biased in terms of income as some of them are paid low salaries and others are not even employed on the basis of their skin color (Bonilla & Rosa, 2015). The media should actively highlight such gaps and ensure that such firms that encourage racism in the employment industry are blacklisted and dealt with accordingly.  The media is supposed to pursue equality in the society and this would positively affect the lives of the African Americans.

Secondly, the way the media highlights Africans Americans involvement in justice systems and other social services is important in positively affecting the lives of the African Americans (Graber & Dunaway, 2017). In many cases that have gone to court, this group of people has been mistreated and it is the role of the media to ensure that such injustices do not prevail. The media must actively ensure that there is a rule of law and that everyone operates under the same law, such that no one feels superior. African Americans must be allowed to participate in court procedures and to enjoy the social amenities of the country without any bias (Bonilla & Rosa, 2015). The group will feel equal in terms of citizenship and the media would be a game changer for better lives. The media must also describe the educational standing of the African Americans, beliefs and the possibility of improving the lives of the African Americans (Tukachinsky, 2017). The media should educate the society on the required norms for economic development and personal satisfaction. African Americans must be encouraged to engage the media as equality demands equal opportunities for everyone. The media should be open to this group as they are most vulnerable to mistreatment as they are regarded as immigrants in the country despite having stayed in the country for a long time. The media should live within the confines of true journalism and be the real mirror of the society.

Implications of the research

In conclusion, the media plays a significant role in ensuring that the plights of the African Americans are highlighted. Those that are not focusing on societal needs should make a turnaround and start a course in ensuring the vices of the society are eliminated. Racism, bribery and corruption is the greatest enemy of economic development and all forces including the media should play a role in ensuring that this is long gone (Scharrer & Ramasubramanian, 2015). The African Americans too must rise to fight for their needs through the media. They must participate in judicial proceedings, be employed in competitive jobs and be compensated adequately for the services rendered. In the event that such fundamental needs of life are met, people will get satisfied and the standards of living will be high. It will also discourage the practice of engaging in criminal activities such as terrorism as the people will be dedicated to national development. The African Americans should actively start engaging the media on the ways to positively improve life.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

Bonilla, Y., & Rosa, J. (2015).  Ferguson: Digital protest, hashtag ethnography, and the racial       politics of social media in the United States. American Ethnologist, 42(1), 4-17.

Graber, D. A., & Dunaway, J. (2017). Mass media and American politics. Cq Press.

Hurley, R. J., Jensen, J. J., Weaver, A., & Dixon, T. (2015). Viewer ethnicity matters: Black          crime in TV News and its impact on decisions regarding public policy. Journal of Social          Issues, 71(1), 155-170.

Scharrer, E., & Ramasubramanian, S. (2015). Intervening in the media’s influence on stereotypes of race and ethnicity: The role of media literacy education. Journal of Social Issues,       71(1), 171-185.

Tukachinsky, R. (2017). Media Portrayals and Effects: African Americans. Oxford Research        Encyclopedia of Communication. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190228613.013.453