why we should spay and neuter animals

 

 

 

 

 

Why we should spay and neuter animals

Name

Institution

 

Why we should spay and neuter animals

The surgical alteration of an animal’s reproductive system has been assigned many names. The most common are spaying and neutering. Spaying involves the removal of the uterus and ovaries from the female animal; this is achieved by performing surgical operations like the popular laparoscopic surgery. Neutering involves the removal of both testicles from the male animal. The exact word for this procedure is castration. Male animals however enjoy a more lenient option for this procedure as an injection option is available. Chemical castration involves injecting the testes with calcium chloride dehydrate as a non surgical form of castration that yields results within a month. These two procedures are commonly done on pets. The existing phenomenon of pet keeping has generated the essence of formulating mechanisms of co-existence between humans and animals kept as pets. Cats and dogs form the majority of the desired and kept pets although other animals like birds have also become popular pets. While these procedures maybe performed on other livestock like horses they are predominantly done on animals that are considered close to humans as companions (Perrin, 2009). Due to the closely knit attachments formed between pets and their owners, heavy debate has been engaged on the issue of spaying and neutering with some arguing for and others against the practice. An objective look at the practice reveals legitimate advantages and disadvantages to encourage and discourage the practice in un-proportionate measures.

Research on pets reveal that while some people keep pets to teach their children the lesson of responsibility by taking care of a pet the main reasons for keeping pets are because they are cute and for companionship. However, a worrying fact on pet keeping has emerged; overpopulation of pets. In the United States for example the population of pets is very high such that for humane and well being of these pets every person even the children have to adopt seven pets. This situation has compelled most pro-animal rights foundations in the United States to advocate for spaying and Neutering of pets to stagnate further procreation of these pets especially for dogs and cats (Lord et al, 2006). This is informed by the impossibility that arises in handling these abandoned pets in rescue centers’ as not every person adopts a pet with those that adopt having a preference of one or two pets per household. The rest of the animals end up abandoned and die due to starvation, injuries road crashes or in illegitimate animal control facilities. The point of overpopulation however does not resonate well with pet owners to encourage them to perform spaying and neutering. Other health and behavioral advantages may encourage the practice.

Research has proven health benefits that are realized by pets after spaying and neutering. Male animals are encouraged to be neutered after one year and female animals are recommended to be spayed before their first heat cycle. If the operations are done at the opportune time the animals are granted the opportunity to live longer. Male animals that have been neutered have a reduced prostrate gland which has a proven ability to reduce bacterial infections in females and especially in female dogs the process of spaying before the first heat cycle eliminates the possibility of ovarian cancer and most of all complications associated with giving birth. In male animals testicular cancer possibilities are also eliminated. Given the fact that most pet keepers have a preference of keeping a maximum of two pets, spaying and neutering eliminates the possibility of contracting unwanted pet pregnancies (Looney et al, 2008).

Furthermore, spaying and neutering eliminates the contraction of bacterial uterine infections in animals. An animal’s possibility of attracting bacterial infection in increased with great proportion by mating. Given the fact that bacterial infections have a higher percentage of causing death in pets, these procedures drastically reduces that possibility thus contributing to longevity of the life of the pet. The heat cycles in animals and the constant urges to mate create hormonal imbalances in the animals more often than not cause kidney failure in animals. Spaying and neutering eliminates this possibility making it a health plus for a pet. Despite ensuring a reduction in the population of pet animals, these practices ensure the general healthier wellbeing of a pet as a matter of fact survey done on animals that undergo these procedures in comparison to those that have not undergone the procedure reveal that the spayed and neutered animals enjoy a longer and healthier life than their counterparts that haven’t undergone the procedures. A common misconception attributed to these practices is that animals tend to develop obesity after being taken through the procedure. Research has proven a lack of correlation between spaying and neutering and obesity. The basic fact on pet obesity is overfeeding and under exercising of pets (Morris, Wolf & Gies, 2011). Despite the fact that spaying and neutering allows for better metabolism in animals, it does not in any way contribute to the obesity of a pet other than increasing the health of a pet by providing a better metabolism rate. All in all factual health benefits accrued to spaying and neutering do exist.

Although pet animals are adopted on the basis of their likeability, their behavioral characteristics enhance the bond between the pet animal and its care giver. One of the desired characteristics in a pet animal is the ability to train and retrain the pet animal. Studies have established that pet animals have undergone spaying and neutering are easy to train and instill discipline in comparison with their counterparts who have not undergone the process.  Further to this pets behave calmer and less aggressive. A clear example to this is the fact that 95 percent of dog maulings are committed by intact dogs as spayed and neutered dogs have less perpetual states of frustration caused by heat or hormonal imbalances. Key to these behavioral changes is the elimination of embarrassing sexual behaviors. Most pet animals like dogs and cats have the behavior of marking sexual territories by urinating. Most pet owners reveal that one of the biggest challenge is containing messy heats and with specificity the constant urinating in the house (Bushby & Griffin, 2011). With spayed and neutered pet animals, these uncouth behaviors are eliminated. Other characteristics that pet owners find intolerable are the crying and yowling especially in cats while on heat and messy destructive tendencies. All these characteristics are eliminated by these procedures. It has also been established most pets get lost while on heat. Pet animals especially cats and dogs tend to move a lot thus get lost while looking for mates. With the elimination of sexual urges through spaying and neutering pets are less likely to get lost while looking for mates.

