ONLINE RETAIL AND MAINTENANCE SERVICE IN SAUDI ARABIA

December 6, 2017
  • Introduction
    • Purpose

ProRepair partnership focuses on improving the productivity of bench maintenance experts from large companies through providing them with new small jobs at times of their business inactivity. At the same time, the company aims at offering quality and easily accessible maintenance and repair services for homeowners and commercial buildings. In this way, all the homeowners and commercial buildings within the cities in Saudi Arabia can have a pool of expert provided maintenance and repair services.

  • Rationale

In the current job market, large companies needing constant maintenance and repair services contract experts that are kept standby in case of a desired maintenance of the machinery (Dringoli, 2012, p. 58). However, given that these repair and maintenance are routinely scheduled, it means that the experts have a significant amount of slack time when they are not working. ProRepair partnership intends to utilize these slack times and provide a platform where these experts can be productive and improve their earnings through the extra service they provide while not actively engaged with the large companies.

  • Industry and Market Analysis
    • Market Size

ProRepair partnership endeavors to target the numerous cities in Saudi Arabia as its primary and only market. Notably, Saudi Arabia ranks position 13 as the world’s largest country. It has four cities having a population exceeding one million people (Statista, 2017). Further, there are 19 cities with more than 100,000 people and an additional 44 cities having more than 10,000 people. The larger population, about 83% of the country’s population, resides in the urban areas with on 17% living in the rural areas (World Population Review, 2017). With such a huge population implies that the households and commercial buildings in cities are undoubtedly numerous. Subsequently, there is a large market in need of the maintenance and repair services.

  • Market Growth

The market that ProRepair targets is primarily segmented into households and commercial buildings within the cities in Saudia Arabia. Importantly, there is a potential for 5% growth annually for the household population. In addition, the growth in the commercial buildings currently stands at 3% annually. It is anticipate that the market grows steadily with the increase in population within the cities.

  • Competition

There are a number of already established companies offering maintenance and repairs services in some of the cities. For example, the Maharah company offers maintenance services and civil works leveraging a Mobile Application that facilitates clients to request the services. Another competitor is the Tamam company that mainly uses their website to receive client requests for maintenance and cleaning services. Sakrobe Company is another competitor that uses Android and Ios mobile Apps as well as their website to facilitate customers to get access to a technical team for maintenance services. In addition, the RepairEXP is another repairs company that utilizes the online platform to offer a number of maintenance services related to household and commercial buildings. These are just but a few of the many companies in the niche of maintenance and repair services, which have endeavored to online presence using websites and mobile applications.

  • The Service and Unique Value Proposition

ProRepair partnership aims at offering the population in Saudi Arabia’s cities the finest repair and maintenance services given that only the experts from large companies are involved. A responsive and user-friendly website as well as mobile application will be provided to clients where they can request services, make payments, track the work progress, as well as provide feedback for the quality of work they received. The services pricing start at SR10 per hour exclusive of parts that need to be replaced. Every customer will receive at minimum one hour of work. In the cases where more work is needed, ProRepair will provide pre-screening for the customer without a charge. The philosophy of work at ProRepair is attempting to make reparation on the item and replace only when repairing the item is not viable. Repairing comes at a lower cost compared to replacement.

ProRepair will concentrate on providing the following maintenance and repair services.

  1. Plumbing maintenance

This service covers repair of leaking faucets, sprinklers, and icemaker lines

  1. Electrical maintenance

During electrical maintenance, customers will benefit from light fittings and cable repairs, regular electrical inspection, electrical plugs and switches repairs, and troubleshooting electrical equipment.

  • Landscaping

This service entails maintenance of the plants and gardens on a timely manner.

  1. Swimming Pool maintenance

This will include removing stains and algae from the pool’s walls, testing the water and adding necessary chemicals to the swimming pool.

  1. Generic maintenance

Under this category, customers will receive services such as painting, fence repairs, door repairs and flooring repairs.

  • Founding Team

The team needed for the venture will largely comprise of maintenance and repair engineers. In particular, the team will constitute of electrical engineers, plumbers, gardeners, carpenter, civil engineers from large companies. In addition, the management will comprise of a head for every service category, a finance manager, and human resource manager, and an ICT manager. The chart summarizes the organization chart of ProRepair.

Figure 1 ProRepair organizational Chart

  • Operations

The commencement of maintenance and repair operations will require that ProRepair obtain the SAGIA license for service activities. Additonally, ProRepair will have to obtain the commervial registrations as well as a coppy of trade name reservation from the Saudi Minsitry of Commerce (SAGIA, 2017).

ProRepair will require that all the exparts that register to offer services have all the requisite certifications from their field. To this end, the exparts will have to pass through a vetting process when they register on the ProRepair online platform. When a customer requests services, they will have an option to choose the individual expert to work for them.

  • SWOT Analysis

Strengths

  1. Clients can compare and select the expert they require.
  2. Fast and effective to establish
  3. Online platform ensures that experts from all over Saudi Arabia can provide services to customers at lower fees compared to the current market value.

 

Weaknesses

  1. At times the transportation cost can increase the total charge
  2. Some clients prefer to physically reach out to the local repair shops

Opportunities

  1. The use of Internet is rapidly becoming acceptable particularly in searching and procuring services and products.
  2. There is a high chance for fast growth of the company
  3. A lower cost of establishing the partnership

Threats

  1. Experts may collude with the customers where they continue working without using the online platform resulting in lost business.
  2. The existence of some dishonest businesses ca damage the trust of customers
  • Marketing Strategy

ProRepair will leverage the competive edge of lower hourly rates compared to the prevailing market rates. Additionally, the venture intends to provide the clients with unique experience by engaging only the experts from large companies (Dahl, 2016). In this way, customers will benefit from receiving the finest services, which is a compelling reason for clients to seek services from ProRepair.

The venture will make use of Search Engine Optimization, and rigorous advertisement campaigns through the social media. Additionally, occasional TV, Radio, and Newspaper advertisement will be used particularly during the initial period of the venture.

  • Growth Strategy

ProRepair venture will concentrate on market penetration in the Ansoff Matrix as the growth strategy (Kumar, 2016, p. 44). In essence, the venture will seek to increase the number of experts to offer sufficient services for all the cities in Saudi Arabia. Over time, the venture will seek to ensure that experts from a given city take up jobs from that area to reduce the cost of transport and subsequently keep the prices lower than market rate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Financial Analysis

Cash Flow for 24 months

  Month 1 Month 2 Month 3 Month 4 Month 5 Month 6 Month 7 Month 8 Month 9 Month 10 Month 11 Month 12
Starting cash  RS      100,000  RS     139,000  RS     172,000  RS      240,000  RS

500,000

 RS 580,000  RS   610,000  RS  650,000  RS    720,000  RS   760,000  RS    810,000  RS   820,000
Cash In:                        
Cash Sales  RS        52,000  RS       61,800  RS       72,000  RS        82,000  RS128,000  RS 152,000  RS   178,200  RS  201,700  RS    220,000  RS   230,300  RS    250,000  RS   270,000
Receivables  RS        28,700  RS       31,000  RS       32,500  RS        33,200  RS  34,100  RS   350,000  RS     38,000  RS    40,000  RS      450,000  RS     52,000  RS      60,000  RS     650,000
Total Cash Intake  RS        80,700  RS      92,800  RS    104,500  RS      115,200  RS162,100  RS 187,000  RS   216,200  RS  241,700  RS   2650,000  RS  282,300  RS   310,000  RS  3350,000
Cash Out (expenses):                        
Rent  RS      200,000  RS     200,000  RS     200,000  RS      200,000  RS200,000  RS 200,000  RS   200,000  RS  200,000  RS    200,000  RS   200,000  RS    200,000  RS   200,000
Utilities  RS         30,000  RS       32,000  RS       350,000  RS        37,000  RS   42,000  RS   450,000  RS      48,000  RS    52,000  RS      55,500  RS     58,000  RS      61,000  RS     650,000
Payroll (incl. taxes)  RS         72,000  RS       750,000  RS       79,000  RS        82,000  RS   84,000  RS   86,000  RS      89,000  RS    92,000  RS      94,000  RS     96,500  RS      97,200  RS     99,000
Benefits  RS         23,000  RS       24,500  RS       250,000  RS        26,700  RS   27,400  RS   28,500  RS      29,200  RS    31,000  RS      32,900  RS     34,500  RS      35,200  RS     36,700
Travel  RS         350,000  RS       350,000  RS       350,000  RS        50,000  RS   50,000  RS   650,000  RS      650,000  RS    80,000  RS      80,000  RS     90,000  RS      90,000  RS     90,000
Insurance  RS         20,000  RS       20,000  RS       20,000  RS        20,000  RS   20,000  RS   20,000  RS      20,000  RS    20,000  RS      20,000  RS     20,000  RS      20,000  RS     20,000
Advertising  RS         350,000  RS       40,000  RS       41,000  RS        41,500  RS   42,000  RS   43,000  RS      44,000  RS    45,500  RS      47,000  RS     50,000  RS      52,000  RS     58,000
Professional fees  RS         30,000  RS       32,000  RS       33,000  RS        34,000  RS   36,000  RS   38,500  RS      39,000  RS    40,500  RS      43,000  RS     450,000  RS      47,500  RS     48,000
Office supplies  RS         250,000  RS       28,000  RS       31,000  RS        32,500  RS   350,000  RS   37,000  RS      38,500  RS    39,000  RS      41,000  RS     42,500  RS      43,000  RS     44,000
Postage  RS         10,000  RS       12,000  RS       13,000  RS        14,000  RS   150,000  RS   16,000  RS      17,000  RS    18,000  RS      19,000  RS     21,000  RS      23,000  RS     250,000
Telephone  RS           50,000  RS         50,000  RS         50,000  RS          50,000  RS     50,000  RS     50,000  RS        50,000  RS      50,000  RS        50,000  RS       50,000  RS        50,000  RS       50,000
Internet  RS         10,000  RS       150,000  RS       18,000  RS        21,000  RS   23,000  RS   250,000  RS      28,000  RS    31,000  RS      33,000  RS     350,000  RS      38,000  RS     40,000
Repair fees  RS         39,000  RS       40,000  RS       42,000  RS        47,000  RS   49,000  RS   52,000  RS      53,000  RS    550,000  RS      57,000  RS     59,000  RS      61,000  RS     63,000
Total Cash Outgo  RS      584,000  RS    608,500  RS    627,000  RS      660,700  RS678,400  RS 711,000  RS   725,700  RS  759,000  RS   777,400  RS  806,500  RS   822,900  RS  843,700
Ending Balance  RS  (403,300)  RS(377,700)  RS(352,500)  RS (308,500)  RS   3,700  RS 56,000  RS 100,500  RS132,700  RS 207,600  RS235,800  RS 297,100  RS311,300

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Month 13 Month 14 Month 15 Month 16 Month 17 Month 18 Month 19 Month 20 Month 21 Month 22 Month 23 Month 24
Starting cash  RS      100,000  RS     138,000  RS     170,000  RS      237,000  RS520,000  RS 580,000  RS   610,000  RS  650,000  RS    720,000  RS   760,000  RS    810,000  RS   820,000
Cash In:                        
Cash Sales  RS        52,000  RS       61,800  RS       72,000  RS        82,000  RS128,000  RS 152,000  RS   178,200  RS  201,700  RS    220,000  RS   230,300  RS    250,000  RS   270,000
Receivables  RS        28,700  RS       31,000  RS       32,500  RS        33,200  RS  34,100  RS   350,000  RS     38,000  RS    40,000  RS      450,000  RS     52,000  RS      60,000  RS     650,000
Total Cash Intake  RS        80,700  RS      92,800  RS    104,500  RS      115,200  RS162,100  RS 187,000  RS   216,200  RS  241,700  RS   2650,000  RS  282,300  RS   310,000  RS  3350,000
Cash Out (expenses):                        
Rent  RS      200,000  RS     200,000  RS     200,000  RS      200,000  RS200,000  RS 200,000  RS   200,000  RS  200,000  RS    200,000  RS   200,000  RS    200,000  RS   200,000
Utilities  RS         30,000  RS       32,000  RS       350,000  RS        37,000  RS   42,000  RS   450,000  RS      48,000  RS    52,000  RS      55,500  RS     58,000  RS      61,000  RS     650,000
Payroll (incl. taxes)  RS         72,000  RS       750,000  RS       79,000  RS        82,000  RS   84,000  RS   86,000  RS      89,000  RS    92,000  RS      94,000  RS     96,500  RS      97,200  RS     99,000
Benefits  RS         23,000  RS       24,500  RS       250,000  RS        26,700  RS   27,400  RS   28,500  RS      29,200  RS    31,000  RS      32,900  RS     34,500  RS      35,200  RS     36,700
Travel  RS         350,000  RS       350,000  RS       350,000  RS        50,000  RS   50,000  RS   650,000  RS      650,000  RS    80,000  RS      80,000  RS     90,000  RS      90,000  RS     90,000
Insurance  RS         20,000  RS       20,000  RS       20,000  RS        20,000  RS   20,000  RS   20,000  RS      20,000  RS    20,000  RS      20,000  RS     20,000  RS      20,000  RS     20,000
Advertising  RS         350,000  RS       40,000  RS       41,000  RS        41,500  RS   42,000  RS   43,000  RS      44,000  RS    45,500  RS      47,000  RS     50,000  RS      52,000  RS     58,000
Professional fees  RS         30,000  RS       32,000  RS       33,000  RS        34,000  RS   36,000  RS   38,500  RS      39,000  RS    40,500  RS      43,000  RS     450,000  RS      47,500  RS     48,000
Office supplies  RS         250,000  RS       28,000  RS       31,000  RS        32,500  RS   350,000  RS   37,000  RS      38,500  RS    39,000  RS      41,000  RS     42,500  RS      43,000  RS     44,000
Postage  RS         10,000  RS       12,000  RS       13,000  RS        14,000  RS   150,000  RS   16,000  RS      17,000  RS    18,000  RS      19,000  RS     21,000  RS      23,000  RS     250,000
Telephone  RS           50,0000  RS         50,0000  RS         50,0000  RS          50,0000  RS     50000  RS     50,000  RS        50,000  RS      50,000  RS        50,000  RS       50,000  RS        50,000  RS       50,000
Internet  RS         10,000  RS       150,000  RS       18,000  RS        21,000  RS   23,000  RS   250,000  RS      28,000  RS    31,000  RS      33,000  RS     350,000  RS      38,000  RS     40,000
Repair  fees  RS         39,000  RS       40,000  RS       42,000  RS        47,000  RS   49,000  RS   52,000  RS      53,000  RS    550,000  RS      57,000  RS     59,000  RS      61,000  RS     63,000
Total Cash Outgo  RS      584,000  RS    608,500  RS    627,000  RS      660,700  RS678,400  RS 711,000  RS   725,700  RS  759,000  RS   777,400  RS  806,500  RS   822,900  RS  843,700
Ending Balance  RS  (403,300)  RS(377,700)  RS(352,500)  RS (308,500)  RS   3,700  RS 56,000  RS 100,500  RS132,700  RS 207,600  RS235,800  RS 297,100  RS311,300

 

 

 

References

Dahl, D., 2016. INC. [Online]
Available at: https://www.inc.com/guides/small-business-growth-strategies.html
[Accessed 02 December 2017].

