Program Critique and Principles of Counseling and Coaching

Part 1 Program Critique

Brief Program Description

My program of choice is Trauma Intervention Program (TIP). This is a program that trains citizen volunteers to provide practical and emotional support to all those victims of traumatic events in the first few hours after the tragedy in San Diego County in United States. The traumatic events include elderly women facing sudden death of their spouses, families who have lost their homes in fire and elderly parents anxiously waiting for news about their sick and injured children. The objectives of this program are to provide prevention, counseling and education towards resolving personal issues via specialty and traditional services, to identify, evaluate and respond to community needs via innovative needs, to encourage partnerships and community collaboration through advocacy and leadership and to promote best practices and quality of care in the community. The content of this program revolve around the development and provision of quality and outcome based services. These services should enhance well being and emotional strength of Maine residents throughout their lives. TIP recruits and develops highly qualified and extraordinary professional clinical staff. TIP’s outcomes suggests that 98% of clients surveyed felt that TIP staff treated them with respect, 92% of people felt that TIP had effectively met their needs, 95% of clients recommended the programs to family members and friends. Finally, 95% of clients felt that the program had brought back life to them. Its work had ensured positive changes to their lives and family personally. The Program’s intervention methods include provision of emotional support to survivors, assist in notification of other family members and friends, arranging for follow up services and provision of information to appropriate agencies for ongoing assistance to the victims (Community Counseling Centre, 2011).

Program Analysis

The program was able to address specific problems. These included friends and family members who had experienced violent crimes, victims of loss of homes due to fire, lonely elderly people and people who were involved in motor vehicle accidents. Also, the other problems involved public tragedies and natural disasters, distraught family members and those people who had committed suicide (Seidman & Rappaport, 2000).

The program’s approach reflected several values. First, it recognized the worthiness of inherent and diversity of each individual in the family. These individuals collectively form the back borne of the society. Second, the program valued children as the future of the society. Therefore, it promoted their rights to care and nurturing in safe and healthy environments. Finally, TIP respected the elderly in the society (Balcazar & Harper, 2003). This is because they represent the wisdom and rich history of our society that they on to the youth via their words and actions.

The program has extensively outlined four conceptual paradigms in all its activities and services. The program acted with integrity. This included trust, confidentiality, honesty and respect form of its foundation. Second, TIP had a strong conceptual paradigm of satisfying its customers. It will always help its customers to identify their needs and work hard towards meeting their expectations. Third, the program valued community service. It had a prime goal of bringing out the greatest potential of friends and family members who needed its help. Finally, TIP utilized the paradigm of using sound business practices. It used proven and sound business practices to manage its agency activities in a competitive environment. The program used research tools like direct inquiry questions and interviews to the victims’ personal experiences. Most of its questions were opened ended questions that enabled the victims to open up in regard to their personal experiences. Also, telephone interviews and observation were the key research methods that TIP used to achieve its goals (The City of Portland, 2012).

This program has extensively focused on a holistic transformative model rather than an individually oriented model. The program has tried to understand and enhance the community and the individual life rather than the individual himself. Also, the program based its services and activities on collectivism rather than individualism perspective. The program’s value base has really tried to address people’s personal, relational and collective well being. For instance, it has tried to intertwine the quality of both individuals and the community. This is because the stakeholders of the program believed the community well being brought back the original Maine value in San Diego County. Furthermore, the program did not focus on person centered approach in studying people’s behaviors in the society. Instead, TIP focused on the use of a wider framework in comprehending people’s behavior in the society. Besides, CP’s value of active participation of citizens was health in Maine’s society. This suggests that the program’s personal experience with people living in rural Maine shows how applicable the values of CP are practically applicable. The program’s conceptual model ha d a reflection in TIP’s methods. For instance, the program’s integrity, customer satisfaction and community service had a strong linkage with the program’s research methods. However, the appropriate research methods for the achievement of the program’s goals were use of questions, interviews and observations. They enabled the program to get the relevant data in wanted. As a result, the program was able to give immediate and quick feedbacks that met the needs of the adults, children, families and elders in the society. Also, these tools and methods enabled TIP to assist the victims to overcome all those unexpected challenges of life. This was through high quality social work services that taught them adequate coping skills hence building resilience throughout the lifespan. Finally, the Program’s key stakeholders played a prime role in developing, implementing and evaluation the program. Without the cooperation of the stakeholders, it could have been hard for the program to be successful and meet its goals and objectives (Thomas & Kloos, 2011).