In the United States, the cost of collecting one stray animal is 100 dollars spaying and neutering only costs 40 dollars thus a reduction in population of the pet animals can actually reduce tax payers expenses as an added benefit. In a reduction to animal human conflict the control of animal reproduction is required for better cohabitation as more animals would be put in better habitats and good care givers. These are just but some of the other benefits that may accrue from spaying and neutering (Bushby & Griffin, 2011).

Established deterrents to spaying and neutering begin with the surgical process that is applied to ensure the success of the procedure. For most female animals, the ovaries have to be surgically removed. The risks associated with the procedure include death through bleeding and attraction of infections. The attachment held by the pet owners towards their pets makes them fear the risk of loosing them thus prefer not to risk going through the procedure. Although spaying and neutering appropriate periods have been established to be before the heat cycle and after one year respectively due to the emergence of new breeds has led for the alteration of these opportune times for this procedure. Other factors like laws have led to the practice of these procedures before at tender ages of these animals with varied results. In the United States for example the vet nary association left the decision of the opportune time for spaying and neutering to the discretion and best knowledge to the vet nary practitioner (Looney et al, 2008). This phenomenon leads to various complications during and after the procedures acting as a further deterrent to the practice (Lord et al, 2006).

Recent extensive studies have revealed various effects of spaying and neutering. Taking the example of the United States that has established significant benchmarks in Spaying and neutering with most of it vet nary officers performing the procedure to animals below the age of one year various adverse effects have been established. Looking at the healthy well being of pet animals, male pet animals with specific relation to dogs neutering has been strongly associated with oestesarcoma. Oestesarcoma is bone cancer and is common to various dog breeds and has a harder if not poor prognosis thus a death causing disease. Furthermore it increases the risk of cardiac hemangiosrcoma with an established 1.6 factor point, other studies also establish that it also triples the risk of hypothyroidism, quadruples the factor 0.6 percent that exists to the predisposal to prostrate cancer, increases the risk of orthopedic disorders and increases the adverse reactions to vaccinations (Perrin, 2009).

On the other hand, spaying also has established various adverse effects with specific reference to dogs studies have shown to cause; bone cancer increases with the same proportion as in neutering also triples the treat of hypothyroidism and increases the risk reaction to vaccines, increases the risk of virginal dermatitis and also doubles the one percent predisposal factor to urinary tract infections. These are just but few proven negative effects of spaying and neutering but form heavy and legitimate basis to discourage the practice (Perrin, 2009).

The recent research developments that are focused on health have established adverse effects of spaying and neutering (White et al, 2011). This progress has been made by the extensive interest by of pet owners to take more care of their pets in an effort to ensure a better and longer companionship. However, overpopulation of these pet animals also provide the dilemma of whether or not to spay or neuter with a new dynamic approach to the practice as some states have made the practice mandatory to curb overpopulation. Given that the strongest deterrent to the practice is health concern and that the practice is vital to maintain the long term manageable population of animals, a common ground exists on further research on how to reduce the negative effects but in the short term the established advantages triumph the disadvantages of spaying and neutering.

 

References

Bushby, P. A., & Griffin, B. (2011). An overview of pediatric spay and neuter benefits and techniques.

Looney, A. L. et al (2008). The Association of Shelter Veterinarians veterinary medical care guidelines for spay-neuter programs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 233(1), 74-86.

Lord, L. K. et al (2006). Demographic trends for animal care and control agencies in Ohio from 1996 to 2004. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 229(1), 48-54.

Morris, K. N., Wolf, J. L., & Gies, D. L. (2011). Trends in intake and outcome data for animal shelters in Colorado, 2000 to 2007. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 238(3), 329-336.

Perrin, T. (2009). The Business of Urban Animals Survey: The facts and statistics on companion animals in Canada. The Canadian Veterinary Journal, 50(1), 48.

White, C. R. et al (2011). Cutaneous MCTs: Associations with spay/neuter status, breed, body size, and phylogenetic cluster. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 47(3), 210-216.

