Student Name

Institution

Professor

Date

A Rose for Emily
Plot

William Faulkner’s story, A Rose for Emily, is an excellent example of the southern Gothic literature since it consists of some features related to this literature, such as death, craziness, old and dark mansion, bizarre events, and mysteries. The tale took place in a small city, in Jefferson, Mississippi. The writer narrates a story of a lady called Miss Emily Grierson living in this city. It is an extraordinary story that tells about a spinster, Emily Grierson, who is aging while living in Jefferson. Her death and funeral touched the hearts of many people in the whole town. The description of the funeral shows this story is as the southern Gothic. This is because the story takes place in a region which lies in the south. Historic events are known to have taken place in the southern Gothic (Faulkner 122).

The story starts with the announcement of Miss Emily’s death; she is a spinster alienated from others in the South, in the early twentieth or late nineteenth century. The narrator speaks using the ‘we’ voice, and it is obvious that he represents the residents of this town. In the novel, Emily is depicted as an impoverished and lonely woman leaving without money from her father, who chased off suitors from his daughter due to his overprotective nature. When the father died, he left Emily with a large and dilapidated house, where the residents of the town have never been invited; when they finally have managed to get into the house after Emily’s death, they got the shocking news that they had not known before. They discovered the whole truth concerning Emily’s problems; she had been keeping her lover’s body, Homer Barron, a Northerner, sheltered in the bedroom because she had killed him some years before her death. The author reveals that a bad Adour was felt emanating from Emily’s house. However, no one was willing to question her because of her dignity. Her family was feared in that land (Judith 86). The corpse is later discovered after the death of Emily.

Character Development

Emily

The author illustrates Emily as woman of high caliber. This starts from her father’s treatment of her suitors. Many people had come to seek for her hand in marriage but her father refused. He expected them to pay very high bride prices. High bride prices are only paid to people of high standards. Emily is also illustrated as a loving person. Even though the author does not reveal much about Emily’s love life, the truth is that she had much love in her. She mourns deeply for her father in show of love. The author illustrates her denial of the fact that her father is dead. This is a true indication of love in Emily. Emily is also portrayed as a respectful lady. She waited patiently for marriage. She had the choice of rebelling against her father when he refused many suitors. She however chooses to stay meek. Emily is also evil. Her evil is however a contrast of her usual nature. Evil is seen when she buys a poison and fails to state what she would use it for. Homer’s decomposed corpse is later found in her house (Ceasar 196). She actually killed him. This is an extreme show of evil.

Homer

He is a hard working man. This is seen in his involvement in the construction activities in the village. He is also daring. He finds the guts to approach a high ranking lady in Emily. The whole village is surprised that the low level Homer could win Emily to his side. This is a daring spirit.

Grierson

He is selfish. It is not fair to keen a daughter for a long time without marriage. His refusal of Emily’s suitors worked against Emily. She would have gotten herself a more worthy man save for her father. His selfishness is also seen when he sets the bride price at a high level. He wanted more money in return for her daughter. He is also controlling. He commanded all things that were to happen in the life of Emily (Ceasar 196).

Styles

Symbolism

The author has also used symbols in the plot to convey a special message to readers. For instance, the strand of hair the neighbors have seen in Miss Emily’s house is being symbolic. It symbolizes the love loss. It is the illustration of distances people are willing to pass on behalf of love. This strand of hair is extremely significant as it leads the neighbors to the hidden secret that Miss Emily had been keeping all that time. The author’s choice of the symbol is strategic for telling of the hidden events in the short story. As a result, readers are glued to the book in order to grasp each symbol’s feature in relation to the story.

It is evident that the short story, A Rose for Emily, is the small presentation of the people living in the South. From the analysis, it follows that the short story fits the features of a southern Gothic literature. The author manages to keep the reader interested in reading the story. He manages to achieve the purpose of passing his message to readers. The short story is a must read story. It clearly represents the notion of the society gone soar due to the constant alienation people are practicing. It teaches readers working together as the one in order to help each other during difficult times.

Faulkner’s story “A Rose for Emily” represents the feature of evoking chilling gloom and terror by exploiting the horror and mystery. The story ends with the residents of the town exploring the house of Emily after she had died. “One of us raised a little bit from it, and inclining forward, that faded, and imperceptible dust dry and pungent in the nostrils, we saw a long filament of iron-gray hair” (Faulkner 292). The author intentionally wrote this in order for readers to understand that it was meant to horrify them. Additionally, Emily had been sleeping beside the corpse for more than thirty years. The body was reeking and rotting, and all the nights she was sleeping near him. In addition to this, Emily had killed him using rat poison (Faulkner 222). Therefore, the mystery of the story is why one would sleep beside the dead body of a husband killed many years ago.

Themes

Death

The prevailing theme in this short story is the power of death. Right from the beginning, the author takes the reader through the experience that Emily had gone through after the demise of her father. Left in the huge house, she had received the company of a young man. However, this did not relieve her of the pain one could see due to the desperation of her father’s death. She remained weak and withdrawn for the rest of society. Later, her lover died. She had been keeping his dead body for 30 years. It is only when she died that her neighbors came to reveal her secrets. This is the indication that the death had provoked the secrets of Emily to be known to her neighbors.

The author explores the power of death in the way it triggered bizarre behavior, like Miss Emily’s (Faulkner, et.al 23). Eventually, Miss Emily ends with killing Homer due because she cannot accept the denial by the love of her life (Judith 196). This is another illustration of the theme of death. Very many deaths take place in this story. The author adds that when the residents of the town realized what Emily had been hiding for many years, they all stood for a long time gazing at the fleshless carcass. They discovered that Emily, who was a quiet, sad, and old lady, was the killer of a young guy many years ago and that she had been sleeping beside his body. The people in the town, at last, saw the wickedness and the dark side of Miss Emily.

Suffering

The story also shows the hidden and dark side of the situation regarding Emily, an outstanding character in this story. Emily is left by her father after his death, when she was little, had become depressed. The people in the town sympathized with her since she had been a lonely, but polite person. The author describes her as, “…still a slender lady, though thinner than normal, with cold, conceited black eyes in an expression the flesh of which was strained the eye sockets as you picture a lighthouse-keeper’s face should seem to be” (Faulkner 289).

Emily also suffers when Homer leaves her. Emily was in love with Homer Barron, a youthful guy, who after some time disappeared. The entire town understood that the youthful guy left her and sympathized with Emily because of this loss. She must have felt so bad when Homer left her. This was because she could not even leave her house. It is like she was under a self inflicted house arrest.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Faulkner, William. A Rose for Emily: And Other Stories. Canada: Kairyudo, 1956. Print.

Faulkner, William. “A Rose for Emily”. English Journal 1984: 109, National Council of

Teachers of English. Print.

Faulkner, William, et al. A Rose for Emily. London: Harcourt College Publishers, 2000.

Print.

Judith, Ceasar. “Faulkner’s Gay Homer, Once More.” Explicator July-Sept. 2010: vol. 68,

Issue 3, 195-198. Print.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Platelet Aggregation Studies in Normal People

Subtitle of Paper

Your name, Your credentials

(e.g., M.D., M.S., B.S., etc.)

Program

University

Name of Faculty Advisor

Project Timeline

Introduction

Haemostasis is a process that prevents blood loss from the body after injury. It has three processes: primary haemostasis, secondary haemostasis and fibrinolysis . Primary haemostasis occurs immediately after blood vessel injury. The first step in primary haemostasis is adhesion whereby platelets adhere to suendotheial cells through the Von Willebrand factor (VWF). This adhesion leads to platelet shape change, activation, release of granules contents and aggregation to form platelet plug. The primary haemostasis stimulates secondary haemostasis via activate coagulation factors that eventually convert fibrinogen to fibrin and form platelet fibrin thrombus. The third process of haemostasis is fibrinolysis, which leads to wound healing through removing the thrombus . This review outlines the screening tests of primary haemostasis and focuses on the platelet aggregometry test.

Screening Tests for Primary Haemostasis

The first step to investigating primary haemostasis is the full blood count, which measures platelet number and size. This test is used to exclude any defect in primary haemostasis due to thrombocytopenia . Morphological assessment of platelets is important to distinguish shape abnormalities such as Bernard-Soulier syndrome and Gray platelet syndrome. However, bleeding time (BT) is considered the functional screening test for primary haemostasis. It is used to diagnose VWD and platelet dysfunction by measuring the time from the start of bleeding to when it stops after making a small cut in the forearm. BT can be affected by many important factors such as operator technique, patient age and gender. For these reasons, it is rarely used now in practice . The best studied of all the primary haemostasis screening tests is the PFA-100. During this process, anti-coagulated whole blood is put in a cartridge and then rapidly aspirated through a membrane coated with agonists such as collagen and epinephrine or collagen and adenosine diphosphate. These agonists stimulate platelet adhesion, activation and aggregation, which lead to occlusion and stop blood flow in the test cartridge. In the PFA-100 test, closure time (CT) is measured, which reflects the time from aspirating the sample in an agonist coated membrane to occluding the blood flow in the test cartridge. The PFA-100 test is very simple, quick and easy to perform. In addition, it is a sensitive primary haemostasis screening test that can identify platelet function defects and VWD . The most commonly used screening test for assessing the platelet function is platelet aggregometry. There are two types of platelet aggregometry: light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and whole blood aggregometry (WBA) .

