Aspects of Public Policy

October 10, 2017

Public policy, being a facet of politics, is considerably influenced by political elements. As such, elements such as the interest of stakeholders have considerable sway on the implementation and the provisions for monitoring and evaluation mechanisms in public policy creation. Therefore, when the government is making decisions that affect a great variety of people, it must consider the stakeholder interest, the implementation vehicle of such decisions, and how the implementation is to be evaluated and monitored to achieve the desired goal. This paper reviews these three aspects of public policy creation, and how they interact with each other during the public policy process.

Stakeholder Interest in Public Policy Creation

Dunn, (2015), in his analysis of public policy formulation notes that the most important aspect of the process involves the identification of ideas and problems, and how the two elements relate to each other. Therefore, the public policy process is largely determined by identification of problems that can be solved. Hence, in the identification of the problem, policy makers must first identify the groups faced by the problem. That, in turn, necessitates the policy makers to conduct a stakeholder analysis such that the stakeholders are identified, ranked and prioritized. During the analysis, policy makers must determine to which extent the stakeholders are influenced by the problem to be faced, and at the same time, they must determine to which extent the stakeholders influence the policy creation process.

Implementation

The implementation process associated with public policies is heavily influenced by the nature of human actions. Theories, such as principal-agent theories, depict scenarios where actors in the implementation of the policies make choices that maximize their own interests. That is, the stakeholders behind public policy actions strive to ensure the policy decision in its implementation create the maximum state of rewards for them (Dunn, 2015). At the same time, the parties to the decision also strive to create a balance between sanctions and rewards that result from the implementation of the policy. Therefore, during the implementation of public policies, it is necessary to ensure that the stakeholders of the decision gain considerable benefits as opposed to facing considerable benefits. That is, the implementation of the policy must produce the largest benefit for the majority of the stakeholders.

Provisions for Monitoring and Evaluation

To ensure that the goals and objectives of public policies are achieved, an effective monitoring and evaluation system must be established. Monitoring and evaluation systems are the keys towards the control and implementation of public decisions so that the activities produce the best results and efficiency for the larger population (Dunn, 2015). Through monitoring, resources can be leveraged efficiently so as to ensure the best results. Evaluation, on the other hand, reveals the results of the policy program such that the implementer can determine whether the policy is delivering the desired results for all stakeholders. Therefore, there is a need to create a monitoring and evaluation system that measures how inputs are utilized towards the desired goal and whether the inputs are resulting in the desired yields associated with the program. Such a system also assures for cost control during the implementation of the policy. Given the above, during the public policy formulation process, a monitoring and implementation framework should focus on the ensuring the needs of the stakeholders are met, the cost associated with the process is minimized, and lastly it should ensure provide a means of ensuring the planned results are achieved.

References

Dunn, W. N. (2015). Public policy analysis. Routledge.

Advertisements

THE UNDERREPRESENTATION OF ELL STUDENTS IN CHARTER SCHOOLS: Demographic Trends in New Jersey’s Title One Schools.

October 9, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Underrepresentation of ELL Students in Charter Schools

Name

Institution

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Underrepresentation of ELL Students in Charter Schools

The rise of charter schools in the United States has brought with it both successes and challenges. According to Winters (2014), the results achieved by these schools attract praise, though the manner with which such schools end up overlooking disadvantaged students tends to draw a lot of criticism. Winters (2014) avers that the given charter schools cater to a significantly smaller number of English Language Learners (ELL) compared to public schools proves that charter schools do not serve students from disadvantaged families. The article attributes these differences in ELL student populations to qualification grades. According to the researcher, ELL students are more unlikely to make it out of elementary school in charter schools than public schools. Furthermore, ELL students are also unlikely to apply to charter schools due to the English grade qualification requirement. As a result, the proportion of ELL students in charter schools is significantly lower than in public schools (Winters, 2014).

Buckley and Sattin-Bajaj (2011) also share the same view, providing further clarification on the subject. Their study demonstrates that even though disadvantaged students can be classified based on income, special learning challenges, and English proficiency, the difference in enrollment is chiefly due to language proficiency. The researchers found that enrollment of ELL students in public schools was much higher than in charter schools. Interestingly, enrollment of students from low-income families and special learners was similar between public schools and charter schools (Buckley & Sattin-Bajaj, 2011). This remarkable finding clearly demonstrates that as suggested by Winters (2014) entry qualifications to charter schools, particularly for the English language, pose the greatest challenge to disadvantaged students who would wish to join charter schools.

Obviously, due to the differences in language proficiency and performance, it is possible to question whether or not racial segregation or some form of deliberate discrimination occurs at charters schools. Garcia (2008) explores the possibility of segregation at charter schools and finds that even though advocates for charter schools argue that the difference in demographics between public and charter schools are due to the admission criteria and performance requirements, there is a possibility that segregation based on race does occur. Although such advocates argue that the difference in student composition is often because of self-selection based on merit, the fact that parents may opt to transfer their children from similarly well-performing public schools suggests that racial segregation. For instance, the researcher cites cases where parents choose to transfer their children from public schools that were performing as well as the charter schools, the only difference being the demographic make-up of the schools. Therefore, it could be argued to be a simple case of deliberate segregation rather than self-selection. It seems that some parents opt to remove their children from more racially diverse public schools in order to enroll them into charter schools where whites dominate. This aggregation of privileged students in charters schools then inadvertently leads to better performance since the school has superior resources (Garcia, 2008). In essence, Garcia (2008) argues that students in charter schools are sorted or selected based on their racial orientation, and this ends up discriminating against the ‘disadvantaged’ races. Bettinger’s (2004) findings align with Garcia’s hypothesis regarding performance, though her study found no significant performance differences between public and charter schools. In addition, Bettinger (2004) found that charter schools had no noteworthy impact on neighboring public schools. Barr, Sadovnik, and Visconti (2006b) also find no statistically significant differences in performance between charter schools and public schools, making their necessity harder to justify.

Hoxby, Murarka, and Kang (2009) disprove some of the postulations put forth by Garcia (2008) and Bettinger (2004). Following an investigation into the performance of charter schools, one important observation made in the report is that selection of approximately 94% of the students is usually done using the lottery method. The random nature of the selection method most likely eliminates the possibility of discrimination and segregation as the major causes of underrepresentation of ELL and disadvantaged students. In fact, contrary to expectations, the study found that a majority of the applicants to charter schools were blacks, a racial minority. In addition, it was also found that most charter school applicants were more likely to be poorer than the average students attending public schools in New York. These findings are contrary to Garcia’s (2008) assertions, which seemed to suggest that charter schools promoted segregation. Furthermore, Garcia (2008) and Bettinger (2004) also seemed to suggest that there was no difference in performance between charter schools and traditional public schools. On the contrary, Hoxby, Murarka, and Kang (2009) observed a difference in performance between the two types of schools. They attribute this difference in performance to subtle policy differences between public and charter schools, such as compensation of teachers based on performance, a longer school year, and a more flexible disciplinary policy. The The Center for Research on Education Outcomes (CREDO) report on charter schools also supports findings by Hoxby, Murarka, and Kang (2009), while disproving assertions made by Garcia. The study found that a majority of the student population (62%) in charter schools in New York are black, while 74% of the population is poor. This shows that indeed, the underrepresentation of ELL students is not connected to segregation. Additionally, the finding that 31% of the student population is Hispanic, is auxiliary proof that charter schools actually cater to minority races.

Wohlstetter and Chau (2004) affirm the fact that policy can influence performance, particularly when schools are given the autonomy to make decisions. The authors acknowledge that granting schools autonomy to determine the school calendar and instructional strategies would probably lead to greater levels of success because it was these teachers and instructors who are well aware of the students’ needs due to daily interactions. Rather than let state officers and local officials decide the approach to be taken, Wohlstetter and Chau (2004) argue that autonomy, as observed in charter schools, was the best approach. Similarly, Barr, Sadovnik, and Visconti (2006a) found that the autonomy accorded charter schools led to significant improvements such as reduced customized class sizes leading to acceptable student-to-faculty ratios, reduced student mobility rates, longer academic years, and hence increased instructional time. Moreover higher attendance rates by faculty were also observed. All these measures were aimed at improving performance. CREDO (2013) report findings prop up this position, as the study found that students in charter schools learned much more than their counterparts in public schools in the course of a single academic or calendar year. Other than learning a lot more, the CREDO (2013) report also reveals considerable academic performance differences between students in charter schools and those in traditional public schools, with those in charter schools performing much better. The study finding that students from low-income families were more likely to learn more in charter schools as compared to public schools reaffirms the position that charter schools cater to disadvantaged students in a better way compared to public schools.

Despite the underrepresentation of disadvantaged students in charter schools compared to public schools, charter schools still have a positive impact on the academic performance of these disadvantaged students. Research findings by Cordes (2017) lend support to the arguments for the increase of charter schools, as they demonstrate that such schools improve the performance of students enrolled in them, as well as of the students enrolled in other schools nearby. According to Cordes (2017), co-location, or the location of a charter school near a traditional public school, led to improved performance and reduced grade retention within the public school, particularly in mathematics and English. Moreover, this co-location also led to increased per-pupil expenditure, suggesting that it led to improved services. These findings suggest that although there may be underrepresentation of ELL students in charter schools, these schools are still capable of positively impacting their performance, particularly if co-location is pursued. In terms of dealing with underrepresentation, it is possible to ensure that charter schools do not end up locking out the very disadvantaged students they were meant to serve, due to stringent admission criteria. Lacireno-Paquet (2004) argues that policy changes may be required in order to ensure that disabled students are not unfairly denied entry to charter schools. A similar approach can be adopted for ELL students, such that policies are changed to allow for a more relaxed admission and progression criteria, which would encourage charter schools to increase the ELL population.

Even though the question of how to best deal with underrepresentation of ELL students remains, it is quite clear that charter schools have improved the education system in the United States and helped ensure quality education for disadvantaged students. According to Cohordes and Dynarski (2016) charter schools have widespread positive educational outcomes, particularly for ELL, special students, and students from low-income families. These positive effects are especially evident in urban areas. While the researchers focused on an impending vote to expand the cap on charter schools in Massachusetts, it is clear that there is a need to increase the number of charter schools nationwide. Doing so will not only improve the chances that disadvantaged students will receive a much-deserved education, but also the likelihood that ELL students who are unable to gain admission to charter schools will be better placed and qualified due to the impact of co-location. Through co-location, the question of underrepresentation will cease to be an issue, as a majority of ELL students will be able to benefit indirectly (Cordes, 2017). Probably, such an option would be easier to push through than a change in policy. The underrepresentation of ELL students can be attributed to performance, hence changing policy to accommodate poor performers, would be unfair to those who have achieved admission or progression by merit. The literature review suggests that even though there is underrepresentation of ELL students in charter schools, these schools are serving their purpose effectively.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Barr, J. M., Sadovnik, A. R., & Visconti, L. (2006a). Charter schools and urban education improvement: A comparison of Newark’s district and charter schools. Urban Review38(4), 291–311.