 

 

 

Advertisements

Why we should spay and neuter animals

 

Why we should spay and neuter animals

Name

Institution

Why we should spay and neuter animals

The surgical alteration of an animal’s reproductive system has been assigned many names. The most common are spaying and neutering. Spaying involves the removal of the uterus and ovaries from the female animal; this is achieved by performing surgical operations like the popular laparoscopic surgery. Neutering involves the removal of both testicles from the male animal. The exact word for this procedure is castration. Male animals however enjoy a more lenient option for this procedure as an injection option is available. Chemical castration involves injecting the testes with calcium chloride dehydrate as a non surgical form of castration that yields results within a month. These two procedures are commonly done on pets. The existing phenomenon of pet keeping has generated the essence of formulating mechanisms of co-existence between humans and animals kept as pets. Cats and dogs form the majority of the desired and kept pets although other animals like birds have also become popular pets. While these procedures maybe performed on other livestock like horses they are predominantly done on animals that are considered close to humans as companions (Perrin, 2009). Due to the closely knit attachments formed between pets and their owners, heavy debate has been engaged on the issue of spaying and neutering with some arguing for and others against the practice. An objective look at the practice reveals legitimate advantages and disadvantages to encourage and discourage the practice in un-proportionate measures.

Research on pets reveal that while some people keep pets to teach their children the lesson of responsibility by taking care of a pet the main reasons for keeping pets are because they are cute and for companionship. However, a worrying fact on pet keeping has emerged; overpopulation of pets. In the United States for example the population of pets is very high such that for humane and well being of these pets every person even the children have to adopt seven pets. This situation has compelled most pro-animal rights foundations in the United States to advocate for spaying and Neutering of pets to stagnate further procreation of these pets especially for dogs and cats (Lord et al, 2006). This is informed by the impossibility that arises in handling these abandoned pets in rescue centers’ as not every person adopts a pet with those that adopt having a preference of one or two pets per household. The rest of the animals end up abandoned and die due to starvation, injuries road crashes or in illegitimate animal control facilities. The point of overpopulation however does not resonate well with pet owners to encourage them to perform spaying and neutering. Other health and behavioral advantages may encourage the practice.

Research has proven health benefits that are realized by pets after spaying and neutering. Male animals are encouraged to be neutered after one year and female animals are recommended to be spayed before their first heat cycle. If the operations are done at the opportune time the animals are granted the opportunity to live longer. Male animals that have been neutered have a reduced prostrate gland which has a proven ability to reduce bacterial infections in females and especially in female dogs the process of spaying before the first heat cycle eliminates the possibility of ovarian cancer and most of all complications associated with giving birth. In male animals testicular cancer possibilities are also eliminated. Given the fact that most pet keepers have a preference of keeping a maximum of two pets, spaying and neutering eliminates the possibility of contracting unwanted pet pregnancies (Looney et al, 2008).

Furthermore, spaying and neutering eliminates the contraction of bacterial uterine infections in animals. An animal’s possibility of attracting bacterial infection in increased with great proportion by mating. Given the fact that bacterial infections have a higher percentage of causing death in pets, these procedures drastically reduces that possibility thus contributing to longevity of the life of the pet. The heat cycles in animals and the constant urges to mate create hormonal imbalances in the animals more often than not cause kidney failure in animals. Spaying and neutering eliminates this possibility making it a health plus for a pet. Despite ensuring a reduction in the population of pet animals, these practices ensure the general healthier wellbeing of a pet as a matter of fact survey done on animals that undergo these procedures in comparison to those that have not undergone the procedure reveal that the spayed and neutered animals enjoy a longer and healthier life than their counterparts that haven’t undergone the procedures. A common misconception attributed to these practices is that animals tend to develop obesity after being taken through the procedure. Research has proven a lack of correlation between spaying and neutering and obesity. The basic fact on pet obesity is overfeeding and under exercising of pets (Morris, Wolf & Gies, 2011). Despite the fact that spaying and neutering allows for better metabolism in animals, it does not in any way contribute to the obesity of a pet other than increasing the health of a pet by providing a better metabolism rate. All in all factual health benefits accrued to spaying and neutering do exist.

Although pet animals are adopted on the basis of their likeability, their behavioral characteristics enhance the bond between the pet animal and its care giver. One of the desired characteristics in a pet animal is the ability to train and retrain the pet animal. Studies have established that pet animals have undergone spaying and neutering are easy to train and instill discipline in comparison with their counterparts who have not undergone the process. Further to this pets behave calmer and less aggressive. A clear example to this is the fact that 95 percent of dog maulings are committed by intact dogs as spayed and neutered dogs have less perpetual states of frustration caused by heat or hormonal imbalances. Key to these behavioral changes is the elimination of embarrassing sexual behaviors. Most pet animals like dogs and cats have the behavior of marking sexual territories by urinating. Most pet owners reveal that one of the biggest challenge is containing messy heats and with specificity the constant urinating in the house (Bushby & Griffin, 2011). With spayed and neutered pet animals, these uncouth behaviors are eliminated. Other characteristics that pet owners find intolerable are the crying and yowling especially in cats while on heat and messy destructive tendencies. All these characteristics are eliminated by these procedures. It has also been established most pets get lost while on heat. Pet animals especially cats and dogs tend to move a lot thus get lost while looking for mates. With the elimination of sexual urges through spaying and neutering pets are less likely to get lost while looking for mates.

