Advanced Practice Nurse

April 27, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Personal Statement: Nursing

Name

Institution

Course Title

Instructor

Date

 

 

 

 

SON 1

Nursing is a lifetime learning experience, a profession and a vocation I would really wish to be part of. My desire is to be a fully registered and qualified nurse who is trusted in the construction of a foundation past nursing training and future advances.

Strengths

The field of nursing requires one to be kind and compassionate. I am very kind and compassionate and these have been my major strengths even before I decided to be part of the nursing profession. I have strong interpersonal skills which are evident in the way I socialize, treat other people and how I run my day to day activities. I have mastered very well the ability to bring out the best not only in myself but in others as well. I am also a determined individual. I will not stop at something unless I have fully accomplished it. I do not give up easily and I would not stop until the work is properly done. Caring for others, being kind and staying determined has made me fit without struggling into the nursing profession and increased the ability to be trusted by patients, fellow colleagues showing I could be a potential leader in the absence of top management.

Weaknesses

In an engaging profession, there must be challenges which pose in the form of individual weaknesses. I am always worried every time work is not done up to standard because I would make sure I double check the work all the time to ensure guidelines are followed. I only encourage exceptional outcome every time and so I would not rest until I confirm everything has been done to standard. Thus, I always try to transform (modify?) this double checking the work all the time to ensure that appropriate guidelines are met and do the job ahead of time so that in case revisions need to be done there will be enough time without cramming or when I am delegating a task to other nurses, I make sure to check on them frequently, making sure that I am available to questions or clarifications if they need it. Another evident weakness in me is that I set somewhat unrealistic high expectation for my team and for myself. In particular times it has been challenging for me to get to my target but this weakness has assisted me in my practice by charging to have excellent techniques in time management and have an organized for of care delivery. I am easily stressed and impatient but I hope for an experience that will enable me work on my emotional stability and patience.

These personal characteristics will help me grow my confidence through knowledge, ensure I make rational decisions in the future and provide me with an environment to stay calm during critical decision making scenarios thus bringing me to success.

SON 2

It was during my placement at the Philippine Red Cross that I acquired my leadership skills. As a nurse instructor at the community nurse department, part of my duties revolves around health promotion and disease prevention which involved having one on one conversation with the people of the community. Having to talk with different people in the community was quite challenging for me because sharing health information with people who have problems in reading and understanding could be essentially very hard but I made it accomplished my goals effectively and this determination is what I believe makes me unique. As a practitioner in the field of nursing, I believe all nurses must have great critical thinking skills and pay exceptional attention to detail which I must say I have been successful in while in the Oncology department.

I was also charged with the responsibility of ensuring patients are provided with chemotherapy demands. It was at this point that I realized that nurses must to be detail oriented especially when checking for abnormal signs. A case in scenario was when a patient came in for her third therapy denying having any symptoms of fatigue though I noticed that she did not have enough energy to perform normal duties. Overlooking such small details could lead to unacceptable results which could later affect the patient’s condition. Whenever I got the chance, I would practice how to apply my critical thinking skills in decision making and polish my attention to detail skills.

During chemotherapy, I realized that I must be able to think fast and act even faster to prevent the patient from any adverse effects. These qualities have appreciated more during my time at Ospital ng Makati in Phillipines. Though it was a government hospital, it was during this experience that I was presented with the privilege to work with less privileged communities, taking care of them, treating them with equality and motivating them into bringing out the best in what they do. I am a unique candidate for this application because I have firsthand experience in knowing the basic health needs at community level and will be of help in designing health prevention techniques for the university in future.

SON 3

I have confidence that my 10 year working experience as a nurse practitioner in the different community settings would grow me into a successful, committed and motivated nurse practitioner. Serving underprivileged communities solidified my dream to have a desire to help the underprivileged find resources and abilities to help them access quality healthcare. This experience drove me into anticipating ways in which we as a nursing profession can work to integrate health promotion, disease prevention and health maintenance into Philippine communities to escalate their general status which prepared me even better to become an advanced practice nurse. For instance during a one on one session with the chemotherapy patient, I was presented with a chance to apply my critical thinking skills and design my own model of leadership.

A leader must pay attention to detail and use exceptional critical thinking and decision making skills for the safety of the patient. In this experience I met all these demands which has strengthened my desire to stay at the leadership position. In working with underprivileged communities, I was presented with the chance to design a strategy that will ensure the healthcare needs of the same community are met. At the forefront, I was able to apply all the theories and concepts taught in the nursing profession into designing strategies that will integrate health promotion, disease prevention and maintenance of health in the community. The unique background at the governmental hospital in Philippine just how much I thirst for more knowledge in nursing than I thought. It was from my experience background that I learnt to be not just caring but more caring not only with patients but in other interpersonal relationships.

Social media’s impact on communication

April 27, 2017

Social media’s impact on communication

How digital technology and social networks affect our social and interpersonal skills

Social media can be defined as any phone or application that is based on the internet and can be used as a means of communication between two or more people, with the most popular applications being Twitter, Instagram and Facebook. Over the last decade, advancement in technology has seen communication advancing and social media has become the accepted means of communication among peers. Technology has been so influential that most young people celebrate it as a way of bringing people closer to each other. However, when one truly looks into the effects of social media, then this assumption that most people make becomes a wrong assumption.

Social media is designed to discourage real conversation, with some having a limit to how many words one can use to respond to another person. This does little to develop a real relationshipbetween people since it is impossible for an individual to express his true feelings with less than 140 characters. This does little to encourage individuals to express themselves fully. Social media does connect more people but these people are connected by a superficial relationship (Meyrowitz, 1986). The information that can be shared on a personal level is far more than what people post online simply because there is no privacy on social media. For individuals to form interpersonal relationships, direct communication between the parties is necessary without any of these individuals becoming easily distracted. Users of social media have the tendency to become easily distracted find it difficult to stay connected to someone on a personal level. Social media, therefore, acts as a deterrent to the formation of interpersonal relationships.

 

Is social media making us less social?

The main problem with social media is that these forms of communication have completely distracted people from reality. In these modern times, whenever more than five young people are gathered, they rarely try to talk to each other but have the tendency to be on their phones. This does little to help them develop socially. More often people prefer to share their ‘happiness’ through taking pictures of activities that they are engaging in but the sad fact is that these pictures are the only memories that they have (Duggan & Brenner, 2013). This is a sad fact since these people are more enthusiastic to share these pictures with online strangers, who they have no relationship with in order to become recognized in the social class. How ironical that they are inclined to receive recognition and authentication from strangers. Most of the time these ‘friends’ do not have any actual memory of any conversation that was made during these fun times.

Social media has become very successful in connecting strangers physically, but when it comes to connecting them emotionally, social media has succeeded in creating a virtual and emotionless world. This virtual world has replaced the real world and people no longer see the need to go out and socialize. Statistics show that more than 250 million photos are uploaded on Facebook daily. The information available online also portrays people to be happy and content with life, yet this is seldom the case. People use these photos as ways of knowing whether or not their friends are alright. This has made it seem unnecessary for people to meet and discuss issues that affect them. Social media thus makes people less inclined to become social.