Suggestions for Program Improvement

The program should expand their supporting agencies. This will greatly help TIP to have adequate financial and psychological resources to the victim. Also, the program should try and come up with its own training schools. As a result, the TIP will be able to have adequate volunteers ready to help any time the need arises. In addition, the program’s organizational structure should entail crisis response team (Cherry 2012). This is a team that will assist in the overall overview of the management of the crisis during its time of occurrence. Finally, the program should try and decentralize its operations within San Diego County. This approach will ensure that all those friends and family members who become emotionally traumatized in emergency situations receive immediate assistance they need.

Part 2: Comparison and Contrasting of Coaching and Consulting


Coaching refers to thorough preparation that includes taking advice, studying extra ordinary hard or preparing for something. This involves getting additional study materials from the institution or person giving you the coaching. This implies that coaching emphasizes on the achievement of its goals thus it’s a long term thing (Smith, & Hawkins, 2007). Coaching is usually done on a one to one basis. Therefore, the impetus for coaching may be to enhance leadership skills, improve performance of an organization or team, and assist a person to get back on track after derailing or prepare high potential people for the next level of success (Kieran, 2012). A good example includes a person coaching players of a team to improve their performance as a team. Another example includes an instructor coaching specific students in class to improve on their class work performance.

On the other hand, consulting is just refers to part of the preparation. It means talking to people. It also entails discussing prospective or solutions of specific problems or issues. Therefore, a consult is a person with the ability to influence another person, organization or group. But the same person has no direct power to implement programs or make changes (Emile, 2009). Although consultants can aid a client to identify his or her problem and develop a solution to the problem, it is the same client who must put the same solution into action. A good example is a person consulting a young new company how to excel in the market. Also, consultants can design and run management development programs in an organization (Kieran, 2012).


Both coaching and consulting have a common core that rests in the relationship that develops with the client. This is whether it is an individual, team or the senior vice-president of an organization. Second, neither the coaches nor the consultants give their clients the answers. That is they don’t tell them what to do. Instead, they only suggest, facilitate, guide and assist the clients to brainstorm the possible solutions to their problems. Third, both coaching and consulting are thought of fixing a problem or improving a good thing. Also, their common goal is to assist the clients develop the skills and knowledge that will help them to proceed and succeed without the assistance of the consultant or coach (Gindes, 2005).


Balcazar,Y & Harper,G. (2003). Empowerment and Participatory Evaluation of Community Interventions: Multiple Benefits. New York: Routledge Press.

Cherry,K (2012). What is Community Psychology. Retrieved 20 January 2013 from

Community Counseling Centre, 2011. Trauma Intervention Program: Maine Mental Health Partners. Retrieved 20 January, 2013 from initiatives- community-programs/trauma-intervention-program/

Duncan, N. (2007). Community Psychology: Analysis, Context and Action. New York: Juta and Company Ltd Press.

Emile,V. (2009) Coaching vs Counselling. Retrieved 20 January 2013 from

Ferforce Coaching, 2012. The difference between coaching and counseling. Retreived 20 January 2013 from difference-between-coaching-and-counseling/

Gindes, M. (2005). Business Consulting and Coaching: Birds of a Feather? Retrieved 20 January 2013 from

Kieran,S. (2012). What is the difference between counseling and Counsulting? Retrieved January 20 2013 from between-coaching-and-consulting/

Levinson, H. (2002). Organizational Assessment: A Step-by-Step Guide to Effective Consulting.

Lowman, R. L. (2002). Handbook of Organizational Consulting Psychology: A Comprehensive Guide to Theory, Skills, and Techniques. New York:

Minor,M. (2002). Coaching and Counseling: A Practical Guide for Managers and Team Leaders. London: Crisp Learning Press.

Orford, J. (2010). Community Psychology: Challenges, Controversies and Emerging Consensus. London: John Wiley & Sons Press.

Seidman, E & Rappaport,J. (2000). Handbook of Community Psychology. London: Springer press.

Smith,N & Hawkins, P. (2007). Coaching, Mentoring and Organizational Consultancy: Supervision and Development. New York: McGraw-Hill Press.

Stone,F.(2007). Coaching, Counseling & Mentoring: How to choose and use the right technique to boost employee performance. Michigan: Amacom Press.

The City of Portland, 2012. Fire &Rescue: Trauma Intervention Program. Retrieved 20 January 2013 from

Thomas, K. (2011). Is coaching and Counseling the same? Retrieved 20 January 2013 from

Thomas,E & Kloos,B. (2011). Community Psychology: Linking Individuals and Communities. New York: Cengage Learning Press.

TIP,2012. Trauma Intervention Programs, Inc. Retrieved 20 January 2013 from

Weiss, A. (1998) Million Dollar Consulting: The Professional’s Guide to Growing a Practice.New York: Cengage Learning Press.