In the United States, the cost of collecting one stray animal is 100 dollars spaying and neutering only costs 40 dollars thus a reduction in population of the pet animals can actually reduce tax payers expenses as an added benefit. In a reduction to animal human conflict the control of animal reproduction is required for better cohabitation as more animals would be put in better habitats and good care givers. These are just but some of the other benefits that may accrue from spaying and neutering (Bushby & Griffin, 2011).

Established deterrents to spaying and neutering begin with the surgical process that is applied to ensure the success of the procedure. For most female animals, the ovaries have to be surgically removed. The risks associated with the procedure include death through bleeding and attraction of infections. The attachment held by the pet owners towards their pets makes them fear the risk of loosing them thus prefer not to risk going through the procedure. Although spaying and neutering appropriate periods have been established to be before the heat cycle and after one year respectively due to the emergence of new breeds has led for the alteration of these opportune times for this procedure. Other factors like laws have led to the practice of these procedures before at tender ages of these animals with varied results. In the United States for example the vet nary association left the decision of the opportune time for spaying and neutering to the discretion and best knowledge to the vet nary practitioner (Looney et al, 2008). This phenomenon leads to various complications during and after the procedures acting as a further deterrent to the practice (Lord et al, 2006).

Recent extensive studies have revealed various effects of spaying and neutering. Taking the example of the United States that has established significant benchmarks in Spaying and neutering with most of it vet nary officers performing the procedure to animals below the age of one year various adverse effects have been established. Looking at the healthy well being of pet animals, male pet animals with specific relation to dogs neutering has been strongly associated with oestesarcoma. Oestesarcoma is bone cancer and is common to various dog breeds and has a harder if not poor prognosis thus a death causing disease. Furthermore it increases the risk of cardiac hemangiosrcoma with an established 1.6 factor point, other studies also establish that it also triples the risk of hypothyroidism, quadruples the factor 0.6 percent that exists to the predisposal to prostrate cancer, increases the risk of orthopedic disorders and increases the adverse reactions to vaccinations (Perrin, 2009).

On the other hand, spaying also has established various adverse effects with specific reference to dogs studies have shown to cause; bone cancer increases with the same proportion as in neutering also triples the treat of hypothyroidism and increases the risk reaction to vaccines, increases the risk of virginal dermatitis and also doubles the one percent predisposal factor to urinary tract infections. These are just but few proven negative effects of spaying and neutering but form heavy and legitimate basis to discourage the practice (Perrin, 2009).

The recent research developments that are focused on health have established adverse effects of spaying and neutering (White et al, 2011). This progress has been made by the extensive interest by of pet owners to take more care of their pets in an effort to ensure a better and longer companionship. However, overpopulation of these pet animals also provide the dilemma of whether or not to spay or neuter with a new dynamic approach to the practice as some states have made the practice mandatory to curb overpopulation. Given that the strongest deterrent to the practice is health concern and that the practice is vital to maintain the long term manageable population of animals, a common ground exists on further research on how to reduce the negative effects but in the short term the established advantages triumph the disadvantages of spaying and neutering.

References

Bushby, P. A., & Griffin, B. (2011). An overview of pediatric spay and neuter benefits and techniques.

Looney, A. L. et al (2008). The Association of Shelter Veterinarians veterinary medical care guidelines for spay-neuter programs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 233(1), 74-86.

Lord, L. K. et al (2006). Demographic trends for animal care and control agencies in Ohio from 1996 to 2004. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 229(1), 48-54.

Morris, K. N., Wolf, J. L., & Gies, D. L. (2011). Trends in intake and outcome data for animal shelters in Colorado, 2000 to 2007. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 238(3), 329-336.

Perrin, T. (2009). The Business of Urban Animals Survey: The facts and statistics on companion animals in Canada. The Canadian Veterinary Journal, 50(1), 48.

White, C. R. et al (2011). Cutaneous MCTs: Associations with spay/neuter status, breed, body size, and phylogenetic cluster. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 47(3), 210-216.

 

 

 

Licensure and Certification

 

 

 

 