Light Transmission Aggregometry

Light transmission aggregometry is the gold standard for testing platelet function. It measures the transmission of the light through a test tube that contains platelet-rich plasma (PRP). After adding a specific agonist such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid (AA), collagen and epinephrine, the platelets activate and aggregate, which leads to an increase in light transmission through the test tube. The light signals transfer to a computer, which records these signals as a specific curve (.

These agonists activate platelet aggregation by binding to their receptors on the platelet surface. ADP, which is considered a weak platelet agonist, is also present in the platelet granules. It binds to two G- protein-coupled purinergic receptors (P2Y1 and P2y12) on the platelet surface to stimulate platelet aggregation. Through the P2Y1 receptor, platelet shape change is induced by activating phospholipase C, and then the primary wave platelet aggregation is initiated through calcium mobilisation. Full platelet aggregation response to ADP occurs through P2Y12 by inhibiting adenyl cyclase and stabilising platelet aggregation .

Arachidonic acid converts to thrombaxane A2 (TxA2) by cyclooxgenase and thromboxane synthase. TxA2 leads to mobilising calcium from intacellular storage sites and stimulates the secretion of platelet granules contents, which activates platelet aggregation .

Collagen has two important receptors on the platelet surface: GPIa/IIa (alpha2 beta 1 integrin) and GPVI. Collagen stimulates platelet adhesion through binding to the GPIa/IIa receptor. However, binding of collagen to the GPVI receptor leads to TxA2 formation, which is important for platelet aggregation .

Epinephrine is considered a weak platelet agonist like ADP. It stimulates platelet aggregation through the alpha2 adrenergic receptor, which causes the inhibition of adenyl cyclase and releases calcium ions from the endoplasmic reticulum .

Standardisation of LTA

LTA is affected by many pre-analytical and analytical factors, and these must be carefully controlled. The most important step that affects the LTA result is the PRP preparation . To prepare PRP, the whole blood sample is centrifuged at a specific gravitational force, which leads to separating red blood cells and white blood cells from the platelet-rich plasma. The gravitational force should allow the removal of all red blood cells and white blood cells from the plasma without loss too many platelets. At a 300 gravitational force, which is considered the highest force of centrifugation, the mean platelet volume (MPV) and aggregation rate will be lower in PRP than at other gravitational forces. When PRP is prepared at a 150 gravitational force, the red blood cells count will be high compared to 200, 250 and 300 gravitational forces. In contrast, white blood cell count is not significantly different between these four gravitational forces . The methodological standardisation of light transmission aggregometry is necessary because it is highly variable in the practices .

Blood Sample Collection

The blood sample for LTA should be collected from a subject who has abstained from smoking for at least 30 minutes and caffeine for at least two hours. In addition, drugs that reversibly inhibit the platelet function such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be stopped for at least three days before taking a sample, while medications that are known to irreversibly inhibit the platelet function such as aspirin and thienopyridines should be stopped for at least 10 days before sampling .

The blood sample for LTA should be carefully collected with minimal or no venous stasis, using a large diameter needle of at least 21 gauge into plastic or siliconised tubes. After that, the blood should be drawn into a buffered anticoagulant, which helps pH to remain stable during the LTA process. It is important that the first 23 ml of the blood sample to be discarded or used for tests other than LTA .

Preparation of PRP and PPP

Before centrifugation, the blood sample should be kept at room temperature for rest. The best gravitational force to prepare PRP by centrifugation is at 200 or 250 for approximately 10 minutes at 21 C . PPP should be prepared by centrifuging the remaining blood, which PRP was removed from at a 1500 gravitational force for about 15 minutes .

Choice of Agonists

There are specific agonists such as adenosine diphosphate, arachidonic acid, collagen, ristocetin and epinephrine that should be used in LTA for screen the platelet function. These agonists should be firstly used at a low concentration and then the concentration can be increased if there are abnormal results with low concentration.

 

2 mM of adenosine diphosphate, 5 mM of epinephrine, 1 mM of arachidonic acid, 1.2 mg mL-1 of ristocetin and 2 mg mL-1 of collagen are considered the lowest concentrations of these agonists that should be used during LTA test .

Primary Haemostasis Disorders

Mucocutaneous bleeding is the main complaint of patients with primary haemostasis defects. This bleeding pattern appears as epistaxis in addition to petechiae, ecchymoses and small bruises in the skin .

Von Willebrands Disease

This is an autosomal dominant disease that is characterised by a defect or deficiency in the Von Willebrand factor (VWF). VWF is important in the first step of primary haemostasis, which enhances platelet adhesion through binding with a specific receptor on the platelet surface. The most important lab investigation to diagnose VWD is to measure the VWF in the plasma, which will be low in this disease. Mild thrombocytopenia may present with this disorder in addition to prolonged PFA-100 CT. The response of platelets to all agonists in the LTA test is normal. In addition, the platelets can agglutinate normally with ristocetin .

Bernard-Soulier Syndrome

It is a rare autosomal recessive defect in the glycoprotein Ib (GpIb) receptor, the receptor of Von Willebrand factor. Bernard-Soulier syndrome is characterised by thrombocytopenia, giant platelet, prolonged bleeding time and prolonged CT in PFA-100 test. The platelet aggregation in response to ADP, AA and collagen are normal. In this disease, the platelet cannot agglutinate with ristocetin .

 

Glanzmann Thrombasthenia

This is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by a defect in the glycoprotein (GPIIb/IIIa) forming the integrin alpha 11b beta 3, which is important for the development of stable platelet aggregate. Thus, the platelets in Glanzmann Thrombasthenia disorder cannot bind to VWF, fibrinogen or fibronectin. The platelet count and shape appear normal in this disease. However, this disorder is associated with prolonged PFA-100 CT and the absence of the platelet response to agonists except shape change only in the LTA test. Platelet agglutination with ristocetin at 1.5 mg/ml is normal, while with 0.5 mg/ml, ristocetin is absent in this disease .

Storage Pool Disease

This is the most common inherited platelet function defect and is characterised by a defect in the number, content or release the platelet dense granules. PFA-100 CT may be prolonged or normal depending on the extent of the disorder. In the LTA test, the platelet response to ADP and collagen is decreased, which appears as a primary wave only with ADP. However, AA can lead to normal platelet aggregation in this disorder. Platelet agglutination with 1.5 mg/ml ristocetin is normal but absent with low concentration of ristocetin .

Conclusion

The diagnosis and investigation of the primary haemostasis disorders require some important steps before conducting laboratory tests. Complete patient history including medical, surgical, family and past history in addition to physical examination are essential to diagnosing primary haemostasis defects and excluding other differential diagnoses. Full blood count and morphological assessment of the platelet is the initial step of the laboratory investigation. In addition, bleeding time and PFA-100 are also important to diagnosing primary haemostasis disorder.

Platelet aggregometry is the most commonly test used to assess platelet function. There are two types of this test: light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and whole blood aggregometry (WBA). LTA measures the light transmission through test tube that contains platelet-rich plasma after adding agonists that stimulate platelet activation and aggregation. LTA is widely used in the practices to identify and diagnose the different defects in the primary haemostasis. Since LTA is affected by many pre-analytical and analytical variables, the methodological standardisation is necessary in this test

Materials and Methods

Whole sample donated by three healthy individuals were generously provided by our supervisor. The ADP agonist solutions with final concentrations of 10 uM, 5 uM , 2.5uM and 1.25 uM were prepared by appropriate dilution with normal saline (9 grams of NaCl +1000 mL of distilled water) as shown in table 1. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) and platelet poor plasma (PPP) were prepared where whole blood samples were centrifuged at 100 g for 12 min to obtain the PRP. The obtained PRP from the blood samples were carefully extracted to avoid mixing with RBC, then transferred to clean tubes. After obtaining PRP, the residual blood samples were recentrifuged at 1700 g for 15 min to obtain PPP, which were carefully extracted and transferred to other tubes.

Table 1:

Final concentration

ADD

Dilution

Make 60 uL

10 uM

100 uM

1 in 10

6 ul + 54 ul

5 uM

50 uM

1 in 20

3 ul + 57 ul

2.5 uM

25 uM

1 in 40

1.5 ul + 58.5 ul

1.25 uM

12.5 uM

1 in 80

1.5 ul + 118.5 ul

*ADP stock =1 mM = 1000 uM

 

 

Plate aggregation tests were performed in siliconized glass cuvettes using Chrono-log Lumi aggregometer (560CA, Chrono-Log Corp., Haverton, PA, USA) according to manufacturer’s instruction. Prior to aggregation runs, the aggregometer was calibrated with 500 uL of PPP to 90 percent transmission. Next, PRP samples diluted with respective donor’s own PPP samples were incubated at 37 oC prior to aggregation runs. Platelet counts were performed using Emerald analyser PACKS-4 according to the manufacturer’s instructions and adjusted to 250 × 109/ L.

 

 

DRAFT

Kindly go through this draft and provide and provide additional details on your materials and methods if any. You can send your lab manual

If your final results are ready, please send ASAP

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

100 Saudi adults were sampled to establish the interrelationship between demographic factors and the negative and positive aspects of social networking. The youngest adults admitted into the study sample were 18 years while the eldest participants were 52 years of age. It was found that the average amount of time spent on social networks daily did not have a significant linear relationship with positive aspects of social networking. Further, there were no significant differences between the average response scores for males and female respondents in the sample regarding their opinions on the positive and negative aspects of social networking. Likewise, there did not exist significant statistical differences between the respondents’ opinions on both positive and negative aspects of social networking.