Dringoli, A., 2012. New Perspectives on the Modern Corporation. illustrated ed. Cheltenham, United Kingdom: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Kumar, D., 2016. Enterprise Growth Strategy: Vision, Planning, and Execution. reprint ed. Boca Raton, Florida,: CRC Press.

SAGIA, 2017. Invest Saudi. [Online]
Available at: https://sagia.gov.sa/en/InvestorServices/InvestmentServicesGuide/Pages/LicenseforServiceActivity.aspx
[Accessed 02 December 2017].

Statista, 2017. Saudi Arabia Population by Cities. [Online]
Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/262467/total-population-of-saudi-arabia/
[Accessed 02` Decembet 2017].

World Population Review, 2017. Population of Cities in Saudi Arabia. [Online]
Available at: http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/saudi-arabia-population/cities/
[Accessed 02 December 2017].

 

 

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Impacts of Egyptian government decision to float its currency

December 6, 2017

Introduction

The central bank in any government is critical in controlling the economics dynamic of a Country. This is done through the respective monetary policies initiated by the government of the day.  It is however of great importance for any government to critically evaluate any policy before taking actions. The pros and cons of such a policy must be evaluated to ascertain the actual impact on a country’s economy. In this essay we evaluate the impact of the Egyptian government decision to float its currency.

Egyptian economy prior to the decision of floating its currency

Table 1

Year 2014 2015 2016
GDP (USD bn) 302 303 336
GDP (per capita USD) 3474 3717 3724
Economic growth (Annual variation of GDP in %) 2.2 4.4 4.3
Unemployment rate 13.2 12.8 12.6
Inflation rate 10.1 10.4 13.8
Exchange rate (Vs USD) 7.15 7.83 18.13
Export (USD million) 26.1 22.2 18.7
Imports (USD million) 60.2 61.3 57.4
International reserves (USD) 16.7 20.1 17.6
Trade balance (USD million) -34.1 -39.1 -38.7
Industrial production -8.5 9.3 -8.8
External debt (% of GDP) 15.3 14.5 16.6

 

The below bar graph1 is a diagrammatic representation of Egypt GDP growth over the years.

 

The period prior to November 4 2016 saw Egypt experience some economic hurdles. The period specifically saw Egypt perform very dismally in the foreign exchange market. Although Egypt had seen some steady economic growth rates rising from 2.2 in 2014, 4.4 in 2015 and a slight drop to 4.3 in 2016, as shown in table1, the country was still long way below its real potential. Even a look from the above bar graph 1 there is some growth in the GDP but very slightly. The stock market of Egypt was depreciating to an extent that in the period of January to April 2016 it saw a sharp drop to as shown in line graph1. This factor was propagated by the scenario which saw both UK and Russia impose travel bans to Egypt on the end of October 2015. The travels bans came due to the continued political disharmony in the country. Specifically, the ousting of President Mubarak emanating from the successful Arab spring revolution saw Egypt economy hit hard since the year 2011. Additionally, the downing of the Russian plane on the Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula brought conflicts between Egypt and Russia. These two things impacted negatively to the tourism sector leading to loss of very many visitors who previously used to flock the country. Consequently, the trade   the Egyptian pound against the USD shifted and started to deteriorate.

The actual impact was the depreciation of the Egyptian pound against the United States dollar (Fratianni, 2006). The unemployment rate was again high on these periods seen by the high number of unemployed citizens especially the women and the youths who form a huge part of a country’s population. Several other factors adduces to the retarded economic growth of Egypt during these periods. For instance, the poor performance of the Gulf oil sector where Egypt highly relies on for remittances also impacted negatively to Egypt economy. The poor performance of the oil sector is as a result of the falling international oil prices. Additionally, the oil sector of Egypt which is one of the most critical sectors for that country suffered from underinvestment. The sluggish growth on Europe which doubles up as the main economic partner for Egypt had a direct negative impact on Egypt economy (Parker 2006).  All these factors combined translated to the experienced low rate of economic growth of and average of 12%. Further the country on this period of 2014 to 2016 was hit hard by experiencing real shortage of hard currency and an overvalued exchange rate leading to the poor performance in the economy.

 

The evolution of the Egyptian pound

Egypt uses the Egyptian pound as the local currency and it is denoted by £. In the period of 1889 all the way t0 1914 the pound was begged to the gold standard at an exchange rate of 1 pound = 1.7345 grams (Parker 2006). The peg remained all the way up to the period of the first world war when they switched unpegged from gold to the Sterling pound at a rate of 0.975 EGP per 1 GB pound. The Egyptian pound remained pegged in the Sterling area all the way up to the year 1962 when the pound was pegged to the United States dollar.  At the time of this pegging the relevant exchange rate was 1EGP = 2.3 US dollars. The peg remained all the way to 1973 after the devaluation of the dollar that consequently affected the rate to switch to 1 EGP = 2.5 US dollars. In 1978 the pound itself was devalued to achieve a new rate of 1EGP = 1.425 US dollars (Ikram 2009). This exchange rate remained all the way to the year 1989 when the pound was floated. The float continued for several years and it was strictly managed by the Central bank and also subjected to the foreign exchange controls.  In the year 200 the government decided to end the float and forthwith the Egyptian found was pegged back again to the US dollar all the way up to last year November 4 when the pound was once more floated.

 

Generally, the Egyptian pound has been subjected to some series of on and off the peg during the past years. It is important to note that the Central government would float the pound so as to achieve relevant devaluation so that the pound could compete favorably in the economy. However, it is obvious that a peg would always have an impact to the inflation of the Egyptian economy (McKinsey 2010). A peg to with the US dollars would mean that there would stimulate higher flows of money in the economy and thus leading to inflation.

It is importance for the central bank to input some relevant sterilization measures to protect the surplus.  The following graph demonstrates how the central uses sterilization through the banks to curd adverse inflation. As the demand for the USD increases the banks will then buy the dollars, this makes the exchange rate to increase with appreciation of the dollar. Through this an economy can control negative forces of inflation by achieving this equilibrium point.

The central bank of Egypt used sterilization by selling domestic securities to prevent the surplus. Again central bank requires that banks borrow in dollar denominations but lends using the local currency. This approach enables the banks to make profit and at the same time cushioning the local economy from adverse inflation.

Results of the floating decision to the Egyptian economy

On November 4th 2016 the central bank of Egypt made the bold decision of implementing the floating rate as a move to devalue its currency. The central bank went ahead to devalue the pound by 32.3 percent to achieve an initial exchange rate of 13 all the way from the previous pegged rate of 8.8. The main aim of this policy was to stimulate exports by making Egypt products attractive in the international markets. Again the devaluation of this currency aimed at helping the Egyptian pound compete favorable with the dollars. The liberalization of the economy of Egypt made the pound to devalue immediately. Infact, as per the current status the value of the pound has reduced by half. This devaluation has a direct impact to the cost of production and in a greater extent to the cost of living. The immediate effect of this floatation has had a negative impact to the economy of this nation. For instance, the rate of economic growth by the close of the year 2016 was only 4.3 % which is somehow a mediocre.

This devaluation of the pound has definitely led to some negative impacts to the consumers and producers of the Egypt over the short run. However, with time the positive effect of this devaluation is being felt though gradually. Specifically, the foreign earnings are growing owing to the increased inflows of the US dollar combined with improved foreign direct investments. Recently Egypt had seen their economic growth double to 4.9% according to the last physical quarter of 2016-2017 fiscal years.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The decision to float the pound had some positive impact on the stock market of Egypt. This is as shown in the line graph 1 below from which we can trace a steady increase in the stock market shown by the rising graph from the point of implementing EGP devaluation.

The table below shows some specific changes in the economic environment after the devaluation policy was introduced

Table 2

  Year 2016 Year 2017
Real GDP growth at constant market prices: 3.8 4.0
Private consumption 4.0 3.0
Government consumption 3.5 1.1
Gross fixed capital investment 4.1 11.2
Export, good and services -5.0 5.0
Import, good and services -1.0 4.0
Consumer price index (Inflation) 10.2 17.0
Current account balance (% of GDP) -5.4 -5.3
Financial and capital account (% of GDP) 4.7 2.4
Fiscal account balance (% of GDP) -12.1 – 10.1

From the above table it is succinctly clear that the impact of devaluation was an immediate appreciation of the price consumer index (inflation). This is demonstrated by the immediate increase of inflation rate from 10.2 at the close of year 2016 to 17.0 which is the current rate of inflation. This high rate of inflation emanated from increased consumer spending due to devaluation of the pound (Haerens, 2010). . However, on a positive note imports and exports have appreciated at a very high rate as shown in the above table. Specifically, exports of goods and services increased from -5.0 to 5.0 whereas imports of goods and services appreciated from -1.0 to 4.0 which is a good indication of the growing foreign exchange. An examination of the GDP reveals that only a very minimal improvement as shown by the improvement of the fiscal account balance from -12.1 on the year 2016 to -10.2 on the year 2017. This sluggish growth in the GDP is as a result of the interactive forces of the negative impact of the rising inflation rates versus the benefits being reaped from improved foreign trades. Definitely, it means that the challenges being experienced by Egypt economy on the short term will be subdued in the long run when the equilibrium point of interaction between these two forces will be attained.

Conclusion

The decision to devalue a currency is a radical and it calls for a government to be bold enough to implement it. It is also a risky decision but on the other hand it can lead to a paradigm shift in the economy of a country. The main important thing is to conduct proper due diligence on the whole issue before venturing into this measure. If well thought and evaluated devaluation can make it possible to jumpstart a falling economy. On the other hand, lack of proper planning and evaluation of currency floating can have dire consequences to an economy. Finally, after embracing devaluation it is mandatory for the central bank to initiate appropriate sterilization measures and open market trading to curb the economy from negative inflationary impacts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Fratianni, M. (2006). Regional economic integration. Amsterdam: Elsevier JAI.

Ikram, K (2009) The Egyptian Economy. 1952-2000 : Routledge

Parker, P. M. (2006). The economic competitiveness of egypt: financials returns, labor        productivity and international gaps. Place of publication not identified: Icon Health Publications.

Hays, C. (2013). The real thing. New York: Random House.

Haerens, M. (2010). The World Trade Organization. Detroit: Greenhaven Press/gale, Cengage Learning.

Hopkins, J. and Turner, J. (2012). Go mobile. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Hildermeier, J 2016, How Ideas Change Markets, LIT Verlag Münster.

Horbach, J, Rammer, C, & Rennings, K 2012, ‘Determinants of eco-innovations by type of                       environmental impact—The role of regulatory push/pull, technology push and market        pull’, Ecological economics, vol. 78, no. 2012, pp.112-122.

Miller, B., & Torr, J. D. (2003). Developing nations. San Diego, Calif.: Greenhaven Press.

What matters on currencies: a compendium of perspectives. (2010). Washington, D.C.:      McKinsey Global Institute

Peter SM (2009), The economics of innovation: an introduction: Edward Elgar

Scott G & Isaksen, JT 2006, Meeting the innovation challenge : leadership for transformation       and growth. John Wiley & Sons pp. 265-296

OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AMONG CHILDREN

December 6, 2017

Overweight and Obesity among Children

The CCHS subject area that the fact sheet focuses on is disease and health conditions. The fact sheet will talk specifically about the issue of overweight and obesity among children. In fact, the epidemic of overweight and obesity is considered a serious issue and a great challenge to chronic disease prevention and health across the life course around the world. Furthermore, there are a couple of questions to be used from CCHS including:

  • In the past 3 months, did you do any other physical activity for leisure?
  • In a typical week in the past 3 months, how many hours did you usually spend: watching television or videos?

The following chart illustrates the data that I found for both of these questions

Year Data point #1 Data point #2 (optional)
2010 20.8% 19.2%
2011 19.6% 19.2%
2012 19.8% 16%
2013 21.1% 16.4%
2014 21.2% 17.5%

 

In fact, data point #1 clarifies the percentage of people out of 100% who engage in physical activity for leisure, and data point #2 asserts the percentage of people who spend 10-14 hours watching television or videos; the second question has 5 options, I focused on the average which is 10-14 hours. However; there are a great number of people who spend more than 14 hours watching television or videos.

From my perspective, the data that i have found is interesting in addressing the issue of overweight and obesity among children. The health benefits of physical activity include a reduced risk of chronic diseases, depression, stress. Physical activity also plays a great role in decreasing obesity. Moreover, there is a strong association between watching television, playing video games and obesity among children.

I think it would be interesting to consider the results of these questions in conjunction with the factors that lead to obesity, how physical activity help in improving children’s health, and a couple of additional questions.

The fact sheet demonstrates some facts and statistics about childhood obesity, health consequences of overweight and obesity, economic impact. In addition, healthy approaches towards tackling obesity among children through improving access to healthy foods, increasing physical activity level, and implementing prevention programs.

Prevalence estimates for Canada

Obesity takes a significant toll on the healthcare system, the quality of life as well as the economy of the Canadians because it is a major risk factor for chronic diseases. For the last 40 years, overweight and obesity prevalence among the Canadian children has significantly risen.

Using the classification of the WHO, the prevalence and trends in childhood obesity can be examined. Classifications used by WHO include; sex, age and socioeconomic status.

Sex: Varying overweight may come as a result of biological reasons like sex-based energy requirements and patterning fat distribution.  According to Sweeting (2008), when the excess weight is measured and compared between the sexes, an objective examination indicates no significant difference as shown in table 2. However, the prevalence of obesity among the boys is significantly higher compared to the girls; in a self-reported estimates examination, as shown table 3.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2: socio-demographic of obesity in children, Canada 2004 – 2012

Table 3:  prevalence of overweight and obesity by sex in Canada 2004-2014

Age: with the advance in age, a number of factors such as hormone levels, muscle mass and changes in activity patterns may contribute in varying weight status. Obesity seems to significantly rise through childhood and adolescence in Canada.

Socioeconomic status: Children from low income families are known to be at high risk of obesity.  Phipps et al (2008), found out that there is a strong correlation (p=0.2) between income adequacy and childhood obesity. Living healthier lives is likely to be more with the children that have access to better income families. Figure 4 below illustrates how income adequacy levels influence the prevalence of excess weight.

Figure 4: prevalence of obesity by income adequacy in Canada 2012/2013

 

Treatment

There are limited pharmacotherapy options when it comes to the treatment of pediatric obesity. Because of this, healthcare system has established a comprehensive system of management that emphasizes on the need exercise, good nutrition and modification of behavior.

Since non-pharmacologic treatment remains to be the most appropriate approach in treating childhood obesity, the healthcare system needs to involve the family when it comes to nutrition and physical activity education (lifestyle modification). Behavioral change is similarly essential in enhancing the energy balance. This is done by reversing the amount of energy intake compared to energy spent.

Most treatments in various healthcares begin with the detection of increasing BMI. If the BMI increases by excess of three to four kg/m2 per year, then the clinician needs to take the initiative to discuss with the family his observations (Kirk & Penney, 2013). Giving basic education on maintaining a healthy weight through increased physical exercises and nutrition modification as well as tactical parenting to back these goals would be a good starting point.