Licensure and Certification

Name

Course

Date

Institution

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                            Introduction
            Professionalism entails a variety of requirements, and there are bars that have been set in different states for one to act as a professional in given fields. What is common in all these state for one to be branded as a professional is that there has to be proof of credibility to continue with a certain job or given profession, and this has to be determined by a group of personnel or a body responsible for approving applications for licenses. Licensure in a nutshell is the granting of permission to carry out a particular activity especially that which involves the public and is income generating. Certification, on the other hand, is the confirmation that an individual can reasonably carry out an activity completely and is always awarded after a given test or exam is passed to prove the individual. Licensure and certification in most cases is essential to states for a variety of reasons. One being quality of services provided. One must prove him/herself competent to carry out a particular activity before he/she can be licensed in case of offering a particular service to the public. Secondly, it ensures that the products and services offered to the public are genuine and do not violate any state laws or policies. Among other reasons, licensing and certification ensures the public get services that are worth their finances and can also sue in the court of law in case their rights are violated by a service provider. Some of the laws that regulate and impact on the credentialing, certification or licensing of counselling professionals include; Integrity, confidentiality, responsibility to colleagues, responsibility to clients, advertising among others (Hamlet 2011). As counselling professionals, we owe a duty of care to our colleagues and clients. As such we ought to treat both parties with confidentiality and utmost respect and integrity.
                                                            School Counselling
            Professionals who choose to work as school counsellors should be sensitive to the child’s stages of development and processes. As a counsellor, one must understand that it sometimes may be hard for a child to open up about a stressful event in their life. One should have caution and care when handling children and teenagers in school. As a counsellor, one must have a high physical and emotional stability to handle other clients array of problems. Otherwise, if the counsellor does not possess this, he may reach burn out too soon trying to make the clients problems his. As a school counsellor, one should ensure that there is a conducive environment that children would love to visit to seek guidance. In school counselling, there are three categories, elementary school, middle school and high school counselling. Therefore as a school counsellor, one must fully understand the challenges that each level of pupils has. This will assist in understanding of how to help the kids of different study levels. As a professional, one must first obtain consent from a pupil before carrying on with the counselling. It should be a voluntary exercise from the pupils and counsellors should wait until children are willing to open up about their issues. In the case where a child is suffering from stressful events that hinder his academic performance then the guardian or the teacher should encourage the kid to go through counselling. (Sink, and et al, 2011).
                                                Laws Relating to Professionalism
            Professionals in the counselling field are governed by a number of rules and regulations. This range from their levels of studies, experience, required coursework, credentialing examinations and so on. (Brigman,& Campbell, 2007). In Maryland State, for an individual to qualify as a school counsellor, he/she must have attained a bachelor’s degree in counselling; while a masters degree would tend to suffice more the opportunity, those who would love to be school counsellors have to undergo certain credibility authentication procedures, these include undertaking given examinations, undertaking internship programs where necessary or even volunteering in learning institutions. According to Hamlet, (2011), one must have worked with one or more supervisors in the field to ensure he or she learns the processes and requirements needed in counselling other than the formal theoretical class lessons. In the school counselling profession, one should understand that they are under a given body that certifies their activities, and there are certain laws that should they break, can see them bid farewell to their career as well. Some of the rules that professionals should adhere to include, integrity in their work while in line of duty; one should understand the importance of integrity in the workplace. One shall not use the counselling session as a way of wooing a client, neither shall they use the chance to exhort money from clients for their own gains. Another is confidentiality, in the counselling profession; a client bring various matters of concern to the counsellor and it is his responsibility to ensure the client can trust him/her not to let the clients sensitive information be found out elsewhere. This confidentiality should also apply to his colleagues too. Third item to take into consideration is advertisement, profession of counselling does not need one to put up posts or leaflets or advertisement of their services; Since, this is against the policies of the certifying and licensing board to do so.
                                                            Conclusion
            Counselling yields best results in a student if the professionalism is taken with keenness. In children, it should a way of drawing them close for assistance and a way of making them feel wanted in the society. As a school counsellor, one should carefully understand the requirements needed for certification and licensure in order to understand what is actually required of them in that particular field.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                            References

Hamlet, H. S., Gergar, P. G, & Shaefer, B.A. (2011). Professional School Counseling 14. Gulifford Press.

Brigman, G.A & Campbell, C. (2007). Professional Counseling. Cengage Learning,

Sink, C. and et al, (2011). School Based Group Counseling. Cengage Learning,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

 

 

 

 

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

[Name]

[Roll Number]

University Affiliation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Nobel prize committee admitted that the choice to award the two (Prof. Fama and Prof Shiller) was “contradictory” as the two’s opinions about the market contradicts with each other. Fama wrote it was unpredictable about stocks and they were fundamentals. Shiller differs with Fama on the points that the market at any time reflects how worth the stocks are and that stock markets stands for the fundamentals. Shiller himself objects and concludes that the stock market is a psychological reflection rather than being the fundamental.

Prof. Eugene F. Fama is a frequent name in finance. He is widely known for his contribution in market research, more specifically on efficient market hypothesis (EMF). He has been a key figure in financial research and has made a remarkable contribution in modern economics as well as the investment community. He has formulated a new picture of finance through his research, through giving investment management a new dimension. In his studies, he mostly focuses on the relationship between risk and returns. In 1960’s he, together with other researchers gave a demo on how the stock prices were unpredictable within a short period of time as new information is integrated on the price and this would later transform the stock market and the market practice.

Prof Robert J. Shiller is a renowned figure in American economics since ‘80’s. He holds a god figure in the field of economics. He has immensely contributed in the researches about asset prices. He has been involved in two successful fore castings, whereby he predicted about two bubbles (the housing and the dot com) and his predictions came to pass. Like, Fama, his focus on stock and asset prices and his research has contributed a lot in these areas. Through one of his charts, CAPE (Cyclically-adjusted Price-Earnings) ratio, he is able to evaluate the condition of the market, whether it is expensive or cheap. This model gives more insight on returns and it can be used to predict returns of a business for several years.