As stated, this research was conducted to establish the relationships between demographic features of a sample of Saudi Arabia’s population and positive and negative factors of social networking. The demographic factors sought included age, gender, education levels, current employment status and job type, courses studied, and the highest levels of education attained. The positive aspects of social networking included socialising, acquisition of friends, enhanced research capabilities and faster completion of studies, among others. The factors with negative effects were broadly classified into three categories, namely; cognitive, social and physical development.

The Applied Tests

            A sample of 100 Saudi Arabian residents between the age 18 and 52 years were randomly selected for the study. The group as a whole represents a technologically aware generation that has been receptive to social networking. The Social Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data.

Statistic

Value

Min Value

1

Max Value

2

Mean

1.59

Variance

0.24

Standard Deviation

0.49

Total Responses

100

 

The following hypotheses were posed for the analysis:

H1: There is no relationship between the use of social networking and the notion of sustainability awareness among students in Saudi Arabia.

H2: There is no relationship between social-networking and the development of a professional attitude among students in Saudi Arabia.

H3: There are no significant differences between the major real and potential risks and opportunities via the use of social-networking among males and females.

H4: There are no significant differences between the major real and potential risks and opportunities via the use social-networking among respondents of different ages.

Furthermore, the study explains the positive and negative effects of social networking usage by students in Saudi Arabia. Factor analysis was used to determine the variability of the positive and negative factors of social networking identified. Descriptive statistics were employed to display the frequencies of population features such as age, academic levels, current employment and gender. Through the descriptive statistics, the underlying sampling features were made clearer. These include the percentages of males and females per course studied.

To determine the differences between male and females’ perceived real and potential risks of using social networking, the independent samples t-test was used. The one-way ANOVA was employed to determine the perceived real and potential risks of using social networking among respondents across the age groups 18-22, 22-32, 32-42, and those between 42 and 52 years of age.

Correlation analysis was also used to ascertain whether a relationship exists between the use of social-networking and the notion of sustainability awareness among  students in Saudi Arabia. It was also used to determine whether there exists a relationship between social networking and the development of a professional attitude among students.

 

 

Data Analysis and Discussion

Participants (Descriptive Statistics):

Out of the 100 respondents whose responses were selected to form the survey data, 41.0% were male, while females comprised 59.0%.

 

 

Youths in the age bracket 18-22 years of age comprised 26% of all respondents, while persons between 22-32 years made up 32% of the entire group. Respondents between the ages 32 and 42 accounted for 22% of the entire sample, which is slightly higher than the 20%  represented by respondents between 42-52 years – the highest age at which individuals were admitted into the survey.

 

 

            Despite the fact that most respondents did not provide reliable information about their current jobs (75%), the remaining 25% listed their occupations as follows:  students (29%), teachers (24%), web developers (2%), doctors (3%), the jobless (12%), technicians (2%), teaching assistants (2%) and student advisors (2%). Other careers accounted for 24% of all responses from the group.

 

            Regarding the areas of specialization, those who took art and design as their main course after high school comprised the least number of respondents (1%), slightly less than those who took business law (2%), information technology specialists (3%) and specialists in economics and finance and computer science with (4%) for each. Accounting specialists accounted for 5%, while those who took health sciences comprised 7%. Information systems and management specialists made up 9% each, while science and engineering was represented at 10%. Humanities formed the single identifiable largest group (20%), just 6% shy of specialists whose major courses were not included in the survey.

            Respondents who had attained a bachelor’s degree as their highest level of education comprised the majority at 49%, more than twice their closest comparable group of higher secondary and pre-university achievers at 22%. Diploma holders were as many as those who have master’s degree holders (12%). Post graduate diploma holders made up only 4% while individuals with a professional certificate as their highest education level made up just 1%.

 

             It was found that the majority of respondents spent between 1 and 5 hours on average on other social networking activities apart from email (52%), a percentage higher than those who spent less than one hour daily (22%) and the group that admitted to spending between 5 to 10 hours on social networking with the exclusion of their e-mail. Groups in which respondents spent between 10 and 20 hours and those who spent over 20 hours daily on social networking comprised 3% and 2% respectively.

 

 

 

            Compared to the amount of time that respondents spent on networking using their e-mail features, those who spend less than one hour daily make up for a vast majority (89%), followed by those who spend between 1 and 5 hours (5%), 5 to 10 hours (3%), and 10 to 20 hours (2%). Only 1% spent more than 20 hours daily perusing the features of their e-mails.

 

 

In total, 50% of the respondents stated that they go online to look at their email, 15% to play games, 41% for study, 39% to work, 48% to shop online and 46% to chat with friends. Furthermore, 36% research  their hobbies online, 35% bank online, 22% purchase goods and services online, 7% buy stocks and make business investments online, 26% research travel information and make reservations online and 13% had other ways of using the internet.

 

 


Reliability Test:

Positives

 

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach’s Alpha

N of Items

.897

25

 

 

There were 25 items evaluated for consistency among the positive effects of social networking in Saudi Arabia. From the results above, it is seen that the model composed of positive attributes is highly consistent (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.897).

Negatives

 

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach’s Alpha

N of Items

.937

30

 

30 components were evaluated to establish the reliability of the negative aspects of social networking chosen for the survey. With a Cronbach’s alpha 0.937, the model comprising the negative aspects was found to be extremely highly consistent.  

From the two results, that is, for the negative and positive effects of social networking in Saudi Arabia, the choice of aspects of each main effect (positive and negative) was remarkably good.  
Factor Analysis:

Confirmatory factor analysis was used to estimate the variation of the positive effects of social networking and that of the negative effects of social networking in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Scree plot below was obtained for loadings of positive factors of social networking.

Factors on Positive Impacts of Social Networking

 

KMO and Bartlett’s Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.

.809

Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity

Approx. Chi-Square

1.114E3

df

300

Sig.

.000

 

 

Total Variance Explained

Component

Initial Eigenvalues

Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings

Rotation Sums of Squared Loadingsa

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

Total

1

7.738

30.953

30.953

7.738

30.953

30.953

4.634

2

2.064

8.256

39.209

2.064

8.256

39.209

5.010

3

1.903

7.612

46.821

1.903

7.612

46.821

2.561

4

1.731

6.924

53.745

1.731

6.924

53.745

4.510

5

1.350

5.401

59.146

1.350

5.401

59.146

3.535

6

1.213

4.853

63.999

1.213

4.853

63.999

1.432

7

.951

3.803

67.801

 

 

 

 

8

.925

3.700

71.501

 

 

 

 

9

.842

3.368

74.869

 

 

 

 

10

.714

2.857

77.726

 

 

 

 

11

.664

2.656

80.382

 

 

 

 

12

.608

2.431

82.813

 

 

 

 

13

.552

2.207

85.020

 

 

 

 

14

.473

1.892

86.912

 

 

 

 

15

.433

1.733

88.646

 

 

 

 

16

.412

1.649

90.295

 

 

 

 

17

.380

1.518

91.813

 

 

 

 

18

.367

1.469

93.281

 

 

 

 

19

.333

1.333

94.614

 

 

 

 

20

.304

1.217

95.831

 

 

 

 

21

.279

1.118

96.949

 

 

 

 

22

.232

.930

97.879

 

 

 

 

23

.224

.896

98.775

 

 

 

 

24

.166

.664

99.440

 

 

 

 

25

.140

.560

100.000

 

 

 

 

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

 

 

 

 

a. When components are correlated, sums of squared loadings cannot be added to obtain a total variance.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pattern Matrixa

 

Component

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Learn new information and knowledge

.631

-.117

-.133

.144

-.023

-.047

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Gain up-to-date information

.777

-.016

.077

.102

.016

-.111

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Be more aware of global issues/local issues

.843

-.015

-.035

-.076

-.020

.179

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-To remember facts/aspects of the past

.630

-.006

.114

.027

-.037

.101

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Communicate with my peers frequently

.435

.093

.067

.172

-.458

-.212

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Collaborate with my peers frequently

.166

.104

.175

.382

-.520

-.108

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Communicate with my peers from different universities

-.057

-.055

-.087

.022

-.887

.066

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Communicate with my different communities

.145

-.302

-.009

-.107

-.679

.059

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Develop intercrossing relationships with my peers (i.e. Artistic talents, sport and common interests)

.428

-.013

.191

.081

-.328

-.019

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Study independently

-.060

.104

-.012

.735

-.234

-.082

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Overcome study stress

.261

-.217

-.142

.436

.109

.300

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Complete my study more quickly

-.019

-.044

.198

.782

.145

.086

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Understand and solve study problems easily

.107

-.112

-.184

.763

-.046

-.024

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Scrutinize my research study more easily

.170

-.171

-.017

.740

.074

-.040

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Develop my personal and communication skills

.089

-.818

-.181

.021

.015

-.161

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Concentrate more on my reading and writing skills

-.006

-.715

-.133

-.009

-.192

.054

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-To prepare  my professional attitude toward study and work

.172

-.687

-.009

.017

.075

.053

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Be more sustainable person

-.122

-.717

-.017

.132

-.159

.256

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Provide reliable and scalable services

.006

-.642

.190

.015

-.004

-.100

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Become more “Greener” in my activities

-.054

-.523

.239

.177

-.039

.050

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Reduce carbon footprint in my activities

-.271

-.144

.536

.195

-.132

.356

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Acquire  new acquaintances – work related

.111

-.428

.496

.066

.058

-.526

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Acquire new acquaintances –  friendship relationship

.192

-.200

.571

-.195

-.278

-.017

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Acquire new acquaintances –  romance relationship

.103

.170

.835

.028

.104

.079

Positive effects of Internet Under thissection, the r…-Do whatever I want, say whatever I want, and be whoever I want

.213

-.035

.229

-.026

-.015

.779

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

 Rotation Method: Oblimin with Kaiser Normalization.