Conclusion


 

References

Kirk, S., & Penney, T. (2013). The Role of Health Systems in Obesity Management and Prevention: Problems and Paradigm Shifts. Current Obesity Reports2(4), 315-319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13679-013-0074-7

Phipps, S., Burton, P., Osberg, L., & Lethbridge, L. (2008). Poverty and the extent of child obesity in Canada, Norway and the United States. Obesity Reviews7(1), 5-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789x.2006.00217.x

Sweeting, H. (2008). Gendered dimensions of obesity in childhood and adolescence. Nutrition Journal7(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-7-1

 

Overweight and Obesity Among Children

December 6, 2017

Prevalence estimates for Canada

Obesity takes a significant toll on the healthcare system, the quality of life as well as the economy of the Canadians because it is a major risk factor for chronic diseases. For the last 40 years, overweight and obesity prevalence among the Canadian children has significantly risen.

Using the classification of the WHO, the prevalence and trends in childhood obesity can be examined. Classifications used by WHO include; sex, age and socioeconomic status.

Sex: Varying overweight may come as a result of biological reasons like sex-based energy requirements and patterning fat distribution.  According to Sweeting (2008), when the excess weight is measured and compared between the sexes, an objective examination indicates no significant difference as shown in table 2. However, the prevalence of obesity among the boys is significantly higher compared to the girls; in a self-reported estimates examination, as shown table 3.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2: socio-demographic of obesity in children, Canada 2004 – 2012

Table 3:  prevalence of overweight and obesity by sex in Canada 2004-2014

Age: with the advance in age, a number of factors such as hormone levels, muscle mass and changes in activity patterns may contribute in varying weight status. Obesity seems to significantly rise through childhood and adolescence in Canada.

Socioeconomic status: Children from low income families are known to be at high risk of obesity.  Phipps et al (2008), found out that there is a strong correlation (p=0.2) between income adequacy and childhood obesity. Living healthier lives is likely to be more with the children that have access to better income families. Figure 4 below illustrates how income adequacy levels influence the prevalence of excess weight.

Figure 4: prevalence of obesity by income adequacy in Canada 2012/2013

 

Treatment

There are limited pharmacotherapy options when it comes to the treatment of pediatric obesity. Because of this, healthcare system has established a comprehensive system of management that emphasizes on the need exercise, good nutrition and modification of behavior.

Since non-pharmacologic treatment remains to be the most appropriate approach in treating childhood obesity, the healthcare system needs to involve the family when it comes to nutrition and physical activity education (lifestyle modification). Behavioral change is similarly essential in enhancing the energy balance. This is done by reversing the amount of energy intake compared to energy spent.

Most treatments in various healthcares begin with the detection of increasing BMI. If the BMI increases by excess of three to four kg/m2 per year, then the clinician needs to take the initiative to discuss with the family his observations (Kirk & Penney, 2013). Giving basic education on maintaining a healthy weight through increased physical exercises and nutrition modification as well as tactical parenting to back these goals would be a good starting point.

Conclusion


 

References

Kirk, S., & Penney, T. (2013). The Role of Health Systems in Obesity Management and Prevention: Problems and Paradigm Shifts. Current Obesity Reports2(4), 315-319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13679-013-0074-7

Phipps, S., Burton, P., Osberg, L., & Lethbridge, L. (2008). Poverty and the extent of child obesity in Canada, Norway and the United States. Obesity Reviews7(1), 5-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789x.2006.00217.x

Sweeting, H. (2008). Gendered dimensions of obesity in childhood and adolescence. Nutrition Journal7(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-7-1

 

 

Music Law

December 6, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Music Law

Student’s name

Institution

Date

 

 

The guaranteed and contingent compensation

Compensation would be an important entity within this agreement as it would significantly influence the capacity of the partners involved to work hard and deliver in accordance to the agreement (Halloran, 2017, p. 255). In this regard, Taylor, the artist whom all agreements revolve around as well as Max Martin and Jack Antonoff who are assistants in the creation and composition of the music would all be liable to receive some level of contingent payment. Their benefits would be based on the performance of their creations in the actual market, particularly in terms of how the music performs during nominations and awards such as BET and Box Office.

In this regard, the composers Jack Antonoff and Max Martin would be liable to receive a one-time payment in the event that the box office in the US theatre makes initial release earnings that will exceed $2 million (McDonald, 2017). In that event, the one-time payment for Martin and Antonoff would be half a million dollars. In the consequential event that the box office earnings in regard to their compositions exceeds the amount of $5 million in the period following the release of their music, then Antonoff and Martin would be liable to receive a one-time payment of an amount not exceeding $1 million. Consequent exceeds of the five-million threshold set by in this agreement would attract a one-time payment of increments of a half a million dollars for every $1 million made from the promotional work (McDonald, 2017).

On the other hand, to sufficiently motivate the composers for their work, it will be important to appreciate them in accordance to the awards that their music may receive in the industry. In this regard, a one-time payment of $800,000 dollars would be made upon each of them in the event that their creation is nominated for a Golden Globe Award for the best original score. Secondly, if their creation wins the nominations for the Golden Globe Award for the best original record, then the composers would receive an amount of $1 million. Additional bonuses would be accrued to the composers in the event that their creations are nominated in the Academy Award for best original music score. In this regard, they will receive a one-time bonus of $200,000 and a similar amount in the event that their nominations are considered as winning for the respective nominations.

Third-party clearances and waivers

Third-party clearances and waivers shall be accorded to the publisher and consequently the creator and needless to mention, the artist. Such waivers would be particularly expressed in situations where a third party record label is involved in another recording agreement or appearance with the artist. In this regard, the subsequent repackaging of the music media containing the artist’s work following such an agreement entered into by the third party shall be carried out in accordance to the stipulations outlined below (Yi, 2016). Firstly, the pictures, album, and copies distributed with packaging components shall be compiled in a manner as to show the producer, the author, and the publishers of the work as well as outlining the type of musical items and performances engineered into the creation by the company and the producers (Salmon, 2008).

In addition, credits shall be accorded back to the original creator and producers of the music as well as the performer on the top label of the record as appropriate. Lastly, the front cover of the singles released under such third-party engagements would feature details of the producer the performer as well as the original record labeling company which initially entered into agreement with their artists. The recognition of these exclusive rights pertaining to Taylor, Martin and Antonoff services to the artists would give sufficient room for the engagement of the three in other activities of musical nature that may not necessarily involve the Sony Company’s services (Cornell, 2017). Recognition of validity of such services will normally be acceptable if they do not in any way negatively affect the engagement that the company has with the three

Ensuring “works made for hire” policy for the producer

The best way to make sure that services entered into and created by the recording company to the composer and artists is to enter into a wax made for hire contract. This contract would basically define the stipulations under which creations made by the composers and the artist shall be utilized for purposes of payment on performance or any other promotional activity and in accordance to the stipulations of the US law. Ownership of the said work done under the agreement signed and entered into shall be carried out in recognition of the critical roles that each member plays. The subsequent use of authorship works including the literacy works, the musical works, the dramatic works, the choreography works, motion picture, graphical and pictorial as well as sound recordings and architectural work shall be treated as subjects to work under this agreement (Stahl, 2008).

In this regard, the absolute copyright shall be recognized only onto the recording company, Sony which shall on the other hand return credit in form of allegiance and contingency payments and benefits to the composers and main artist involved in the creation of the music (Stahl, 2008). To make sure that services are created as “works made for hire” for the producer without the right to terminate the grant of rights, it will be important that the producers as well as the composers and their artists formulate consensual agreement outlining the situations and circumstances under which either of the parties can utilize their work independently of the knowledge of each other and how consequently the benefits and gains made from that engagement would consequently be shared, if at all they are to be shared.

Third-party agreements regarding the production

The producer shall be, in this regard, be solely responsible for payments required to be made to any third party engagements that the producer may seek during the time of existence of this license agreement (Gordon, 2015a). It will therefore be the responsibility of the producer to ensure that the necessary mechanisms and systems liable for facilitating the creation of the music under this agreement are conducted in a professional manner. For purposes of such third party agreements and licenses, it would be the sole responsibility of the producer to coordinate such agreements and the producer would not be required to make any consultative engagements with Mr. Taylor or his composers prior making the agreement (Gordon, 2015a). Any concerns of engagements between Mr. Taylor and his composers would be required to be channeled to the hired third-party producers but as only through the main producer. In the event that excesses in terms of costs are incurred upon the producer or in the process of producing the work by either the main producer of the third-party producer, then these excesses would only be required to be paid in accordance with the main agreement and consequently shall be required to be paid upon by the producers upon entering into agreements on how such payments shall be made (Salmon, 2008).

In the consequent event that the artist, in consultation or no consultation with the producer, requires an extra production activity to be conducted in the process of release or creation of the artistic work, then it will be the responsibility of the artist in consultation with the author and composer to ensure that such access payments are remitted. Any such payments required to be met by the artist shall be treated as a debt upon their accounts and maybe met in form of deductions from any part of his basic or accrued salary and benefits entered into a lease agreement. This will serve to protect the artist’s financial capabilities and consequently ensure that any such fines and third-party engagements do not negatively affect his financial stability and ability to fulfill obligations in accordance to the agreement.

Arising issues on “non-union” recording

Some of the possible issues that may come up following the issue of the non-union records for the producer would include the exclusive rights for the use of such recording as well as details regarding the copyright issues on whether such how creations would be liable to attract benefits and payments to the authors and artist. Regarding the ownership of the nonunion, the producer would have the exclusive rights to market and consequently benefit from the promotional activities emanating from the non-union productions (Beatty & Samuelson, 2011, p. 447). Any further proceeds made from the non-union recording in terms of payments and benefits would be divided and shared between the producer, the artists and the musical creators in accordance to the stipulations of the main musical agreement. This implies that the artist would be liable to receive payments and benefits in the event that the music is nominated for awards and weather such nominations would be consequently successful and award-winning (Gordon, 2015b).

Terms and conditions for the use of the Master on the Album

Under this agreement, the producer has the sole responsibility of producing in terms of recordings of any graphical or pictorial nature regarding Taylor’s work and consequently appropriately marketing it through either its own initiatives or consequently hiring a third party distributor. In this case, Taylor’s agreement with Big Machine Records and third party distributors, Universal Republic would consequently be treated as a third party deal between Taylor and big machine records (Zager, 2012, p. 383). This agreement would therefore be liable only pertaining works and productions that were entered into between Taylor and Big Machine Records and would not in any way infringe the rights that Taylor or Sony Music Entertainment through, the producer, have entered or will enter into. Basically, the terms and conditions for these two engagements would be that Taylor would be required to respect and observe the legal of stipulations entered into between him and the producer who hired Sony Music Entertainment to distribute the album but shall be considered as an infringement of distribution rights if he (Taylor) producers or markets similar works through the Big Machine Records.

 

 

References

Beatty, J., & Samuelson, S. (2011). Legal environment. Mason: Thomson/West.

Cornell, K. (2017). The Artist & Record Label Relationship – A Look At the Standard “Record Deal”TuneCore. Retrieved 6 November 2017, from https://www.tunecore.com/blog/2017/05/artist-record-label-relationship-look-standard-record-deal-part-1.html

Gordon, S. (2015a). The 11 Contracts Every Artist, Songwriter and Producer Should KnowNysbar.com. Retrieved 6 November 2017, from http://nysbar.com/blogs/EASL/2015/09/the_11_contracts_every_artist_1.html

Gordon, S. (2015b). Three Contracts Every Music Producer Should KnowDigital Music News. Retrieved 6 November 2017, from https://www.digitalmusicnews.com/2015/07/30/three-contracts-that-every-music-producer-should-know/

Halloran, M. (2017). The Musician’s Business and Legal Guide (5th ed.). Milton: Taylor and Francis.

McDonald, H. (2017). Some Insights Into How to Make Money in the Music BusinessThe Balance. Retrieved 6 November 2017, from https://www.thebalance.com/get-paid-in-your-music-career-2460878

Salmon, R. (2008). A Guide To Contracts For ProducersSoundonsound.com. Retrieved 6 November 2017, from https://www.soundonsound.com/music-business/guide-contracts-producers

Stahl, M. (2008). Recording Artists, Work for Hire, Employment, and Appropriation. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1288831

Yi, P. (2016). A Quick Guide To Rights ClearanceLaw360.com. Retrieved 6 November 2017, from https://www.law360.com/articles/767422/a-quick-guide-to-rights-clearance

Zager, M. (2012). Music production. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.

Critical Issues of Transformation Emotional Intelligence in Educational Leadership in Saudi Arabia.

December 6, 2017

Critical Issues of Transformation Emotional Intelligence in Educational Leadership in Saudi Arabia.

 

Student´s Name

 

 

Institutional Affiliation

Course

City, State

Date

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction

The research methodology explains the direction of the study. In this regard, Bryman (2015) argued that the research methodology is the blueprint of a research study, which holds significant importance as it highlights not only the process used for the collection of data but also focuses on the different theories and concepts that underlie the methods. According to Kothari (2004), research methodology focuses on providing the explanation of the feasibility of certain techniques over others, followed by its assumptions and criteria that underpin the techniques. Furthermore, Creswell (2013) indicated that the research methodology acts as a guide for the entire research study and encompasses research approach, design, philosophy; therefore it is acknowledged as a comprehensive plan of action that helps in formulating the research process in accordance with the research aims and objectives.

 

Taking the importance of research methodology into consideration, this section of the dissertation highlights the selected research philosophy, followed by research approach, design, and strategy. In addition, justifications for the selection of the aforementioned elements have been presented within this chapter. More importantly, the chapter will also present a brief discussion of ethical consideration during the completion of the dissertation.

This study mainly aims at critically investigating the influence of transformation western concept of emotional intelligence within the Saudi Arabian Educational Supervision. It analyses the integrating/transformation of E.I within the Educational supervision practices in S.A. In addition, it attempts to understand how E.S perceiving E.I from different sources as (knowledge & productive). It also seeks to identify the main issues challenging the practices of the Western concept of E.I on Eastern context. Furthermore, It recognises how changed of awareness of emotional intelligence issues might enhance Educational supervision practices.

This chapter discusses the research design, approaches and procedures used to collect and analyse data in order to address the identified research objectives. Foremost, it describes the research design that this research study employs. It also looks into the research paradigms or philosophies that this study is embedded on. Secondly, this chapter offers the settings or context that this study takes place in and the how the sample of participants who took part in this study was selected. Thirdly, it explores the data collection process by describing the various techniques and approaches used to collect data. Furthermore, this chapter illustrates how the process of data analysis is carried out. Lastly, it examines some of the key ethical issues that were taken into account in the course of this study and some limitations of the research.

  • Objectives and research questions of the Research

In order to achieve the master aim of this study by critically investigating the influence of transformation foreign concept of emotional intelligence (E.I) within the Saudi Arabian Educational Supervision. The following objectives are accomplished:

  1. To analyses the integrating/transformation of E.I within the Educational supervision practices in S.A.
  2. To understand how E.Ss perceiving E.I from different sources as (knowledge & productive)
  3. To explore the main issues challenging the practices of the foreign concept of E.I on Saudi Educational supervision context.
  4. To recognise how the awareness towards the concept of E.I has changed from the perspectives of Educational supervisors
  5. To suggest a framework to enhance the current practices of E.I to meet the Saudi Educational supervisors contextual needs.

In order to achieve the above objectives, the following research questions are identified

  • How was the transformation and integration of E.I initially introduced to the E.Ss professionals´ context?
  • How do E.Ss professionals conceptualise the meaning (s) of E.I as introduced to them?
  • What issues challenged the foreign concept of E.I on E.Ss professional’s context?