Sales Promotion

Sales promotion is a marketing technique which aims at increasing the demand of products or services through various marketing techniques. It is a strategic move for spontaneous demand elevation and is a short term venture for the organization. Sales promotion involves marketing strategies that promote the products awareness and boost product availability. The general objectives of sales promotion include raising product awareness in the market, persuade and influence consumption of the product or service and finally to create a competitive edge for the organization. Under these umbrella objectives, sales promotion can derive the following specific objectives for a business with regard to their marketing function and business strategy. Sales promotion can be used to unveil novel products in the market. This is because they influence potential customers to try out the novel products through promotions and awareness. Sales promotions can be used to persuade new consumers to use the product. This objective is aligned with the competitive advantage strategy. The marketing technique can also be a means of influencing existing customers to purchase more of the product through strategies such as price reduction. Sales promotion is also a measure of ensuring business perpetuity through competition in the market which ensures its survival. Sales promotions are also used to boost sales in off peak seasons and as a means of stock clearing in order to increase stock turnover.

The difference between push and pull strategies is defined by the tactics used in both strategies to ensure consumption of business products and in turn boost sales and increase returns. Push strategy involves direct marketing of products at points of sales so as to raise awareness of the product to potential customers. The push strategy is conducted mainly by manufacturers or introduction of new products into the market. Promoters of products sue various avenues in order to ensure that the customers are made aware of the product. In essence, the push strategy takes the product to the consumer e.g. direct selling to customers, face-to-face selling and ensuring large stocks at points of sale so as to grab the attention of the consumer. Pull strategy on the other hand involves indirect promotion of products that ensure that the customer is drawn toward the product. There are several pull strategy avenues that can be used to ensure customer awareness and influence/persuasion to look for the product. This includes advertising using the media to promote the product and/or sales promotions. Such tactics ensure that customers are drawn to the product and seek it out in the point of sale. Pull strategy is effective for introducing new products and also reinforcing sales of products within the market (Shah & D’Souza, 2009).

To attract fellow students to my favorite fast food restaurant, I would undertake the following sales promotion. Create a purchase reward system of buy two get one free for the soft drinks. Another sales promotion strategy would be a reduced price offer for meals and coupons for redemption for future use on meals. Also, conduct a food eating contest where the winner is given free meals coupon for a week. The freebies, coupons and competition strategy will induce them to try out the fast food restaurant.


Shah, K., & D’Souza, A. (2009). Advertising and promotions: An IMC perspective. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

Roman Law

Roman law


A scaling debate on the influence of Roman law in providing the skeleton of present law seems to attribute more weight to the stretch it covers in both the private and public law. Roman law refers to the ancient legal system comprising principles, procedures codified in the twelve tables as guidelines to deal with cases regarding civil wrongs perpetrated against personal interest and the family relations. The modern law of tort represents the social order encouraged through protection of individual interest by restoring the position of the victim against loss, disgorging imputed benefit fro the perpetrator and deterring others from injurious pursuit (Madden, 2005). Law of torts seeks to redress wrongful harm in dimensions from physical injuries, personal insults and damages to property. On the other hand, criminal law represents the penal law where individuals are prosecuted for committing acts identified as crimes that deny public morality and social control –order, safety, harmony and decency (Scheb, 2010).

Roman law Of Delict

The debate of modern law of tort, traces its basis in Delict in the Roman law. The law of the delict in the Roman era emphasized an obligation of paying a mandatory penalty to victims for committing a wrongful act against them. The penalty was however made to the injured party rather than the state. Since the separation of public crimes from private crimes, penalty payments were the sole remedy for private wrongs perpetrated against other individuals. Although the law was penalizing in nature it covered four types of wrongs: furtum (theft, rapina (robbery), injuria (injury), and damnum injuria datum (loss caused by damage to property) where an individual was not to respond through vengeance for wrong committed against by accepting compensation (Buckland, 2007). The law emerged as a transition mark from the code of private vengeance, where one would perform a similar action to the perpetrator, implying an eye for an eye.

In the treatment of cases of injuria, the law was silent where no fixed amount for compensation was agreed upon creating a margin of retaliations from the victim to the perpetrator. In earlier periods, damages were stipulated by law although in the subsequent periods changes were made where damages were determined depending on the magnitude of the presented case (Buckland, 2007). As other sections of the Roman law were repealed, the injuria provision stretched broadly, from physical assault to include defamatory cases and insulting conducts. On the other hand, the coverage of the law of delict concerning damnum injuria extended to slaves, animals and physical properties. For instance, if a slave or grazing animal was unlawfully killed, a penalty amounting to its value in the preceding year was the measure when awarding the compensations (Buckland, 2007). A penalty to damages to the private property was attained using the highest value it attained in a period running back to the past 30 days.