 

 

 

a. Rotation converged in 12 iterations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (0.809) was large enough to certify the adequacy of the sample. All factors that could not load as much variance as themselves were eliminated from the model. On this basis, it was observed that only 6 components could be retained, therefore dropping the remaining 19 factors off the model.

From the Principal Component Analysis, it was observed that the highest correlation existed between factor number one and the ability to scrutinize research study more easily (0.692). The least correlation was observed between factor number six and the development of inter-crossing relations with peers, such as artistic talents and sports (0.008).

Factors on Negative Impacts of Social Networking:

 

KMO and Bartlett’s Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.

.837

Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity

Approx. Chi-Square

1.798E3

df

435

Sig.

.000

 

 

Total Variance Explained

Component

Initial Eigenvalues

Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings

Rotation Sums of Squared Loadingsa

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

Total

1

10.755

35.851

35.851

10.755

35.851

35.851

5.001

2

2.474

8.246

44.097

2.474

8.246

44.097

5.840

3

2.047

6.823

50.920

2.047

6.823

50.920

4.065

4

1.491

4.972

55.892

1.491

4.972

55.892

4.625

5

1.328

4.428

60.319

1.328

4.428

60.319

2.533

6

1.136

3.787

64.107

1.136

3.787

64.107

2.296

7

1.090

3.633

67.740

1.090

3.633

67.740

4.541

8

1.013

3.375

71.115

1.013

3.375

71.115

6.151

9

.833

2.776

73.891

 

 

 

 

10

.824

2.746

76.637

 

 

 

 

11

.693

2.311

78.948

 

 

 

 

12

.684

2.279

81.228

 

 

 

 

13

.621

2.071

83.298

 

 

 

 

14

.550

1.835

85.133

 

 

 

 

15

.521

1.737

86.870

 

 

 

 

16

.488

1.625

88.495

 

 

 

 

17

.425

1.415

89.910

 

 

 

 

18

.390

1.300

91.210

 

 

 

 

19

.387

1.289

92.499

 

 

 

 

20

.361

1.203

93.702

 

 

 

 

21

.343

1.142

94.844

 

 

 

 

22

.282

.940

95.784

 

 

 

 

23

.267

.889

96.673

 

 

 

 

24

.223

.744

97.417

 

 

 

 

25

.208

.692

98.109

 

 

 

 

26

.171

.569

98.678

 

 

 

 

27

.135

.451

99.129

 

 

 

 

28

.126

.421

99.550

 

 

 

 

29

.073

.244

99.795

 

 

 

 

30

.062

.205

100.000

 

 

 

 

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

 

 

 

 

a. When components are correlated, sums of squared loadings cannot be added to obtain a total variance.

 

 

 

Pattern Matrixa

 

Component

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Prevents me from concentrating more on writing and reading skills

-.012

.185

.785

-.049

-.035

.248

-.062

-.171

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Prevents me from remembering the fundamental knowledge and skills

-.039

.123

.795

.088

.035

-.018

.011

-.024

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Scatters my attention

.401

-.137

.543

.087

-.090

-.221

.194

.041

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Decreases my grammar and proofreading skills

.105

.103

.415

.081

.332

-.350

-.089

-.006

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Decreases my deep thinking

.133

.264

.443

-.143

.110

-.386

-.067

-.150

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Distracts me easily

.811

.004

.113

.010

-.046

-.037

.003

.051

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Prevents me from participating in social activities

.063

-.147

.159

.099

.622

-.122

.234

-.158

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Prevents me from completing my work/study on time

.663

.075

-.084

-.017

.447

-.061

.026

-.008

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Makes me sick and unhealthy

.174

.414

.001

-.070

.552

.047

-.058

-.110

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Bores me

.011

.715

.027

-.005

.004

-.205

.012

.022

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Stresses me

.096

.728

.106

.054

-.194

-.126

.154

.029

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Depresses me

.015

.859

.062

.078

.012

.121

.063

.099

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Makes me feel lonely

-.075

.698

.119

.149

.106

.094

.053

.010

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Makes me lazy

.246

.222

-.127

-.090

-.143

.021

.621

-.229

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Makes me addict

-.038

.076

.001

-.041

.069

-.046

.868

-.054

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Makes me more gambler

-.262

.054

.403

.039

.359

.035

.436

-.042

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Makes me insecure to release my personal details from the theft of personal information

.110

-.028

.199

-.054

-.119

-.175

.007

-.701

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Makes me receive an immoral images and information from unscrupulous people and it is difficult to act against them at present

.097

.202

.070

-.015

-.215

-.344

.111

-.389

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Prevents me from having face to face contact with my family

.041

.170

-.163

.202

.250

-.520

.218

-.097

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Prevents me from having face to face contact with my friends

-.062

.149

-.089

.500

.048

-.379

.149

-.124

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Prevents me from participating in physical activities

.447

-.064

-.024

.152

-.002

-.263

.275

-.176

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Prevents me from shopping in stores

.221

.040

-.018

.560

.338

.110

.062

.049

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Prevents me from watching television

.241

.093

.092

.526

-.232

.266

.322

.136

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Prevents me from reading the newspapers

-.073

-.001

.061

.796

.043

.037

-.035

-.152

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Prevents me from talking on the phone/mobile

.020

.176

.012

.687

-.148

-.191

-.189

-.160

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Prevents me from completing my work on time

.605

.165

-.059

.141

.027

.153

.056

-.311

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Prevents me from completing my study on time

.513

.235

-.007

.109

.109

.307

.075

-.382

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Increase privacy concerns

-.030

.071

.015

-.025

.186

.051

.041

-.821

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Increase security concerns

-.098

-.148

.009

.138

.061

-.034

.089

-.892

Under this section, the researchers will examine how students will use the social networking in…-Increase intellectual property concerns

.036

-.086

-.014

.136

-.034

.092

.012

-.809

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

 Rotation Method: Oblimin with Kaiser Normalization.

 

 

 

 

 

a. Rotation converged in 24 iterations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            By examining the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (0.837), it was concluded that the sampling adequacy of the test components was fulfilled. The criterion used for factor elimination was whether a factor could load as much variance as itself. On this basis, it is seen that only 8 of the 30 factors could load at least as much variance as their sizes. Therefore, 22 of the factors were eligible for elimination before further tests were to be carried out. This confirms that some factors among those examined are not very useful to the model.

            Using the Principal Component Analysis, it was observed that the highest correlation existed between factor one and the learners’ failing to complete their studies on time (0.770). The least correlation observed existed between factor three and the respondents’ ability to meet and have time with their families (0.001).

Cognitive Development:

 

KMO and Bartlett’s Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.

.783

Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity

Approx. Chi-Square

188.545

df

15

Sig.

.000

 

 

Total Variance Explained

Component

Initial Eigenvalues

Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

1

3.064

51.072

51.072

3.064

51.072

51.072

2

.951

15.846

66.918

 

 

 

3

.750

12.493

79.411

 

 

 

4

.530

8.830

88.241

 

 

 

5

.405

6.758

94.999

 

 

 

6

.300

5.001

100.000

 

 

 

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (0.783) points to the fact that the sample was adequate and that the correlation matrix formed by correlating the factors against each other did not yield the hard-to-work-with singular matrix since the chi square statistic is statistically significant (Chi Square = 188.545, df = 15, level of significance < 0.001). From both the variance table and the Scree plot it was found that only one factor could be formed from the initial factors. This indicates that there was high correlation among all the factors in the test. The model also shows that interference of social networking with remembrance of fundamental  knowledge and skills was quite high, recording the highest squared correlation coefficient with other factors (0.802) while distraction was least affected (-0.048).

Social Development:

 

KMO and Bartlett’s Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.

.796

Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity

Approx. Chi-Square

474.509

df

66

Sig.

.000

 

 

Total Variance Explained

Component

Initial Eigenvalues

Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings

Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

1

4.840

40.330

40.330

4.840

40.330

40.330

2.913

24.277

24.277

2

1.455

12.127

52.457

1.455

12.127

52.457

2.264

18.864

43.141

3

1.097

9.145

61.602

1.097

9.145

61.602

2.215

18.461

61.602

4

.858

7.149

68.751

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

.755

6.293

75.044

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

.705

5.877

80.921

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

.621

5.178

86.099

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

.479

3.993

90.092

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

.473

3.946

94.038

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

.274

2.285

96.323

 

 

 

 

 

 

11

.255

2.128

98.451

 

 

 

 

 

 

12

.186

1.549

100.000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (0.796) indicates that the sample was adequate and that the correlation matrix formed by correlating the factors against each other did not yield a singular matrix. The chi square statistic is statistically significant (Chi Square = 474, df = 66, level of significance < 0.001) at the 5% level of significance. From both the variance table and the Scree plot, it was found that three factors were formed from the initial factors. Therefore, going by correlation patterns, 3 distinct patterns were observed. The results also show that stress resulting from social networking was high, recording the highest squared correlation coefficient with other factors (0.760) while boredom rarely occurred (0.018).