Research Paradigm

The term research paradigm refers to a system of ontological, methodological, and epistemological assumptions, ideas, and beliefs that underpin the research methodology. In simpler words, the paradigm is associated with research philosophy, it focuses on the beliefs and practices for conducting a research study (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004). The most common types of research paradigm include; Pragmatism, constructivism, interpretivism, positivism, post-positivism, and realism.

In interpretivism, the natural and social reality is different; therefore it requires different methods and techniques to analyse and investigate. As a result, there are several subjective realities and interpretations based on the experiences. (Williams, 2000). Researchers with the interpretivism approach focus on understanding human experiences that are essential for control, prediction and explanation. It is recommended for social scientists to be concerned with the interpretative understanding of the individuals. Additionally, to gain access to people´s experiences, the social scientists should treat those individuals they study as being human beings.

Epistemological reflections are required by the social scientist in research so that they can determine relationships between the knower of the information and what is known, the answers to questions on reality can be determined and the characteristics, which guide the process of getting the information and achieving the findings of the research. Known subjects in epistemology require that these subjects are not seen as objects but as subjects whose ontological reality is different from what the other epistemology assumed.

The interpretivist approach has been selected for this research study as it emphasises the researcher and participants working together to interpret several elements of the educational advisors in Saudi Arabia. Through the social practices of the interpretivist, the paradigm gives account to constructed characteristics of orientations, norms, meaning and production of the social world. Since this paradigm integrates human interests, the reality can only be accessed through social constructions like shared meaning, instruments, language, and consciousness (Goldkuhl, 2012). The foremost justification for considering interpretivism over other research paradigms was to avoid a rigid structural framework while adopting a more flexible and personal research structure to capture different meanings in human interaction. It is also a good way to explore different aspects of their professional roles.  This has helped in making a logical explanation of what is perceived as reality as the approach utilises primary data that is honest and trustworthy. This is attributed to the fact that interpretative paradigm covers cultural differences and leadership in a great depth. Use of relevant primary data in this interpretative approach enhances the researcher to generate relevant findings. The researcher adopted an exploratory approach and remained open to new knowledge, which helped in developing and enhancing the knowledge through the help of participants.

 

Interpretivism, as a paradigm was selected as the concept of emotional intelligence, is personal and linked to cultural concerns. Also, the fact that interpretivism assumes knowledge and meaning of information is derived from the individual interpretation; it would form a good platform for the study. According to Swanson and Holton (2005), interpretivists focus on subjectivity on how individuals understand, apprehend, and utilise events and how they produce characteristics of settings where the sense-making is responsive.

 

Personal bias is one of the most prominent challenges of interpretivism. This remained at the centre of researcher’s attention during the collection and interpretation of the data. In particular, the researcher defined protocols during the collection of primary data through the use of interviews. Since the researcher was somewhat aware of the concept, the researcher minimised the biasness by becoming blind to the outcome of interest. To enhance validity and reliability, the researcher evaluated the findings and ensured that they were consistent, believable, credible and applicable. The researcher determined the reliability of the findings through assessing the consistency of the information got and the way the results repeated themselves throughout the research. Validity was ensured by counterchecking the findings and ensuring that every result was correct.

Research Design

Qualitative research design has been argued to provide valuable insights into the problem, which helps in the development of both the ideas and hypothesis for the research study (Driscoll et al., 2007)). This design has frequently been used for uncovering the trends in opinions and thoughts while allowing the researcher to dive deeper into the problem at hand. Considering the nature of qualitative research design, the data is collected through the use of either semi-structured or unstructured interviews. The most prominent and preferred methods in qualitative research design include; interviews, focus groups, and observations with typically small sample size (Driscoll, Appiah-Yeboah, Salib, & Rupert, 2007).

 

Considering the aforementioned discussion, the researcher has selected qualitative research design over quantitative research, which has allowed the researcher to remain focussed on the socio-cultural-historical understanding of the topic while providing the opportunity to explore and investigate the nation of emotional intelligence to form a sensitive understanding of the problem at hand. Researchers using the qualitative research use different strategies, which help them, meet their goals. These procedures include cooperative inquiry, grounded theories, phenomenology, and conversation analysis among others. According to Klenke, and Martin (2016), qualitative research is not valued neutral and hence the researcher should bracket prior knowledge of the field and personal values they are working on by identifying positions from, which they speak.

 

The foremost justification for the selection of qualitative research design over quantitative research design is the nature of emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is determined by considering measures like recognising emotions, utilising the perceived emotions in facilitating thoughts, understanding and managing emotions (Salovey, Brackett, and Mayer, 2007). Since the concept of emotional intelligence is something personal by nature and linked to cultural concerns, it requires extensive elaboration and interpretation, which cannot be achieved by quantitative research design. In addition, quantitative research design is complex in nature and emphasises quantifiable data, which could not be achieved as the issue requires in-depth analysis through prompt questions rather than relying just on ‘Yes’ or ‘No’, or on a scale from one to five.

 

With this into consideration, the researcher has selected qualitative research design, where the data was collected through the use of semi-structured interviews to gain relevant and in-depth knowledge about the topic (Denscombe, 2010). In the interview, questions were asked whereby the respondents answered them clearly. Some of the questions asked include

  • What interests you about the role you play?
  • What annoys you?
  • What things bother you about other people?
  • In your work, what are you passionate about?
  • In your work, are you focused on tasks and results or people and their emotions?

These questions together with others helped the researcher in gaining in-depth data, which allowed the researcher to pursue knowledge of social realities and personal experiences through direct interaction. In addition, the use of qualitative research design helped in simplifying the process of collecting and interpreting the data that best fits the aims and objectives of the study, which could not have been achieved through the adoption of quantitative research design.

 

Research Settings and Participants

The study was based in the two office of Educational Supervision in Saudi Arabia. The research study considered educational supervisors to better understand their perceptions and opinions with regard to their role in supporting teachers’ development and the development of classroom learning. According to Statpac (2013), a sample population is selected from a large population and it is based on the proximity to the researcher and their availability during the study period. In this regards, 3 male and 3 female educational supervisors were approached to explore the influence of emotional intelligence discourse. Additionally, the participants were required to give their opinions and perspectives about the Emotional Intelligence concepts, which were introduced by the Ministry of Education. They were also to outline the challenges they faced and how the challenges influenced their work.

The participants who were selected were active in their work and had been recognised by institutions as the best supervisors. They played an important role in the Office of Educational supervision and through the help of the teachers the researcher was able to select them. The Office of Educational Supervision is expected to oversee the management of schools, carry out inspections, supervise, support teachers and provide guidance on how to improve student outcomes. Supervisors work with a wide range of roles. According to the General Guide of Educational Supervision, published by the Saudi Ministry of Education in 2016, the role of ESs is to provide the teachers with the required support and help to develop the teaching and learning process. Also, they are required to empower the teachers to enhance the practices of both teachers and learners effectively. They work with teachers in ways that promote teachers’ professional development and lifelong learning (Zepeda 2007). Supervisors also should support teachers by advising, counselling, guiding and coaching them to ensure that education policy and school programs are being implemented effectively. They should monitor, inspect and assess teaching practices (Stimpson et al 2000; Sullivan & Glanz 2009). In order for supervisors to effectively carry out these roles; The Ministry of Education in Saudi sets the following duties

  1. Prepare the action plan in their subject area;
  2. Empower the values of citizenship and integration and protect the country harmony;
  3. Support the teachers technically to raise the level of leaner’s knowledge;
  4. Identify and implement the required training programs in the subject areas
  5. Coordinate with different authorities to enhance the practices;
  6. Support the teachers to implement the required strategic aims and objectives of learning;
  7. Monitor the applications of the learning strategies provided in the Teachers Guides book and the School Activities book during their visits to schools;
  8. Assess the level of curriculum’s implementation and the supportive tools used by the teachers to support learner’s practices
  9. Empower the Subject-leadership
  10. Suggest different recommendations about the curriculum development and the supportive tools;
  11. Follow up the assessment process and the exam papers
  12. Conduct any other duties related to the position and practices of ES.

In their workplace setting ESs are expected to network internally (inside the office) with the Head, Head Assistant and other ESs colleagues and externally (outside the office) with the Head of the Department of Subject areas and school staff including teachers and head teachers.

ESs are requested to carry out Bachelors in education and spent six years of experience in education. ESs is required to know:

  1. The education policy of Saudi Arabian Kingdom;
  2. The Ethical Standards for the Teaching Profession
  3. The teaching and learning strategy;
  4. Evaluation methods and curriculum development
  5. Different methods of learning and their practices in teaching and learning;
  6. Different samples of Educational Supervision

The General Guide of Educational Supervision (2016) requests that ESs should have a different set of skills including the ability to promote change and development, working in a team and collaboratively, the ability to plan and administrate training, advanced computer skills. Moreover, EEs are expected to practice their roles and duties in professional manners, to have the sense of leadership, confident, creative, reliable, careful and able to manage the work pressure, to have emotional balance strategies.

It is clear that the participants of this study are working and operating in complicated and high-pressure workplace environment.  ESs duties are drawn in essence around the fact that supervisors need to work under a wide range of roles; they are expected to conduct different duties and interact in daily bases with different people from inside their office and outside the office.

Approach to Data Analysis

In qualitative research, three aspects apart from deciding on the epistemology and research questions are considered early before the actual process is undertaken. These aspects include the research design approaches, the locations of the participants, the reader and the researcher and the frames and framing.  Additionally, to inquire information in a qualitative research, one may use methods like investigative, subjective, iterative or enumerative. These methods help the researcher in obtaining information from the participants.

The framework through which the researcher is planning to interpret the data once collected is thematic analysis. Thematic analysis is a process of data reduction and is majorly used in data analysis. Thematic analysis will involve use of repeated words or phrases to answer the research questions. Themes will be developed from the literatures in which the researcher will review and also from the people the researcher will interview.

Data Collection Method

The process of collecting data is critical to a research study, which requires relevant and appropriate data to be collected. With this into consideration, it has been argued that the data can either be collected through primary sources or secondary sources (Hox & Boeije, 2005). The concept of primary data suggests that the data has been collected by the researcher and is not yet part of the existing literature. On the hand, the concept of secondary data suggests that the information has already been presented by some other author, which makes it part of the literature (Hox & Boeije, 2005).The researcher has preferred the use of primary data over secondary data to evaluate and interpret the connection between emotional intelligence and leadership. The use of secondary data was not feasible as research studies are limited to a certain extent in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, primary data collection was used to explore the concepts from human-side.

Data Collection Instrument

According to Silverman (2016), primary data can be collected through a variety of instruments. Taking this into consideration, the researcher selected three instruments for qualitative research; individual interviews, open workshops, and qualitative questionnaire.

  • Reflecting Semi-Structure Interviews

According to Banks and Zeitlyn (2015), individual interviews are acknowledged to be the most appropriate and effective method for the collection of qualitative data. Interviews in research ensure that the research subject is completely described and analysed without limiting the participants´ responses and the scope of the research. In an interview, the interviewer formulates a set of questions to be discussed with the interviewee during the interview. In a majority of the cases, the researcher records and then prepares transcripts to ensure that the data is analysed in an appropriate manner.

The researcher formulated a set of questions to be discussed with each interviewee during the interview. In a majority of the cases, the researcher recorded and then prepared transcripts to ensure that the data was analysed in an appropriate manner.  Individual interviews were conducted with females in the Office of Educational Supervisors, but males were interviewed by the research assistant for ethical and cultural consideration. The interviews were semi-structured in nature to explore the association and connection between their leadership styles and their way of conceptualising the concept of emotionality.

 

Since the interviews were based on a semi-structured format, the researcher had to determine set of themes related to emotional intelligence and its impact on educational supervision. These themes were derived from the review of existing research conducted as part of the study and presented in chapter 2. The researcher developed open questions related to those themes, which provided the researcher with an ability to explore the participant’s understanding of leadership practices and emotional intelligence. Follow-up questions were developed during the interviews to keep the focus of discussion on research question and aims and objectives of the research. The list of the questions that were asked during the interview is found in the attached appendix.

 

  • Open Workshops

Primary data was also obtained through open workshops. In particular, the purpose of open workshop was to investigate and understand the emotional aspects that the educational supervisors practised within the educational system while evaluating the implications and implementation of the concept in supervisors’ leadership practise. Through open workshops, both the researcher and the participants engage in a transparent and open communication, which enhances understanding (Westley and Miller, 2003).  Likewise, the purpose of the workshops was to raise the participant’s awareness about emotional intelligence within the context of educational supervision. At the same time, the open workshop presented the participants with essential information about the importance of emotional intelligence in daily life, while presenting them with examples of its applicability in different aspects of life, where the focus remained on the educational system.

 

An open workshop was considered by the researcher as it helps in high-quality decision making and it reduces the time required for the achievement of desired objectives (agreement and identification). According to Bent (2016), Open workshops enhances good results as it gives room for interaction, collaboration, it is free and fun and has measurable impacts. The open workshop was also considered as all the important stakeholders were present, and they were able to openly communicate and collaborate with each other, which eventually increases the confidence in the result. More importantly, the disagreements and misunderstandings were made visible through the use of open workshops. In addition, the researcher also conducted a group session after the open workshop. This primary reason for it was to explore and evaluate the change in perception about emotional intelligence after the workshop.

 

  • Qualitative Questionnaire

In light of Brinkmann (2014) findings, it has been revealed that the most commonly used instrument for the collection of primary data is the questionnaire. Since the research is qualitative in nature, the researcher developed a questionnaire based on open questions. The main advantage of using questionnaire is that it is time efficient as well as cost efficient. It collects a large amount of data in relatively little time.

A questionnaire provides the researcher with an in-depth understanding of the participants’ perception about the topic by different way of expression (Reja et al., 2003). In this case, an open questionnaire was used and it presented the participants with an ability to share their opinions and perceptions considering the topic.

This study developed a qualitative questionnaire survey using a set of open questions. The researcher distributed this questionnaire to all participants. The questions were developed in a way to assess how open workshops and following group discussions had raised awareness about emotional intelligence in the employees of the Office of Educational Supervisors in Saudi Arabia. This provided the researcher with the ability to investigate and evaluate the improvement in the awareness of participants about emotional intelligence in leadership after the workshop while providing the researcher with an ability to study the change in their opinions (Westley and Miller, 2003).  The qualitative questionnaires also helped the researcher to determine the effectiveness of the open workshops.

 

 

 

 

Overview Summary

Complementarity

Complementarity in research process refers to maintain elaboration, illustration, enhancement, and clarification of results gained from one method with that of another (Klenke, 2008). Since this study is based on qualitative design, complementarity was achieved by collecting the data through more than one instrument. The interviews were conducted to assess the current level of awareness amongst the educational supervisors. Interviews were followed by open workshops to raise awareness about emotional intelligence among educational supervisors. Finally, qualitative surveys were conducted to consider the impact of the increase in awareness pertaining to emotional intelligence.

Scope

Considering the nature and scope of the study, a variety of primary data collection tools and instruments were used to reach a valid and reliable conclusion. The aim of the study was to study how an increase in awareness enhances educational supervision, therefore, one data collection method was used to assess current level of awareness (interview), another was used to increase awareness (open workshop), whereas the third one was used to assess the impact of change (qualitative survey).