 

 

 

How social networks will continue to shape our society

Social media has shaped and will continue to dictate not only how we communicate but also how we carry out our daily business transactions. Social media is changing business policies, governing policies and relationships between people. The ease of access of information has made social media the best platform to put forward and discuss ideas. Anybody with an agenda will use social media to generate enough attention to get their information across to the people. Social media websites have been used all across the world by politicians, with those who wield the most influence online being more recognized than those who refrain from social media. Most presidents, including the president of the United States use social media platforms to communicate with the people.

On the business sector, all major companies use social media to communicate with their customers and to advertise their products. By studying online trends, businesses are able to study the current preferences of the market and this enables them to formulate strategies to push their businesses to succeed (Qualman, 2010). These companies are able to organize contests where they reward their customers and this generates more feedback than traditional forms of promotion such as televisions. In addition to being easy to carry out, online polls are cheap and easy to carry out. The effects of social media on socialization also means that more and more people are going to get alienated from their closest friends and developing real relationships. The influence of social media is only going to increase over time since more and more people are beginning to see social media is the modern forms of communication and the only thing that can be done is to accept it.

 

 

References

Meyrowitz, J. (1986). No sense of place: The impact of electronic media on social behavior. Oxford University Press.

Qualman, E. (2010). Socialnomics: How social media transforms the way we live and do business. John Wiley & Sons.

Duggan, M., & Brenner, J. (2013). The demographics of social media users, 2012 (Vol. 14). Washington, DC: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Communication Strategies for a Group Dynamic

April 27, 2017

Communication Strategies for a Group Dynamic

SPC 3425 Group Project

Communication strategies differ depending on the context of the conversation taking place. Group communication which takes place between three or more people can be even harder to get right. This is because all the components of the communication process are multiplied in a group communication. This results in multiple senders and receivers using the same channel such as in the group project assigned where Adobe Connect was the primary channel used. Each sender needs to encode the message they wish to send in a way that can be understood by the other members. The final component of the communication process, the feedback, is especially important in a group dynamic to ensure that the message is understood by everyone involved.

In the group project, decisions were made through consensus. In debating the first scenario, extra clothing was chosen as the most important item from what was salvaged by one of the members. The rest of the group agreed to this choice and moved on to choosing the second item. The decision to place whiskey second on the list was arrived at after discussing its importance and why it would be more useful than the ax and the pistol that the group had previously placed before it. The team members weighed in and agreed that as a result of its importance as a disinfectant and as a fire lighter, it should be second.

The meetings were conducted via Adobe Connect. This was the primary channel of communication used and allowed all members to contribute to the group project. The members were able to share their ideas, vote on the suggestions of others and keep the discussion going via Adobe Connect. The group leader influenced the decisions by starting off the debate and moving the discussion along to ensure no time was wasted. This made the debate objective and cut down the time used on distractions. However, time was still used up for keeping track of the items as they were put in order. Better decisions would have been made if one member was brought into charge of listing the things as they were agreed on by the members. The placing of whiskey took up a lot of time. One member suggested placing it 5th; another wanted it to be 4th before the group finally agreed on putting it second. Such delegation is essential in group communications to ensure that everyone participates and to make communication efficient.

People in the group listened to each other and thus were able to come to a consensus on the order of items. The channel of communication used ensured that everyone could air their views and the rest could give their opinion on it. For instance, a member suggests focusing on combating the cold which provides structure for the discussion. The group members adopt the roles of leader, researcher, and contributors. The team member who starts off the conversation and asks the members to move on to the next question assumes the role of group leader. The members who research the flammability of steel wool, the disinfectant properties of whiskey and the soothing properties of Crisco assume the role of researchers.

The conflict was managed through the taking of votes and consensus. For instance, the placement of rope and water in the second scenario was a contested. A member suggests that oxygen was more critical to their survival and four more members agree, and the order is thus accepted. Turn-taking, the use of consensus and feedback helped the group in achieving its goals (Paul, 2008). The members take turns in giving suggestions and giving feedback and their opinions on the suggestions given. The people were comfortable with the decisions made by the group as a whole. The ordering of items was done when the members agreed to it, and the team only moved on to the next question when everyone was in agreement. Each person seemed relatively satisfied with the decision of the group with the group average being a 7. Many members rated their satisfaction rate as 7 or 8.

This group functions effectively by making good use of the channel of communication employed. The members participate in the discussion, giving their suggestions, opinions and providing facts to help with the decision-making. This is an excellent example of effective group communication and a well-functioning group. If asked to repeat the task, I would choose a time when everyone was available and assign roles to different members so that the final recommendations represented everyone’s views and to ensure the discussion did not take longer than necessary. This exercise is similar to a board meeting at work where decisions on projects had to be made with the information available. It is also similar to a budget-making process at home or at work where factors like the money available and items needed are used to make the final decision. Dynamics such as the channel of communication used and the number of participants influence how effective a communication process is in a group and how reliable the decisions made will be. They also affect how conflict is handled and how members feel about the process at the end of it. In the group project, the process was well handled, and the participants were able to share their views and achieve the goals set out.

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

Paul, D. (2008). Communication strategies 1 (1st ed.). Singapore: Thomson.

Drug Addiction and the Effects on the Brain

April 27, 2017

Introduction

This paper aims at showing the various effects of drug addiction on the human’s brain whereby, it will use Marijuana, Alcohol and Ecstasy drugs addiction, as the case examples. First, it will introduce the term drug addiction, and then it will go ahead to show the various effects on the brains when a person get used to the above drugs. Marijuana, Ecstasy and alcohol affect both the physical body as well as the mind of the person addicted to them, but this paper will focus on the psychological effects only.

Drug addiction, also known as substance use disorder refers to the dependence on either illegal or legal drugs for personal pleasure or medicinal purposes (Volkow, et al. 2017). At this point, it is important to note that some substances such as alcohol are considered as a drug, but it is a legal substance in most countries (Volkow et al. 2015). Also, it is crucial to note that some drugs are used for medicinal purposes in various countries. For example, marijuana has been recently legalised in some states (Victoria State) in Australia for use in treating epilepsy disease in children but with a recommendation from a licensed doctor (Satel et al. 2014).

Drug Addiction and the Effects on the Brains

Alcohol, Ecstasy and marijuana addictions cause a range of effects on the brains, and they include the following:

Drug addictions and memory loss: marijuana and alcohol affect the parts of the brains which are responsible for memory issues. These substances affect the three types of memory namely; sensory, short term and long term memories (Saah, 2005). Hippocampus is a section within the side of the brains and which is part of the systems which are responsible for controlling the memory of a person, their sense of smell and emotions. This part of the brains plays a vital role in spatial and memory awareness hence the reasons why they are impaired when a person is involved with alcohol and marijuana. The compounds present in the two drugs especially with marijuana will affect these functions to the point that coordination and balance are lost (Robins et al. 2016). Also, continued use of the two drugs will make it difficult for a person to recall events that took place before. Some people will even forget the days of the week or even the dates. Some addicts are reported to forget where they left something, especially with phones or keys. The reactions of the addicts will slow down, and they will find themselves taking longer time than usual to act or think about something (P.Z et al. 2016).