 

Physical Development:

 

KMO and Bartlett’s Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.

.829

Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity

Approx. Chi-Square

383.688

df

36

Sig.

.000

 

 

Total Variance Explained

Component

Initial Eigenvalues

Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings

Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

1

4.373

48.586

48.586

4.373

48.586

48.586

2.926

32.514

32.514

2

1.022

11.353

59.939

1.022

11.353

59.939

2.468

27.424

59.939

3

.904

10.042

69.981

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

.664

7.381

77.362

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

.588

6.532

83.894

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

.489

5.435

89.329

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

.481

5.340

94.669

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

.338

3.759

98.428

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

.141

1.572

100.000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (0.829) indicates that the sample was adequate and that the correlation matrix formed by correlating the factors against each other did not yield a singular matrix. The chi square statistic is statistically significant (Chi Square = 383, df = 36, level of significance < 0.001) at the 5% level of significance. From both the variance table and the Scree plot, it was found that two factors were formed from the initial factors. Therefore, going by correlation patterns, three distinct patterns were observed. The results indicate that social networking was a great hindrance to completion of other intended work, recording the highest squared correlation coefficient with other factors (0.796) while interference with plans to shop in stores was rare (-0.048).  

 

 

 

Security Concerns:

 

KMO and Bartlett’s Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.

.672

Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity

Approx. Chi-Square

185.959

df

3

Sig.

.000

 

 

Total Variance Explained

Component

Initial Eigenvalues

Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

1

2.432

81.074

81.074

2.432

81.074

81.074

2

.425

14.170

95.244

 

 

 

3

.143

4.756

100.000

 

 

 

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (0.672) points to the fact that the sample was inadequate and that the correlation matrix formed by correlating the factors against each other did not yield the singular-type matrix since the chi square statistic is statistically significant (Chi Square = 186, df = 3, level of significance < 0.001). Indeed, three components only is a small sample. From both the variance table and the Scree plot it was found that only one factor could be formed from the initial factors. This indicates that there was a high correlation among all the factors in the test, perhaps due to their small number. The model also shows that social networking significantly raised security concerns, recording the highest squared correlation coefficient with other factors (0.947) while concerns for security of intellectual properties least concerned the group (0.843).  
Correlation Analysis
:

Use of social-networking and the notion of sustainability awareness among the students 

The null hypothesis:

H0: There is no relationship between the use of social networking and the notion of sustainability awareness among the students in Saudi Arabia; was tested against the alternative hypothesis:

H1: There exists a relationship between the use social networking and the notion of sustainability awareness among the students in Saudi Arabia

Variables: Average amount of time spent on social networking daily and social networking functions.

 

The following table was developed using the SPSS:

Correlations

 

 

How many hours do you spend on the social networking daily, not including email? (Per day)

How many hours do you spend on the internet for email? (Per day)

Positive Effects

How many hours do you spend on the social networking daily, not including email? (Per day)

Pearson Correlation

1

.323**

.116

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

.001

.250

N

100

100

100

How many hours do you spend on the internet for email? (Per day)

Pearson Correlation

.323**

1

.060

Sig. (2-tailed)

.001

 

.551

N

100

100

100

Positive Effects

Pearson Correlation

.116

.060

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.250

.551

 

N

100

100

100

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

 

 

 

            The Pearson correlation coefficient between the hours an individual spends on social networks without taking a moment on their e-mail and positive effects on social networking is 0.116, with a p-value 0.250. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the hours an individual spends networking via their email is 0.060, with p-value 0.551. Both coefficients have significance levels greater than the p-value adopted for the test (0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis failed to be rejected. It was concluded that there did not exist significant linear relationships between the time factor and the tendency to be content with aspects of positive effects of social networking.


Use of social-networking and the notion of insecurity and other negative effects among students 

Further, the relationship between the amounts of time spent on different modes of social networking daily, and individuals’ sense of insecurity and negative contribution to well-being was studied. The total of individual’s response scores for insecurity and negative effects resulting from social networking was computed and averaged.  

To this effect, the following hypothesis was developed:

H0: There is no statistically significant relationship between the use of social networking and the notion of insecurity and negatives related to social, physical, and cognition aspects among students  in Saudi Arabia was tested against the alternative hypothesis:

H1: There exists a significant relationship between the use of social-networking and the notion of insecurity and negative effects on social, physical, and cognition aspects among students in Saudi Arabia.


Variables: Average amount of time spent on social networking daily and average negative impacts of social networking per individual.

Below is the table developed using the SPSS:

 

Correlations: Negative Effects versus time spent on Social Networking

 

 

 

How many hours do you spend on the social networking daily, not including email? (Per day)

How many hours do you spend on the internet for email? (Per day)

Negative Effects

How many hours do you spend on the social networking daily, not including email? (Per day)

Pearson Correlation

1

.323**

.072

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

.001

.479

N

100

100

100

How many hours do you spend on the internet for email? (Per day)

Pearson Correlation

.323**

1

-.052

Sig. (2-tailed)

.001

 

.606

N

100

100

100

Negative Effects

Pearson Correlation

.072

-.052

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.479

.606

 

N

100

100

100

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

 

 

 

            The correlation coefficient for the relationship between the overall negative effects of social networking and the number of hours on social networking sites, excluding individual’s emails, is 0.072. With a p-value 0.479, the null hypothesis fails to be rejected at the 5% level of significance. Therefore, it was established that there did not exist a significant relationship between the use of non-email social-networking and the notion of insecurity and negative impacts on social, physical, and cognition aspects.

           

 

The Pearson correlation between the negative effects of social networking and the amount of time an individual spends on using e-mail is -0.052. This points to a weak, inverse relationship, suggesting people’s perceptions are that email-networking has a positive effect on their security and other developmental aspects. However, with a p-value 0.606, this relationship is not statistically significant. Conclusively, a significant relationship between the use of email-based social-networking and the notion of insecurity and negative impacts on social, physical, and cognition aspects does not exist.

T-Tests:

T-tests were used to ascertain whether there existed significant differences between the major, real and potential risks and opportunities via the use social-networking among males and females. The following hypothesis was developed:

H0: There are no significant differences between the major real and potential risks and opportunities via the use of social networking among males and females.

H1: There exists a significant difference between the major real and potential risks and opportunities via the use of social networking among males and females.

 

 

Independent Samples Test

 

 

Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

 

 

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

 

 

Lower

Upper

Cognitive Development

Equal variances assumed

3.335

.071

-.718

98

.474

-.11623

.16182

-.43736

.20489

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-.684

70.840

.496

-.11623

.16983

-.45487

.22241

Social Development

Equal variances assumed

7.180

.009

-1.658

98

.101

-.24407

.14724

-.53628

.04813

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-1.554

65.954

.125

-.24407

.15704

-.55762

.06947

Physical Development

Equal variances assumed

1.311

.255

-1.975

98

.051

-.31799

.16099

-.63747

.00149

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-1.921

77.374

.058

-.31799

.16553

-.64757

.01159

Security Concerns

Equal variances assumed

.173

.678

-1.064

98

.290

-.21786

.20468

-.62405

.18833

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-1.051

82.288

.296

-.21786

.20726

-.63015

.19443

 

 

           

 

All tests were carried out assuming a 5% level of significance for the test statistic. Likewise, equal variances were assumed throughout. The t-value for factors of social networking that negatively affect cognitive development (-0.718) had a p-value (0.474); for factors of social networking that negatively affect social development t = -1.658 with a p-value (0.101); for factors of social networking that negatively affec physical development, t = 0.255, and p-value (0.051) and for security concerns, t = -1.064, with a p-value 0.290.

All four factors have p-values greater than 0.05 as the level of significance for the test. Therefore, the null hypothesis was not rejected for any of the factors. It was concluded that average response scores per gender (male and female) were not significantly different.


Analysis of Variance (ANOVA):

ANOVA was used to test whether there existed differences between the risks posed by the negative factors of social networking among members of specific age groups. The test was carried out at a 5% level of significance:

H0: There is no significant difference between the factors that pose risk to social networkers in Saudi Arabia based on age groups.

H1: With respect to respondents’ ages, there is a significant difference between age-groups’ considerations of the factors that pose risk to social networkers in Saudi Arabia.

ANOVA

 

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Positive Effects

Between Groups

1.552

3

.517

1.926

.130

Within Groups

25.791

96

.269

 

 

Total

27.344

99

 

 

 

Cognitive Development

Between Groups

2.599

3

.866

1.391

.250

Within Groups

59.804

96

.623

 

 

Total

62.403

99

 

 

 

Social Development

Between Groups

1.117

3

.372

.691

.560

Within Groups

51.722

96

.539

 

 

Total

52.839

99

 

 

 

Physical Development

Between Groups

1.927

3

.642

.995

.398

Within Groups

61.960

96

.645

 

 

Total

63.888

99

 

 

 

Security Concerns

Between Groups

1.738

3

.579

.563

.641

Within Groups

98.728

96

1.028

 

 

Total

100.466

99

 

 

 

 

From the ANOVA table above, there does not exist significant differences between the factors of social networking that negatively affect cognitive development (F = 1.391, p = 0.130); factors of social networking that negatively affect social development (F = 0.691, p = 0.560); factors of social networking that negatively affect physical development (F = 0.995, p = 0.398); and factors of social networking that raise security concerns (F = 0.563, p = 0.641). Notably, all p-values for the F-statistics in the test were greater than the level of significance at which the study was undertaken. This led to the failure to reject the null hypothesis.