 

Validation

Validation refers to verifying analysis of researcher by asking participants to judge the adequacy of analysis (Mays &Pops, 2000).  In this study, the researcher conducted interviews with the educational supervisors in Arabic, which was later translated into English. This implies that validation was required for the study. With this into consideration, the analysis was sent to the research participants to ensure that their opinions and knowledge were appropriated reported within the study. However, the researcher believes that the translation may have caused deviation to a limited extent. Thus the study requested the participant to judge the accuracy of results reported to ensure validation.
Pilot Study

Before conducting the interviews with the selected sample size, a pilot study was conducted with a limited sample size to ensure that the questions appropriately addressed the research aims and objectives. Pilot study helps in identifying the problem in question and the weaknesses in the questioning skills. Pilot study also helps in determining the adequacy of the instruments to be used in the study.Additionally, pilot study helps to masses if the survey is feasibleand help to design the protocol of the research. In particular, the first aim of the study was regarding the analysis of the process of integrating Emotional Intelligence discourse within the educational supervision practices in Saudi Arabia, which was addressed through the semi-structured interviews. In this study, a pilot study was conducted prior to the actual research by 4 classmates (2 males and 2 females). As a result of the pilot study, the researcher re-modified a few questions to clarify the actual purpose of each question. Also, the researcher made some amendments to the structure of the questions in terms of the order. Finally, the researcher was able to identify the weaknesses in skills and attended a training workshop to enhance the skills and practiced interviewing process with friends until confidence was gained to conduct the actual research The pilot study suggested that transformational developments have been introduced within the educational system in Saudi Arabia with respect to the history, culture and policies; which falls under the theme of rational for using emotional intelligence.

 

Likewise, the pilot study also helped in addressing a variety of themes developed for the 2nd aim of recognising the increased awareness of emotional issues to enhance educational supervision practices, while determining their contribution towards the conceptualisation of educational leadership in Saudi Arabia. The pilot study provided valuable insight that Emotional Intelligence focuses on exploring cultural, religious, gendered and historical issues of the Saudi Arabia.

 

More importantly, the pilot study highlighted that some of the important themes were being overlooked during the collection of primary data; therefore the semi-structured interviews had to be amended, where the aim was to include the remaining aims. With this into consideration, a few questions were added to the interview that eventually helped in the creation of other themes with respect to the aims and objectives.

 

According to Polit, Beck and Hungler (2001), a pilot study is commonly used as a trial run or small scale version to prepare for a major study. Additionally, Baker (1994) suggested that pilot study has frequently been used by researchers and professionals to pre-test and try out the selected research instrument. This implies that a pilot study is conducted to ensure that the instrument selected for the research study is appropriate and helps in collecting relevant data to reach a valid and reliable conclusion. Moreover, Baker (1994) suggested that approximately 20% of the sample size should be selected for the pilot study. Even though pilot study plays an influential role in the development of relevant and appropriate research instrument, but it does not guarantee the success of the main study.

 

Moreover, a pilot study helps in addressing a variety of logical issues that may occur during the collection of final data. However, this can be resolved by focusing on the following factors, which is an important part of the research strategy:

  • Checking that the instructions are clear and succinct
  • Checking whether the right participants are selected for the pilot study (the participants are sufficiently skilled from the same field)
  • Checking that the wording of the survey is appropriate
  • Checking the validity and reliability of the results collected
  • Determining that the analytical and statistical processes are effective and efficient

 

Pilot Study for Survey Validation

Before conducting the actual survey, it is essential to conduct a pilot study to determine that the selected form of primary data collection yields appropriate results. The term has frequently been used in social science research in two different ways. In particular, it has been referred as a feasibility study, which as discussed by Polit, Beck, and Hungler (2001), is a trial run to prepare for the study as a whole. Similarly, the terminology has been used as a pretesting method to reveal whether the research procedures and instruments are appropriate to reach a valid and reliable conclusion. The foremost advantage of conducting a pilot study is that it gives an advance warning related to the weaknesses of the study. For instance, it might provide an overview of the inappropriateness of the research instrument, or its complications that might create a hurdle for the participants in understanding the questions.

 

With this into consideration, De Vaus (1993) have advised the researchers to ensure that the ambiguities are resolved in an appropriate manner, which would eventually help the participants to respond is most accurate and reliable manner. Moreover, it has been revealed that surveys are often always pilot-tested to ensure that the redundant, inappropriate, and misleading questions are avoided. Moreover, pilot testing was considered for the research study as it ensures that the research instruments are properly utilised in order to obtain consistent and reliable information.

 

The pilot study was administered by the researcher personally to ensure that the process proceeds in a good manner. Even though pilot study can be conducted through a variety of platforms, the researcher felt that it should be conducted personally rather than relying on other electronic platforms. The pilot study was well-designed and conducted, which eventually informed the researcher on the likely outcomes while highlighting the questions that should be incorporated within the semi-structured interviews.

 

Sampling Method and Sample Size

According to Denscombe (2014), the two types of sampling methods include; probability sampling and non-probability sampling. In probability sampling, every member of the target population has an equal probability of participation in the research process. On the contrary, the likelihood of one member of the population to be included in the research process varies in the non-probability sampling. According to Crano, Brewer, and Lac (2014), probability sampling is relatively more reliable as compared to non-probability sampling as the former has less personal biasness. In order to minimise personal biasness of the researcher, this study attempted to use probability sampling technique to recruit participants for the study.

 

There are several non-probability sampling techniques among which the most commonly used technique is convenience sampling technique. In this technique, the researcher is allowed to recruit participants within nearest proximity and own convenience and accessibility. In this study, the supervisors were invited to participate. All participants belonged to the Office of Educational Supervisors.

 

 

Data Analysis Plan

According to Bernard and Bernard (2012), the purpose of data analysis is to ensure that the data and information obtained from the participants are converted and transformed into meaningful results and conclusion. The results and conclusion highlight whether the predefined objectives were achieved or not. Therefore, it is essential to select the most appropriate data analysis technique and plan as it has a significant impact on the validity and reliability of the conclusion.

Several data analysis techniques for qualitative data have been proposed over the years by authors and researchers. The most prominent techniques include; grounded theory, thematic analysis, daily interpretive analysis, and content analysis etc. Since the aforementioned techniques have their own limitations, the researcher must select the technique that best fits the objectives. Considering this, the study has used the data analysis framework proposed by Thompson (2004). The framework establishes other new structures of the data, which makes it easier to summarise data so that the process of answering questions becomes easier. The raw data is coded by giving conceptual labels (Marshall and Rossman, 2016).  Through coding; retrieval and analysing data becomes easy for the researcher. Codes are based on the keywords, themes, topics or ideas. In grounded theory, open coding is used to help the researcher to see the key ideas and patterns of the data.

 

Data reduction

In this stage, the qualitative data gathered through data collection process is organised and reduced. Large pieces of text such as field notes, interview transcripts, observations, etc. are common examples of qualitative data. The analyst may prepare summaries, coding, removing irrelevant information, and similar activities. The basic purpose is to discard irrelevant data; however, the analyst must make sure that the data is kept safe to be analysed if required at a later stage.

Data display

Thompson (2004) argued that researchers must draw valid conclusions to ensure that the study is applicable in real-life, and further proposed researchers to display the findings in a presentable manner (i.e. through the use of tables, networks, charts, and any other graphical forms).

 

Translation Issues

The Linguistic skills of the translator play an important role in the interpreting the data mediating quality and consistency. Keegan (2009) argues that understanding the local language is important so that both the researcher and the participants can understand each other. Understanding the respondents´ culture is important as one is able to know the participants’ emotions and how to handle them. Therefore, a good translator is needed so that there is an understanding between both parties. In this regard, it has been revealed that back translation has frequently been used, as a process, to translate the data into the target language. In this case, the data was collected in Arabic language and was then translated into English for analysis. Moreover, Ercikan (1998) argued that translating the data can result in inaccurate or lack of clear data, which remained the focus of the researcher and was addressed by translating the data into English and then again into Arabic to find any inconsistency.

 

Ethical Consideration

According to Brinkmann (2014), ethical consideration is described as the set of moral principles and obligations assumed by the researcher during the process of research in order to uphold research integrity with participants and research community. Ethical considerations have become increasingly important in social research. In order to show integrity with research participants, the first ethical principle adhered to in this study was to obtain the consent of all participants during each data collection method. A consent form was signed by the participants mentioning that their participation was volunteered and that there was no obligation imposed on them. An official consent was obtained from authorities before inviting employees for research.

 

In addition, this study maintained absolute anonymity and confidentiality of all research participants. The results and findings presented in this study did not reveal any information that may help to trace the true identity of any participant. In addition, the researcher protected the identity of the participants by not having them reveal their names or any personal information. Participants were also assured that their privacy and confidentiality would be maintained before and after the study. Furthermore, participants’ right to withdraw from the study was also taken into account and participants were clearly informed that they have the right to withdraw from the study at any point in time for any reason.

 

Considering the cultural differences, the researcher had to get the help of a secondary researcher to gather data from participants of opposite gender. This was done to respect the cultural aspects of Saudi Arabia. One may find it easier and more comfortable to group discussions and one to one interaction with the same gender as compared to opposite gender. The researcher also ensured that no harm was caused to the participants by not coaxing them to participate and also not consuming much of their time.

 

Research Limitation

As explained in research design, qualitative research has an inherent limitation for personal bias. According to Arnet (1986), bias is not easy to prevent, but interpretive researchers try to acknowledge bias as a happening or a view of an event. Typically, an independent reviewer can be hired to assists and verify data analysis process; however, due to a limited budget, this study could not hire an independent data analyst to assess and judge the validity of the interpretations made by the author during the research process. However, the study was able to ensure validation by asking participants to assist in validation. This is the main limitation in this study. Furthermore, this study lacks quantitative evidence which can be considered a potential methodological limitation. The sample size of this study is small and thus indicates that further research should be conducted to enhance reliability and validity of results and conclusions drawn in this study.

Challenges faced by the researcher

A variety of challenges was faced by the researcher during the collection of primary data through the use of semi-structured interviews, and open workshops. The most important challenge faced was obtaining the permission from the Saudi Ministry of Education, which took approximately two months. This was the most time-consuming task as others were completed more quickly. Likewise, the participants were quite busy with their routine schedule; therefore the researcher had to take permission from each of the participants considering their schedule. Moreover, the researcher had to make a number of visits to collect the qualitative data, which proved to be a challenge. The back and forth travelling was a challenge due to the time it took from one place to another. Additionally, adopting the culture of the participants was also a challenge since the researcher had to comply with the requirements of the participants´ culture.

 

Conclusion

In conclusion, the chapter has presented information about the research paradigm, followed by the justification of selecting interpretivism over others. Interpretivism philosophy was selected considering its focus avoiding rigid structural framework while adopting a more flexible and personal research structure to capture different meanings in human interaction. Moreover, explanatory research investigation was adopted by the researcher order to explain the emotional intelligence of educational supervision in Saudi Arabia. This application of explanatory investigation allows the research to develop a structure regarding the problem existing in the environment and clearly define the factors which influence these complications.

 

The qualitative research design was selected by the researcher and the qualitative data was obtained through the use of open questions in semi-structured interviews, and open workshops. The researcher was presented with valuable information about the topic and was able to move from general knowledge to specific information. Considering this, a pilot study was conducted to ensure that the questions were sufficient to gain the required knowledge and information related to emotional intelligence discourse in Saudi Arabia educational environment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

Arnett, R. C. (1986). Communication and community: implications of Martin Buber’s dialogue. Carbondale, Southern Illinois University Press.

Bent, M. (2016). Practical tips for facilitating research. London, Facet Publishing.

Denscombe, M. (2010). Ground rules for social research guidelines for good practice. Maidenhead, Open University Press. http://0-site.ebrary.com.fama.us.es/lib/unisev/Doc?id=10350213.

Keegan, S. (2009). Qualitative research: good decision making through understanding people, cultures and markets. London ;Philadelphia, Kogan Page. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/alltitles/docDetail.action?docID=10348748.

Klenke, K., & Martin, S. (2016). Qualitative research in the study of leadership. United Kingdom, Emerald.

Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. B. (2016). Designing qualitative research. Los Angeles [u.a.], Sage.

Salovey, P., Brackett, M. A., & Mayer, J. D. (2007). Emotional intelligence: key readings on the Mayer and Salovey model. Port Chester, N.Y., Dude Pub.

Swanson, R. A., & Holton, E. F. (2005). Research in organizations: foundations and methods of inquiry. San Francisco, Calif, Berrett-Koehler.

Westley, F. R., & Miller, P. S. (2003). Experiments in consilience: integrating social and scientific responses to save endangered species. Washington, Island Press.

 

Research proposal: The impact of attention instructions on football free-kick using a dual-task paradigm

December 6, 2017

 

 

 

 

Research proposal: The impact of attention instructions on football free-kick using a dual-task paradigm

Name:

Institution:

Course:

Professor:

Date:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION ONE – INTRODUCTION

Literature Review

Attention is a necessary ingredient towards the retention and execution of motor skills that are complex in nature. There exist various limits when it comes to resources of attention, especially during early stages of learning (Emanuel, Jarus, and Bart, 2008, pp. 251-260). In this regard, it is highly pertinent to determine the diverse types of foci required in attention and have material implications on the learning process.  In most cases, it has been proved that students execute skills at less effective degrees after being issued with theoretical instructions; this is in comparison with the students who do not receive any form of instructions (Freudheim, Wulf, Madureira, Pasetto and Correa, 2010, pp. 533-542). There are instructional strategies that proved problematic including just do it and those emphasizing implicit learning. Several experiments have shown that focus of attention that is external in nature is very effective when compared to internal. These results have proved beneficial when dual task paradigms have been used to derive evidence in the form of anecdotal and experimental (Emanuel, Jarus, and Bart, 2008, pp. 251-260).

External focus is more significant in attaining balance in tasks and has been replicated for learning various football skills such as making passes and taking penalties, goal kicks and corners.  The same results have been acquired when applied in other sports such as basketball, darts, volleyball, high jump, swimming, running and bodybuilding. However, these benefits of external focus have been less investigated by scholars in terms of the focus of attention in children (Freudheim, Wulf, Madureira, Pasetto and Correa, 2010, pp. 533-542). It is common knowledge that there are eloquent disparities of information processing between adults and children. These differences are known to have material impacts on the performance and learning of motor skills such as processing speed of information and instructions that are related to age, using rehearsal strategies, organizing individual memory as well as focusing attention that is selective (Marchant, Clough and Crawshaw, 2007, pp. 291-303).

The Background of the Planned Project

This is an observation study looking at the impact of attention instructions on football free-kick using a dual-task paradigm. The study aims to answer the question, what should football players focus their attention when taking a free-kick?     This study implements the dual-task paradigm while using measures of repeated design in nature so as to determine the time course of attention instructions that are demanded when performing a free-kick in football (Al-Abood, Bennett, Hernandez, Ashford, and Davids, 2002, pp. 271-278). Ten university students participated in the study, split into two groups ‘less skilled’ and ‘highly skilled.’ The less skilled involved participants who had football knowledge but do not engage on a regular basis while the high skilled group was made of students who regularly play and specialised in free-kick taking (Goh, Kantak and Sullivan, 2012, pp. 346-352). The players completed four dual-task conditions: two directed attention to skills execution (skill/internal [movement of the leg] and skill/external [area to hit ball] and two that directed attention to the environment (environmental/irrelevant [auditory tones] and environmental/external [direction of shot]. A standard 11 a side football pitch was used for two sessions conducted on two separate days within the same week. Participants completed two blocks of 20 practice trials. Following practice, two blocks of 20 trials were completed for each of the four conditions (McNevin, Shea, and Wulf, 2003, pp. 22-29).