They jointly won the 2013 Nobel Prize in Economic science with Prof. Lars Peter Hansen. Their winning of the world popular prize was attributed to their extensive research and their in depth analysis concerned with asset prices. Their proposed methods have become a sure tool in many of the carried out academic researches in universities. Their deep understanding in economics and finance and their analysis on those has been used as reference by professional investors and even by the government agencies.

Their analysis is a key to comprehensively understand the development theory in the modern world. These researchers’ discoveries have transformed index funds, which have gained a lot of popularity. They have also given more insight on the study of risks, a contribution that has seen investors understand it and have a better approach. They have again brought a new dimension in the behavioral finance, a critical area in the modern economics.

Their contribution in the stock market, assets and prices is paramount and attracts such rewards as the Nobel, they really deserved it, though they won it jointly. Their researches, books, journals and all other academic literature on Economics have been a reference for many people. They have indeed transformed the finance field, stock market and asset prices.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Fama, Eugene and Kenneth French. (1992). “The Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns.”

Journal of Finance. June, 47, pp. 427– 65.

2014 Business Insider, Inc. (2014, January 10th). Nobel Prize Winner Eugene Fama Explains

Why You Have No Chance Of Beating The Market. Retrieved from Business Insider:

http://www.businessinsider.com/2013-nobel-prize-in-economics-2013-10

2014 Forbes. (2014, January 10th). Americans Fama, Hansen, Shiller Win Nobel Prize In Economics For Stock Price Analysis. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com: http://www.forbes.com/sites/samanthasharf/2013/10/14/americans-fama-hansen-shiller-win-nobel-prize-in-economics-for-stock-price-analysis/

Fama, Eugene and Kenneth French. (1993). “Common Risk Factors in the Returns on Stocks and

Bonds.” Journal of Finance. 33:1, pp. 3–56.

Fama, Eugene and G. William Schwert. (1977). “Asset Returns and Inflation.” Journal of

Financial Economics. November, 5:2, pp. 55– 69.

Business Insider, Inc. (2014, January 10th). Nobel Prize Winner Robert Shiller Is Responsible For The 2 Most Important Charts Of The Last Two Decades. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/robert-shiller-2013-econ-nobel-prize-2013-10

Dow Jones & Company Inc. (2014, January 10th). Eugene Fama and Efficient Financial Market Theory. Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal.: http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303680404579139530872119634

 

Minor Head Injury in Children

Minor Head Injury in Children

Name

 

Course

 

Tutor’s Name

 

Institution

 

Date

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Children do hit their heads quite often, and it is difficult to know whether they are severe or not. Throughout their development, children encounter blows to the head and therefore, seeking the doctor’s attention is not necessary (Semrud-Clikeman, 2001). A minor head injury refers to any knock particularly to the head that creates lumps, bruises, cut among other symptoms and it does not require any surgical treatment. Minor head injury is one of the most common causes of death and permanent disability among children during their childhood (Gausche-Hill, et al., 2007). American Academy of Pediatrics claims that there is no physical evidence of any fracture in the skull among children with minor head injuries (Gausche-Hill, et al., 2007). Minor head injury symptoms in children include loss of consciousness lasting for less an hour (Semrud-Clikeman, 2001). Moreover, bruise on the head, dizziness, irritability, and headaches among others are also common symptoms of minor head injury (Gausche-Hill, et al., 2007). Many head injuries are less serious and causes just a bruise and for this reason, it is very rare for head injuries to interfere with the brain. However, in some situations, a knock to the head may damage the brain or the blood vessel next to the brain which can be very critical and can even lead to loss of life. This paper provides a discussion on minor head injuries in children explaining its causes, effects, possible treatments and control and prevention.

Arguably, head injury symptoms are very useful in determining how serious the injury is. Usually, the minor head injury symptoms are not persistent and short lived. Nausea and bruise on the head as well as dizziness are some of the most common symptoms of minor head injury. Mild head injuries in children come with headaches withdrawal among others (Semrud-Clikeman, 2001). In addition, cognitive symptoms of minor head injuries include reduced concentration and memory loss (Thiessen and Woolridge, 2006), change in heating habits, interest loss in favorite toys or games, inability to pay attention and persistent crying are also very common with children with minor head injuries. Parents should take the child to the doctor when these symptoms of minor head injuries worsen. In overall, the causes of head injuries include falls, road traffic accidents as well as assaults (Thiessen and Woolridge, 2006) and the pain can be reduced by taking acetaminophen. Some of these behavioral changes such as attention deficit posses a lot of difficulty both in school and at home (Semrud-Clikeman, 2001). Globally, minor head injuries are very common among children and it leads to memory loss, prolonged headaches, or even concussion. A minor head injury particularly headaches can be managed by taking painkillers like paracetamol. More so, it is advisable to monitor children who have this form of injury to ensure that they have enough rest and shun away from playing contact sports. Rarely, children with minor head injuries go through neurosurgery, that is, very few children with minor head injuries require surgery intervention (Gausche-Hill, et al., 2007).