Using ANOVA, the research also tested for the existence of significant statistical differences between respondents’ favouring of the positive effects of social networking, again based on age groups. The following hypothesis was developed:

H0: There is no significant difference between the factors that bring positive effects to social networkers in Saudi Arabia based on age groups.

H1: With respect to respondents’ ages, there is a significant difference between the factors that cause positive effects to social networkers in Saudi Arabia.

            Again, based on the ANOVA table above, the null hypothesis failed to be rejected. It is observed that the p-value (0.130) for the F-ratio (1.926) is greater than the level of significance for the test. Therefore, it was concluded that there did not exist age-based differences between the inter-age responses of the respondents.

Discussion

            There is significant growth in the acceptance of online environments as legitimate, social platforms. However, it is perceived that the digital environment poses great risks for users. In this study, it is realized that social networkers in Saudi Arabia do not view online exposure as a significant threat to their well being on social, cognitive, physical and security grounds. Furthermore, regarding this study, it was difficult to establish any significant relationships between social networking and satisfaction among respondents.

            There is no indication that age is a significant factor for controlling the population’s perceptions. Equally, gender emerged as a non-factor in deciding the role played by negative aspects of social networking. This could point to the possibility of the sexes having equal exposure to devices and environments that promote social networking.

            It is possible that the pattern realized in the responses by the population sampled could be the result of low knowledge of the existence of high risks for those networking online.

 

Conclusion

            From the study, it was learnt that there did not exist significant statistical differences between the opinions of male and female respondents. For that reason, it was noted that gender was not a distinguishing factor of the opinions of Saudi residents regarding the positive and negative effects of social networking. Likewise, there did not exist observable statistical differences between responses given by respondents from varying age groups and the opinions of male and female respondents.

            Generally, demographic aspects used in the research failed to elicit substantive differences based on the pre-identified positive and negative aspects of social networking. This shows that the approaches of the entire population are roughly similar across the kingdom.

            There are many indications that the populations within the age bracket covered are largely undertaking similar activities, with learning emerging as the most conspicuous. This is confirmed by the higher correlation between the population’s (as implied by the tests carried out on this sample derived from the general population) demographic features and elements of education, mainly in the factor analysis. This may also suggest that the educational facilities are equally utilized by both males and females.

 

 

Recommendations

            With the rising risks of insecurity caused by online spying and stealing of confidential data by ill-motivated individuals, it is necessary that media campaigns be launched across the kingdom of Saudi Arabia to counter the lack of adequate sensitivity to risks and danger displayed by the results of this study.

            Comparative studies between the perceptions of inter-regional responses to the same questions asked in this survey would help to establish whether media information on security risks brought about by virtual interactions compare favourably across regions. This research could likely analyse how often the people get to view a security caution on the internet or other news sources.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

Leadership Skills Demonstrated by Sir Alex Ferguson

Name:

Institution:

Course:

Instructor:

Date of Submission:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Leadership Skills Demonstrated by Sir Alex Ferguson

Born in 31st December 1941, Sir Alex Ferguson has been managing Manchester United Football Club from 1986 t- 2013. Previously, he served as a Scottish football player and manager. Following the consistently splendid results that Manchester United continues to record in major premier leagues, Sir Alex Ferguson remains one of the most respected and admired team leaders in the history of football (Silverthorne, 2013).

Indeed, Ferguson’s ability to manage such a huge club is no doubt a spectacular feat. For nearly three decades, Ferguson has turned out to be probably the only manager who has managed to succeed consistently for three consecutive decades. One of his outstanding impressive talents is deft motivation and management of highly reputable players in the world. As the manager of one of the largest football clubs of the twenty-first century, Ferguson has demonstrated his commitment to adopting the latest training technology and regimens. Furthermore, the manager continually plots viable success strategies for the club’s fraternity as a whole.

As documented in Silverthorne (2013), Ferguson’s willingness to nurture young talents is motivated by his long-term experience in managing football clubs. From a critical view, he also turns out to be a revolutionist as evident from his relentless efforts to revolutionize the club’s affairs. Ferguson’s role is dominantly visible in the organization. For example, the manager has been at the forefront in fostering club unity by ensuring that senior players warmed up with academy players on a daily basis. It is through his effective leadership skills that most of the players he developed— Paul Scholes, Gary Neville, David Beckham, Ryan Giggs—are now perfect standouts of the 21st century football (Silverthorne, 2013).

 

Overall, the success of Manchester United Club is attributed to Ferguson’s effective management skills. His most outstanding personality lies in his flexibility (Silverthorne, 2013). Apart from adopting new approaches and technologies in management, he also hires the services of sports scientists who assist the club in developing new ways of improving performance and measuring success.

Reference

Sean Silverthorne (2013). HBS Cases: Sir Alex Ferguson–Managing Manchester United. Retrieved November 8, 2013 from:

< http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/7123.html&gt;

 

My dad who is a pastor always wants me to live a righteous life; he also ensures that I get what I want. My dad also ensures that my life both spiritual and normal lives are okay. I therefore find him the most important person in my life.

My dad is always with me and ensures that I live according to the biblical teaching. He always make sure that I choose what is good to me regardless of how it is, but in doing so he monitors me so as not to go astray. Personally, there are so many things I have yearned to do. Most of the things indeed are not of benefits. For instance, going to dances and clubs or catching up with my friends at a social but contemporary place such as a night out escapade. Whenever I tell my dad what I wish to do, he always tells me to be free and do what I wish, but to evaluate my deeds if they are righteous or not. My dad is just a nice guy because anytime I visit his place he allows me to try out new experiences including socializing and making new friends. HE does not stop me from interacting with friends who seem to have a wayward behavior. In fact he encourages me to be close to them so as to ensure that i convince them to see the light and accept what is deemed as the righteous way. If there is somebody who does gives total freedom to an individual, then it is my dad. He will try to do anything to make one happy; this includes allowing me to be free to tell him how I wish without fearing.

It is evident that my dad is the the most important part of my life. He is always a person who inspires me by stating that I am the best in all I do. Apart from giving me parental guidance, he also treats me as a friend. In this regard, I find my dad an important person in life.

 

 

Name:

University:

Course:

Date:                                                 

Descriptive paper

Final copy

In life, there are many people who I can look up to because of the influence they have had in my life. However, among those that I hold with high regards is my dad who is a pastor. He has and is still the central part of my life. My dad always wants me to live a righteous life; he also ensures that I get what I want. My dad also ensures that my life both spiritual and normal lives are okay. I therefore find him the most important person in my life.

My dad is always with me and ensures that I live according to the biblical teaching. He always make sure that I choose what is good regardless of how it is, but in doing so he monitors me so to ensure I do not go astray. Personally, there are so many things I have yearned to do. Most of them indeed are not of benefits. For instance, going to dances and clubs or catching up with my friends at a social but contemporary place such as a night out escapade. Whenever I tell my dad what I wish to do, he always tells me to be free and do what I wish, but to evaluate my deeds and evaluate whether they are righteous or not. My dad is just a nice guy because he allows me to try out new experiences including socializing and making new friends.

My dad does not stop me from interacting with friends who seem to have wayward behaviors. In fact he encourages me to be close to them so as to ensure that I convince them to see the light and accept what is deemed as the righteous way. If there is somebody who gives total freedom to an individual, then it is my dad. He will try to do anything to make one happy; this includes allowing me to be free to tell him how I wish without fearing and also providing me with what I desire. He has also taught me to understand the power and responsibility in my life through what is in my thoughts, beliefs and choices

The kind of life I live is generally influenced by my dad who has a philosophy of giving freedom, while leaving a person to be his or her own self. He only intervenes to correct when he realizes that you are not living according to righteous way. My dad has taught me to understand the power and responsibility in my life through what is in my thoughts, beliefs and choices. Additionally, my dad treats and handles me in a way that motivates me into an ambitious person in life. In this regard, I have developed a sense of value, personality and importance in life. The idea about God and all spiritual matters taught to me by my dad have also ensured that I live according to righteous ways, hence treating all people as my brothers and sisters. This has for sure enabled me to be appreciated by all and sundry.

In conclusion, it is evident that my dad is the most important personal in my life. He is always a person who inspires me by stating that I am the best in all I do. Apart from giving me parental guidance, he also treats me as a friend. To say the least, my dad inspires me, guides me and provides me with my needs. My dad has always been supportive top me. He to give a comfortable life even with the little resource he has. He goes an extent of being a friend as he encourages me in all I go through. The most valuable thing I find in him is that he encourages me to learn even through making mistakes so that I learn from where I have gone astray. My personality generally exists because of my dad’s motivation and the values as well as virtues he has instilled in me. I have come to understand the need to respect each person, while also acting according to how I would expect in return. This religious aspect which has been introduced to me by my dad has made me the person I am today. He has always influenced me to take life easy and trust in myself while believing in God so as to succeed in life. What is more is more is that my dad has taught me to understand the power and responsibility in my life through what is in my thoughts, beliefs and choices. Additionally, my dad treats and handles me in a way that motivates me into an ambitious person in life In this regard, I find my dad the important person in life.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Running Head: RACE, CLASS, GENDER

 

Race, Class, Gender

 

Name

 

Instructor

 

Course

 

Date

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

People’s lives have never been alike; no person will exhibit the same characteristics as another person. Thus, the concept of race, class, gender and sexuality is intertwined in the present society. This tends to privilege and advantage other people in the society while, on the other hand, discriminating others. According to research carried out in Carolina University, there are a number of complexities which surround discrimination in America. Some of the factors which can be termed as contributors to discrimination in America include the education level of an individual (Reuters, 2014).