Barr, J. M., Sadovnik, A. R., & Visconti, L. (2006b). A Comparison of District and Charter Schools for 4th and 8th Grades in Newark, New Jersey. Rutgers University Newark Working Paper #2006-002.

Bettinger, E. P. (2005). The effect of charter schools on charter students and public schools. Economics of Education Review24(2), 133–147.

Buckley, J., & Sattin-Bajaj, C. (2011). Are ELL students underrepresented in charter schools? Demographic trends in New York City, 2006-2008. Journal of School Choice5(1), 40–65.

Center for Research on Education Outcomes (2013). Charter school performance in New York City. Standford University.

Cohodes, S., & Dynarski, S. M. (2016). Massachusetts charter cap holds back disadvantaged students. Evidence Speaks Reports2(1), 1–7.

Cordes, S. A. (2017). In Pursuit of the Common Good: The Spillover Effects of Charter Schools on Public School Students in New York City. Education Finance and Policy, 2017, 1–49.

Garcia, D. R. (2008). Academic and racial segregation in charter schools: Do parents sort students into specialized charter schools? Education and Urban Society40(5), 590-612.

Hoxby, C. M., Murarka, S., & Kang, J. (2009). How New York City’s charter schools affect achievement. Cambridge, MA: New York City Charter Schools Evaluation Project, (September), 1-85.

Lacireno-Paquet, N. (2004). Do EMO-operated charter schools serve disadvantaged students? The influence of state policies. Education policy analysis archives12, 26.

Winters, M. A. (2014). Why the gap? English Language Learners and New York City Charter Schools. Civic Report, 93, 1-12. Manhattan Institute.

Wohlstetter, P., & Chau, D. (2004). Does autonomy matter? Implementing research-based practices in charter and other public schools. In K. Bulkley & P. Wolhstetter (Eds.), Taking account of charter schools: What’s happened and what’s next (pp. 53–71). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

THE UNDERREPRESENTATION OF ELL STUDENTS IN CHARTER SCHOOLS: Demographic Trends in New Jersey’s Title One Schools.

October 9, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Underrepresentation of ELL Students in Charter Schools

Name

Institution

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Underrepresentation of ELL Students in Charter Schools

The rise of charter schools in the United States has brought with it both successes and challenges. According to Winters (2014) charter schools have attracted both praise and criticism. The excellent results achieved by these schools attracts praise, though the manner with which such schools end up overlooking disadvantaged students tends to draw a lot of criticism. Winters (2014) avers that the fact that charter schools cater to a significantly smaller number of English Language Learners (ELL) compared to public schools, is proof that charter schools do not serve students from disadvantaged families. The article attributes these differences in ELL student populations to qualification grades. According to the researcher, ELL students are more unlikely to make it out of elementary school in charter schools than public schools. Furthermore ELL students are also unlikely to apply to charter schools due to the English grade qualification requirement. As a result, the proportion of ELL students in charter schools is significantly lower than in public schools (Winters, 2014). Buckley and Sattin-Bajaj (2011) also share the same view, providing further clarification on the subject. Their study demonstrates that even though disadvantaged students can be classified based on income, special learning challenges, and English proficiency, the difference in enrollment is chiefly due to language proficiency. The researchers found that enrollment of ELL students in public schools was much higher than in charter schools. Interestingly, enrollment of students from low income families and special learners was similar between public schools and charter schools (Buckley & Sattin-Bajaj, 2011). This remarkable finding clearly demonstrates that as suggested by Winters (2014) entry qualifications to charter schools, particularly for the English language, pose the greatest challenge to disadvantaged students who would wish to join charter schools.

Obviously due to the differences in language proficiency and performance, it is possible to question whether or not racial segregation or some form of deliberate discrimination occurs at charters schools. Garcia (2008) explores the possibility of segregation at charter schools and finds that even though advocates for charter schools argue that the difference in demographics between public and charter schools are  due to the admission criteria and performance requirements, There is a possibility that segregation based on race does occur. Although such advocates argue that the difference in student composition is often because of self selection based on merit, the fact that parents may opt to transfer their children from similarly well performing public schools, suggests that racial segregation. For instance, the researcher cites cases where parents chose to transfer their children from public schools that were performing as well as the charter schools they took them to, the only difference being the demographic make-up of the schools. Therefore, it could be argued to be a simple case of deliberate segregation rather than self selection. It seems parents opt to remove their children from more racially diverse public schools in order to enroll them into racially segregated charter schools. This aggregation of privileged students in charters schools then inadvertently leads to better performance (Garcia, 2008). In essence, Garcia (2008) argues that students in charter schools are sorted or selected based on their racial orientation, and this ends up discriminating against the ‘disadvantaged’ races. Bettinger’s (2004) findings align with Garcia’s hypothesis regarding performance, as her study found no significant performance differences between public and charter schools. In addition, Bettinger (2004) found that charter schools had no noteworthy impact on neighboring public schools. Barr, Sadovnik, and Visconti (2006b)also find no statistically significant differences in performance between charter schools and public schools, making their existence harder to justify.

Hoxby, Murarka, and Kang (2009) disprove some of the postulations put forth by Garcia (2008) and Bettinger (2004) through their report. Following an investigation into the performance of charter schools, one important observation made in the report, is that selection of approximately 94% of the students is usually done using the lottery method. The random nature of the selection method most likely eliminates the possibility of discrimination and segregation as the major causes of underrepresentation of ELL and disadvantaged students. In fact, contrary to expectations, the study found that a majority of the applicants to charter schools were black, a racial minority. In addition, it was also found that most charter school applicants were more likely to be poorer than the average students attending public schools in New York. These findings are contrary to Garcia’s (2008) assertions, which seemed to suggest that charter schools promoted segregation. Furthermore, Garcia (2008) and Bettinger (2004) also seemed to suggest that there was no difference in performance between charter schools and traditional public schools, yet the study found that a difference in performance did exist. Hoxby, Murarka, and Kang (2009) attribute this difference in performance to subtle policy differences between public and charter schools, such as compensation of teachers based on performance, a longer school year, and a more flexible disciplinary policy. The CREDO report on charter schools also supports findings by Hoxby, Murarka, and Kang (2009), while disproving assertions made by Garcia. The study found that a majority of the student population (62%) in charter schools in New York are black, while 74% of the population is poor. This shows that indeed, the underrepresentation of ELL students is not connected to segregation. Additionally, the finding that 31% of the student population is Hispanic, is auxiliary proof that charter schools actually cater to minorities.

Wohlstetter and Chau (2004) affirm the fact that policy can influence performance, particularly when schools are given the autonomy to make decisions. The authors state acknowledge that granting schools autonomy to determine the school calendar, and instructional strategies would probably lead to greater levels of success, because it was these teachers and instructors who were well aware of the students’ needs due to daily interactions. Rather than let state officers and local officials decide the approach to be taken, Wohlstetter and Chau (2004) argue that autonomy, as observed in charter schools, was the best approach. Similarly, Barr, Sadovnik, and Visconti (2006a) found that the autonomy accorded charter schools, led to significant improvements such as reduced customized class sizes leading too acceptable student to faculty ratios, reduced student mobility rates, longer academic years, hence increased instructional time. Moreover higher attendance rates by faculty were also observed. All these measures were aimed at improving performance.The Center for Research on Education Outcomes (CREDO, 2013) report findings prop up this position, as the study found that students in charter schools learned much more than their counterparts in public schools in the course of a single academic or calendar year. Other than learning a lot more, the CREDO (2013) report also reveals considerable academic performance differences between students in charter schools and those in traditional public schools, with those in charter schools performing much better. The study finding that students from low income families were more likely to learn more in charter schools as compared to public schools reaffirms the position that charter schools cater to disadvantaged students in a better way compared to public schools.

Despite the underrepresentation of disadvantaged students in charter schools compared to public schools, charter schools still have a positive impact on the academic performance of these disadvantaged students. Research findings by Cordes (2017) lend support to the arguments for the increase of charter schools, as they demonstrate that such schools improve the performance of students enrolled in them, as well as of the students enrolled in other schools nearby. According to Cordes (2017), co-location, or the location of a charter school near a traditional public school, led to improved performance and reduced grade retention within the public school, particularly in mathematics and English. Moreover, this co-location also led to increased per pupil expenditure; suggesting that it led to improved services. These findings suggest that although there may be underrepresentation of ELL students in charter schools, these schools are still capable of positively impacting their performance, particularly if co-location is pursued. In terms of dealing with underrepresentation, it is possible to ensure that charter schools do not end up locking out the very disadvantaged students they were meant to serve, due to stringent admission criteria. Lacireno-Paquet (2004) argues that policy changes may be required in order to ensure that disabled students are not unfairly denied entry to charter schools. A similar approach can be adopted for ELL students, such that policies are changed to allow for a more relaxed admission criteria.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Winters, M. A. (2014). Why the gap?English Language Learners and New York City Charter Schools. Civic Report, 93, 1-12. Manhattan Institute.

Buckley, J., & Sattin-Bajaj, C. (2011). Are ELL students underrepresented in charter schools? Demographic trends in New York City, 2006-2008. Journal of School Choice5(1), 40–65.

Garcia, D. R. (2008). Academic and racial segregation in charter schools: Do parents sort students into specialized charter schools? Education and Urban Society40(5), 590-612.

Hoxby, C., & Murarka, S. (2009). How New York City’s charter schools affect achievement. The New York City Charter Schools, (September).

Wohlstetter, P., & Chau, D. (2004). Does autonomy matter? Implementing research-based practices in charter and other public schools. In K. Bulkley & P. Wolhstetter (Eds.), Taking account of charter schools: What’s happened and what’s next (pp. 53–71). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Cordes, S. A. (2017). In Pursuit of the Common Good: The Spillover Effects of Charter Schools on Public School Students in New York City. Education Finance and Policy, 1–49.

Bettinger, E. P. (2005). The effect of charter schools on charter students and public schools. Economics of Education Review24(2), 133–147.

Center for Research on Education Outcomes (2013). Charter school performance in New York City. Standford University.

Barr, J. M., Sadovnik, A. R., & Visconti, L. (2006a). Charter schools and urban education improvement: A comparison of Newark’s district and charter schools. Urban Review38(4), 291–311.

Barr, J. M., Sadovnik, A. R., & Visconti, L. (2006b). A Comparison of District and Charter Schools for 4th and 8th Grades in Newark, New Jersey. Rutgers University Newark Working Paper #2006-002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Underrepresentation of ELL Students in Charter Schools

Name

Institution

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Underrepresentation of ELL Students in Charter Schools

The rise of charter schools in the United States has brought with it both successes and challenges. According to Winters (2014) charter schools have attracted both praise and criticism. The excellent results achieved by these schools attracts praise, though the manner with which such schools end up overlooking disadvantaged students tends to draw a lot of criticism. Winters (2014) avers that the fact that charter schools cater to a significantly smaller number of English Language Learners (ELL) compared to public schools, is proof that charter schools do not serve students from disadvantaged families. The article attributes these differences in ELL student populations to qualification grades. According to the researcher, ELL students are more unlikely to make it out of elementary school in charter schools than public schools. Furthermore ELL students are also unlikely to apply to charter schools due to the English grade qualification requirement. As a result, the proportion of ELL students in charter schools is significantly lower than in public schools (Winters, 2014). Buckley and Sattin-Bajaj (2011) also share the same view, providing further clarification on the subject. Their study demonstrates that even though disadvantaged students can be classified based on income, special learning challenges, and English proficiency, the difference in enrollment is chiefly due to language proficiency. The researchers found that enrollment of ELL students in public schools was much higher than in charter schools. Interestingly, enrollment of students from low income families and special learners was similar between public schools and charter schools (Buckley & Sattin-Bajaj, 2011). This remarkable finding clearly demonstrates that as suggested by Winters (2014) entry qualifications to charter schools, particularly for the English language, pose the greatest challenge to disadvantaged students who would wish to join charter schools.