Drug addictions and learning: people who are addicted to drugs such as Marijuana, Alcohol or even Ecstasy will find it that their cognitive abilities will be less effective than when it is normal. These people’s abilities to capture new information, multitask, retain information and focusing is impaired. At this point, their abilities at their workplace, school life will be affected negatively hence result in a reduced performance (Longo et al. 2016). Addicts of these drugs especially marijuana and alcohol will lose the ability to concentrate on their various works hence they will make more errors and experience difficulties when they want to remember some things (Kim et al. 2014). Mostly, these drugs affect the short term memory which is tasked with recalling and storing specific information which is required so as to complete a certain task. People who are addicted to these drugs will find it harder to remember some information, or it can even take longer time than usual to remember that specific issue. At this point, it is even much tougher to capture and retain new information and to stay focused while switching from one activity to the other. THC’s compounds which are present in marijuana will attach themselves to the nerve cells hence affecting their roles (Herman et al. 2015).

Drug addictions and social behaviour: addiction on these drugs can cause some effects on the social skills and behaviour. Addiction causes the psychological inability to function well in the daily activities. Addicts may find it that they experience withdrawal symptoms if they try to stop taking these drugs so they will continue to use them so as to retain control and they will get addicted more and more. People who are addicted may change from a sociable, upbeat and outgoing person to someone who prefers his/her company, withdrawn and quiet person (Heim, 2014). Also, they may prefer to remain indoors the whole day to continue abusing those drugs. This way, they will become less active into the community issues. Also, these people will lack the motivation and energy hence they became less focused and committed thus they will make more and more errors. Due to these psychological effects, addicts involved in machinery operations are more likely to cause an accident (Heim, 2014).

Drug addictions and Hallucinations: drug addictions such as alcohol and marijuana addictions may result to hallucinations which refer to a condition of altered reality in which a person will experience distorted sound, colour and time. A person experiencing hallucinations will tend to perceive colours, textures and sounds as much sharper, exaggerated or even clearly defined. With time, they perceive it as having stopped all together, or it slowed down. Most addicts will hear or see certain things which are not presently there (Gilpin, 2014). Addicts who have used large amounts of these drugs such as marijuana will experience an unpleasant and different forms of hallucinations hence some of them might even see ghosts and may scream at night whereby they will claim that someone or an animal attacked them. Some of these addicts may become panicky or anxious, and other times they will report or say that they will die (Gilpin, 2014).

Drug addictions and insomnia: insomnia refers to the inability to sleep, and it is caused by many factors and among them is drug addiction from substances such as marijuana and alcohol. Most addicts will say that they cannot get sleep at night if they have not taken a certain drug (Fox et al. 2013). For example, alcoholics may not get sleep at night if they are not under the influence of alcohol, so most of them fear to go to bed when they are not drunk. Other drugs such as nicotine and cocaine also cause cases of insomnia especially when a person is used to taking them. It is commonly present during the first days when a person is experiencing withdrawal. If using cocaine and marijuana or even alcohol makes a person to feel sleepy then they will lose sleep when they don’t use it (Fox et al. 2017).

Drug addictions and anxiety: Addiction to drugs such as marijuana can result in a range of effects such as increased laughter, elation, altered perceptions and talkativeness. On the same note, it can cause other effects such as paranoia, agitation and anxiety (Filbey et al. 2014).  Anxiety is a state where a person is under extreme fear of a certain perceived threat. Drug addictions such as marijuana, alcohol and others such as nicotine are some of the factors that may result in this psychological problem known as anxiety. New addicts to marijuana may start to experience anxiety while those addicts who consume a large dose of that drug may also experience the state of anxiety (Filbey et al. 2014). Drug addicts who suffer from anxiety have reported feeling like they are going to die or getting mad. This can occur if they are experiencing headaches or chest tightness as a result of tension caused by the state of anxiety. A common psychological effect linked to anxiety is that feeling of being out of control (Saah, 2005).

Drug addictions and depression: depression is a form of illness which makes a person lose interest in the things that happens around them. Addiction to drugs such as alcohol and marijuana is closely linked to a person’s depression although there are other factors to be considered (Le Merrer et al. 2009). Drug addiction leads to depression which then causes loss of motivation and energy and other times; the addicts may start to feel worthless. The moods of people who are addicted to ecstasy, marijuana or even alcohol may be low, and they may start to withdraw themselves from their friends and family members. Also, other psychological effects of suicidal thoughts may start to be experienced by the addicts of these drugs (Gilpin, 2014). On the other hand, certain drugs such as marijuana can make a person to get addicted to them while they try to ease their depression using that drug. In other words, a non-addict to marijuana and who is experiencing depression from other drugs such as alcohol or due to a natural/family circumstances may decide to use marijuana so as to lower their depression (Heim, 2014). Continued use of this drug will lead to addiction, and hence they may start to experience other psychological problems such as loss of motivation and energy and increased apathy/laziness (Le Merrer et al. 2009).

Conclusion

In conclusion, people should be aware of the harmful effects of the drugs they want to involve themselves with rather than just looking at the immediate outcomes of feeling high (personal pleasure). Also, other than just looking at the physical effects of using drugs or of being addicted to drugs such as marijuana, alcohol and Ecstasy, people should also be aware of the possible psychological harm/damage caused by these drugs.

 

 

 

References

Filbey, F., Aslan, S., Calhoun, V., Spence, J., Damaraju, E., Caprihan, A., &Segall, J. (2014). Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, 111(47), 16913-16918. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1415297111

Fox, T., Oliver, G., & Ellis, S. (2013). The Destructive Capacity of Drug Abuse: An Overview Exploring the Harmful Potential of Drug Abuse Both to the Individual and to Society. ISRN Addiction, 2013, 1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/450348

Fox, T., Oliver, G., & Ellis, S. (2017). The Destructive Capacity of Drug Abuse: An Overview Exploring the Harmful Potential of Drug Abuse Both to the Individual and to Society. Retrieved 21 April 2017, from

Gilpin, N. (2014). Brain Reward and Stress Systems in Addiction. Frontiers In Psychiatry, 5. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00079

Heim, D. (2014). Addiction: Not just brain malfunction. Nature, 507(7490), 40-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/507040e

Herman, M., & Roberto, M. (2015). The addicted brain: understanding the neurophysiological mechanisms of addictive disorders. Frontiers In Integrative Neuroscience, 9. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2015.00018

Kim, J., & Lawrence, A. (2014). Drugs currently in Phase II clinical trials for cocaine addiction. Expert Opinion On Investigational Drugs, 23(8), 1105-1122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/13543784.2014.915312

Le Merrer, J., Becker, J., Befort, K., &Kieffer, B. (2009). Reward Processing by the Opioid System in the Brain. Physiological Reviews, 89(4), 1379-1412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00005.2009

Longo, D., Volkow, N., Koob, G., &McLellan, A. (2016). Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction. New England Journal Of Medicine, 374(4), 363-371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/nejmra1511480

P, Z., & S, T. (2016). Drug Abuse and Perivascular Changes of the Brain. Journal Of Clinical & Experimental Pathology, 6(3). http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2161-0681.1000281