SECTION TWO- AIMS HYPOTHESES

Research Question

The study seeks to provide detailed responses to several questions regarding attention of instructions in practicing motor skills. For example, what should football players focus their attention when taking a free-kick (Zachry, Wulf, Mercer and Bezodis, 2005, pp. 304-309)? What type of internal and external skills should the football players possess when taking a free-kick? What form of internal and external focus to the environment should the football players have when taking a free-kick (Thomas, Gallagher and Purvis, 2011, pp. 359-367)?

AIM(S)

The overall goal of this goal of this study is to ascertain the types of internal and external skills and focus that are requisite to footballers when taking a free-kick (Porter, Nolan, Ostrowski and Wulf, 2010, pp. 1-7).

OBJECTIVES

The following objectives were to be accomplished by the study:

  1. To determine the type of internal skills required when a football player is taking a free-kick.
  2. To determine the type of external skills required when a football player is taking a free-kick.
  3. To determine the type of internal focus required when a football player is taking a free-kick.
  4. To determine the type of external focus required when a football player is taking a free-kick (Goh, Kantak and Sullivan, 2012, pp. 346-352).

HYPOTHESES

H1: There is a high positive correlation between on internal skills of a football player and accuracy of taking a free-kick.

H2: There is a high positive correlation between on external skills of a football player and accuracy of taking a free-kick (Goh, Kantak and Sullivan, 2012, pp. 346-352).

H3: There is no correlation between a focus on internal environment and accuracy of taking a free-kick.

H4: There is a high positive correlation between a focus on external environment and accuracy of taking a free-kick (Zachry, Wulf, Mercer and Bezodis, 2005, pp. 304-309).

SECTION THREE: EXPERIMENTAL METHODS

Participants

Ten university students participated in the study, split into two groups ‘less skilled’ and ‘highly skilled.’ The less skilled involved participants who had football knowledge but do not engage on a regular basis while the high skilled group was made of students who regularly play and specialised in free-kick taking (Zachry, Wulf, Mercer and Bezodis, 2005, pp. 304-309). These students were enrolled in an after school program which sought personal assent from them to take part in the study (Marchant, Clough and Crawshaw, 2007, pp. 291-303).

Samples

The study made use of the stratified sampling in terms of football skills endowment of equal numbers so as to ascertain the internal skill and external skill feedbacks, and internal environmental focus and external environmental focus (Porter, Nolan, Ostrowski and Wulf, 2010, pp. 1-7). The participants took part in the procedures for two days every week until substantial results had been recorded (McNevin, Shea, and Wulf, 2003, pp. 22-29).

Statistical Techniques

The performance of the free kick as accurately as possible was set at an alpha of 0.5. During the experiment, the mean of scoring through shooting was calculated foe each block that included 20 trials in terms of accurate practice and maximum retention (Zachry, Wulf, Mercer and Bezodis, 2005, pp. 304-309). During the practice session, ANOVA of 3 (Group) X 20 (Block) for all measures that are repetitive in nature was determined. On the other hand, the retention session included ANOVA of 3 (Group) X 2 (Block) for all repetitive measures was also determined. It is important to note that, the repetitive measures were conducted for the last factor (Thomas, Gallagher and Purvis, 2011, pp. 359-367).

Task, Apparatus, and Scoring

The selected players were required to completing four dual task conditions during the study so as to achieve the stated objectives. The first set includes two activities that were directed towards attention to skills execution. These took the form of internal skills such as movement of the legs and external skills such as the area to hit the ball. The last set comprised of two activities that directed attention towards the environment in the form of irrelevant environmental such as the auditory tones and external environmental such as the direction of shot (Thomas, Gallagher and Purvis, 2011, pp. 359-367). The study made application of a standard 11 a side football pitch to make the tests. The participants undertook the instructions in two sessions that were conducted on two separate days within the same week. Participants were required to completed two blocks of 20 practice trials. Following practice, two blocks of 20 trials were completed for each of the four conditions (Porter, Nolan, Ostrowski and Wulf, 2010, pp. 1-7).

Key Ethical and Safety Issues

There are pertinent ethical issues that revolve around the research which was put into consideration by the researcher. For example, formal legal assent was sought from the universities whose students took part in the study. Moreover, the individual students were personally requested to take part in the study through formal writing after mass publicity in the institutions (McNevin, Shea, and Wulf, 2003, pp. 22-29). The participants were informed about the privacy and confidentiality of their identities and personal data. Similarly, the participants were required to take part in the study based on volunteering as opposed to coercion. In addition, the researcher sought for permission from the relevant football pitch authorities so as to be allowed to use the local football pitch. On the other hand, the students were provided with free two pairs of sports regalia to use during the study period. They were required to retain the uniforms as a form of appreciation from the researcher (Marchant, Clough and Crawshaw, 2007, pp. 291-303).

SECTION FOUR PROPOSED TIME PLAN

 

 

References

Al-Abood, S. A., Bennett, S. J., Hernandez, F. M., Ashford, D., and Davids, K. (2002).

Effects of verbal instructions and image size on visual search strategies in

basketball free throw shooting. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20, 271-278.

Emanuel, M., Jarus, T., and Bart, O. (2008). Effect of focus of attention and age on motor

acquisition, retention, and transfer: A randomized trial. Physical Therapy, 88,

251-260.

Freudheim, A. M., Wulf, G., Madureira, F., Pasetto, S. C., and Correa, U. C. (2010). An

external focus of attention results in greater swimming speed. International

            Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 5, 533-542.

Goh, H., Kantak, S. S., and Sullivan, K. J. (2012). Movement pattern and parameter

learning in children: Effects of feedback frequency. Research Quarterly for Exercise and           Sport, 83, 346-352.

Marchant, D., Clough, P. J., and Crawshaw, M. (2007). The effects of attentional focusing        strategies on novice dart throwing performance and their experiences. International      Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 5, 291-303.

McNevin, N. H., Shea, C. H., and Wulf, G. (2003). Increasing the distance of an external focus            of attention enhances learning. Psychological Research, 67, 22-29.

Porter, J. M., Nolan, R. P., Ostrowski, E. J., and Wulf, G. (2010). Directing attention externally            enhances agility performance: A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the efficacy of      using verbal instructions to focus attention. Frontiers in Psychology, 1:216, 1-7.

Thomas, J. R., Gallagher, J. D., and Purvis, G. J. (2011). Reaction time and anticipation time:    Effects of development. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 52, 359-367.

Zachry, T., Wulf, G., Mercer, J., and Bezodis, N. (2005). Increased movement accuracy and      reduced EMG activity as a result of adopting an external focus of attention. Brain          Research Bulletin, 67, 304-309.

PHYSICAL EXERCISE AND HEALTH BENEFITS FOR THE ELDERLY

December 6, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PHYSICAL EXERCISE AND HEALTH BENEFITS FOR THE ELDERLY

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Physical Exercise and Health Benefits for The Elderly

Introduction

Regular exercising has been found to lower mortality and morbidities related to age in the elderly. Despite this, as much as three-quarters of the aged populations do not exercise regularly as per the required levels. The vulnerability to cardiovascular disease due to inactive lifestyles is believed to be 1.9, whereas other risks such as high blood pressure has an RR of 2.1 and smoking with 2.5. However, the prevalence levels of occurrence are higher. Research indicates that less than 10% of females aged over seventy-five smoke, while over 70% are significantly lively. It is projected that by 2030, at least 22 percent of the US population will be over 65 years, which is expected to comprise over seventy percent of the total population. Since the activity index decline with aging, the relative percentage of the inactive old population is supposed to increase drastically (Chodzko-Zajko, Proctor, & Fiatarone 2009). To maintain healthy lifestyles, it is necessary that family physicians advise sedentary patients on the need to become physically active. A significant health goal is for an individual to live a long and disease-free life. As people age, the need to live a quality life increases and becomes an essential goal. Advancing age is characterized by a structural and functional decline in physiological systems, even in cases where there is no disease vulnerability (Kirk-Sanchez & McGough 2013). The result of the physiological transformations affects various body tissues, organs and the standard functionality of the entire body system in older adults. The reduction in skeletal muscle functionality and maximal aerobic capacity are the core indicators of physiological aging. The intensity of the two indicators is a determinant of exercise tolerance and functional capabilities among the elderly. The report will identify and explain the recommended exercises for the older population to achieve and maintain a healthy living. The report will focus on the seniors in the society aged 65 years and above.

Health spending forms a significant share of public expenditure in most countries in the world, thus necessitating measures to promote preventive healthcare to ensure a sustainable health system to all groups. Physical inactivity is noted to be the fourth cause of global mortality after non-communicable diseases, blood pressure, high glucose levels and smoking, making it necessary for guidelines on physical activity for the elderly population to be defined to achieve sustainable healthcare for all (Focht 2006). The guidelines provide health care practitioners and those handling the aged with practical recommendations and advice that are aligned to the international evidence that aims at increasing physical activity among the aged and reducing cases of sedentary lifestyles. Substantial health benefits can be achieved by doing not less than thirty minutes of aerobic exercise for at least five days in a week (Kirk-Sanchez & McGough 2013). Older individuals who have reached the minimum recommendations need to aim at doubling the time or increasing the intensity of the activity if extra health benefits are to be achieved. Although physical activity has health benefits when done at an individual level, it is more efficient when done in groups, considering that it increases a social interaction which is important for the elderly (Panton & Loney 2011). Although physical exercise has numerous health benefits for the elderly, care must be taken to avoid the risk of injury, hence necessitating guidelines to ensure it is done in the most efficient and safest approach.

Exercise Guidelines

General Requirements

  1. The target group should consider physical exercise as an opportunity to have fun and interact with other members of the society.
  2. Healthy diets go hand in hand with physical activity if better health outcomes are to be achieved.
  3. Water should be taken in large quantities during and after the physical activity to maintain hydration.
  4. Warm up and cool down exercises should be done shortly before and after exercise respectively, to help the body adjust to the variations in activity (Ministry of Health 2013).
  5. Safety should always be of concern, and individuals should wear protective gear and engage in safe activities based on their capabilities to avoid cases of injury.

Guideline 1

The elderly population should be involved in all forms of physical activity regardless of age, abilities, and weight and health conditions. Physical activity is useful to older people in cases where good health and independence is to be achieved, and at the same time in preventing diseases. By participating in physical activities, the elderly can maintain physical functioning and independence, reduce depression and increase social interactions (Ministry of Health 2013). It also builds healthy bones, joints and muscles, thus lessen the risk of falls and injury, including diseases like stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes and cancer, among others. To increase enjoyment, physical activities should be done with a partner or as a group, which helps in taking the mind off the physical nature of the activity (Australian Government 2013).

Guideline 2

The elderly need to participate in the physical activities each day in all possible ways by being involved in diverse physical activities, which incorporate balance, physical fitness, strength and flexibility. The goal of achieving fitness and endurance is to enhance functioning of the lungs and the heart through activities such as swimming, walking, jogging and bicycle riding. Strength activities have an emphasis on building the muscle strength and are achieved through stair climbing, resistance exercise and lifting weights (Focht 2006). On the other hand, mobility, balance and flexibility activities emphasize on walking, going up or down steps, turning, balance, and muscle flexibility among other related activities.

Guideline 3

Older people are required to accumulate not less than thirty minutes of light exercise daily, considering that it is the minimum span required for achieving wellbeing and health benefits, although in a gradual approach. Since the accumulative effect can be obtained from activities done in installments, older people with health problems should be restricted to at most ten minutes of action done three times a day. Those who were not physically active have to start with below 30 minutes a day and improve gradually to at least 30 minutes.

Guideline 4

Older people who stopped exercising or stated new physical activities need to start at easily manageable levels, and then gradually increasing the intensity to the recommended levels. Although benefits can be achieved easily, they can also be lost quickly when exercise is stopped for more than two weeks. In such situations of stoppage, activity is recommended from the start and gradually built up to the highest normal levels. Individuals who have had to stop due to new health problems will have to discuss with their physicians first before resuming, and should be under close supervision. In cases of developed dizziness or chest pains during activity, it is required that the exercise is halted and advice sought from a physician, considering that no physical exercise should result in pain or medical discomfort (Ministry of Health 2013).

Guideline 5

Older individuals who enjoy long-term vigorous activity need to continue in a way that conforms to their capability as long as safety and guidance procedures are followed. Studies show that higher levels of intensive physical activity relate to better health outcomes for people who undertake intensive physical exercise found to continue safely later in their lives. On the contrary, when starting new forms of intense activity, the levels should be suited with the health indications of the senior, with benefits and risks first discussed with the doctor. Gradual progression is necessary for the elderly to gain better clinical outcomes. Older people who start physical activity in their later years can gradually improve until they achieve vigorous physical exercise as desired (Barry & Franklin 2002).

Health Benefits

Benefit of Successful Aging

Regular physical activity raises the mean life expectancy through the impact on the development of chronic diseases, mitigation of biological and social changes related to aging and related effects on an individual’s well-being by preserving the functional capacity. Although aging is a complex process that involves an interaction of numerous factors, physical exercise has proven to limit the results of secondary aging by restoring functional capacity in older adults who previously lived sedentary lives (Panton & Loney 2011). Older individuals who are healthy have a capability of engaging in resistance and aerobic exercises, thus developing positive adaptations to physical activity. Reduction in functional capacity should not be used as a reason for not allowing older and healthy adults to engage in physical activities. Although there exist distinctive genetic compositions between people of the same age group, physical exercise is a lifestyle factor that differentiates between people who have or have not had successful aging.

Supervised accelerated emphatic therapy (AET) induces various metabolic adaptations such as enhanced glycolic control and special use of fats in sub maximal exercise. People aged between 60 and 70 years have an ability to retain the capacity to control cellular activities that are responsible for the individual training effects. By increasing the glucose transporter content in human muscle intensive, AET programs lead to an improved general body insulin action in the older adults, hence regulating body’s blood sugar levels (Kirk-Sanchez & McGough 2013).

Multimodal exercises that include balance and strength exercises have been noted to be effective in inhibiting the risk of injurious falls into groups with increased possibilities of falling. High levels of physical exercise such as walking has been observed to contribute between 30-50 percent reductions in cases of osteoporotic fractures (Barry & Franklin 2002). Balance training that includes body strengthening has shown greater capability of improving body balance and hence, recommended for interventions to prevent falls.

Frequent exercises are connected with substantial improvements in the general psychological wellbeing of the elderly through mediating and moderating influences on attributes such as self-esteem and self-concept. Well-managed exercise training lead to substantial improvements in self-efficacy and physical fitness for physical activities in the elderly, which is a major indicator of behavioral transformation in a sedentary group (Barry & Franklin 2002).

The epidemiological research concludes that high levels of physical activity and cardiovascular fitness reduce the risk of dementia and cognitive decline, with effects largest in tasks requiring executive control. Rigorous exposure to lower levels of aerobic exercise contributes to short-term improvements in reaction time, attention and memory, with participation in both AET and RETS leading to notable improvements on cognitive developments (Panton & Loney 2011). Enhanced blood flow due to physical activities increases brain volume, improvements in neurotransmitter systems and elevations in neurotrophic factors derived from the brain, thus promoting the functionality of the cognitive system.