Obviously due to the differences in language proficiency and performance, it is possible to question whether or not racial segregation or some form of deliberate discrimination occurs at charters schools. Garcia (2008) explores the possibility of segregation at charter schools and finds that even though advocates for charter schools argue that the difference in demographics between public and charter schools are  due to the admission criteria and performance requirements, There is a possibility that segregation based on race does occur. Although such advocates argue that the difference in student composition is often because of self selection based on merit, the fact that parents may opt to transfer their children from similarly well performing public schools, suggests that racial segregation. For instance, the researcher cites cases where parents chose to transfer their children from public schools that were performing as well as the charter schools they took them to, the only difference being the demographic make-up of the schools. Therefore, it could be argued to be a simple case of deliberate segregation rather than self selection. It seems parents opt to remove their children from more racially diverse public schools in order to enroll them into racially segregated charter schools. This aggregation of privileged students in charters schools then inadvertently leads to better performance (Garcia, 2008). In essence, Garcia (2008) argues that students in charter schools are sorted or selected based on their racial orientation, and this ends up discriminating against the ‘disadvantaged’ races. Bettinger’s (2004) findings align with Garcia’s hypothesis regarding performance, as her study found no significant performance differences between public and charter schools. In addition, Bettinger (2004) found that charter schools had no noteworthy impact on neighboring public schools. Barr, Sadovnik, and Visconti (2006b)also find no statistically significant differences in performance between charter schools and public schools, making their existence harder to justify.

Hoxby, Murarka, and Kang (2009) disprove some of the postulations put forth by Garcia (2008) and Bettinger (2004) through their report. Following an investigation into the performance of charter schools, one important observation made in the report, is that selection of approximately 94% of the students is usually done using the lottery method. The random nature of the selection method most likely eliminates the possibility of discrimination and segregation as the major causes of underrepresentation of ELL and disadvantaged students. In fact, contrary to expectations, the study found that a majority of the applicants to charter schools were black, a racial minority. In addition, it was also found that most charter school applicants were more likely to be poorer than the average students attending public schools in New York. These findings are contrary to Garcia’s (2008) assertions, which seemed to suggest that charter schools promoted segregation. Furthermore, Garcia (2008) and Bettinger (2004) also seemed to suggest that there was no difference in performance between charter schools and traditional public schools, yet the study found that a difference in performance did exist. Hoxby, Murarka, and Kang (2009) attribute this difference in performance to subtle policy differences between public and charter schools, such as compensation of teachers based on performance, a longer school year, and a more flexible disciplinary policy. The CREDO report on charter schools also supports findings by Hoxby, Murarka, and Kang (2009), while disproving assertions made by Garcia. The study found that a majority of the student population (62%) in charter schools in New York are black, while 74% of the population is poor. This shows that indeed, the underrepresentation of ELL students is not connected to segregation. Additionally, the finding that 31% of the student population is Hispanic, is auxiliary proof that charter schools actually cater to minorities.

Wohlstetter and Chau (2004) affirm the fact that policy can influence performance, particularly when schools are given the autonomy to make decisions. The authors state acknowledge that granting schools autonomy to determine the school calendar, and instructional strategies would probably lead to greater levels of success, because it was these teachers and instructors who were well aware of the students’ needs due to daily interactions. Rather than let state officers and local officials decide the approach to be taken, Wohlstetter and Chau (2004) argue that autonomy, as observed in charter schools, was the best approach. Similarly, Barr, Sadovnik, and Visconti (2006a) found that the autonomy accorded charter schools, led to significant improvements such as reduced customized class sizes leading too acceptable student to faculty ratios, reduced student mobility rates, longer academic years, hence increased instructional time. Moreover higher attendance rates by faculty were also observed. All these measures were aimed at improving performance.The Center for Research on Education Outcomes (CREDO, 2013) report findings prop up this position, as the study found that students in charter schools learned much more than their counterparts in public schools in the course of a single academic or calendar year. Other than learning a lot more, the CREDO (2013) report also reveals considerable academic performance differences between students in charter schools and those in traditional public schools, with those in charter schools performing much better. The study finding that students from low income families were more likely to learn more in charter schools as compared to public schools reaffirms the position that charter schools cater to disadvantaged students in a better way compared to public schools.

Despite the underrepresentation of disadvantaged students in charter schools compared to public schools, charter schools still have a positive impact on the academic performance of these disadvantaged students. Research findings by Cordes (2017) lend support to the arguments for the increase of charter schools, as they demonstrate that such schools improve the performance of students enrolled in them, as well as of the students enrolled in other schools nearby. According to Cordes (2017), co-location, or the location of a charter school near a traditional public school, led to improved performance and reduced grade retention within the public school, particularly in mathematics and English. Moreover, this co-location also led to increased per pupil expenditure; suggesting that it led to improved services. These findings suggest that although there may be underrepresentation of ELL students in charter schools, these schools are still capable of positively impacting their performance, particularly if co-location is pursued. In terms of dealing with underrepresentation, it is possible to ensure that charter schools do not end up locking out the very disadvantaged students they were meant to serve, due to stringent admission criteria. Lacireno-Paquet (2004) argues that policy changes may be required in order to ensure that disabled students are not unfairly denied entry to charter schools. A similar approach can be adopted for ELL students, such that policies are changed to allow for a more relaxed admission criteria.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Winters, M. A. (2014). Why the gap?English Language Learners and New York City Charter Schools. Civic Report, 93, 1-12. Manhattan Institute.

Buckley, J., & Sattin-Bajaj, C. (2011). Are ELL students underrepresented in charter schools? Demographic trends in New York City, 2006-2008. Journal of School Choice5(1), 40–65.

Garcia, D. R. (2008). Academic and racial segregation in charter schools: Do parents sort students into specialized charter schools? Education and Urban Society40(5), 590-612.

Hoxby, C., & Murarka, S. (2009). How New York City’s charter schools affect achievement. The New York City Charter Schools, (September).

Wohlstetter, P., & Chau, D. (2004). Does autonomy matter? Implementing research-based practices in charter and other public schools. In K. Bulkley & P. Wolhstetter (Eds.), Taking account of charter schools: What’s happened and what’s next (pp. 53–71). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Cordes, S. A. (2017). In Pursuit of the Common Good: The Spillover Effects of Charter Schools on Public School Students in New York City. Education Finance and Policy, 1–49.

Bettinger, E. P. (2005). The effect of charter schools on charter students and public schools. Economics of Education Review24(2), 133–147.

Center for Research on Education Outcomes (2013). Charter school performance in New York City. Standford University.

Barr, J. M., Sadovnik, A. R., & Visconti, L. (2006a). Charter schools and urban education improvement: A comparison of Newark’s district and charter schools. Urban Review38(4), 291–311.

Barr, J. M., Sadovnik, A. R., & Visconti, L. (2006b). A Comparison of District and Charter Schools for 4th and 8th Grades in Newark, New Jersey. Rutgers University Newark Working Paper #2006-002.

 

 

THE UNDERREPRESENTATION OF ELL STUDENTS IN CHARTER SCHOOLS: Demographic Trends in New Jersey’s Title One Schools.

October 9, 2017

As one of the fastest growing industries in the world, sports industry has increasingly anchored itself in the American and global business landscape. Scholar and investors are now more concerned with the performance of sport organizations and the various factors that may facilitate or undermine team success. The National Football League (NFL) is considered the most popular spectator sport in the US, raking over $12 billion in revenue earnings and $1 billion profits. The success of the NFL has prompted various opinions among researchers, each seeking to give their bets explanations as to why specific teams are successful on any given Sunday. Leadership is one facet that has been widely investigated as a possible correlate to the success of any team. Indeed, empirical literature in organizational management and leadership, has alluded to a positive correlation between manager or leader effectiveness and team performance. Within the sporting industry, this correlation has remained largely unclear, especially due to the dearth of empirical literature directly investigating this phenomenon. The objective of this review is to clearly demarcate the role of the NFL manager in team performance and success.  The central question here is: Does the effectiveness of an NFL General Manager correlate to its team’s success?

Literature review

As a result of the burgeoning success of the NFL as a business entity, team success and performance has become a notable are of interest with scholars seeking to identify the key success factors and transpose that knowledge into other publicly operating entities. To this end, a number of studies have investigated the role played by general managers in team success in the NFL.

In a qualitative study, Frontiera (2012) investigated the role of general managers in the process of organizational culture change within professional sport. Frontiera interviewed six general managers who had effectively implemented culture change in their organizations as demonstrated by the performance of their teams. The objective was to understand how professional sport managers established performance-oriented culture within their organization. Frontiera (2012) hypothesized that strong organizational culture is positively correlated to performance and that managers or leaders who are successful in transforming organizational change can exert a positive impact on the team’s performance.  The results of the study isolated five key themes related to the cultural change cycle including symptoms of a dysfunctional culture, my way, walk the talk, embedding new culture, and our way (Frontiera, 2012, p.76). The findings suggest that the ability of the interviewed managers to initiate and successfully implement cultural change within the organization resulted to the success of their teams.

In another study, Brian Goff (2013) used an empirical model to compare the managerial inputs between the Major League baseball and National Football League and how these varied levels of inputs contributed to team success. The empirical model considered managerial attributes such as the quality of players on the team (which is in itself a managerial function) and the impact of the manager on player productivity for a specific team. Goff observed that in both the MLB and NFL, mangers were tasked with the responsibility of determining which players were included in the starting lineups as well as the frequency or sequence of player substitutions. In both leagues managers interact significantly with players through teaching and provision of incentives. The findings of the study show that while managerial contributions are crucial to the success of the teams in the NFL and MLB, these contributions comparative to general managers were significantly higher in the NFL. Goff attributed this observation to the complexity inherent in the managerial position in the NFL.

In another study, Berri and colleagues (2009) examined the role of team mangers in the productivity of the team using an econometric model. Berri and colleagues argue that in sports, it is difficult to isolate the contributions of the manager from the abilities of their players. The study used data from the NBA to measure the impact of managers on player performance.  The results indicate that selected managers or coaches contributed significantly to player performance as well as the amount of games their teams won. However, Berri et al. (2009) observed that majority of the managers in their data set did not exhibit a statistically important effect on the performance of players. They thus concluded that general managers did not have any effect on team success; they were simply glorified ‘principal clerks’ (Berri, et al., 2009, p. 92).