Robins, M., Lu, J., & van Rijn, R. (2016). Unique Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects Induced by Repeated Adolescent Consumption of Caffeine-Mixed Alcohol in C57BL/6 Mice. PLOS ONE, 11(7), e0158189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0158189

Saah, T. (2005). The evolutionary origins and significance of drug addiction. Harm Reduction Journal, 2(1), 8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7517-2-8

Satel, S., &Lilienfeld, S. (2014). Addiction and the Brain-Disease Fallacy. Frontiers In Psychiatry, 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00141

Volkow, N., & Morales, M. (2015). The Brain on Drugs: From Reward to Addiction. Cell, 162(4), 712-725. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.07.046

Volkow, N., & Morales, M. (2017). The Brain on Drugs: From Reward to Addiction. Retrieved 21 April 2017, from

Volkow, N., Fowler, J., & Wang, G. (2004). The addicted human brain viewed in the light of imaging studies: brain circuits and treatment strategies. Neuropharmacology, 47, 3-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2004.07.019

 

NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION APPLICATION

April 27, 2017

Non-verbal communication is a form of expression of information and sending information to other people without words. It involves the use of visual hints such as body language, facial expression, touching or tone of voice among other actions or reactions like the mode of dressing or posture. Actions in most cases speak louder than words. These nonverbal communications are necessary for personal relationships to express emotions and affections.

Relationships between men and women are different whether personal or professional. A platonic relationship is a non-sexual relationship between people of different genders. I have such a relationship with my close friend, Ken, a young man that I have been with for the most part of my life since childhood. We are just friends and do not have any plans or intentions of developing a romantic relationship. We are open and tell each other everything that happens in our daily life. Our families’ living next door to each other has made this possible. I believe sharing opinions on ideas and helping each other has helped us grow together and much closer. He has helped me grow both intellectually, socially and spiritually through sharing our life experiences and ideas. We get to hang out a lot and have fun as close friends.

Nonverbal communication has helped us grow to understand and develop our relationship. This communication helps relate to each other in conversations, for example, nodding when I agree with an idea or maintaining eye contact to show that I am attentive. Changing facial expression or hand movements substitutes for words where we are in a crowded place and do not want other people to hear what we are expressing. Use of nonverbal communications is faster and easier to relate to when we are happy or excited about something like smiling after a day spent in watching movies or winking. When my friend is sad I may hug him to give him comfort and support or pat him on the back. This makes it easier to get emotional contact. We love and appreciate each other; we express this through nonverbal hints like sitting next to each other and holding hands sometimes.

However, we have differences in some non-verbal communication behaviors. Ken and I differ in some factors. He has short hair while I have long braided hair. Unlike me, he is tall, dark and well built. Our height difference is extreme. Differences in eye behavior are evident between us; when I am afraid of something mostly I shed tears and shift my eyes from him whereas he is always calm and firm when he is afraid and does not show fear. When in a conversation he may start using his phone sometimes or fold his hands which make him seem bored or inattentive yet in most cases he hears everything I say. I am hardly distracted when in a conversation with him. We have different voices; I can do better soft talk or baby talk better than him when making silly jokes in our conversations. I am freer to hug and hold hands with him around other people than he is. I am bad at keeping time showing up for outdoor activities especially when I have to wake up early while Ken is always on time or ready before time so as to pressure me to speed up.

The book on nonverbal communication in close relationships has defined nonverbal cues in different types of relationships. My relationship with my close friend is platonic and our nonverbal language is supported clearly by the book. The book suggests that there are many types of research that conclude that women show affection and emotion better than men do. (Floyd, K. 2006).Through our nonverbal communications, for instance, I cry in some instances when sad or afraid unlike him.

Immediacy is related to the factor of proximity. It allows direct nonverbal communication and closeness. We live close to each other and a platonic relationship was the best for us. We have known each other for a long period of time and we used to play games together from childhood. We grew to be close friends and we did not want to ruin such a friendship.

Nonverbal immediacy acts more effectively than verbal communication. It is supported mostly by proximity and familiarity.  Nonverbal immediacy helps develop a new relationship and maintain an ongoing relationship through smiling, holding hands and other nonverbal cues. With such a development a relationship is strengthened and is not challenged by distance in case one travels far. Nonverbal immediacy may create anxiety among the people in the relationship. It is easier to detect lies in such a relationship and anxiety may be as a result of suspicion from the other partner.

In conclusion, nonverbal communication is important in any relationship. This communication is natural and reveals honest reactions to happenings. We have different relationships and should pay keen attention to the nonverbal communication signals for effective communication.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

Guerrero, L. K., & Floyd, K. (2006). Nonverbal communication in close relationships. Routledge.

 

Legal Memo

April 27, 2017

Legal Memo

TO: Senior Attorney

FROM: Junior Attorney

RE: Possibility of Lawsuit against Dr. Marris for Slander (Oral Defamation)

DATE:

 

 

Issue

The issue in this case pertains to whether Dr. Lee can successfully bring a case of slander against Dr. Marris under the New Yolk Law based on the statement made by Dr. Marris to Dr. Bird that Dr. Lee was dishonest.

Rule

The premises of this case hinges on the existence of elements of an actionable cause for spoken defamatory words that satisfies the legal procedure in such an issue. The court in Samuel Albert v. Salmen Loksen, Brooklyn Hospital and Karen Buono, 239 F. 3d 256, 99-7520 (2nd Cir. 2001) retained that the main inquiries into the immediate context of the spoken words needs to be substantial representations of factual information that is otherwise false and spoken with such level of fault that the act results in special harm[1]. Determining the issues that could lead to trial however has to be based on weighty evidence for the jury to return any verdict for Dr. Lee. A defamation claim requires that the plaintiff produce evidence that a false statement was disclosed to third parties at a level of fault or negligent standard amounting to special harm or defamation[2].

The court in Dillon v. City of NY, 261A.D. 2d 34, 704 (N.Y.S. 1999) acknowledged that there must be an element of public ridule or damage to the friendly intercourse with society resulting from the claimed defamatory statements. The court also recoginized that the statements had to be in the public domain and as such without authorization such that the standard of negligence is so atrocious that it amounts to defamation[3]. The court also established that the specific words spoken be stated outright in the complaint indicating the time, place and manner of statement. The defamation claim, must outline the particular context of the full statements made.

Application/Analysis

In Dillon v. City of New York, 261 A.D.2d 34 (1999) the court established that a triable case of defamation must exhibit the following elements; false statement, publication of the false statement without authorization, the statement should cause special harm, and the complaint should have the particular words particular complained of.