Limitations of Studies

Most research undertaken on the relationship between physical exercise and healthy living for the elderly only highlight the implications without providing detailed information on the connectivity between the two aspects. Although the flexibility of movement can be improved through ROM exercises, it cannot be determined from the approaches and intensity to be used to achieve the same (Bethell 2010). There is also contradictory evidence in explaining the effects of RET on BMR, with the actual nature of relationships not well known.

Exercise Interventions

Aerobic training interventions result in substantial, but moderate improvements in the elderly with knee problems. Since the examination of the response is based on relatively short and supervised physical activity, long term effectiveness cannot be ascertained. Statistics also indicate that participants in the fitness program could not be maintained for more extended periods after treatment (Focht 2006).

The core success of the strength training intervention is that it substantially results in lessened pain, although most of the participants fail to maintain consistency for over two years thus necessitating frequent follow-ups. When compared to nutritional intervention, strength training results in over 38 percent reduction in pain, while dietary interventions contribute only 10 percent reduction (Focht 2006). The challenge associated with resistance exercise interventions is that there is little knowledge of the volume and intensity of the approach towards achieving the desired improvements.

Exercise interventions that combine both aerobic and strength interventions are noted to be more effective in improving pain symptoms. However, it should be pointed out that training is only effective in managing pain and other old age challenges if there is no vulnerability to chronic diseases (Australian Government 2013). The greatest challenge with measuring the outcome of exercise interventions is the lack of an efficient and reliable measurement approach to determine its success. Although the exercise interventions may not be the only approaches to healthy living, it has been confirmed that individuals who are physically active enjoy healthier lives as compared to those with sedentary lifestyles (Focht 2006).

Conclusion

Regular physical activity is the most successful approach towards preventing and treating numerous diseases and complications. There exist direct relations between the quantity of exercise and the quality of life. However, there is a need for informed guidelines towards achieving the desired objectives and avoiding cases of injury in the process. Taking up exercises over a person’s entire life is efficient and has long term positive effects as compared to taking up physical exercise when disability strikes. The failure by most of the seniors to take up physical activity is the core reason for the poor lifestyles seen in most of them. By employing the most efficient exercise interventions, older people achieve healthier lives. Despite the guidelines having timelines and recommended training activity for a particular desired outcome, there is no effective way of quantifying the intensity of exercise to achieve the desired health goal, thus forming an area for future research.

 

 

 

 

Reference List

Australian Government . (2013, July 31). Recommendations on physical activity for health for older Australians. Retrieved March 17, 2017, from http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/phd-physical-rec-older-guidelines

Barry, R. J., & Franklin, B. (2002). Promoting and Prescribing Exercise for the elderly. American Family Physician , 419-426.

Bethell, H. (2010, October 3). The health benefits of exercise for older people. Retrieved March 17, 2017, from https://www.gmjournal.co.uk/uploadedFiles/Redbox/Pavilion_Content/Our_Content/Social_Care_and_Health/GM_Archive/2010/October/Oct2010p539.pdf

Chodzko-Zajko, W., Proctor, D., & Fiatarone, S. M. (2009, June 9). Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from American College of Sports Science: http://www.vub.ac.be/GERO/Docs_Gero/Chodzko-Zajko%20MedSciSportsExerc%202009.pdf

Focht, B. C. (2006). Effectiveness of Exercise Interventions in Reducing Pain Symptoms Among Older Adults With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Review. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity , 212-235.

Kirk-Sanchez, N. J., & McGough, E. L. (2013, December 18). Physical exercise and cognitive performance in the elderly: current perspectives. Retrieved March 17, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872007/

Ministry of Health. (2013). Guidelines on physical activity for the elderly people (aged 65 years and above). Wellington: Ministry of Health.

Panton, L. B., & Loney, B. S. (2011, November 2). Exercise for Older adults. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from http://file.lacounty.gov/SDSInter/dmh/216745_ExerciseforOlderAdultsHealthCareProviderManual.pdf

 

 

 

MARX’S CRITICISIM OF THE MODERN INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM AND HOW HE THOUGHT IT MIGHT BE OVERCOME

December 6, 2017

 

Marx’s criticisim of the modern industrial capitalism and how he thought it might be overcome

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Introduction

Born in Germany in 1818 to an accustomed Jewish family during an era when Industrial Revolution was still surfacing, Karl Marx grew up to become one of the world’s greatest philosophers (Sperber 2014). As a student of philosophy, Marx found Hegel’s thinking and arguments quite interesting. He, therefore, got influenced by these doctrines even after leaving college. Marx met Frederich Engels; a son of a wealthy industrialist in France in 1844, and they became lifelong friends, as well as intellectual partners. The Communist Manifesto which the two authored during the era of resurfacing industrial revolutions that flounced across Europe in 1848 examined the advent of industrial capitalism and criticised it on various bases. It was Engels who encouraged Marx to apply his philosophical teachings to the field of economics (Henderson 2013). In the Manifesto, Karl Marx highlighted various reasons as to why he thought modern industrial capitalism was wrong and something needed to be done about it. This paper will, therefore, discuss Marx’s critique of industrial capitalism and why he thought that it was not good for economies. It will also give an outline of the techniques in which he thought the difficulties posed by it can be overcome.

History of the Emergence of Industrial Capitalism

It might not be accurate to discuss the advent of industrial capitalism without mentioning feudalism and the role it played towards its rise. According to Medick (2016), from the twelfth to the fifteenth centuries, medieval feudal society was anchored on a series of regional based self-supporting economic structures. These structures were composed of towns and the surrounding agrarian districts. Peasants would work in the field for their masters in exchange for building a shelter or a small strip of land. However, the lords still expected the farmers to pay rent facilitated by the produce they harvested from the land (Solidarity Federation 2014). This made peasants to trade the little produce left from their firms to towns in exchange for other goods. The municipalities were composed of large firms prearranged into powerful guilds where only men could get permitted to train as skilled workforces. It is only owners of such huge businesses that directed the course the economy would take in the better part of the twelfth and sixteenth centuries (Medick 2016).

Wood (2016) postulates that the capitalist system which began during the Industrial Revolution manifested the institution of one of the utmost efficient and effective production methods in the antiquity of humanoid existence. Before the revolution, the only first practice of capitalism was agronomy where minute marketplaces and farmsteads became impetus of economic growth in most countries. The creation of vibrant central economies by states was supported by the introduction of erudite equipment to aid in the production process. The machines made mass-manufacture of items such as clothing, and food possible. This saw a shift in production from small-scale subsistence production to large scale production where workers produced enough for themselves and sold the surplus. Besides, the instigation of international trade and exchange got necessitated by the growth of capitalism throughout the Industrial Revolution (Marx 2013; Medick 2016). Nevertheless, in the seventeenth century capitalism began to emerge when the merchants became the link between the producers and the consumers. The condition, nonetheless, began fluctuating with the sellers starting to control the market through placing orders for commodities first and also paying for them in advance. They also took over the supply of raw materials to firms and payment to workers for the work they did in the manufacturing process (Solidarity Federation 2014; Jaeggi 2016). It is the concept of a waged worker that signalled a notable shift in the emergence of industrial capitalism. Its institution led to a culmination of the mercantile trade and ushered in the era of capitalism where the owners of the means of production derived wealth from owning and controlling them (Marx 2013).

The transition from merchant trading to capitalism saw the primeval capitalists exert maximum authority over the remunerated employees for their own benefits. Also, support offered by the administration to capitalists eased the process of adopting capitalism in many nations. Several households got turned into small factories with the industrialists overseeing production in these home factories. Nevertheless, despite the support by the powerful German administration, capitalism became abortive and did not fully advance and became weaker thanks to the efforts of Marx and Engels to disrepute it (Marx 2013). The government later considered communism as a form of production guided by the assertions of Marx and Engels in their Communist Manifesto. Though most European states supported capitalism, Karl Marx discredited and criticised it in many fronts. In most of his writings on industrial capitalism, Marx described why he thought communism would be better that capitalism. He further termed it as a means through which capitalists or owners of the means of production enslaved workers by offering them a wage that does not necessarily reflect their efforts in the entire manufacturing process (Solidarity Federation 2014). Engels supported Marx’s assertions on capitalism by agreeing that capitalists had taken advantage of their workers by setting minimum wages that do not reflect the long working hours they spent in the industries (Henderson 2013; Marx 2013). In the ensuing discussion, we will consider Marx’s critiques of industrial capitalism and highlight why he felt it was wrong.

Marx’s Critique of Industrial Capitalism

As a riposte to capitalism enthusiasts, Karl Marx contended the rise of capitalism in Europe with precise reference to Germany.  He condemned the plant system that had ascended during the Industrial Revolution together. His long-time pal and rational mate Frederich Engels supported Marx’s critique of capitalism. For example, Marx and Engels foretold the culmination of capitalism as labourers might rise and take control of the system which they were cognizant of its abusive traits. It, for instance, treated employees as adjuncts to machines in the industries in which they worked. The system also paid them low wages for a lot of tiring work which is yet another form of discrimination (Medick 2016).

Of all the critiques fronted by Marx on industrial capitalism, the foremost and most important one was the apprehension that the system led to the establishment of uneven associations between various social clusters in the society. He argued that this inequality could breed hostility between the owners of the means of production, whom he called the bourgeois class and the proletarians, who were the working class. The proletarians worked hard to ensure that they created wealth to their bourgeois who in contrast treated them badly by paying them low wages and considering them as complements to the machines (Jaeggi 2016). Marx also discovered snags with capitalism because of its resolve for owners of production means to use waged employees. According to him, this group of employees would only survive as long as they worked with the bourgeois and created fortunes for their affluent capitalists who owned the businesses. On the other hand, due to the increased usage of machinery in the production processes, the bourgeois considered the workers as appendages of the machines (Rubin 2014). This, according to Marx led to the formation of clusters in the society as well as led to the expansion of disparity among the workers and owners of production means.

Secondly, Marx considered industrial capitalism as wrong owing to its reintroduction of slavery-like conditions across Europe. In the Communist Manifesto, he contended that the modern system had transformed the little workspace into the copious manufacturing unit of the industrial capitalists. The conditions in the capitalist factories resembled those of the farms in the slavery era. For instance, the stocking of masses of workers in the factories and their placement under the command of a hierarchy of sergeants and officers brought into picture the conditions that slaves got subjected to in times of slavery. All these were consequences of industrial capitalism which Marx considered as wrong. His support for communism was guided by the shortcomings of capitalism (Hudis 2012).

Thirdly, Marx’s criticism of industrial capitalism can be better described in what he termed as “commodity fetishism and alienation.” In this sense, Marx attacked the pricing of products and labour which classified labourers as commodities. According to Tromsness (2016), commodity fetishism is that form of estrangement that attempts to describe the connexion amid persons and assumes that it is faultless. It is that acuity of the mutual links encompassed in the process of production as opposed to relations amid people. Marx did not agree with this terming of people as commodities but hit at the supporters of capitalism based on this shortcoming. In fact, he designated it as a cover that purported to liken employees with merchandises and failed to reward work done in terms of its value rather than just pricing it. Furthermore, Marx did not agree with the fact that the market always determined what workers looking for a job will be paid. The “market determines” notion was a common term used by capitalists to exploit the workers (Rubin 2014). Rather than determining the payment to employees in terms of the value of their labour, capitalism advocated for the determination of employee wages by market trends. He attacked the incomplete analysis of political economy by Ricardo and Smith and the role it played in ensuring the rights of workers got protected. According to Marx, the alienation of employees and the idea of commodity fetishism tainted capitalism hence the call for its abolishing and subsequent replacement with communist (Sperber 2014; Rubin 2014).

The fourth contention Karl Marx fronted on the shortcomings of capitalism is based on the contradictions of capitalism. Marx found a lot of contradictions in the proponents’ argument on social relations or production and private appropriation. Capitalists argue that cash can acquire labour and this implies that labour is just another merchandize to the industrialists. The fundamental question, however, is what about social relations? If individuals begin to treat labourers as merchandizes, then what will happen to the social relations that exist between persons? Marx considered this as the key contradiction existing in the capitalists’ assertions. He also regarded capitalism as a liberal historical phase that might, in the end, stagnate due to inner contradictions (Medick 2016; Jaeggi 2016).

Finally, Marx attributed capitalism to the creation of clusters in the society. He argued that private ownership of the production and distribution means would get considered as a creation of a dependence of non-owning classes on the ruling class, and finally a basis of restraint of human freedom. Therefore, this is regarded as a hindrance to the working class who might build circumstances for a revolt (Hudis 2012). He also considered capitalism as the primary cause of modern barbarism and to some extent the bearer of progressive history by exponential development.

Ways in which Marx Thought Capitalism would be overcome

For Marx, the problem of capitalism cannot get solved in the long run. This explains why he, in his Communist Manifesto, advocated for the complete overhaul of this production method. Normative Marxism advocates for a drastic coup of capitalism and a replacement of the system with communism. Marxism also advocates for the control of the system as a way of eliminating its impacts as opposed to eradicating it fully (Marx 2013). According to this group of thought, the alterations to the system could get done through an independent process as opposed to a radical channel.

Taking an egalitarian approach, Marx supposed that the answer to the problem of capitalism could arise from the establishment of structural modifications that could slowly come through political restructurings. However, Marx noted that such reforms never worked in a situation where barbarism had taken root hence the need for a revolutionary-like approach to ending capitalism.

Thirdly, Marx advocated for the opening of new markets or the permitting of globalisation. This, according to Marx, might enhance the status of personnel and lessen chances of being oppressed by the owners of industries and other means of production. Furthermore, it allows for increased competition in the market thus improving the terms of payment for workers. By so doing, globalisation will only but help in pushing forward the capitalists’ agenda and might not hold in the long run since Marx does not believe that the problems of capitalism can be solved over the long term (Rubin 2014; Marx 2013). Marx’s support for globalisation can only get regarded as a step aimed at bettering the workers’ working conditions.

Fourthly, Marx thought that the emergence of unions in the future would help in dealing with the exploitative nature of capitalism. In his writings and critique of capitalism, he suggested that one of the solutions to capitalism would be to have workers join unions that fight for their rights. These unions would then revolt against the exploitative owners of the means of production, take control of the means and run the economy. Marx had anticipated these changes when he scrutinised the adverse effects of capitalism in the community and the state at large (Rubin 2014). He further added that with the synergy encompassed in groups, workers would manage to defeat capitalism and take over the reins of government from the hands of capitalists.

Finally, Marx proposed that it was necessary to turn the government into a buyer of factors of production so as to deal with the challenges of capitalism. Doing this will ensure that the rights and privileges of workers are respected in agreement with the unions’ demands. When the government becomes the buyer of the factors of production, it would be easier for workers to agitate for their rights and demand for an improvement of their terms and conditions (Hudis, 2012; Jaeggi 2016). This, according to Marx would help deal with the adverse effects of capitalism.

Conclusion

Marx’s views on capitalism can be termed as accurate because their impacts are still evident in the modern world. Most of his arguments on the evils of capitalism have been experienced in the recent times. For instance, exploitation of workers is rampant in most industries across the globe. The fact that he foresaw the owners of production means becoming more ruthless and exploitative has come to pass. However, some of his arguments on capitalism have not seen the light of the day. Capitalism has not yet gotten abolished in most states of the world, and it is, in fact, doing well in many parts of the world contrary to his expectations. Nevertheless, some of his solutions to the problem of capitalism can work quite well if properly instituted.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Henderson, WO 2013. The Life of Friedrich Engels. New York: Routledge.