The findings by Berri et al (2009) were replicated in the study by Callan and Thomas (2014). In this study, modelled productivity using data obtained from a range of high school football programs in Texas. Specifically, the researchers used the productivity frontier analysis approach which enables the approximation of potential team successor productivity. Callan and Thomas highlight the difficulty of applying the production theory to American football due to the complexity of interrelationships among players and the overall football play. A similar observation was made by Goff (2013) who noted the challenge of linking team success or wins to specific individuals within the team since playing the game requires the input of numerous players.  Callan and Thomas (2014) found that inefficiency of team managers or coaches correlates with poor team performance. The production inefficiency approximations indicated that the functions of the coach including player assessment, motivation and training were not efficiently executed, thereby resulting poor performance of the team.

 

Minors as Medical Decision Makers

October 8, 2017

Minors as Medical Decision Makers

Autonomy is among the leading principles considered when making decisions about health care; individuals receiving healthcare have a right to practice their autonomy freely and consciously. The United States legal system requires medical staff to allow patients make decisions about their health as a way of protecting their sovereignty. However, the primary issue arises when the decision makers are below the age of 18 years. Legally, the medical decisions are made by adults, that is, individuals aged above the age of 18 years. The law allows medical decisions to be made by the children’s parents including refusal or discontinuation of treatment, even if it is life-sustaining. However, there are cases where individuals below the age of 18 years are allowed to make medical decisions based on the fact that they have the necessary maturity and intelligence. The primary issue in such cases is the determination of the suitable maturity and intelligence level. It is difficult for the healthcare professionals to determine whether one is a mature minor.

In addition to the issue of determining whether children are mature minors, medical decision making for minors is affected by the conflicting interests of the parents and healthcare professionals in cases of futility. Healthcare professionals are committed to professional ethics in the medical field as outlined in the code of ethics. One of the major provisions of the code of ethics is that physicians should comply with the principle of nonmaleficence and beneficence. The former requires healthcare professionals to make decisions that cannot harm the patients while the latter requires them to make decisions that maximize the goodness of the patients. The ethical principles are concerned with promoting the welfare of the patients. For this reason, healthcare professionals do not rely on patients considered to lack the intelligence and cognitive ability to make sound medical decisions such as children. Further, they ensure that the parents act in the best interest of the children, failure to which they seek legal assistance to compel the parents to make the right decisions.  The healthcare professionals and the parents are expected to act in the best interest of the minors concerning their end of life decisions. However, it is difficult for the courts to decide the party that considers the best interest of the child between the parents and healthcare professionals in cases of futility. The issue of minors as medical decision makers should be solved through the legal system, but the conflict between law and ethics act as a barrier to effective decision making. This study analyzes the United States laws, policies and case precedents concerning the independence of children as medical decision makers.

Informed Consent

The informed consent doctrine requires doctors to carry on with medical procedures and treatment after establishing that the patients understand the risks involved. In cases of minors, the United States law requires the parents to consent to their children’s health decisions. The doctrine was established by the ruling by the New York Court of appeal in the case of Scholendorff v. Society of New York Hospital, 211 N.Y. 125, 129 (1914)[1]. The defendant agreed to a treatment of stomach disorder but she was opposed to operation of a tumor believed to be fibroids during the treatment. However, the Society of New York Hospital doctors proceeded with the operation without her consent. On suing the hospital, the New York Court of appeal judge ruled that every adult has a right to consent to treatment as long as they are of sound mind; healthcare professionals have no right to perform any medical procedures without the patient’s consent. The ruling informed common law on informed consent for adults, but informed consent concerning minors is still unclear under the United States law.

The issue of informed consent among the mature minors is founded on the court ruling in Smith v. Seibly, 72 Wn.2d 16, 431 P.2d 719 (1967)[2]. Albert G. Smith, 18-year individual, sought to agree to a vasectomy after the realization that the muscular disease he had affected his future ability to provide for his young family. After receiving written consent from the patient, the doctor proceeded with the vasectomy without establishing whether Albert G. Smith understood the risks involved. Later, Albert G. Smith realized that the procedure was permanent, a fact that he did not know when consenting. When he sued the doctor, the Washington Supreme Court ruled that he was mature enough to make an informed decision. Although the legal age of consent in Washington at the time was 21, Albert G. Smith was considered a mature minor thus could make sound health decisions independently. However, the United States law is yet to address the issue of informed consent, close to five decades later.  Mental capacity of minors is also crucial in determining their ability to give informed consent. This is evident in the case of Grannum v. Berard 70 Wn.2d 304, 307, 422 P.2d 812 (1967)[3]. In the case, the Supreme Court of Washington ruled out that the ability of emancipated minors to consent is determined by their mental capacity that varies with circumstances. The ruling makes it difficult to determine the right circumstances under which the consent should be allowed.

The recent case ruling by Connecticut Supreme Court in re Cassandra C raises the issue of informed consent of children below the age of 18 years. Although she was aged17 years, she was denied the wish to forego chemotherapy because of her immaturity to make a sound medical decision[4]. In Smith v. Seibly, the court ruled that the patient was mature for informed consent, citing age as a determining factor. If the ruling had been applied in re Cassandra C., she would have been considered a mature minor. This is an indication that the United States law is yet to establish guidelines on the definition of maturity in decisions made by children under the age of 18.

The Doctrine of Mature Minors

The legal age of adults allowed to make medical decisions is 18 years, but mature minors have autonomy to make medical decisions without consulting their parents (Marques-Lopez, 2006). Gillick competence is applicable when determining the capacity of adolescents to make legal decisions. Gillick competence supports the autonomy of children aged 16 years to make medical decisions without seeking the opinion of their parents (Griffith, 2016). The competence is based on the ruling made in England in the case of Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech AHA [1986][5]. The case involved a parent to a 16-year-old daughter who was opposed to the decision by the Health Department to allow medical practitioners to give contraceptives to a 16-year-old. The ruling was made in favor of the medical professionals because it was argued that although the 16-year-old was a minor legally, she understood the nature of the contraceptive treatment. The girl had the maturity and intelligence necessary to make a sound medical decision without consulting her parent.  Gillick competence was also applied in re EG, a minor who was allowed to exercise her autonomy by refusing blood transfusion [6]. The Supreme Court of Illinois held that the minor understood the risks involved in refusing the treatment thus was mature enough to consent.

A child is considered mature enough to make a medical decision of they are act independently without the influence of their peers, family, or misgivings. On intelligence, a child is allowed to make medical decisions if they understand the nature of health status and the treatment involved. They should demonstrate the ability to weigh their cost and benefits.  The Gillick competence is not only applicable in England but also in the United States as indicated by the mature minor doctrine (Flynn et al., 2012). The common law provision allows children below the legal age of adults to make decisions concerning their health without seeking permission of their parents.

Circumstances under which the consent of emancipated minors may be withheld

The United States common law upholds bodily integrity, which entails protection of individual autonomy. In considering minors as decision makers, one of the aspects that justify the decision is autonomy of individuals to make sound health decisions. As indicated in the ruling in Scholendorff v. Society of New York Hospital, 211 N.Y. 125, 129 (1914)[7], patients must consent before receiving medical procedures. However, the consent of emancipated minors is withheld in certain circumstances to promote their best interests. The question that arises is how to determine the circumstances under which the consent of mature minors may be withheld.  One of the precedents for determining whether emancipated minors can consent is in the case of Belcher v. Charleston Area Medical Center 422 S.E.2d 827, 188 W.Va. 105 (1992)[8]. The ruling made by West Virginia Supreme Court provided that the ability to give consent is determined by factors such as age, experience, education, judgment, knowledge of the involved risks, and ability. The precedence draws from the case of Smith v. Seibly, where a minor was considered capable of consent even if he was below the legal age due to factors such as ability.

Conflict between parents, minors and healthcare professionals on medical decisions

The denial of autonomy for children in making health decisions is desirable as it aims at ensuring that they do not make poor choices. However, free will cannot be taken for granted because it reflects the respect for the fundamental rights of individuals. Although it is acceptable to deny children the autonomy to make medical decisions for the sake of ensuring that they carry out the right choices, it is crucial to make sure that the parents entrusted with the decisions make the right decisions. The common law establishes that parents are expected to act in the best interest of the patients, thus trusted to make sound informed consent. However, medical professional are allowed to challenge the decisions made by the parents in case they make decisions that threaten the lives of patients. The primary challenge experienced by the judicial system in the United States concerning the authority of parents to make medical decisions for minors is determining the party that acts in the best interest of the patient between the parent and healthcare professionals. On the same note, mature minors may conflict with healthcare professionals concerning their health decisions.

Minors and healthcare professionals

The primary goal of medical professionals is to make sure that the health status of patients is enhanced by making decisions that promote the welfare of the patients. The common law under the mature minor doctrine allows the individuals to make medical decisions, even if the decisions involve refusal to accept medical interventions such as chemotherapy that may be life-saving. Actions contrary to the common law in such cases are considered violation of the right to autonomy for the mature minors. The ruling in the case of Virginia v. Cherrix established the Abraham’s Law that allows minors aged between 14 and 17 to refuse treatment[9]. The law amended § 63.2-100 of the Code of Virginia that allowed the healthcare professionals to make medical decisions for minors aged between 14 and 17 for the best interest of their health status[10]. The Commonwealth of Virginia sued Starchild Abraham Cherrix for refusal to undergo chemotherapy that was believed to cure Hodgkin disease. The 16 year old patient’s decision indicated maturity and intelligence in refusing the treatment; he cited that he was unwilling to experience the side effects of chemotherapy treatment. The amendment of the Abraham’s Law by Virginia Legislature raises the issue of the reliability of the authority of healthcare to make decisions for minors in cases of life threatening conditions.

Parents and healthcare professionals

Healthcare professionals have an ethical responsibility of ensuring that the medical decisions implemented are based on principle of Nonmaleficence, which requires the decisions made to protect the patients from harm (Lipstein, Brinkman & Britto, 2012). For this reason, the healthcare professionals are authorized to challenge decisions made by parents if they fail to serve the best health interests of the patients. Harrison & Canadian Paediatric Society Bioethics Committee (2004) explain that the major issue in conflict between healthcare professionals and parents arises in the end-of-life decisions (Miller & Harris, 2011). In cases of futility, healthcare professionals advice parents to consent to removal of life support machines in the best interest of the patients but the same reason is provided by parents opposed to the decisions by healthcare professionals. In re Jane Doe, 418 S.E.2d 3 (Ga. 1992), the Supreme Court of Georgia ruled that parents are authorized to consent to termination of their children’s life of the healthcare practitioners prove that the patients cannot recover[11]. Gillam & Sullivan (2011) explain that parents are entrusted to make sound medical decisions concerning end-of-life for their children because they have the best interests of their children at heart.  In the case of Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept. of Health 497 U.S. 261 (1990), it is evident that parents have authority to require the medical professionals to remove their children from life support machine if it is proved that they are in vegetative state [12]. However, the main issue arises in the legal condition that the parents must establish clear and convincing evidence that their child does not require the life support machine anymore.