Almost half of those suffering from head injuries worldwide are children because they have energy and are very active. Blowing or hitting the head is the major cause of minor head injury. Moreover, other common causes of minor head injuries include assaults, road traffic as well cycling accidents, home accidents or falls from windows, stairs, and playground equipment among others. Various studies have pointed out falls as the most common cause of head injuries (Thiessen and Woolridge, 2006). Children may fall from adult arms, beds, tables and stairs among others (Thiessen and Woolridge, 2006). Falling down or into rough object causes damage and motor vehicle crashes also lead to both head and brain injuries. Therefore, falling from bed, stairs, ladders or slipping in the bath are the most common causes of minor head injuries in children.

Secondly, minor head injuries among children and young adults result from sport related injuries, and this contributes to minor head injuries among children. Arguably, head injuries result from sport injuries such as soccer, boxing, football, skateboarding, and hockey among others. More so, most head injuries result from violence including child abuse. Child abuse is also one of the causes of minor head injuries in children especially when the caretaker hits the child mercilessly. In addition, violent shaking of children may cause head injuries and brain damages. Moreover, infant walkers are also a threat to children safety (Thiessen and Woolridge, 2006) because lack of close supervision especially when these children are playing leads to unnecessary injuries including minor head injuries. Furthermore, road related accidents including cars, motorcycle and bicycle collisions contribute greatly contribute to minor head injuries. However, studies reveal that most children with minor head injuries have behavioral problems eve before these injuries occur (Semrud-Clikeman, 2001).

Treatment of head injuries depends on the type of injury. Normally, most children having minor head injuries do recovery fully (Thiessen and Woolridge, 2006). This is possible because most head knock leads to bruising and a little pain that are short-lived. There is no treatment required for minor brain injuries other than getting enough rest and taking pain killers to treat a headache, that is, treatment of minor head injuries only requires observation and symptom control. In addition, it is necessary to use or apply ice on the injured area to minimize the swelling and it is also useful in preventing any damage to the tissue, and also using a clean garment to press on the injured area for a few minutes so as to stop bleeding. Minor head injuries do not require a person to go the hospital for any check-up. Therefore, it is advisable to give children painkillers like paracetamol when they feel some headache but never give them any aspirin especially those children below the age of 16. Moreover, acetaminophen can also be used to reduce pain.

Furthermore, parents should not to let their children to be too excited, stop them from participating in some sport activities, and ensure that their children do not participate in rough plays for some time. Children with minor head injuries need to be monitored closely to note any persistent or any new symptoms. Accordingly, parents should take their children to the doctor in any nearby hospital when the headache worsens, unstable when walking, unusually sleepy, unconscious, have a seizure, develop a blurred vision, and cry continuously. It is also advisable to follow the doctor’s orders especially when the child goes back to school. More so, children should stop participating in certain physical and cognitive activities until the various symptoms of this injury disappears and resuming normal activities, games or plays should be gradual.

Sometimes it can be very difficult to predict or even avoid a head injury especially among children because of some accidents are unpredictable, therefore, prevention is the most effective way to treat any head injury. However, there are some ways to prevent or reduce exposure to head injuries like minimizing certain hazards at home which may trigger a fall, put on a safety helmet especially when cycling and some sport activities. First and foremost, children with minor head injuries should be under strict parental observation especially within the first 24 hours after the injury (Gausche-Hill, et al., 2007). Children who are cyclists should wear a safety helmet in order to protect their head and in some countries, putting on a safety helmet while riding a bicycle or a motorcycle is a legal requirement as a way of reducing risk of minor head injuries. Moreover, helmet legislation is one of the most effective strategies that have helped in reducing the risk of having minor head injuries among children and adults (Thiessen and Woolridge, 2006). All in all, it is advisable to wear appropriate head protection when cycling, playing contact sports, skating or even riding horse.

Accordingly, the use of seatbelts is very useful in preventing head injury especially during vehicle crash on the roads. Children should relax at the back seat of the car. They should occupy in the child safety seats that fit them appropriately to protect them from any type of injury. In addition, ensuring home safety is necessary to assist in preventing home accidents. Homes should not be exposed to any fall by ensuring that everything is in place. All the stairs should be kept tidy. Housekeepers should ensure that there is nothing that can make the floor slippery by cleaning all the spillages. More so, they should keep all the rugs properly to reduce the risk of falling. Handrails should be constructed in bathrooms so as to avoid unnecessary falls.

Moreover, all the windows especially in children’s bedrooms should be closed with all the movable furniture kept away to prevent them from climbing and falling, and also construct safety gates at the top of stairs and window guides to prevent falls. Children should also put on necessary safety requirement during sport activities. They have to be courteous not to play any contact sport after suffering a minor head injury. Accordingly, children should use the most appropriate protective equipment and be sure to maintain it properly. In addition, they should use playgrounds with shock absorbing materials to control or avoid falls. Furthermore, children with minor head injuries should have enough rest, and the parents or guardians should try wake up their children at night and ask them certain questions to determine whether they are alert or not. Most importantly, children should not be allowed to play on balconies or other risky places. However, parents or guardians should take their children to see the doctors when the child’s condition is deteriorating (Gausche-Hill, et al., 2007).