Women studies encompass race, gender, and class discriminatory attributes. This approach has been used to point out women discrimination on grounds of colour, studies, class, and work areas. Presently, women have faced a number of challenges especially those emanating from their sexual lives. Before the endorsement of the clause that allowed lesbianism and Gayism, there were rampant sidelines of these groups of people. Although it is legal, there is still a huge group of people who belief these sexualities are against the norms and traditions of the society. Some of the most dominant themes which are related to the new scholarships which also emerge in gender, sexuality, and race themes, are broadly labelled under the social constructionist theories and the multiracial feminism.

The history of race, class, and gender can be traced to 1970s and 1980s when women voiced their concerns on gender discrimination as the main tool of oppression. It was argued that any individual, who faced oppression, was suppressed on a multidimensional level. This can be traced to the work of Black feminist, Patricia, who points out that gender was a major reference point of discrimination in the American society. The scholarship schemes in America have faced numerous criticisms on how they are offered; for instance, blacks face major challenges in acquiring the scholarships. However, the larger portions of those who suffer from these challenges are black women. As a result, it is clear that gender and racism is still a major factor in the American society.

Rothenberg shares some of the incidents in her life to show that life is full of riddles. According to her, life is not all about the everyday concepts; instead, life is full of unexplainable episodes which call for further clarification. The society is ingrained with numerous challenges that hamper the effective flow of equality. She talks about some of the fundamental assumptions that relate to gender roles and race relations and the entire nature of the family. Politics was one of the major tracking roads for her since she concentrated on a number of hate speeches directed to the feminine fraternity (Reuters, 2014).

Some of the major themes expressed by Rothenberg in her work include; contextual nature of race, gender, class, and sexuality. This means that they are recurrent, over time, in the present society, especially, in the US. People from less dominant regions are regarded as different and, often, discriminated by the more dominant tribes in the US. Rothenberg takes an inside look at the cultural wars in the US and brings her story into the 90’s with an approach of a political and conversational tone.

She recalls the first feminine mobilization endeavours against sexual harassment and takes a recount of how important the whole approach was in trying to attain equality in the society. She criticizes the current education systems in the country and says that the whole system is polluted by individuals who are skewed to cultural and gender perspectives; this, in return, impairs a given portion of people in the society. The concept illustrated in her work is about privileges and disadvantages that are directed to different people. For instance, the most influential category would take more privileges than the least influential and incapable people.

The second theme depicted in this book is social construction of race, gender, class, and sexuality. Taking into perspective Rothenberg’s life in New York at the age 50 years, she tells of how the society viewed her as a woman. Her entire life has been full of criss-crosses between accepting the society’s treatment and fighting back to get a voice. The current society has not taken any steps to fully accept the role of a woman. The dominant cultures define the less dominant categories within the framework of gender, race, and sexuality as polar opposites. By stating that race and gender are socially constructed, Rothenberg means that they are beyond our explanation and cannot be explained by a single principle (Gordon, 2014).

The centre piece of Rothenberg is the fight against one particular group exploiting another for purposes of resource gains. Other researchers also tend to agree with Rothenberg on the same; they show that racial segregation is skewed towards competition for limited resources in a particular country. Another theme presented by Rothenberg’s work is the social and psychological structure. Individuals have learnt to accept that they belong to a particular section of the society. There are a number of dangers which are associated with this trend. For instance, an individual may not be able to stand up against those who oppress them; it generally lays a foundation of more prejudice and oppression (Gordon, 2014).

The American education system is neither fair nor equally distributive in the country. It can be termed as a simultaneous oppression mechanism. Women are not appreciated and their values are completely diminished to the extent that they cannot get scholarships or hold high positions. The key aspects, actually, are the consideration of whether there are systems which facilitate the development of people in the society. The American society, like any other country, is faced with a challenge of ensuring that equality is achieved in the current 21st century as compared to the 20th century, when discrimination against a given section of individuals was a norm. Rothenberg finishes by sensitizing those being oppressed to stand up against the practice and create awareness of their rights.

 

References;

Gordon, L. 2014. Bennett Draws Fire in Stanford Talk Assailing Course Change. [Online]

Available at: http://articles.latimes.com/1988-04-19/news/mn-1398_1_stanford-review [Accessed: 18 Mar 2014]. Los Angeles Times Articles

Reuters, B. 2014. ‘Bachelor’ to be hit with race discrimination lawsuit. Available at:

http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2012-04-17/news/sns-rt- thebachelorlawsuitl3e8fi1m0-20120417_1_bachelorette-racial-discrimination-

Executive-producer [Accessed: 18 Mar 2014]. Chicago tribune news.

 

Running Head: RACE, CLASS, GENDER

Race, Class, Gender

 

Name

 

Instructor

 

Course

 

Date

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

People’s lives have never been the same; no person exhibits the same characteristics as another person. Thus, the concept of race, class and gender is intertwined in the present society. This tends to privilege and advantage other people in the society, while, on the other hand, discriminating others. According to research carried out in Carolina University, there are a number of complexities which surround discrimination in America. Some of the factors which can be termed as contributors to discrimination in America are the education level of an individual.

Women studies encompass race, gender, and class discriminatory attributes. This approach has pointed out women discrimination on the grounds of colour, studies, class, and work areas. Presently, women have faced a number of challenges especially from their sexual lives. Before the endorsement of the clause that allowed lesbianism and Gayism, there were rampant sidelines of these groups of people. Although it is legal, there is still a huge group of people who belief these sexualities are against the norms and traditions of the society. Some of the most dominant themes that are related to the new scholarships which also emerge in gender, sexuality, and race themes, are broadly labelled under the social constructionist theories and the multiracial feminism (Rothenberg, 2013).

The history of race, class, and gender can be traced to 1970s and 1980s when women voiced their concerns on gender discrimination as the main tool of oppression. It was argued that any individual, who faced oppression, was suppressed on a multidimensional level. This can be traced to the work of Black feminist, Patricia, who points out that gender was a major reference point of discrimination in the American society. The scholarship schemes in America have faced numerous criticisms on how they are offered; for instance, blacks face major challenges in acquiring the scholarships. However, the larger portions of those who are suffering from the impacts are black women. It is clear that gender and racism is still a factor in the American society (Rothenberg, 2013).

Rothenberg shares some of the incidents in her life to depict that life is full of riddles. According to her, life is not all about the everyday concepts; instead, life is full of unexplainable episodes which call for further clarification. The society is ingrained with numerous challenges that hamper the effective flow of equality. She talks about some of the fundamental assumptions that relate to gender roles and race relations and the entire nature of the family. Politics was one of the major tracking roads for her since she concentrated on a number of hate speeches directed to the feminine fraternity (Rothenberg, 2013).

Some of the major themes expressed by Rothenberg in her work include; contextual nature of race, gender, and class. This means that they are recurrent, over time, in the present society especially in the US. Rothenberg states that the only change that comes about is the manner in which they are perceived. People from the least dominant regions are regarded as different and often discriminated by the most dominant tribes in the US. Rothenberg takes an inside look at the cultural wars in the US and brings her story into the 90’s with an approach of a political and conversational tone.

She recalls the first feminine mobilization endeavours against sexual harassment and takes a recount of how important the whole approach was in trying to attain equality in the society. She criticizes the current education systems in the country and shows that the whole system is polluted by individuals who are skewed to cultural and gender perspectives; this, in return, impairs a given portion of people in the society. The concept illustrated in her work is about the privileges and disadvantages that are directed to various people. For instance, the most influential category would take more privileges than the least influential and incapable people (Rothenberg, 2013).

The second theme depicted in this book is the social construction of race, gender, and class. Taking into perspective Rothenberg’s life in New York at the age of 50 years, she tells of how the society viewed her as a woman. Her entire life has been full of criss-crosses between accepting the society’s treatment and fighting back to get a voice. The current society has not taken any steps to fully accept the role of a woman. The dominant cultures define the least dominant categories, within the framework of gender, race and class, as polar opposites. By stating that race and gender are socially constructed, Rothenberg means that they are beyond our explanation and cannot be explained by a single principle (Rothenberg, 2013).

The centre piece of Rothenberg is the fight against one particular group exploiting another for purposes of resource gains. Other researchers also tend to agree with Rothenberg on the same; they depict that racial segregation is skewed towards competition for the limited resources in a particular country. Another theme that comes out of the work of Rothenberg is the social and psychological structure. Individuals have learnt to accept that they belong to a particular section of the society. There are a number of dangers that are associated with this trend. For instance, an individual may not be able to stand up against those who oppress them. This lays a foundation for prejudice and oppression (Rothenberg, 2013).

The American education system is never fair or equally distributive in the country. It can be termed as a simultaneous oppression mechanism. Women are not appreciated and their values are completely diminished to the extent that they cannot get scholarships or hold high positions. The key aspects, actually, are the consideration of whether there are systems that facilitate the development of people in the society. The American society, like any other country, is faced with a challenge of ensuring that equality is achieved in the current 21st century, as compared to the 20th century when discrimination against a given section of individuals was a norm. Rothenberg finishes by sensitizing those being oppressed to stand up against the practice and create awareness on their rights.