Dr. Lee seeks to accuse Dr. Marris of slander from making possibly professionally injurious statements to Dr. Baird who is a fellow supervisor to Dr. Marris.  Dr. Lee alleges that Dr. Marris accused him of negligence of standard procedures prescribed in his line of work as a physician. Dr. Marris also attributes Dr. Lee’s conduct to amount to an act that endangered a patient’s life. Dr. Marris also allegedly accused Dr. Lee of dishonesty for the insinuation that the mistake was made by the nurse who handed the patient wrong medicine. In regards to the element of false statement, it is in the record, that Dr. Lee authorized the nurse to admnister antibiotic Z instead of anibiotic Y to the patient which endagered the patient’s life. Equally, it is in the record that Dr. Lee while reporting the misdoing to Dr. Marris said that the error was not his and blaimed the nurse for it. In this regard, the statement given by Dr. Marris regarding the proffesional conduct of Dr. Lee was factual and therefore no grounds for defamation. In regards to the inclusion of the particular words complained of , Dr. Lee does not specify what the rest of the statements was but he only quotes the conclusory remarks making the actual defamatory statements vague and primarily hearsay. On the element of publication and fault in the dissemination of possibly slanderous information, there is no evidence to this effect,whereby, there is no indication that there was any memo released to indicate the terms of termination to  the wider professional society. There is also no noticeable economic or pecuniary loss accrued by Dr. Lee from the statements made by Dr. Marris and therefore, not actionable in such a respect. Finaly, the defamation complaint by Dr. Lee faces the challenge of the fact that in Samuel Albert v. Salmen Loksen, Brooklyn Hospital and Karen Buono, 239 F. 3d 256, 99-7520 (2nd Cir. 2001) found that person with similar interest on a subject qualify for protection of some of their communication from defamatory allegations. In this case, the supervisors; Dr Baird and Marris qualify for the privilege because the statements appear after the situation and prior to termination as a review of employee misconduct and possibly reasons for discharge. In Ansa Qureshi v. St. Barnabas Hospital Center and David Rubin, 430F. 2d 279, 287 (S.D.N.Y. 2006) and Colantino v. Mercy Medical Center, 73 A.D. 3d 966, 901N.Y.S. 2d 370, 374  (2010) the New York Appelate courts found need for proof that the statements were made out of malice or presense of perceivable falsity such as in Dr. Marris review of Dr. Lee given the case facts, that is lacking in the case.

 

 

Conclusion

After analyzing the defamation complaint by Dr Lee against Dr. Marris, the court is likely to decide that the complaint is a retaliatory action against the supervisor for termination and dismiss the case not having substantially probative matters for trial for defamation. There are no enough grounds to accuse Dr. Marris of defamation on the grounds that he shared his expert opinion to a fellow supervisor about the dutiful conduct of a junior staff and to the extent that the statement was not disclosed to the society by a publication, no special harm in the broader professional perspective can be adduced to his reputation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Ansa Qureshi v. St. Barnabas Hospital Center and David Rubin, 430F. 2d 279, 287 (S.D.N.Y. 2006).

Colantino v. Mercy Medical Center, 73 A.D. 3d 966, 901N.Y.S. 2d 370, 374  (2010).

Dillon v. City of NY, 261A.D. 2d 34, 704 (N.Y.S. 1999).

Samuel Albert v. Salmen Loksen, Brooklyn Hospital and Karen Buono, 239 F. 3d 256, 99-7520 (2nd Cir. 2001).

 

[1] Dillon v. City of New York, 261 A.D.2d 34 (1999)

 

[2]  Albert v. Loksen, 239 F.3d 256 (2001)

 

[3] Colantonio v. Mercy Medical Center, 73 A.D.3d 966 (2010)

 

Strategic Organizational Communication

April 27, 2017

Description of the Organization

Samsung Electronics is one of the major affiliates of the Samsung group and it specializes in the manufacture of mobile and smart phones. In addition to being the largest manufacturer of smart phones since 2011, the company has been the largest manufacturer of television sets in the world since the year 2006. The company also manufactures electronic components such as machine chips, flash disks and hard drives, semi-conductors and lithium-ion batteries for other companies such as Apple, HTC, Nokia and Sony. Following the success of its Galaxy line of android phones, the company went on to manufacture tablets and pioneered the phablets through the Samsung Galaxy Note devices. The successes of the company have seen it becoming recognized internationally and based on its revenues, the company has successfully become the second largest company in the information technology industry.

Being one of the leading electronic manufacturing companies in the world, Samsung is dedicated to creating new technology and coming up with new alternatives to the existing problems in the electronics industry for the benefit of their customers. The company is also dedicated to being a pioneer to innovation and these commitments are indicated in the company’s mission statement which states “Inspire the world, create the future”. This shows that the main mission of the company is to become the creative master and inspire the world through innovation and the introduction of new products into the market. Its vision is to inspire the world with its creative prowess and grow together with the rest of the world. It plans to become classified as one of the top five brands in the world. Its main goal it to become the leader in the telecommunication industry.

 

Strategic communication can be defined as exchanging information of a plan, idea, process or concept that, when applied has the potential to put an organization in a position to achieve its main goal. Strategic communication has several aspects but the can either be internal or external. Samsung Electricals has failed in its communication strategy with the members of the public but excelled in internal communication. Samsung executives have often been accused of ignoring the media and shying away from the public eye. Whenever there is an issues under scrutiny by the media, these executives tend to respond vaguely and do not really offer enough information to the public and as a result, a large section of the consumers do not have complete faith in the company. This failure was reflected in its failure to address the issue of the exploding Note 7 devices. This allowed negative press to dominate the airwaves and this could cost the company more than $5 billion. Their failure to address the issue saw a drop in consumer confidence with most consumers defecting to their direct competition. This will have a negative long-term effect on the company’s position in the market.

The company has, however, performed excellently in its internal communication efforts. In 2014, for instance, the company had plans to introduce a pensions plan to its employees. The company embarked on a vigorous program termed Pension Month, where the company persistently distributed information on the pension plan to its employees. It attempted communication through video streams and text messages, emails and even branded napkins and other materials to stimulate conversation among the employees. It also held workshops where they educated the young employees on the importance of the pension scheme. This saw more than 90% of their employees becoming registered while others even increased their monthly contribution. This saw the company receiving the Most Strategic Communications Award. A company whose internal communication strategy has been proved to work as efficiently as Samsung’s has the potential to rise above the competition and deliver the best quality of products to its customers.

Another important concept of strategic communication is marketing. Marketing helps the organization to achieve its goals by providing the information about the products that the company has for its consumers. Samsung has successfully become ranked among the best companies in the information technology industry and this is partly due to the fact that among its competitors, it has the largest marketing budget. Its marketing strategy comprises different forms of advertising, events organization and public relations. Advertising is among the core elements of the company and it has put a lot of time and finances to ensure that they outperform their competitors. The company uses all modern forms of advertising, including live event advertising and the use of social media. The company has formed partnerships with other corporations such as Fox and this saw 30-second clips being streamed during major live events worldwide. Viral marketing followed by issuing printed advertisements are also some of the other means of advertisement that the company has employed. Newspaper articles and journals have also been used to promote their products and also directly attacking their competitors. By engaging in these activities, the company has ensured that it communicates the latest products to their consumers. This also generates a lot of attention to the industry, making people who were not aware of their products to be aware, thus capturing a new market (Lee, 2014).

Assessment and recommendations.