Similarities of Roman delict law to Modern Law of Tort

The modern application of justice on civil wrongs of tort, traces its roots to the Roman law of delict amongst countries, deriving their legal system from the ancient law. On a similar approach contained in the present law of torts, obligations spelt out in the law of delict provided a sharp distinction between the public and the private law. In particular, when distinguishing theft in markets, furtum, where heavier or lesser weight was regarded a wrong if committed knowingly by either party (Plessis, 2010). In the distinction of the states authority in the private law, victims were obliged to accept the principle of non-physical redress instead of physical revenge; where the victims were forced to denounce principles of vengeance and settle for the fixed tariff of alternative satisfaction (Descheemaeker, 2009). Since that time, satisfaction for wrong suffered was settled to be monetary as buying-off consequences for wrongs committed negligently.

The modern law of torts in most legal systems borrows widely from the Roman positions in the delict law. For instance, the accepted interpretation of tort refers to wrongful actions that attract compensations for injuries suffered resulting from wrongful conduct of the perpetrators (Miller & Jentz, 2010). The traditional position of Roman Delict to address wrong interference with rights of other members in the society, called for monetary compensation as remedies to protect against invasion of other individuals’ interests. The nature of tort laws and the delict law seem to offer similar remedies to acts causing destruction or damage to personal property alongside physical assault.

The basic structure of the tort law and delict demonstrates remedies directed to seek justice for wrongs committed against interests of individuals. However, though much is borrowed from the Roman delict in the modern coverage of law of tort, an inclusive approach in tort extends to include intangible interests, reputation, and dignity alongside interests in ones family relations (Miller & Jentz, 2010). Additionally, remedies in torts include compensatory damages as the reimbursement of the plaintiff for actual loss suffered or punitive damages intended to punish perpetrators and deter repetition of such actions. The Roman delict law is a product of action-based remedies formed as penal elements providing compensations to liabilities for wrongful infringement of personality interests, committed negligently or intentionally (Merwe & Plessis, 2004).

Contents of Delict law in modern criminal law

A close observation on the stipulations of the delict reveals links to criminal law though a great division lies in the law of torts. For instance, killing another individual is a criminal wrong where the defendant stands trial for wrongs committed contrary to the state public law. In the delict, interfering with the life of a slave by either killing or causing permanent physical damages attracted compensations to the owner at the highest value attained in the previous year. In addition, the modern criminal law covers acts of theft such as robbery with violence and mugging attracting harsh punishments where perpetrators are condemned or convicted to lengthy jail terms. Contrasting the position of the present criminal law to the delict reveals inclusion of theft, furtum, in marketplaces where intentional or negligence in selling less weight than the required attracted compensations as wrongful act against personal interest. A similar treatment was offered to a buyer who accepted more weight without the knowledge of the selling party. Additionally, the connection existing between delict and criminal law exist in the purposeful nature of the two, particularly to address cases of robbery. Then again, delict emerged to redress wrongful acts which attracted vengeance of a similar nature in avoidance of committing a wrong to solve another wrong. As such, criminal law seeks to avoid principles of vengeance where the state intercepts and takes over cases of actions committed against the public wish.

Conclusively, the line cutting across the criminal and law of tort is evident in the Roman delict law, emerging from the wide coverage and purpose for its existence. Delict law meant to offer remedies for wrongful acts committed against the individuals and eliminate the principles of vengeance common in the society. Similarly, law of tort protects personal interests through compensatory damages while the criminal law seeks to eliminate vengeance. The purpose of the two laws is inclusively covered in the Roman delict law, and thus delict cannot be solely declared to fall under either category.


Buckland, W. W. (2007). A Text-Book of Roman Law: From Augustus to Justinian (3 ed.). Cambrige: Cambridge University Press.

Descheemaeker, E. (2009). The Division of Wrongs: A Historical Comparative Study. Oxford : Oxford University Press.

Madden, M. S. (2005). Exploring Tort Law. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.

Merwe, C. G., & Plessis, J. É. (2004). Introduction To The Law Of South Africa. Hague: Kluwer Law International.

Miller, R. L., & Jentz, G. A. (2010). Business Law Today: The Essentials (9 ed.). Cengage Learning.

Plessis, P. D. (2010). Borkowski’s Textbook on Roman Law (4 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Scheb, J. M. (2010). Criminal Law and Procedure (7 ed.). Belmont: Cengage Learning.