References;

Rothenberg, P. S. (2013). Race, Class, and Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study. New York: Worth Publishers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Draft of a research paper

Introduction Statement

This is a draft of the final report. The title of the final report is “The process of coming up with a family tree” The paper is divided into six sections namely: family tree, specifics of the research process, the associated findings, explanations of the interpretations of these findings, conclusion that addresses areas in need of further research, scanned photos, artifacts, maps, an Appendix that includes the Interview Assignment and all ten webinars and it ends with a conclusion

A section titled Family Tree

FamilyTree is the latest program that is able to create a family tree on an online platform for the whole world. In this website one can add dates, names, as well as other information for our ancestors. It is also via this website that one can reserve temple ordinances for his members of the family.

Associated findings

As one looks through his tree, he is identifying what is known already about his family members. This is the 1st Step 1 of the research process. One is also identifying what is not known and deciding what one wants to verify or know. This is the 2nd Step

 Registering for an Account

Follow these steps: One will his membership record number as well as the birthdate. Visit the website FamilySearch.org, Sign in, Create New Account, LDS FamilySearch Account, Next Step, and then follow with the prompt boxes that appear to set up your username and your password.

 Navigating through the tree

The Top Ribbon

Tree – Descendancy and ancestry are shown in a view which is tree-like.

Person – Sources, information, and relationships for one person are on the Person view. Much more information is available about a person on the Person screen instead of on the Tree view.

Search – Search for the ancestor by name as well as information or using a Personal Identifier. This is a unique, seven character sequence that is found underneath a person’s name on their summary card or Person view.

Watch List –  This refers to a list of people in one’s tree for whom he wants to be notified if any changes are done to their records.

Temple – This is the place where a list of each temple ordinance one has reserved is found. Here one is able to print the ordinance request card assign the work again to the temple.

History – A click on History allows one to navigate quickly through the people he has clicked on recently or to get easily back to himself. Whichever individual one selects becomes the root person in the family tree.
 

Summary Card: By just a click on a name, it will show the summary card of the person. This is a card showing basically birth, death, as well as the temple ordinance information for that person.

 Living People

The information that can be viewed is limited to those of still living individuals. One cannot merge individuals that are living in Family Tree. The addition of living individuals only creates duplicates.

 Adding People to Your Pedigree

If there are missing people from one’s pedigree one can then search for them to find out if they already exist in the database. One can start by clicking on the button for add husband/wife and thereafter perform a search by simply clicking on the “Search” tab at the topmost part of the screen will not allow one to add the person one finds into his pedigree).

Merging Duplicates

So that one can search for and thereafter merge duplicates for an individual, one needs to be on the Person view of the individual.

Latest Changes

This particular menu allows one to see what has been recently changed on a person’s page. This is where also one you would come when he wants to reverse incorrect changes that have been made.
 

Viewing/Editing/Deleting a Person’s Event Information

When one wants to do this, go to View Person, Click on that information you wish to change, Click edit, Change it, then add give a reason, If you realized that the information you have added is not correct, a small box that is headed Latest Changes will give all the recently made changes that have took place for that person, one can click on ‘show all’ and selecting the information that he has just changed, and then click ‘restore’. This will revert the information for that individual to its original form.

 Editing Relationships

One can modify the relationship that exists between members of the family (guardianship, step, biological or adopted). 

It is also possible to delete relationships on this particular page. Before an individual can be deleted, all the relationships between those individuals have to be deleted.

 Creating a new source

By doing this, one will be adding the source to that person. To link this to his birth, then select the source, and click “Tag” and then check for any information this source could be applicable to. When you click on that particular fact for example the date of death for your person, the respective source will automatically appear as evidence at the bottom of the box.
 

Conclusion

Family Tree is a program that is new that was released in 2012 October. Because of this, much needs to be done and perfected as it is still work in progress. Errors and problems are being fixed every day and things being added up. If one stumbles upon a problem while using Family Tree, he should feel free when submitting the feedback using the green button called “Feedback. The Family Tree requires relentless research and support from all quarters. 

Draft of the research paper

Project introduction statement

Every person is granted the gift of life through the parents. This is a link to ancestors who lived before us. From the time of creation, people have seen the need to belong. The bible itself contains a list of genealogies. People felt it was important to be able to trace one’s lineage to David, Abraham, Adam, Noah and so on.

Genealogy is a personalized and a unique form of history. It is passed down through generations via oral and written history. Without this link to the ancestors one would have little knowledge of his culture. It rewards exceptionally when one is able to trace his ancestral roots. It is through discovering one’s roots that one becomes aware of who he is as a person. One comes to understand more about his purpose in life.

Some individuals have very specific reasons with regard to tracing their family tree. Other people just jump into researching family history without giving it much thought. Knowing some specific factors that give a motivation towards researching about our ancestors can be a source of support and inspiration when the inevitable brick walls and roadblocks become factors. What provides a motivation to the broader genealogy community is as well helpful when one wants to understand ancestral research in future. This paper provides the usefulness of a family tree in ancestral research

Family tree

A Family Tree is the latest program that is able to create a family tree on an online platform for the whole world. In this website one can add dates, names, as well as other information for our ancestors. It is also via this website that one can reserve temple ordinances for his members of the family.

The family tree maker helps in creating printed and digital output charts, reports and slideshows that can be displayed in one’s family tree. The family tree maker helps publish charts, genealogy reports, place reports, persons’ reports, relationships reports, media reports, source reports and other books that can be attached to a family tree

Descendancy research

In traditional genealogy research starts with oneself and moves backwards one generation at a time, that is, from oneself to their parents, to their grandparents and so forth. In this research one has to always look for two parents but in descendancy research, researcher chooses one ancestor and traces all of his/her descendants up to the living cousins. Descendancy research is also known as revised genealogy.

Descendancy Research is done to honour an ancestor, to know about family inheritance, one can never have too many crazy cousins, to become a private detective, to feel better about oneself when you discover downfalls of the other larger family, to hone one’s genealogy skills, to tell the whole family story, to connect with someone who has done your ancestral research, to plan family reunions and to find our ancestors.

When conducting Descendancy research one should pick and focus on one ancestor or one ancestral couple and identify all he already knows about that family unit, collect every piece of information about an individual and immediate family before moving on and have a system to track where you are at in research on the family so as to avoid disruptions of where you stopped. He should then document both what is found and what is not found by using records such as newspapers, census records among others and citing all the sources.

Webinar 2

It’s important to verify whether family stories shared during family get together or passed down from generations are actually true accounts of what happened in the past or there are false parts of the stories told to suit the narrator’s perspectives of the events in the past. Sometimes the narrator’s give the stories their personal perspectives since they long to be attached with important people and historical events in the past. Therefore when analyzing fact or fiction in different parts of the story one needs to consider historical political, social and ethnic timelines in the stories

In finding out true stories one should collect all versions of the story, be objective and seek the truth, go through all available documentation. Finally one tell the story according to what he has discovered by finding fun new ways of telling the corrected version of the family story to other members, for example, by writing and sharing blog post, publishing a book, putting together and narrating a slideshow and providing the new material to other members as evidence to support your version of the story

Use of census records

The research found that some of the basic facts that are needed when using census records include the name, residence, estimated year of birth and the place lived. When using census record one asks himself some questions; one is how can that information be used? Will it help me narrow my search for other records? What other records will help me expand on the story? The second question is finding out what the records meant to them by putting the records in context of their lives as this is their story and translating dates into ages, ages into dates and dates into history. Census records are full of clues that make research take off in new directions.

Searching for the ancestors

To begin one’s search on Ancestry.com one should click on the Search box on the home page. This brings 6 billion records hence the need to narrow down the record. This is done by considering two things; one is finding out what makes one’s ancestors unique-name, places lived, events in life and people in their lives-friends, extended family members or neighbors. The second thing to consider is finding out what unique aspects will be included in the records. The advanced search options are available in the home page search.

Conducting female search

Genealogists love playing detective as they solve their family history mysteries. Most of them, though, have a few unsolved mysteries regarding the women in their family trees. Goals for conducting female research are; to identify her given name and maiden name, to place her in the correct birth family, to preserve her story and place in the family tree. In order to achieve these research goals, one has to pose some questions, consider the research strategies gather evidence and answer the questions. The research concept is understood as direct evidence, that is, information that answers a genealogy question explicitly. Indirect evidence is information that appears to be relevant to the genealogical question but needs to be combined with other information before an answer can be formulated. When direct evidence does not exist, one should refocus and look for indirect evidence. Research concept considers cluster genealogy which is the idea that ancestors did not live in a vacuum but in a cluster of extended family, friends and neighbors.

Research strategy

The research strategy here begins with vital records of the female’s life’s major events by working in reverse order, that is, death-marriage-birth to look for names. The second research strategy is to consider the female’s roles in the family-mother, grandmother or mother-in-law and look up her name in the husband’s or parents documents, such as, census records. The third research strategy is to consider the roles she played outside the family, for example, church member and look for her names in court records, diaries and letters written by other people, newspapers, membership registers, minutes or confirmations.

Conclusion

Family Tree is a program that is new that was released in 2012 October. Because of this, much needs to be done and perfected as it is still work in progress. Errors and problems are being fixed every day and things being added up. If one stumbles upon a problem while using Family Tree, he should feel free when submitting the feedback using the green button called “Feedback. The Family Tree requires relentless research and support from all quarters.