Organizations which have integrated a well detailed strategic communication plan into their organization structure have recorded higher profit returns than companies, with those which invest more amounts into their budget recording even higher returns, as seen in the case of Samsung Electronics. They have managed to crush their competition and are even threatening to advance into the already established Apple market. The company has always been at the center of communication technology innovations in multiple industries and this is shown by its success in both the television and mobile industry. Key among the main drivers of their success is their investment in communication technology, especially internally. Developing their internal communication channel has helped the company move closer to accomplishing its goal by enabling exchange of information to be faster, clearer and more effective. Effective information sharing means that the company is also able to increase awareness in its products. They are also able to push sales of their products through advertisements.

The company can still improve its strategic communication clearer and easier to understand. This improves the effectiveness of the recipients of the information. The company has failed in its aim of improving public relations. The company can improve these relations by showing more concern to the opinions of the public. The company should become more open and inviting to constructive criticism. Responding to the questions raised by the media is equivalent to communicating to their customers. This will also make it easier for the company to develop crisis management strategies, making it able to avoid the losses that it experiences out of not addressing the exploding battery crisis.

 

 

 

 

 

References

Lee, S. J. (2014). Samsung Electronics and its growth strategy. Handbook of East Asian Entrepreneurship, 336.

 

Secret to Peace

April 27, 2017

Initiating from the scenario of difficult negotiation, the video leads towards resolving conflicts and spreading the joy of unity in the world. The speaker, who is an anthropologist, shared engaging stories from which I learned and understood the conflict situations. It demonstrates the significant power within human beings to solve any conflict in the world as the third party intervention.

People strive for peace on the planet. However, we often fail due to lack of efforts towards acquiring that peace. I compiled from the video that the only solution is us, the people. Our togetherness can make major change leading us close to the level of peace. Though not easy, it is simple.

One of the most powerful elements in the video is the storytelling that showed valuable paths towards humankind. I think stories are the great ways to teach and grasp effective knowledge from one mind to another. In many stories, the speaker presented comprehensive views of what is needed to replace terrorism into tourism for a conflict-free living. I could connect with every story and I realized that why we cannot see such a simple route rather than land into complex solutions. I think the world needs us.

Most Valuable Concept

The most valuable concept I considered is the Abraham path. In the discovery of peace with unity initiates, what else can be effective than learning from a man who referred as ‘the friend’ in the world? Abraham has marked a great contribution in hospitality. He showed kindness to the strangers. This path determines the cultural route as a global platform in the Middle East.

The path encourages walk and tourism, which according to the speaker, potentially connects people across the globe. I learned that Abraham path is the game changer and thus most influential for understanding and treating people from any region with respect (“Abraham Path”). I think when one lives the journey of tourism and hospitality, it gave more courage and collaboration in living.

3 Important Concepts

Furthermore, the speaker submitted some remarkable approaches in front of the public regarding the peacemaking.

Secret to peace

I used to assume that individuals are responsible for choosing any path for peace. However, this will not work when it comes to unity amongst the people in the world. The video provided the essential lesson over the common secret to peace for all and that is ‘third side’.

The third side is us

Specification over the third side is vital; the third side in making peace is ‘us’. The speaker evidently presented a thought that a third man better resolves conflicts and optimizes the positive results of a topic. Family members and friends should be pretended to be the major source of cooling down any fight situations. I guess it seems a small effort, but we as the surrounding can make peaceful ambiances. Referring to a person, the third side can effectively help in managing and resolving the conflict between disputing parties (“Third Party Intervention”). I think a third man intervention marks impactful response for other creatures by bringing the discussion on the track.

Tourism

            One of the targeted point of the video addresses knowing and respecting emotions of strangers while walking. The Abraham path is the platform for connecting more people in need and providing support as per the capability of a man. Briefly, these practices are not easy but simple enough towards reaching peace with essential human efforts.

 

 

Works Cited

“Abraham Path”. Abrahampath.Org, http://abrahampath.org/path/.

“Third Party Intervention”. Colorado.Edu, http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/treatment/3ptyint.htm.

April 27, 2017

Running Head: HUNTER-GATHERER CHILDHOOD

The Nature of Hunter-Gatherer Childhood

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(College/University)

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The Nature of Hunter-Gatherer Childhood

Introduction

Adaptation is one of the schools of thought that were popularized in the field of Psychology. During this time, the study of Psychology was combined with other disciplines such as Philosophy, Evolution or Darwin’s Natural Selection, and others. For many years, the debate on nature versus nurture has remained to be inconclusive due to the clashing researches and their findings.

One of the avenues for adaptation is infancy and childhood. During the 1970s, ethnographers began to focus on non-Western societies as they researched on other adaptation styles which are unique and representative of a whole genre of society. One such society was the !Kung San, who were then the hunter-gatherers of northern Botswana. In response to these early researches, Melvin Konner was able to present an article regarding the different models proposed on the childhood and infancy of the !Kung San. This paper presents the summary of Konner’s article as well as its implications on children growing up in industrialized societies such as in United Kingdom.

The !Kung San

The notion in question according to Konner was the validity of considering a model which represents the hunter-gatherer childhood as observed in the !Kung San. This was based on the generalizations given by a number of ethnographical studies during the 1970s. However, new studies have stated the contrary, that infancy and childhood patterns among hunter-gatherers are not unitary but adjust to various ecological conditions. This was referred to as the childhood as facultative adaptation or CFA model.

In Konner’s chapter, he was able to present the literature presented on the two grounds of adaptation models. During the 1950s until the 1980s, ethnographical studies observed that !Kung infants had an extremely close physical relationship with their mothers, who indulge them in all aspects. Research also described the infants to be carefree. Play appeared to be their only concern in life. However, play also served as the central avenue for social interactions for these infants. Physical punishment was not a popular act in their culture. The relationship between mother and infant usually comprised of intensive nursing, co-sleeping, as well as physical interactions with less pain infliction as punishment, high indulgence, and early exploration of sexuality among the adolescents.

Childhood Models

Konner attempted to reconstruct the background of childhood and infant practices for higher primates and humans. The subjects for the reconstruction involved the hypothetical evolution sketches of parental care among monkeys, apes, human hunter-gatherers, intermediate societies, and industrialized societies. He also presented different models of higher primate and hunter-gatherer childhood such as the Catarrhine Mother-Infant Complex. This model featured the old world monkeys and apes, highlighting a common maternal relationship. The model includes singleton birth, 24 hour physical contact, frequent nursing, separation from the other, and isolation rearing. Another model presented is the HGC model, which is the original hunter-gatherer childhood model. Recent scientific studies were also presented, featuring other hunter-gatherer societies.

Konner identified a number of areas where divergences were observed. These include weaning and birth spacing, maternal primacy, overall indulgence, and responsibility in childhood.

Conclusions

Konner concluded that there is significant evidence to prove the validity of the CFA model since it was found out the most human behavioral adaptations are facultative. However, he stated that the invalidity of the HGC model has been exaggerated because the natural selection which operates in any species must be able to contend within the limits from phylogenetic history.

The most stable generalizations involving the hunter-gatherer childhood as indicated in recent studies involve the characteristics of the hunter-gatherer children. They are described to have close physical contact with their mothers, maternal dominance in the social context, indulgent and responsive infant care, frequent nursing, weaning two and four years of age, multi-aged child groups, minimum to no responsibility during childhood, and relatively weak control of adolescent sexuality.