In conclusion, the primary issue that the courts face is the determination of the extent to which children and mature minors capable of making sound medical decisions. It is difficult for the legal system to define various aspects that affect the ability of the children to make medical decisions. For example, it is difficult to determine whether a minor is mature because it is hard to tell whether their decisions are independent of peer influence. Another challenge arises when futility is involved. Legally, the healthcare professionals have the right to offer their opinion to the parents concerning the termination of the patient’s life support, but the final decision rests with the parents. The refusal by the parents to end their child’s life may lead them to suffer; it reduces their quality of life. However, it is difficult to determine whether to favor a parent’s or a court’s decision concerning the end of life decision for children because it is impossible to tell the best interest of the child. While the life support machine prolongs a child’s life, it may cause unnecessary suffering for the parents and the patients as well in cases where the chances of success are futile.

It is evident that ethical and legal concerns over the trusting minors to make medical decision conflicts, leading to difficulty in the ruling. From a legal perspective, children have the right to autonomy in making decisions about their health. The mature minors do not have to obtain permission from their parents when making decisions because they can make sound decisions devoid of influence. However, maturity is not determined by a child’s age thus making it difficult to determine whether the children below the age of 18 years can make decisions.

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

Coleman, DL, & Rosoff, PM, The legal authority of mature minors to consent to general medical treatment.  Pediatrics. 2013 Apr;131(4):786-93

Dalizza D.Marques-Lopez, Not so gray anymore: A mature minor’s capacity to consent to medical treatment. 10 H.L.P.J, 31, (2006).

Ellen A. Lipstein, et al, What is known about parents’ treatment decisions? A narrative review of pediatric decision making. Medical Decision Making32(2), 246-258 (2013).

Eva K. Mårtenson, & Astrid M. Fägerskiöld, A review of children’s decision‐making        competence in health care. 17 C.N.L. 23, 3131-3141 (2008).

Gillam, & Jane Sullivan, Ethics at the end of life: Who should make decisions about treatment limitation for young children with life‐threatening or life‐limiting conditions?. J Pediatric Child Health. 2011 Sep;47(9):594-8

Richard Griffith,What is Gillick competence?. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics12(1), 244-247 (2016).

Harrison, C, & Canadian Paediatric Society Bioethics Committee, Treatment decisions regarding infants, children and adolescents, Paediatrics & Child Health, Volume 9, Issue 2, 1 February 2004, 99–103

Hickey, Kathryn, Minors’ rights in medical decision making. JONA’S healthcare law, ethics and regulation9(3), 100-104 (2007).

Imelda Coyne, & Maria Harder, Children’s participation in decision-making: Balancing     protection with shared decision-making using a situational perspective . J Child Health   Care. 2011 Dec;15(4):312-9.

Jessie B. Hill, Medical decision making by and on behalf of adolescents: Reconsidering first principles (2012).

Victoria Miller, & Diana Harris, Measuring children’s decision-making involvement regarding       chronic illness management. 37 P.P.L3, 292-306 (2011).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[1] Scholendorff v. Society of NY Hospital, 211. 125, 129 (NY. 1914). Court stated that“Every human being of adult years and sound mind has a right to determine what shall be done with its own body”.

 

[2] See Smith v. Seibly, 72. 2d 16, 431 P.2d 719 (Wn.1967). Mature minors have the capacity to make sound medical decisions consistent with the doctrine of informed consent. The capacity of mature minors was defined by age and responsibilities.

 

[3] Grannum v. Berard 70 Wn.2d 304, 307, 422 P.2d 812 (1967). The mental capacity that determines whether a minor can consent is relative as it depends on circumstances.

 

[4] re Cassandra C. Children under the age of 18 years lack the capacity to make medical decisons unless they prove to be mature.

[5] Cf Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech [AHA .1986]. Mature minors have the right to autonomy in medical decisions. They must understand the risks involved in the medical procedures but do not have to consult their parents.

[6] See also, re E.G., a Minor (The People of the State of Illinois, Appellant, v. E.G., a Minor, Appellee). Mature minors have a right to autonomy if they understand the risks involved in treatment.

[7] Supra note 1 at 3”.

 

[8] Belcher v. Charleston Area Medical Center 422 S.E.2d 827, 188 105 (W.Va. 1992). Factors that indicate the capacity of a minor to consent include age, education, ability, experience, judgment, and knowledge of the involved risks.

[9] E.g., Virginia v. Cherrix. Resulted in the enactment of Virginia common law to allow mature minors to make decisions concerning refusal of treatment.

 

[10] See; Abraham Law

[11] Physician’s Refusal of Requested Treatment: In re Jane Doe, 418 S.E.2d 3 (Ga. 1992)

[12] Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dep’t of Health 497 U.S. 261 (1990). Parents have a right to consent the removal of their children from life support machine if they provide clear and convincing evidence that the child will never recover.

Effectiveness of Augments: “City of Women” by Rebecca Solnit Introduction

October 8, 2017

The art of persuasion stands among the most widely studied skill across the globe; a state of the scenario that Stockwood et al. (82) associated with the importance of persuasive messages in influencing action. A good illustration of persuasive authorships is that of Rebecca Solnit’s whose series of writing has influenced the world in their perception of women, to an extent she has been labeled the face of the feminist movement in the contemporary world. As such, the principal purpose of the premise underway is to explore the effectiveness of arguments that Rebecca Solnit uses to persuade readers of “City of Women.

Effectiveness of in Solnit’s Arguments

As per Stockwood et al. (93), ethos entails the use of ethical appeal a way of convincing readers of writers’ character or credibility. Aristotle theorizes the people are inclined to believe authors when they succeed to portray sound-mindedness and credible character. There are numerous scenarios where Solnit uses ethos as a way of convincing her readers to take her point of view in observing the male-chauvinistic society. She, for example, builds her notion of the male-dominated society by unraveling the map of New York as points out that ‘majority of streets…’ have been named to ‘honor men’ despite the many women that have made recognizable contributions in shaping the history of the US (Solnit 24). In addition to the effectiveness of such inductive arguments in influencing readers’ perspective of issues, Solnit presents herself (to readers who are mostly women” as an experienced woman, who understands the experiences of women and girls in the male-dominated US. She, for example, writes that she could not ‘imagine’ herself moving is in a city where the majority of monuments and things were named after ‘honored, successful, and powerful women (Soltin 45).’

Solnit also deploys pathos in engaging and convincing her readers to adopt her world of view. Pathos entails a deliberate use of emotional appeal to persuade a reader or an audience (Stockwood et al. 67). There are numerous cases where Solnit uses empathy to trigger an intended feeling in readers. For example, successful in drawing pity from her  readers when she writing that she would much less “imagine herself” in a city where monuments and thing were named after powerful women.’ She also inspires anger in her readers when she quotes New York as equally as “manscape” as most cities (Solnit 24).

Solnit also uses logical reasoning to convince her readers. In addition to taking her readers through the New York City, where “no woman is a major building or a bridge,” Solnit uses statistics and facts to generate a sense of urgency for society-wide transformation in as far as the conceptual roles of women is concerned. She, for instance, goes down in history and extracts the names of historically significant women, which she used to rename the map of New York City (Solnit 56).

Conclusion

Solnit’s book, “City of Women,” revolves around the notion that the globe has been somewhat unfair in its acknowledgment of people’s success, and that men have, since the beginning of time, been given all credit in the books of history. In her efforts to convince her readers, the author uses an amalgamate of persuasive strategies, which can best be described by applying the tree rhetoric elements as detailed in Aristotle’s theory of persuasion- ethos, pathos, and logos.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Work Cited

Solnit , Rebecca. City of Women: A Novel. New York: Penguin Books, 2016. Print.

Stockwood, David, David E. Spiro, and Jeffrey S. Leon. Ethos, Pathos, and Logos: The Best of the Advocates’ Society Journal 1982-2004. Toronto: Irwin Law, 2015. Print.

Strategic resources and capabilities relevant to the pharmaceuticals industry

October 7, 2017

According to Grant and Jordan (2015), an organization’s internal resources can be a key source of competitive advantage. As a result, it is critical to identify an organization’s resource capabilities and formulate a strategy for turning the available resources into sustainable competitive advantage for the company.  In this case, Astra Zeneca’s resource and capability analysis will be carried out by conducting a demand and competition analysis (Chong, 2007). The analysis will be conducted using a Key Success Factors Analysis as recommended. The analysis lists the functions, activities and or business practices that are critical to the success of a firm, from the customer’s perspective (Homewood, 2016). The following figure summarizes the key success factors for the pharmaceuticals industry.

Figure 1: The Key Success Factors for the Pharmaceuticals Industry

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Analysis of demand Analysis of Competition
Who are the customers?

·        Community Pharmacies

·        Dispensing Doctors

·        Non-dispensing doctors

·        Hospitals

·        Medical Research Institutions

·        Clinical facilities

·        Other medical facilities with dispensing authority (Dental clinics, Nutrition clinics e.t.c.)

What Drives Competition?

Research

The bio-pharmaceutical industry is a research intensive industry. The success of a firm in the industry is heavily reliant on its ability to be on the forefront of medical innovations.

Distribution Channels

A firm’s ability to establish and maintain comprehensive distribution networks also impacts its success. Due to the homogeneity of drugs, a distribution channel may be a major differentiating factor between a successful and an unsuccessful firm

Brand Strength

Brand perception is also a major success factor for the market. End consumers are heavily influenced by the perceptions they have on the efficacy and quality of a drug while making purchases.

What Do customer’s demand?

There are multiple regulatory bodies that regulates the bio-pharmaceuticals and by extension the medical industry. The following are the general expectations imposed by the regulators;

ü  Timely delivery of medicines

ü  Clear packaging and marking of drugs to ease identification

ü  Delivery of expected standards with regard to quality and quantity of drugs

How Intense is Competition

Due to the high costs of research and the huge resource requirement, there are huge barriers to entry in the market. Competition is, therefore, comparatively low

 

 

 

From the analysis above, the resource capabilities that are critical to the success of a firm in the market are;

  1. A commitment of financial and human resources to research and innovations
  2. The establishment of elaborate distribution channel
  3. Building a strong brand
  4. Creation of elaborate network of clientele
  5. Adequate financial resources
  6. Acquiring and maintaining highly qualified personnel

To identify how well Astra Zeneca’s resources are matched with the critical success factors as identified above, the following schedule classifies the firm’s resources by function;

Figure 2: A Functional Classification of Astra Zeneca’s Resources

Function Illustrative Capabilities
Research ü  The organization is renowned world over for its excellence in research on major medical fields

ü  The company was recognized by FNRS and FWO for its contribution in Oncology among other recognitions

Products The firm produces a diverse range of drugs for the various fields of specialization including, Cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, oncology, infection and vaccines, Neuroscience, respiratory conditions and gastrointestinal conditions
Quality The firm’s drugs are provided in 195 countries
Funding Internal sources (profit and retained earnings), research grants, other grants

 

According to Helfat & Lieberman, (2002), for a firm to turn its resource capabilities into a competitive advantage, it is critical to identify the resources and capabilities that are unique to the firm, valuable, non-imitable and non-substitutable. The following is Astra Zeneca’s resource ranking based on the values identified by above (Helfat & Lieberman, 2002; Agarwal & Helfat, 2009).