Hudis, P 2012. Marx’s Concept of the Alternative to Capitalism. Leiden, Brill.

Jaeggi, R 2016. What (if Anything) Is Wrong with Capitalism? Dysfunctionality, Exploitation and Alienation: Three Approaches to the Critique of Capitalism. The Southern Journal of Philosophy, 54(1), pp.44-65.

Marx, K 2013. The Communist Manifesto, USA: Simon and Schuster.

Medick, H 2016. “The Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism: Renewal of the Debate,” In Samuel, R. People’s History and Socialist Theory (Routledge Revivals), New York: Routledge.

Rubin, I 2014. Essays on Marx’s Theory of Value, New Delhi, India: Aakar Books.

Solidarity Federation 2014. Unit 1: The Origins of Capitalism, [Online] Available at:  <http://www.solfed.org.uk/a-s-history/unit-1-the-origins-of-capitalism&gt; [Accessed 14 March, 2017]

Sperber, J 2014. Karl Marx: A Nineteenth-Century Life, USA: W. W. Norton & Company

Tromsness, R 2016. ‘Marx: A Summary of “The Fetishism of Commodities,” Owlcation. [Online] Available at: <https://owlcation.com/social-sciences/Analysis-of-Marx-The-fetishism-of-commodities> [Accessed 14 March, 2017]

Wood, EM 2016. The Origin of Capitalism: A Longer View, New York, USA: Verso Books.

CONCEPT OF RESILIENCE IN DISASTER RISK REDUCTION

December 6, 2017

 

 

 

 

CONCEPT OF RESILIENCE IN DISASTER RISK REDUCTION

 

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Concept of Resilience in Disaster Risk Reduction

Resilience in reduction of risks of disasters has developed as a crucial concept in disaster management.Resilience is essentially the ability of individuals to take the necessary and required steps, organize carefully, assimilate, recuperate, and most importantly, acclimate to untimely unfortunate events and occurrences (Shaw and Sharma, 2011). Shaw and Sharma (2011) posit that resilience tends to be one primary and important way to minimize the overall consequences of hazardous events on the affected nations as well as their different communities. As such disaster risk reduction majors on the reduction of damages resulted by various hazardous occurrences such as cyclones, earthquakes, floods, blizzards, tornados, and droughts through a structured ethic of impediment or diversion (National Research Council and National Academies, 2012). The structured ethics involve various concepts and practices such as the application of well-structured principles with an aim of analyzing and reducing the major factors leading to disasters, creating and implementing concrete solutions that help in curbing the extreme exposure to catastrophes within the communities; reducing the general predisposition of both individuals and property (Coppola 2007). In addition, the ethics also include the knowledgeable administration of land and the entire environment, as well as enhancing the element of preparedness and providing early signals for hazardous occurrences (Blaikie, Cannon, Davis, and Wisner, 2014). Indeed, investing in resilience is extremely important since improved strategies of resilience tend to create room for enhanced expectation of disasters and ameliorated methods of planning that in turn aid in reducing losses related to disasters instead of being caught unawares by catastrophes and paying dearly for them (National Research Council and National Academies, 2012). As such, this paper brings out the concept of resilience in disaster risk management and critically analyses the usefulness of the concept of resilience in disaster risk reduction.

Matsuoka and Shaw (2014) claim thatthe definition of resilience stemmed from a board of members who based it on the existent literary texts and is congruent with policies related to international communities on disasters such as the DHS Risk Steering Committee, the NRC and UNISDR. The term resilience first attained popularity within governments globally in the year 2005 because of the adoption of a scheme referred to as the Hyogo Framework for Action by over one hundred and 68 members of the United Nations (Matsuoka and Shaw, 2014). This framework prioritized the reduction of risks caused by disasters and the propagation of the creation and implementation of resilience to disastrous occurrences and events. Over the years, the literary texts have come up with new definitions and concepts related to resilience as well as the organizations and systems that incorporate resilience (Tierney, 2014). However, the issue of resilience majors on the idea that proper planning and management of one type of a hazardous event and occurrence can ultimately lead to the rigidity of different communities and different regions once bombarded by a different kind of catastrophe (Tierney 2014). Therefore,resilience tends to encompass all forms of disaster risks occurring due to either natural or artificial reasons and as a result, it is deemed to be an extremely element in the reduction of risks related to disastrous occurrences.

Disaster risk reduction comprises various disciplines such as management of disasters, palliation of disasters, and the general preparedness factor. As a result, disaster risk reduction generally involves all parts and constituents of the societies and communities, every parts of the government, as well as the entire group of individuals constituting the public, professional, and private fields (Wisner, Gaillard, and Kelman, 2011). This is because no individuals, nations or communities surpass either the disastrous occurrences or the immense losses recorded after catastrophic events. Besides, pandemics, outrageous terror attacks, societal unrests and disenchantments, financial crisis, as well as natural disasters tend to all result to dire consequences for the affected nations and communities worldwide. In turn, such situations call for creation of strategies of disaster risk reduction through the implementation of ways such as disaster resilience, as stated earlier.

Nevertheless, structuring the lifestyle and complete execution of disaster resilience is both difficult and expensive. This is because even though the relevant individuals readily put up measures towards resilience after catastrophes and hazardous events, resilience is hardly recognized and acknowledged before disasters occur (Devenson, 2003). In turn, this makes the anticipated gains from investments made on resilience to vanish entirely. Moreover, this noble decision to invest and build communities that are more resilient is mainly relies on various primary points such as the continuity of occurrence of disasters either naturally caused or artificially induced, the continued growth or decline of various populations thereby each factor posing different challenges (Wisner, Gaillard, and Kelman 2012). Additionally,Wisner, Gaillard, and Kelman(2012) has it that data acquired from various demographic sources globally have it that more individuals migrate to coastal and southern areas which tend to be prone to hazards such as droughts, tornados and hurricanes. Furthermore, public infrastructure such as roads, educational centers, health institutions, and other essential social amenities in the community and national level face challenging times economically with the increase of population size and individual ages.

Besides, risks resulting from disasters cannot face complete eradication from the face of the earth and as a result, remaining risks requiring management, and attention will continue persisting (Baas, 2008). The consequences of climate changes and degradation of the ozone layer resulting from degenerative human activities will also continue making the globe exposed to disasters. Therefore, various governments globally have recognized the hurdle of improving national resilience. As a result, eight agencies in conjunction with one group on community resilience amalgamated with a national laboratory requested the council in charge of national research (NRC) to handle the wide issue of improving resilience to disasters globally (Baas 2008). Baas (2008) claims that the main issues requested upon the NRC by the agencies included the definition of national resilience and a draft on the primary agendas related to the improvement of resilience in the world, an illustration of the recent statistics on the condition of knowledge about resilience to catastrophes and provision of goals, inception conditions, and execution metrics related to resilience.

In addition, the issues also included a mandatory outline from different countries, states and communities on supplementary information, particulars, apertures and obstacles requiring special attention in order to improve the overall resilience to disasters (Shaw, 2012). The said individuals also asked the NRC to provide suggestions and proposals on the relevant strategies resulting in enhanced resilience to disasters globally.As such, the aim of the raised issues and concerns was to ensure that all people from various communities and nations easily accessed information on the various risks and incidences leading to vulnerability to disasters in order to enhance resilience. Additionally,Blaikie, et al., (2014) argue that the aim was also to all the levels of different governments, assorted communities and private fields possess formulated and designed strategies, policies and operation plans based on resilience. Furthermore, the main agenda also ensured massive recognition of different community alliances as well as enhancing their financial support channels for the provision of the crucial services prior and after disaster occurrences.

Ultimately, the major aim also advocated for better services such as universal health, education and general safety of the public.This was because if the alternative state of affairs in which different states and countries worldwide continued being passive to issues related to disaster resilience, then it would certainly result to a detrimental future (Filho, 2012). In other words, disasters would remain excessively costly in terms of severity in the number of injuries caused, increased death toll, destruction of homes, jobs and other organizational disturbances amongst other dangers.Thus, the creation and implementation of disaster resilience towards a better future essentially calls for total transformation of the old cultures, attitudes and methods of handling disaster resilience. Filho (2012) claims that the relevant bodies all over the world need to come up with new ways of resilience in order to curb risks caused by disasters. Besides, creation of short term policies to vulnerable communities to disasters cannot fully lead to the enhancement of disaster resilience.

Formulation of long term policies and improvement of cultural approaches towards the management and maintenance of resilience in disaster risk management are extremely important in order to enhance and advance disaster resilience to better heights. Paton Smith and Violanti (2000) posit that these new methods include various ways such as taking accountability for disaster risks, acknowledging disaster resilience as a challenge in most countries, both developed and developing countries, and working towards its establishment in through all means possible, creation and utilization of the relevant tools and metrics required in keeping track of the progress on improvement of disaster resilience. Moreover, these new methods include focusing primarily on improving resilience from the community levels in order to ensure the final world-class resilience before and after catastrophic events and occurrences, making sure that people understand the layout of governmental strategies, policies and practices towards aiding different countries and states in overcoming disaster risks through resilience (Paton Smith andViolanti, 2000). Consequently, the new methods also include the identification and communication of the duties and accountability of all individuals towards the creation and enhancement of resilience.

The overall resilience to risks associated with disasters tends to blossom on the strength of all aspects of a community including its infrastructure, education levels of the community members, the peoples’ health statuses, economic viability, and the general natural surroundings of the community (Mechler, 2004). As such, this requires that the entire society co-relates well in such a way that their dependency levels towards each other provide strength and comfort in cases of hazardous events and occurrences. Moreover, both community and leadership networks which comprise of the community members are intricate and aggressive systems that through combined efforts and enhanced responsibility create and implement various strategies and policies related to reduction of disaster risks.Besides, no community, country or state has been delegated the responsibility for enhancing global resilience and the said entities do not possess the required skills and enough resources to handle the growing challenge of resilience (Mechler, 2004). However, the essential role of enhancing measures on global resilience of disasters in different regions lies within the commitment of communities and their members, contribution and counsel from all governments in different countries and states, private organizations and both community structured entities as well as non-governmental organizations.

The enhancement of world-wide resilience in disaster risks is an indispensable prerogative that calls for a joint will of different nations in conjunction with their communities. Godschalk (2003) claims that in order to achieve the ideal goal of improving resilience, it is necessary for different regions to set up various measures and strategies. These mandatory policies related to aiding disaster resilience include various ways such as ensuring the incorporation of the theme of global resilience in all states, countries, and regions as the major guiding principle in order to create awareness of the looming danger in the occurrence of disasters (Godschalk, 2003). Additionally, governments in all countries and states should oversee the installation of two-way radio systems in areas with high susceptibility levels to catastrophes and train them and other community members on how to use them. In turn, this would help the people in such areas to communicate faster and easier to the relevant authorities in case of disastrous events as well as ask for help in good time in order to reduce increased loss of lives and injuries.

Furthermore, governments in all countries and states should facilitate and ensure the evacuation of people in regions of high susceptibility to catastrophic events such as people residing in the lowlands of areas prone to flooding or those residing in mountain regions or plateaus prone to killer lightning strikes (Geis, 2000). This measure would in turn help save many lives as well as prevent people from constructing businesses and investing in such areas thereby saving property from damage. In addition, the said governments should also enhance the humanitarian responses to areas affected by catastrophic occurrences by investing more in groups such as the Red Cross and First Aid groups within regional or international levels globally that deal with aiding affected people in such regions. This improved response to the affected areas helps save the lives of many people who could be injured or trapped within the debris from the destroyed buildings (Geis, 2000). It also ensures the timely recovery of the deceased’ bodies in order to give quick closure to their relatives and save them from the trouble of searching endlessly for their fallen loved ones.

Moreover, the entire world through various international partners including various bodies of the United Nations such as UNICEF and UNESCO and other international non-governmental organizations like Save the Children as well as other private entities can address the issue of unsafe schools in order to curb the extreme loss of lives of the innocent children (Cutter et.al, 2008). The said programs can achieve the said goal by creating open source mapping programs that give a world-wide platform for all schools and other risk prone educational premises as well as a follow up for the measure of progress towards school safety globally. Furthermore, Cutter et.al (2008) suggest that the international partners could also facilitate technical workshops cutting across the globe with the main agenda of sharing experiences from different countries and states as well as raising different ideas and exploring ways in which governments could tackle the hurdles hindering the promotion of safe school environments.

An example of such a workshop is the occasion held in affiliation of the World Bank and the group in charge of disaster risk management in Tokyo (GFDRR), which led to the amalgamation of both policy makers and technical experts from different parts of the world (Shaw and Sharma, 2011). In addition, all governments globally should ensure the establishment and documentation of all data related to the detrimental effects of hazardous events such as loss of lives and property, injuries and negative impacts on economic activities. In return, the creation of such national resources ultimately help in the development of more duodecimal models on disaster risks as well as enhancing the understanding of both structural and social susceptibility of particular regions to catastrophes (Shaw and Sharma, 2011). Besides, different states and local governments should support and implement the development upkeep of coalitions related to programs on community resilience at local, regional and national levels.

For instance, the new initiatives in the education sector that aid in enhancing resilience on a wide basis globally that work with various ministries such as public works, education and public works have proved extremely useful in disaster risk reduction (Godschalk, 2003). For example, in Nepal, extremely poor administration and execution of the standards of building and construction policies and practices in some areas lead to the creation of susceptible educational and residential structures (Godschalk, 2003). Thus, the measures recommended for building resilience in such areas emphasize on the implementation of stricter rules and regulations in the building and construction policies that major on the creation of strong buildings that can conquer various disastrous events such as earthquakes, lightning strikes and flooding. This can also help in the aversion of deadly disasters such as the magnitude earthquake that struck Nepal on the twenty fifth of April in 2012 that led to the collapse of approximately two thousand schools and destroyed more than five thousand residential areas (Shaw, 2012).

Besides, the destruction caused by the Typhoon Haiyan in the fall of 2013 in Philippines also caused fatalities whereby it damaged over two thousand schools as well as affecting over one million children (Khan, 2005). Moreover, the recent flooding issue in Malawi resulted to the destruction of many schools and residential areas as well as the disruption of approximately four hundred thousand children. Additionally, Khan (2005) claims that the damage caused by the deadly tornado strike in Joplin in mid-2011 causing the demise of over one 59 people and injuring over a thousand other civilians. In essence occurrences of such massive destruction of both lives and property caused by natural disasters resulting from human negligence or negative artificial indulgence reverberates into the development of proper educational systems as well as the national growth and development globally. Moreover, such disastrous events have resulted to national consequences and those hazardous effects have cut across large geographic areas and large chunks of the human population globally. Therefore, provision on information of resilience before and after the occurrence of disastrous events is extremely important in order to avoid such detrimental events (Khan, 2005).

From the above discussion, it is indeed justified to allude that investing in various ways of the management of disaster risks such as resilience provides important benefits in both short and long terms. Focusing on background risks related to hazardous events through putting more emphasis on global resilience to all countries and states leads to better planning strategies, long-term investments and enhanced entrepreneurial skills. In addition, despite of whether disasters occur or not, disaster risk management investments are not misdirected and misguided since they result to the general well-being of individuals both socially and economically. In other words, failure to invest in disaster risk management strategies such as resilience is indeed a derailed chance for world-wide progress socially, environmentally and economically.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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CONCEPT OF RESILIENCE IN DISASTER RISK REDUCTION