Implications

Konner’s article may have a number of significant implications on the mother-infant relationships that exist in the industrialized societies of the present. Konner described the this relationship is now 80% in terms of vocal interactions in Boston, compared to the 80% which comprises of physical interaction among the !Kung (Konner, 2005).

It appears that there seems to be a shift in human behaviors in terms of mother-infant relationships as society evolves into industrialization. In countries such as United Kingdom, the way of life of children is observed to be filled with responsibilities. There are also less physical interactions since mothers have somehow split their responsibility from solely reproduction and family care to career and employment. This is very different from the !Kung women, where child care is their main concern without the impressions that they are being oppressed by the society because they are innately desire children (Lee, 1979). This shift may have been caused by the change in political and economic paradigms in society. In capitalist countries such as U.K, women feel that they are oppressed, thus they seek to widen their sphere of responsibility.

The shift of the society towards being hierarchical may also have contributed to this trend. Studies have determined an evolutionary curve indicating a return to the hierarchy system which exists among ancestral ape societies. This shifted from the hunter-gatherer egalitarianism (Whiten, 1999). Such present inequality of human society has put more stress in humans, particularly on mothers and infants of industrialized societies.

Konner’s article may explain why children living in industrialized societies are jeopardized in terms of their emotional and mental development due to the shifts in paradigms in society, which put too much stress and even depression on the mother and gives high number of responsibilities for children (Crnic, Greenberg, Robinson, & Ragozin, 1984; Murray, Fiori-Cowley, Hooper, & Cooper, 1996). Based on the views and studies presented, it can be said that the !Kung San is not a primitive society at all, rather, should even be a model for child development.

References

Crnic, K. A., Greenberg, M. T., Robinson, N. M., & Ragozin, A. S. (1984). Maternal Stress and Social Support: Effects on the Mother-Infant Relationship from Birth to Eighteen Months. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, Vol. 54(2), pp. 224-235.

Konner, M. (2005). Hunter-gatherer infancy and childhood. In B. S. Hewlett, & M. E. Lamb, Hunter-gatherer childhoods: Evolutionary, developmental and cultural perspectives (pp. 19-64). Somerest, NJ: Aldine Transaction.

Lee, R. B. (1979). The lessons of the !Kung. In The !Kung San: men, women, and work in a foraging society (pp. 432-461). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Murray, L., Fiori-Cowley, A., Hooper, R., & Cooper, P. (1996). The Impact of Postnatal Depression and Associated Adversity on Early Mother-Infant Interactions and Later Infant Outcome. Child Development, Vol. 67(5), pp. 2512-2526.

Whiten, A. (1999). The evolution of deep social mind in humans. In M. C. Corballis, & S. E. Lea, The descent mind: psychological perspectives on huminid evolution (pp. 173-193). Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.

April 27, 2017

Running head: COMMUNICATIONS AND MEDIA

Employee Monitoring

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Employee Monitoring

Employee monitoring has both positive and negative effects. Despite the fact there are legitimate reasons to monitor what employees do at the workplace, an overzealous manager may create unfavorable environment made up of mistrust. Either way people want to look at it, employee monitoring is an essential factor which determines the level of competitiveness and productivity in the workplace (Nash, 2009). Electronic surveillance is one of the commonly used forms of employee monitoring. According to an annual Electronic Monitoring and Surveillance and Survey carried out by The ePolicy Institute and the American Management Association (AMA) in 2001, the use of electronic surveillance in the corporate world is increasing every year. Analysts say that not every workplace, workforce, environment or work culture calls for electronic surveillance of employees (Tavani, 2009). Depending on the environment and culture of workplace, electronic surveillance may in fact injure trusts and relations and create powerful and wrong message that limit the potential of workers.

Employers need workers who are productive, but on the other hand, employees do not want each and every move they make being scrutinized. This is the major conflict created by employee monitoring in the workplace. Modern technologies have enabled employers to monitor several aspects related to employee performance particularly on computer terminals and the telephone, via voice and electronic mail, and the time workers are on the internet (Nash, 2009). It is very difficult to evade such kind of monitoring, and unless company policy does not authorize it, employees must be keen when using these devices. A certain technology has been developed which claims to have the ability of analyzing the behavior of an employee on the basis of “digital footprints” which have been created every day in the workplace. All electronic records are brought together by this technology where employers can study behavioral patterns to analyze the performance and conduct of the employee.

The first major benefit of employee monitoring is increased productivity in the workplace. In a competitive environment, time is money implying that every minute an employee spends away from his functions leads to increased costs and low revenues. The determinant of profit or loss in an organization is workforce productivity (Bueckert & University of Manitoba, 2008). Workers tend to waste many hours of productive time by performing personal activities such as online shopping, online games, stock trading, online auctioning, downloading music and software, personal emails and chats. A recent survey done by Gallup poll estimates that an employee wastes close to 75 minutes daily doing unproductive work, like the ones mentioned above. If you use the average salary in America of $20 per hour, each employee accounts for a loss of $6,250 per annum. If a company has 500 employees who earn an average of $20 per hour, the annual loss would amount to $3 million dollars.

Employee monitoring eliminates leakage of confidential information. Information which a company withholds is an important asset determining its competitiveness in the market. This includes trade secrets, customer contacts and information, source code and programming, product development and competitive strategies (Kizza, 2010). This information can be accessed by employees and can be leaked to rival companies. Although organizations usually develop security features such as passwords, firewalls, encryption, etc, these are not enough to employees who have been authorized to access this information. Electronic monitoring and keystrokes are essential means which act as a limiting factor to leaking of crucial information. More than 75% of businesses in America have reported loss of proprietary and confidential information leading to a loss of millions of dollars in form of litigation and lost revenues.

These sentiments are supported by many competing firms but prevention of this problem has often proved to be a major stumbling block without solution. When all computer and internet activities are monitored, employers have an opportunity of discovering who copied and printed certain information, the person who sent it and the recipient of the email (Roebuck, 2004). Modern technology ensures that nothing is done on computers either online or offline that cannot be recorded and retrieved if the need arises. Therefore, employee monitoring enables employers to discover confidential information which was leaked and discover the place it was leaked from by analyzing the whole systems of logs. Moreover, these technologies enable employees to conduct independent investigations which will not discriminate any employee and thus eliminate the possibility of loosing valuable information which gives other companies a competitive edge.

To add on, employee monitoring is a valuable practice which assist in the recovery of lost information. Lost information has become a common thing among major corporations nowadays. With modern technologies, and many employees communicating through chats emails and instant messaging, companies must ensure that information can be recorded and recovered (Nash, 2009). With increased usage of these new forms of communication, traditional forms such as written letters are becoming less popular. Although it has become easy to communicate in a modern workplace, it is still challenging to file this data. Therefore, by monitoring of workers, several types of information can be retrieved be it lost files, customer information and communication, threats, defamation, abusive language or criminal activity. Employee monitoring enables employers to meet compliance standards pertaining to recording keeping of transactions, communication and employee database.