 

Resources and capabilities Value Unique Imitable Substitutable
Research (RC1) Yes Yes No No
Funding (RC2) Yes No Yes Yes
Awards and recognition (RC3) Yes No No No
Distribution Networks (RC4) Yes Yes Yes No
Quality of staff (RC5) Yes No Yes Yes

 

 

Figure 3:  Resource and Capabilities Appraisal

Superior

 

Superfluous Strengths

 

 

 

 

RC2

Superfluous Strengths

Key Strengths

RC1

 

 

RC5                                                       RC3

Key strengths

Zones of Irrelevance

 

 

RC4

 

Zone of irrelevance

Key Weaknesses

 

 

 

 

Key Weakness

Deficient
Very Important
Strategic Importance

(Within Company)

 

FF

 

From the appraisal above, the most relevant competitive advantage factor is Research, Awards and recognitions and the quality of staff.

BUSINESS PLAN

Contents

Executive Summary. 7

Business Details. 8

Vision Statement 8

Mission Statement 8

Marketing Strategy. 8

Organization Plan. 9

C.E.O/ GM… 9

General Administrator 10

Marketing Officer 10

Deliverers. 10

Directors. 10

Skills. 11

Operations plan. 11

Suppliers. 11

Financial Plan. 12

Sources of funds. 12

Cash flow focus. 12

Break even focus. 13

Risk and Strategic Options. 13

Appendices. 15

Appendix 1: Financial Projections. 15

Appendix 2: Financial Assumptions. 16

Appendix 3: Location. 17

 

 

 

 

Executive Summary

Door to Door Inc. is a food delivery company which specializes in timely delivery of the largest variety of food in the entire Cambridge town and its environs. The company will provide a platform for clients to select their desired food from a comprehensive list of menus from listed restaurants and food vendors within the town, bargain for major discounts for its clientele and make timely delivery of the food ordered to clients at their desired destinations.

The company’s mission is ‘to be the go to platform for food clients by meeting customers’ demands on quality and timeliness in all the places it serves.’ The business will be based entirely online, where an ordering and payment platform to link customers and their favorite food outlets will be offered.

The company will initially have ten employees three in the management position and the rest as deliverers. The entrepreneur will also service as the C.E.O and will be in charge of all the strategic decisions at the company. Other management roles will be divided among the administrator and the marketing officer. Based on the financial projections made, the company will break even on the 12th month of operation.

 

 

Business Details

Door to Door Inc. is a proposed food delivery business that will operate from the town of Cambridge, England. The company will be involved in the delivery food; primarily lunch, to offices, schools among other locations within the town. It will offer a platform for linking restaurants and fast food joints and clients. Clients will be provided with options to order for food from a list of prequalified restaurant or menu on the company’s website, through telephone and or the company’s mobile app. The platform will then match the orders with relevant restaurants and food vendors, distribute the orders to ensure the entire orders are prepared in time and deliver the food to the place requested by the client at the client’s preferred time.

Vision Statement

Door to Door Inc. aims to be the leading food delivery business in Cambridge and by extension the UK by offering the largest variety of menus and offering timely delivery.

Mission Statement

To be the go to platform for food clients by meeting customers’ demands on quality and timeliness in all the places we serve.

Marketing Strategy

The company’s will only offer delivery as a service and will package the service as timely, and affordable. The target audience will be primary office workers in Cambridge town. Deliveries will also be offered to students in campuses and private homes. The company will launch its services by marketing on social media platforms. Specifically, the company will officially unveil itself in a live webcast which will be connected to all social services. Pre-launch campaigns will also be made on all the social platforms a month to the unveiling. At the initial stages, the business will hire at least 10 sales representatives for 14 days. They will go from office to office within the town providing brochures, flyers and other informational material about the business. The team will also take contacts of interested people, and help them download and register on the company app.

After the initial sales period, the company’s marketing officer will pursue partnership with major offices and liaise with the customers. The aim will be to position the brand as the go to food delivery option in the region. Currently, there is no food delivery business with elaborate structure and online platform that may offer direct competition to the business. The company expected to grow its client base by between 50% and 100% per month on the short term and by around 10% per month from the start of the second year in business.

Organization Plan

The company will initially hire 10 employees to work in the various positions. The proprietor will also serve as the C.E.O and General Manager of the business. On the other hand, the management positions will be filled by the marketing officer, and the Admin. The rest of the employees will be deliverers. Services such as cleaning, accounting and security will be outsourced on the short term. The following is a description of the roles assigned to each position.

C.E.O/ GM

  • In charge of hiring, leading and motivating the entire team
  • Creating, communicating and ensuring the enforcement of company goals and vision
  • In charge of liaison and strategic decisions such as pricing and distribution channels
  • Will be the company’s figure head, and perform all the major functions on behalf of the business

General Administrator

  • Will be in charge of the general administration at the company
  • Will perform all the duties of the human resource manager
  • Will liaise with restaurants and food vendors listed with the organization to ensure quality and alignment with company’s strategic objectives
  • Oversee company accounting

Marketing Officer

  • In charge of identifying, prioritizing and creating connections with potential and existing clients and
  • Model demographic information about potential clients and designs ways to reach them
  • Will be responsible for supervising the implementation of customer needs

Deliverers

  • In charge of the actual delivery of customer orders
  • Will run other errands and duties assigned to them by the management

Directors

The company will be privately run and hence will have no external directors or partners.

Skills

The set of skills required will be filled by creating an elaborate structure and assigning roles to each position before hiring. Gaps will be filled through outsourcing and hiring consultants.

Operations plan

The core service offered by the business will be the delivery of food to clients in offices and homes. However, other services that will compliment the core objective of the company include; menu advice, discount sourcing, and online ordering support. Deliveries will be made by motor cycles and mini vans depending on the levels of demand on specific routes. The business will make route plans and procure a route planning and optimization software based on the quantity of orders made across different zones within the city. The aim of route mapping will be to ensure the highest levels of efficiency and timely delivery of customer orders.

Suppliers

The company will partner with restaurants and food vendors from where the food will be sourced. In essence, the company will aim to list as many restaurants and food vendors as possible. The rationale for not making the food is to provide the customers with the greatest variety and to ensure that the company specializes in doing only what it has a competitive advantage on. All listed vendors will, however, have to meet a stringent set of quality measures.

Financial Plan

Sources of funds

The primary source of fund for starting the business will be savings from the proprietor. The proprietor is expected to contribute 70% of the required funds while the rest of the funds will be financed through supplier and bank debt.

Cash flow focus

The following is the project cash flow from the business operation for the first one year;

Month Cash flows

(£)

  (25,000)
1 1000
2 1000
3 1200
4 1400
5 1500
6 1800
7 2000
8 2000
9 2000
10 3000
11 3000
12 4000

 

Break even focus

Month Cash flows

(£)

Cumulated Cash flow
  (25,000) (25000)
1 1000 -24,000
2 1000 -23,000
3 1200 -21,800
4 1400 -20,400
5 1500 -18.900
6 1800 -17,100
7 2000 -15,100
8 2500 -12,600
9 3000 -9,600
10 4000 -5,600
11 5000 -600
12 6000 5,400

 

From the break even analysis conducted above, the company is expected to break even in the 12th month of operations.

Risk and Strategic Options

Based on the operations plan described above, the biggest risks to operations include; quality assurance, food safety and other risks associated with handling food. Other risks include; equipment (office and fleet) management risks and possible disruptions to the company’s IT infrastructure. The risks involving handling of food will be mitigated by ensuring that all vendors meet the minimum requirement in food handling standards from relevant bodies, ensuring that the company’s fleet and food packaging is of the highest quality to guarantee food safety and reviewing quality requirements regularly. On the other hand, the risk arising from operation of fleet and other equipment will be managed by taking relevant insurance policies. Finally, the company will adopt the highest security standard and create a system with redundant channels to minimize disruptions in case an eventuality affects the IT infrastructure.

 

 

Appendices

Appendix 1: Financial Projections

Month Cash flows

(£)

Cumulated Cash flow
  (25,000) (25000)
1 1000 -24,000
2 1000 -23,000
3 1200 -21,800
4 1400 -20,400
5 1500 -18.900
6 1800 -17,100
7 2000 -15,100
8 2500 -12,600
9 3000 -9,600
10 4000 -5,600
11 5000 -600
12 6000 5,400

 

 

Appendix 2: Financial Assumptions

Start-up Costs

Item Quantity Sub-total
Registration and Legal Services N.A 1500
Web and App development N.A 15,000
Promotion N.A 2000
Insurance N.A 2000
Rent 3 months 2000
Office equipment N.A 1000
Delivery cycles 1 month lease 1500
Total   25000

 

 

 

Appendix 3: Location

The company will serve Cambridge and towns on its environs as shown in the map below;

(Google maps, 2017)

Bibliography

Agarwal, R., & Helfat, C. E. (2009). Strategic renewal of organizations. Organization science20(2), 281-293.

Chong, R. J.-J. (2007). A business plan for marketing porcelain dinnerware. [Pomona [Calif].

Grant, R. M. and Jordan, J. 2015. Foundations of Strategy. Chichester: Wiley

Helfat, C. E., & Lieberman, M. B. (2002). The birth of capabilities: market entry and the importance of pre‐history. Industrial and corporate change11(4), 725-760.

Homewood, M. (2016). Company readiness. [Place of publication not identified], Oxford

 

 

Reference List

ALTER, K. J. (2001). Establishing the supremacy of entrepreneurship: the making of an    international rule of law in Europe. Oxford [u.a.], Oxford Univ. Press.

ANTHONY, G. (2013). Textbook on administrative law. Oxford, U.K., Oxford University Press.

BAPTISTE, J. L. (2012). The ultralight startup: launching a business without clout or capital.       http://www.myilibrary.com?id=713715.

BERMAN, K., KNIGHT, J., CASE, J., & BERMAN, K. (2008). Financial intelligence for            entrepreneurs: what you really need to know about the numbers.        http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&A            N=674807.

BENELUX-SCANDINAVIAN SYMPOSIUM IN LEGAL THEORY, & WINTGENS, L.          (2002). Legisprudence: a new theoretical approach to legislation : proceedings of the             Fourth Beneloux-Scandinavian Symopisum on Legal Theory. Oxford, Hart.

BEST, E. (2016). Understanding business decision-making.        http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&A            N=1165382.

BIONDI, A., EECKHOUT, P., & RIPLEY, S. (2012). Business plan after Lisbon. Oxford             [England], Oxford University Press.

BRÖLMANN, C., & RADI, Y. (2016). Research handbook on the theory and practice of       international lawmaking. http://dx.doi.org/10.4337/9781781953228.

BÚRCA, G. D. (2002). The EU and the WTO: legal and constitutional issues. Oxford [u.a.], Hart      Publ.

CHANG, D., & MEEHAN, P. (2009). Momofuku. New York, Clarkson Potter.        http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&A            N=733866.

CHONG, R. J.-J. (2007). A business plan for marketing porcelain dinnerware. [Pomona          [Calif.]], [California State Polytechnic University, Pomona].