There are several regulatory agencies such as Federal trade Commission Safeguards Rules, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA), and the Health Information Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) which require organizations to enact these rules relating to information security plan. Healthcare institutions are required by HIPAA to establish security measures such as monitoring of emails and files so that the confidentiality of patient information is not compromised. When organizations fail to comply with these policies, they are subject to litigations, fines and license revocation. The national Association of Securities Dealers (NASD) requires organizations to maintain both written and electronic information which they transact with their customers (Nash, 2009). Employee monitoring can take various forms some of which are universally accepted in the modern working environments. For instance, an employee, a company representative or a broker dealer who transacts business through emails must maintain and preserve information in a way that can verify the authenticity of collected information. This also includes chat conversations, email and instant messaging from home.

Sarbanes-Oxley Act which was enacted after the Enron/Arthur Anderson scandal imposed harsh penalties for any organization which destroys important data, and this includes electronic data. Moreover, employee monitoring has been authorized by several legislations which requires companies to preserve electronic information which can be used by an auditor or in legal cases (Stanton & Stam, 2006). Monitoring of employees is connected to regulatory issues and companies should not be worried with privacy issues as long as all employees clearly understand the company policies. Companies have to make sure that they do not abuse privacy laws in the process of monitoring their workers. Moreover, there are several reasons why courts of law tend to side with employers whenever a litigation occurs. Firstly, whenever an employee uses computers and the internet, he must realize that they are company properties (Weckert, 2005). Moreover, workers are hired to carry out company objectives and thus employers have a right to ensure that this goal is attained by monitoring them.

We have already seen that monitoring service calls and video surveillance has several advantages which can benefit the organization. However, if the manager does not take care when implementing monitoring policies in the work place, more limitations may arise (Kizza, 2010). Critics of employee monitoring say that this process exposes the company to several disadvantages which limit productivity of workers if they are implemented in an irrational manner. Employee monitoring is a potential invasion to the privacy of employees in the workplace. When cameras are placed in the wrong places and there is inappropriate monitoring and storage of video footage, a company can face litigations based on privacy claims. Monitoring of files and emails is another potential source of privacy invasions. Some emails used at home and at workplace are similar since employees tend to carry additional office work to their residence.

Moreover, employee monitoring may limit additional working hours since some employees may prefer to work from home on weekends as overtime. Therefore, an organization must ensure that its monitoring policies do not conflict with the ability of workers to put in more hours of productive work during free periods. To add on, employee monitoring may create a false sense of security in an organization. For instance, a video surveillance can only be effective if they are actively maintained and monitored (Roebuck, 2004). Moreover, there must be a competent IT department that carries out electronic monitoring to ensure that some innovative personnel do not evade the systems. A false sense of security leads to redundancy of the security system and the company may be functioning in a similar manner in the absence of monitoring policies. Employee monitoring is a potential source reducing employee morale. Monitoring often promotes low morale due to a lack of trust and this negatively affects the performance of an employee. Employee monitoring can create a sense of big brother in the work place and thus breed contempt.

Both critics and proponents agree with the fact that employee monitoring can be beneficial both to the employer and employees if one group does not abuse their rights and privileges. Moreover, employee monitoring has been on the increase in recent years and the trend will not decline in the near future. Several studies indicate that employers will not relent in ensuring that employees maximize all their potential and does not misuse office hours doing personal activities. A recent study (2007) done by the American Management Association and the ePolicy Institute showed that two-thirds of employers monitor the websites visited by their employee, so as to curb inappropriate surfing. 65% of employers use software which block websites which are not beneficial to the company policies. There is a 27% increase in this policy since the survey was conducted in 2001(Bueckert & University of Manitoba, 2008). Companies limit employees from visiting sites with explicit content, games, entertainment, auction, social networking, shopping, and external blogs. Among the 43% who monitor emails, close to 75 percent use technology which automatically monitor all emails which employees send and receive. Moreover, 28% have fired employees who have misused their emails.

About 50 percent of companies track content, keystrokes and the amount of time employees spend at the keyboard. Only 7 percent of these companies use video surveillance to monitor their employees. Moreover, to ensure that their tracking programs are legal, these companies (78%) notify workers about the presence of antitheft video surveillance as well as performance related video monitoring. In most cases, employers monitor telephone conversations between an employee and a customer to enhance quality control. Although some states laws such as in California require workers to be informed about this policy, some business in other regions can implement this policy without informing their employees (Bueckert & University of Manitoba, 2008). Exception is made when it comes to personal controls. Federal case law requires an employer to stop monitoring a call when he realizes that it is personal and does not involve the company [(Watkins v. L.M. Berry & Co., 704 F.2d 577, 583 (11th Cir. 1983)]. However, employees may be advised not to make or receive personal calls from specific company’s phones and this implies that their calls may be monitored even if there are personal in nature.

A computer terminal in the workplace is the basic method used by employers to monitor all computer activities. There are different forms of computer monitoring. For instance, computer software can be used to monitor what is currently on the screen and stored in computer hard disks and terminals. Emails and internet usage are also monitored through these devices. Workers whose function involves data entry and word-processing are exposed to keystroke monitoring (Stanton & Stam, 2006). These systems enable the manager to discover how many keystrokes per hour are performed by each employee. Workers are also notified if they are below or above the expected number of keystrokes. The major disadvantage of keystroke monitoring is that it is associated with health problems such as increased levels of stress disabilities, as well as physical problems such as carpal tunnel syndrome. The second computer monitoring techniques enables the employer to know the amount of time a worker spends away from the computer or the idle time at the terminal.

In conclusion, we have already seen that monitoring of employees is allowed in law and there are several regulations which ensure that these policies are not abused. For instance, since computer terminals belong to the employer, he is free to monitor the activities being carried out by the employee. On certain circumstance, employees may have limited rights and protection against some types of electronic monitoring. For instance, union contracts usually limit the employer from monitoring their workers. Moreover, employees in the public sector have minimal rights under the constitution such as the Fourth Amendment which limits unreasonable search and seizure. Although employers have been allowed to carry out electronic mail and voice mail as well as video surveillance, there are some limitations which prevent companies from intruding on the personal privacy of employees.

References

Bueckert, M. R & University of Manitoba. (2008). Watching Workers: A Critical review of the Law Regarding Electronic Employee Monitoring in Non-unionized Workplaces in Canada. University of Manitoba.

Kizza, J. M. (2010). Ethical and Social Issues in the Information Age. New York: Springer

Nash, J. R. (2009). Workplace Privacy: Proceedings of the New York University 58th Annual Conference on Labor. AH Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International

Roebuck, W, (2004). Privacy in E-Business: Promoting Respect, trust and Confidence in your Organization. BSI British Standards Institutions.

Stanton, J. M & Stam, K. R. (2006). The Visible Employee: Using Workplace Monitoring and Surveillance to protect Information Assets-without Compromising Employee Privacy or Trust. New Jersey: Information Today, Inc.

Tavani, H. T. (2009). Ethics and Technology: Controversies, Question, and Strategies for Ethical Computing. Danvers: John Wiley and Sons.

Weckert, J. (2005). Electronic Monitoring in the Workplace: Controversies and Solutions. London: Idea Group Inc.