COLLINS,A.,  (2006). Building a successful business plan: advice from the experts. Chicago, IL, Socrates Media.

COLLINS, J. C., & PORRAS, J. I. (2002). Built to last: successful habits of visionary             companies. New York, Collins Business Essentials.             https://www.overdrive.com/search?q=AC99F5B2-8F39-4B74-986C-A6C433A335AF.

CRAIG, P. P., & DE BÚRCA, G. (2011). EU law: text, cases, and materials. Oxford, Oxford             University Press.

CREMONA, M. (2012). Compliance and the Enforcement of EU Law. Oxford, OUP Oxford.

CZUCZAI, J. (2012). The autonomy of the business: some examples regarding the Council most   recent practice. Bruges, College of Europe.

EECHOUD, M. M. M. V. (2009). Harmonizing European copyright law: the challenges of               better business decision making. Austin [Tex.], Wolters Kluwer Law & Business

FOSTER, N. G. (2015). Foster on businesss planning.

GARDE, A. (2010). Business start up and obesity prevention. Austin, Tex, WoltersKluwer.

HIRSCH BALLIN, E. M. H., & SENDEN, L. A. J. (2005). Co-actorship in the development of            bsiness law and its implementation and application in the national legal order. The        Hague, T.M.C. Asser Press.

HOMEWOOD, M. (2016). Company readiness. [Place of publication not identified], Oxford      University Press.

JAKAB, A., & KOCHENOV, D. (2017). The enforcement of business ethics and values: ensuring member states’ compliance.

DAVIES, R., & VASSANJI, M. G. (2015). Fifth business.

DETHOMAS, A., & DERAMMELAERE, S. A. (2008). Writing a convincing business plan.    Hauppauge, N.Y., Barron’s Educational Series.

ENNICO, C. R. (2016). The crowdfunding handbook: raise money for your small business or      start-up with equity funding portals.

FIORE, F. (2005). Write a business plan … in no time. Indianapolis, IN, Que.

GALE RESEARCH INC. (2004). Small business profiles: a guide to today’s top opportunities   for entrepreneurs. Detroit, MI, Gale Research. http://proquest.safaribooksonline.com/0789733722.

JANSSEN, B. (2017). Making local food work: the challenges and opportunities of today’s small   farmers.

MAYNARD, T. H., & WARREN, D. M. (2014). Business planning: financing the start-up           business and venture capital financing.

MCKINNEY, A. (2003). Real business plans & marketing tools: including samples to use in          starting, growing, marketing, and selling your business. Fayetteville, NC, PREP Pub.

MCKENZIE, R. A., & SCHOUMACHER, B. H. (2012). Successful business plans for             architects. New York, McGraw-Hill.

MCKEEVER, M. P. (2017). How to write a business plan. How to write a business plan.

NARAYANAN, J., & BALA, P. (2016). Start up your restaurant: the definitive guide for         anyone who dreams of running their own restaurant.             https://www.overdrive.com/search?q=9E00A55F-AC8B-4404-B0D9-BE0246E3AF59.

PINSON, L. (2008). Anatomy of a business plan: a step-by-step guide to building the business           and securing your company’s future. Tustin, CA, Out of Your Mind & into the Marketplace.

VALENTIN, E. K. (2014). Business planning and market strategy.

KLEE, L. (2015). International construction contract law.

WILCOX, M., & JENKINS, M. (2015). Engaging change: a people-centered approach to     business transformation.        http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?

 

Density of Aluminum and the Thickness of A thin Aluminum Sheet

September 26, 2017

Student name

Date

Tutor

 

Experiment number 2: Density of Aluminum and the Thickness of Thin Aluminum Sheet

Purpose

The objective of this experiment is to determine the density of aluminum, show practical applications of density by calculating the thickness of a thin aluminum foil and show practical application of significant figures and laboratory skills.

Part I

Introduction

Density is a property of a substance thus it can be used to identify a particular substance (Jensen 45). Density is a measure of how tightly packed particles are in matter by using the ration of mass to volume; mass and volume are related direct proportion (Mahan 20, Kalpakjian and scmid 13). Density is determined using the formula:

Where M is the mass while V is the volume

In this experiment, the masses and volumes of 3 samples of aluminum will be determined and be used to determine the density of aluminum. The density of the aluminum will be used to determine the thickness of the aluminum foil in the second part of the experiment.

Materials

Scale/balance

3 aluminum samples

25ml graduated cylinder

Caliper

Weighing boats

Procedure

3 aluminum samples were obtained: 1 aluminum shot and 2 aluminum bars

The scale was zeroed

The sample was placed on the weighing scale and the mass was recorded

The volume of the bar was determined using the formula Length (L)*Width (W)*Height (H) measured using a caliper

The volume of the shot was determine using the water displacement method

The volume of the second bar was determined using the L*W*H method

The value of the density of the 3 samples was calculated using the formula:

 

The value of the densities was then averaged.

Data and Observations

Volume of the bars

Sample Length L (cm) Width W (cm) Height H (cm) Volume (cm3)

(L*W*H)

1 76.2 6.2 25.3 19.95275
2 5 1.2 2.5 15.00000

 

Volume of the Aluminum shot

67mL – 50mL = 17mL

Sample Mass (g) Volume (V) Density (g/cm3)
Aluminum bar 1 32.779 11.95275 2.74238
Aluminum bar 2 44.676 15.00000 2.97840
Aluminum shot 46.140 17.00000 2.71411

 

Rounded off average density = 2.8 g/cm3

Part II

Background

In science we use both large and small numbers at the same time. The laboratory tools available are not suitable for measuring the thickness of an aluminum foil. However, the volume of a regular object can be calculated using the formula:

Taking the height (h) to be the thickness (T) of the foil, therefore:

Using the density formula we get the volume formula

The aluminum foil can be measured to get its mass and used the density obtained from part I.

Materials

Balance, centimeter ruler, 4 sheets of aluminum foil, data table and a calculator

Procedure

A data table was made to include all the necessary data

A large aluminum foil was cut into 4 pieces with 900 edges

The length and width of each piece was measured and recorded

The mass of each piece was measured and recorded

Calculations were made

Data

Sheet Number Area Volume Thickness
1      
2      
3      
4      

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works cited

Mahan, Gerald D. Many-particle physics. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.

Jensen, Frank. Introduction to computational chemistry. John wiley & sons, 2017.

Kalpakjian, Serope, and Steven R. Schmid. Manufacturing engineering and technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Pearson, 2014.

 

City Of Quartz”

September 25, 2017

Introduction

The story of Los Angeles is mostly about cut edging – California only or visions for the future. Mike Davis explored what he called “The post-modernity bad edge” in a city that has escaped not only itself but also its consequences in imitation histories and myths. Sunshine or Noir? Is the question he asks in the first chapter of the book.The query regard the quality of life of residents of Los Angeles (L.A). His naming of the first chapter was meant to position Los Angeles (L.A) as a fiction and an architectonic space and a collection of material practices by comparing dominant groups’ boosterism with the city narratives of noir, gangster rap and the Frankfurt school (Davis, 1990, P.82).

The city set the mode of its development through its foundation as a real state capitalism creature. It promised oil, and sunny beaches as well as the romanticized “mission myth,” a picture described by the boosters but destroyed and made cynical by debunkers and the noirs respectively. Davis, (Davis, 1990. P.17) introduced us to a city covered by its waste as well as an area damaged by capitalism contradictions – social stratification, greed, overproduction, gentrification, religious revivalism, ignorance of the environment, and political chicanery. Mr Davis meant to position L.A as bright, hard and opaque. Opinions about the town can fall under two virtual subdivisions – day and night views. The night watchers usually celebrate the city’s long-term pale yellow stream of light, flowing over a lacework of streets and subways, as a symbol of accomplishment by the humanity. Historian Kevin Starr leads this school of thought in his “Material Dreams.” He showed how “boosters” or early leaders in L.A changed a desert into a world-class city with just dreams daring executions (Davis, 1990, P.25). Fortunately, Mr Davis wants the readers also to view L.A in a less flattering daylight, when those streams fade to uncover symbols of problems ranging from snarled traffic to isolated automobiles. Traffic is due to political establishment dominated by developers that have set peoples’ focus on the short-term gains while isolated cars arises from separating ethnicities and classes in a city with increasingly scarce public space (Davis, 1990, P.36)

Sunshine

According to Davis sunshine represented the ideas promoted by real estate developers in the early twentieth century (Davis, 1990, P.24). These boosters had an optimistic view of L.A. They made the city resemble a white new haven. The excellent working conditions, bungalows, and sunny beaches comprised the dream of a utopian society portrayed by the boosters. Davis (Davis, 1990, 26) asserts that the dream was a “romantic myth” made to entice the retired farmers, wealthy spinsters, stock speculators, Chautauqua devotees, small-town dentists, tubercular schoolteachers, and Iowa lawyers. These  group of persons transferred their small fortunes and savings to real estate in southern California. The massive wealth flow between regions created population, consumption, and income structures out of all proportion to L.A’s actual production base. L.A became the only postindustrial city in a pre-industrial stage. It seemed to have developed reversely from such a perspective (Davis, 1990, P.35)

Besides, the debunkers did an excellent job depicting what L.A was to the middle working class residents. Street transport lockouts and violent metal trade strikes were used to deconstruct unions. The city realized a glimpse of a happy working class when immigrants from Europe arrived. The violence and brutality of the upper class had sent the average working class to a state of desperation. Also, debunkers looked at L.A’s culture or its absence. According to (Davis, 1990, P.34),   Alfred Doeblin viewed Hollywood as more of a murderous area desolate of houses. The residents hardly mentioned or discussed the eighteen-fifties and sixties genocide of natives. The southern California sunshine blinded all different cultures, and the residents could not see or understand the poor conditions unless the experienced such conditions for themselves.

Noir

The noirs portray a cynical scene in that; they turned everything advertised by the boosters to a sinister equivalent (Davis, 1990, 36). Davis points out clearly that the dystopian revulsion that fueled L.A’s growth became a traditional approach during the Depression due to its anchorage on middle class’s despair whose savings sunk in oil speculations and real estate. He offers a dark and oppressive life picture in a tough, hardhearted L.A where the elite crushes the poor, public space fortresses, whites exploit other races, police abuse the residents, and pollution, urban decay, and traffic conquer all (Davis, 1990, 44). Noir could change anything from positive to negative. Davis starts the discourse on noirs by quoting Louis Adamic who says that L.A looks nice from mount Hollywood but is a jungle. He sees the city as a dangerous place comprising of old dying populace, wild and poisonous plants as well as fake science and decadent religious cults (Davis, 1990, 17).  Besides, beginning in 1934, a succession of novels repainted LA’s image from a golden land of fresh start and opportunity to a deracinated urban hell. The marathon dance hall in Horace McCoy’s book became a virtual death camp for the souls lost during the Depression. In the nineteen thirty-six Double Indemnity and the nineteen forty-one Mildred Pierce evoked poisoned bungalows. Also, the climate especially the Santa Ana winds inspired by “earthquake weather” was increasingly eerie with some individual suggesting that there were ladies in the lakes. In Didion (1936), a debate on rattlesnakes’ ability to swim confirms the negativity in many L.A residents.

L.A came to define its history via the noir imagery (Davis, 1990, 36). Noir emphasized on economic self-interest rather than psychology meaning a possible subdivision of the city to between the idle or lazy rich and the productive middle classes. Also, there was subversion or alteration of gender roles in noir that presented women as dangerous, scheming, and sexually promiscuous.

Relationship between Sunshine and Noirs

Both of the two competing poles are real forces in the capitalist structure of L.A.  They have forced the city to play two roles in advanced capitalism – utopia and dystopia – leading to race and class warfare as well as a confrontation between international and national forces by both the powerless and powerful. Consequently, the two roles subject the city to two competing mythographies – its heaven and its hell (Davis, 1990, P.19).

The dark side of southern California is its existence in a peculiar tension between the built environment and the underlying elemental landscape. Earthquakes, fires, and floods depict the tenuous life in southern California. McPhee (1988) asserts that it is not clear which side loses concerning L.A and the mountains. The city’s inhabitants must adapt to weather changes and rains that lead to debris flow causing havoc in the city. Frequent debris flows causes havoc in the city. Also, whenever the Santa Ana winds blow, physicians here about nausea, allergies, headaches, nervousness and depression. According to Didion, (1968) L.A is a disrupted world because Santa Ana represents disruption. The unpredictability and violence of influence the quality of life in L.A and that every person in the city should accentuate its unreliability and impermanence (Garcia, 2010).

Much of the city’s early developments came from population and capital flows from the Midwest – a structure of the Southern California boom promoted by savings of the middle class – ensured a circle of bankruptcy and crisis for small developers, small businesspeople and retired farmers. (Davis, 1990, 29) offers a dark and oppressive life picture in a tough, hardhearted L.A where the elite crushes the poor, public space fortresses, whites exploit other races, police abuse the residents, and pollution, urban decay, and traffic conquer all.

There were less urbanity and more hardship in L.A that the ruling elites packaged into false hope. The relocation of early natives to Mexico was a romantic myth whereby workers enjoyed healthy working relationships with their “benevolent” employers. The tale attracted people worldwide to the city. Nonetheless, L.A was the perfect location for the wealthy minority. It provided the sunshine, the Spanish architecture, and the ocean. What else could the elites want? But, for those individuals without money or resources, the city was a murderous land without houses (Davis, 1990, 47).

In conclusion, the multiple facets of L.A lack perfect cut, clarity and color. McWilliams (19446) sees L.A as a gigantic improvisation – a city that has imported virtually everything, from people to architecture.  The climate, diversity, economic zest, and scenery made L.A to be the fastest growing city worldwide. However, a dark past underlies the tony residential enclaves.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Davis, M. (1990). City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles.  Verso Books.

Didion, J. (1968). Los Angeles Notebook. Slouching Towards Bethlehem, 220.

Garcia, M. (2010). A World of Its Own: Race, Labor, and Citrus in the Making of Greater Los Angeles, 1900-1970. UNC Press Books.

McPhee, J. A. (1988). The control of nature: Los Angeles against the mountains. New Yorker Magazine, Incorporated.

McWilliams, C. (1946). Southern California: An island on the land. Gibbs Smith.

 

 

“City Of Quartz”

September 25, 2017

Introduction

The story of Los Angeles is mostly about cut edging – California only or visions for the future. Mike Davis explored what he called “The post-modernity bad edge” in a city that has escaped not only itself but also its consequences in imitation histories and myths. Sunshine or Noir? Is the question he asks in the first chapter of the book. The query regard the quality of life of residents of Los Angeles (L.A). His naming of the first chapter was meant to position Los Angeles (L.A) as a fiction and an architectonic space and a collection of material practices by comparing dominant groups’ boosterism with the city narratives of noir, gangster rap and the Frankfurt school (Davis, 1990, P.82).

The city set the mode of its development through its foundation as a real state capitalism creature. It promised oil, and sunny beaches as well as the romanticized “mission myth,” a picture described by the boosters but destroyed and made cynical by debunkers and the noirs respectively. Davis, (Davis, 1990. P.17) introduced us to a city covered by its waste as well as an area damaged by capitalism contradictions – social stratification, greed, overproduction, gentrification, religious revivalism, ignorance of the environment, and political chicanery. Mr Davis meant to position L.A as bright, hard and opaque. Opinions about the town can fall under two virtual subdivisions – day and night views. The night watchers usually celebrate the city’s long-term pale yellow stream of light, flowing over a lacework of streets and subways, as a symbol of accomplishment by the humanity. Historian Kevin Starr leads this school of thought in his “Material Dreams.” He showed how “boosters” or early leaders in L.A changed a desert into a world-class city with just dreams daring executions (Davis, 1990, P.25). Fortunately, Mr Davis wants the readers also to view L.A in a less flattering daylight, when those streams fade to uncover symbols of problems ranging from snarled traffic to isolated automobiles. Traffic is due to political establishment dominated by developers that have set peoples’ focus on the short-term gains while isolated cars arises from separating ethnicities and classes in a city with increasingly scarce public space (Davis, 1990, P.36)

Sunshine

According to Davis sunshine represented the ideas promoted by real estate developers in the early twentieth century (Davis, 1990, P.24). These boosters had an optimistic view of L.A. They made the city resemble a white new haven. The excellent working conditions, bungalows, and sunny beaches comprised the dream of a utopian society portrayed by the boosters. Davis (Davis, 1990, 26) asserts that the dream was a “romantic myth” made to entice the retired farmers, wealthy spinsters, stock speculators, Chautauqua devotees, small-town dentists, tubercular schoolteachers, and Iowa lawyers. These group of persons transferred their small fortunes and savings to real estate in southern California. The massive wealth flow between regions created population, consumption, and income structures out of all proportion to L.A’s actual production base. L.A became the only postindustrial city in a pre-industrial stage. It seemed to have developed reversely from such a perspective (Davis, 1990, P.35)

Besides, the debunkers did an excellent job depicting what L.A was to the middle working class residents. Street transport lockouts and violent metal trade strikes were used to deconstruct unions. The city realized a glimpse of a happy working class when immigrants from Europe arrived. The violence and brutality of the upper class had sent the average working class to a state of desperation. Also, debunkers looked at L.A’s culture or its absence. According to (Davis, 1990, P.34),   Alfred Doeblin viewed Hollywood as more of a murderous area desolate of houses. The residents hardly mentioned or discussed the eighteen-fifties and sixties genocide of natives. The southern California sunshine blinded all different cultures, and the residents could not see or understand the poor conditions unless the experienced such conditions for themselves.

Noir

The noirs portray a cynical scene in that; they turned everything advertised by the boosters to a sinister equivalent (Davis, 1990, 36). Davis points out clearly that the dystopian revulsion that fueled L.A’s growth became a traditional approach during the Depression due to its anchorage on middle class’s despair whose savings sunk in oil speculations and real estate. He offers a dark and oppressive life picture in a tough, hardhearted L.A where the elite crushes the poor, public space fortresses, whites exploit other races, police abuse the residents, and pollution, urban decay, and traffic conquer all (Davis, 1990, 44). Noir could change anything from positive to negative. Davis starts the discourse on noirs by quoting Louis Adamic who says that L.A looks nice from mount Hollywood but is a jungle. He sees the city as a dangerous place comprising of old dying populace, wild and poisonous plants as well as fake science and decadent religious cults (Davis, 1990, 17).  Besides, beginning in 1934, a succession of novels repainted LA’s image from a golden land of fresh start and opportunity to a deracinated urban hell. The marathon dance hall in Horace McCoy’s book became a virtual death camp for the souls lost during the Depression. In the nineteen thirty-six Double Indemnity and the nineteen forty-one Mildred Pierce evoked poisoned bungalows. Also, the climate especially the Santa Ana winds inspired by “earthquake weather” was increasingly eerie with some individual suggesting that there were ladies in the lakes. In Didion (1936), a debate on rattlesnakes’ ability to swim confirms the negativity in many L.A residents.

L.A came to define its history via the noir imagery (Davis, 1990, 36). Noir emphasized on economic self-interest rather than psychology meaning a possible subdivision of the city to between the idle or lazy rich and the productive middle classes. Also, there was subversion or alteration of gender roles in noir that presented women as dangerous, scheming, and sexually promiscuous.

Relationship between sunshine and noirs

Both of the two competing poles are real forces in the capitalist structure of L.A.  They have forced the city to play two roles in advanced capitalism – utopia and dystopia – leading to race and class warfare as well as a confrontation between international and national forces by both the powerless and powerful. Consequently, the two roles subject the city to two competing mythographies – its heaven and its hell (Davis, 1990, P.19).

The dark side of southern California is its existence in a peculiar tension between the built environment and the underlying elemental landscape. Earthquakes, fires, and floods depict the tenuous life in southern California. McPhee (1988) asserts that it is not clear which side loses concerning L.A and the mountains. The city’s inhabitants must adapt to weather changes and rains that lead to debris flow causing havoc in the city. Frequent debris flows causes havoc in the city. Also, whenever the Santa Ana winds blow, physicians here about nausea, allergies, headaches, nervousness and depression. According to Didion, (1968) L.A is a disrupted world because Santa Ana represents disruption. The unpredictability and violence of influence the quality of life in L.A and that every person in the city should accentuate its unreliability and impermanence (Garcia, 2010).

Much of the city’s early developments came from population and capital flows from the Midwest – a structure of the Southern California boom promoted by savings of the middle class – ensured a circle of bankruptcy and crisis for small developers, small businesspeople and retired farmers. (Davis, 1990, 29) offers a dark and oppressive life picture in a tough, hardhearted L.A where the elite crushes the poor, public space fortresses, whites exploit other races, police abuse the residents, and pollution, urban decay, and traffic conquer all.

There were less urbanity and more hardship in L.A that the ruling elites packaged into false hope. The relocation of early natives to Mexico was a romantic myth whereby workers enjoyed healthy working relationships with their “benevolent” employers. The tale attracted people worldwide to the city. Nonetheless, L.A was the perfect location for the wealthy minority. It provided the sunshine, the Spanish architecture, and the ocean. What else could the elites want? But, for those individuals without money or resources, the city was a murderous land without houses (Davis, 1990, 47).

In conclusion, the multiple facets of L.A lack perfect cut, clarity and color. McWilliams (19446) sees L.A as a gigantic improvisation – a city that has imported virtually everything, from people to architecture.  The climate, diversity, economic zest, and scenery made L.A to be the fastest growing city worldwide. However, a dark past underlies the tony residential enclaves.

 

 

 

 

References

Davis, M. (1990). City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles.  Verso Books.

Didion, J. (1968). Los Angeles Notebook. Slouching Towards Bethlehem, 220.

Garcia, M. (2010). A World of Its Own: Race, Labor, and Citrus in the Making of Greater Los Angeles, 1900-1970. UNC Press Books.

McPhee, J. A. (1988). The control of nature: Los Angeles against the mountains. New Yorker Magazine, Incorporated.

McWilliams, C. (1946). Southern California: An island on the land. Gibbs Smith.