Children exposed to head injuries may encounter serious problems such as excessive bleeding or even blood clot in the brain. More so, a minor head injury leads to headache, vomiting in some cases, drowsiness among others. Furthermore, continues exposure to head injuries threatens children’s lives and may also result to poor coordination and lack of concentration and this may in turn affect their performance. Moreover, those children having difficulty in processing and retaining information leads to low performance in school and general activities (Semrud-Clikeman, 2001). In addition, bleeding and blood clots due to minor head injuries may interfere with effective supply of oxygen to the brain resulting to further damages. Furthermore, studies reveal that there is a relationship between minor head injury and hyperactivity among children (Semrud-Clikeman, 2001).

In a nutshell, minor head injuries are very common among children globally because children do bump their heads every now and then ant it can simply be defined as any knock to the head causing lumps, bruises or even cuts. Fortunately, minor head injuries are mild and less serious as they only cause bruises or pain which is short lived. These injuries rarely cause damage to the brain and head injury symptoms helps in determining how serious the injury is, for instance, bruise, lumps, nausea among others are the some of the most common symptoms of minor head injuries. Minor head injuries result from falls, road traffic accidents and assaults. The pain from these minor injuries can be treated by taking some painkillers such as acetaminophen. Children may fall from bed, bathrooms or stairs among other places. Road traffic accidents especially by cyclists or motorcyclists are also common cause of minor head injuries. Moreover, violence such as child abuse and other forms of violence increases the risk of head injuries. The causes of minor head injuries can be prevented by first, ensuring that the stairs and the entire floor are tidy and not slippery. The bathrooms should have handrails and all the rugs should be placed appropriately. Children should also not be allowed to play in balconies or other risky places where they might fall. Accordingly, wearing helmets when cycling or participating other sport activities is very important in preventing unnecessary head injuries. Continuous head injuries can be very critical and can cause death in some cases. Minor head injuries need no treatment because they are not serious injuries but prevention is the most effective way to avoid these injuries. Moreover, studies reveal that children with minor head injuries do recovery completely especially through close monitoring, and necessary prevention strategies followed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Gausche-Hill, M., Fuchs, S., Yamamoto, L., American Academy of Pediatrics & American College of Emergency Physicians. (2007). The pediatric emergency medicine resource. Sudbury, Mass: Jones & Bartlett.

Semrud-Clikeman, M. (2001). Traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents: Assessment and intervention. New York: Guilford Press.

Thiessen Mary, and Woolridge Dale. (2006). Pediatric Minor Closed Head Injury. Pediatr Clinic of North America 53: 1 – 26.

 

 

 

Problem Solving and Quality management at Stop IT Limited

 

 

 

Problem Solving and Quality management at Stop IT Limited

Name

University

 

Contents

Executive Summary. 3

Introduction. 4

Project Plan. 5

PDSA elements and tools of QC.. 8

FMEA Analysis on product 8

Corrective action plan. 12

Other Tools & Techniques that can be used to improve the Product 13

Limitations of using other tools. 14

Recommendations. 14

References. 15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Executive Summary

Stop IT LTD is a firm that usually deals in the manufacturing of a high performance brake system that is used within the motor industry. The common clients in this company include the rally cars and the automobiles from the common market. The company has had significant profit in the market since it is able to provide high quality products that edge the competitors. This reputation however is at risk because the firm has started to receive complaints about their latest innovations which include the AB7 system.

This error in the design has caused the major stakeholders to question what the next step is to avoid this glitch that has the company’s future at stake. This failure has been especially directed towards the rally cars.  This error has to be rectified so as to eliminate the anxiousness that is present within the company board management as well as the stakeholders. This problem has been aggravated by the fact that two major clients have backed out of investing in the new system. This report also looks at the elements of the in-team project plans and the various aspects of the firm.

This drawback has resulted in a very clinical time for the company. This is because the firm is striving to keep their reputation at the top and continue their prolonged advantage over their competitors. This study, therefore aims at focusing on the factors that have been causing the recent failure in the designed system.

Within the report, there is the analysis of the FMEA factors that are within the braking system compared to other products that are within the firms’ production list. This will allow the firm to be able to establish the problems that are causing the braking system to be faulty.

The corrective measures that are being undertaken within the firm would be based on assumptions and statistics collected from any kind of research. The data that is used within the report is as a result of the factors that arise from the market and also from the basic knowledge about how best to create a competitive and structural operation. The GAP analysis is represented by a module that shows the variance within the QC process.

Internal or external supplier

 

Input

 

Process

 

A

 

Output

 

Internal or External

Suppliers

 

 

 

 

 

                                               Quality characteristics                                                                      RQ                                                                                                                Gap

Introduction

Within any firm, there is an allowance that is provided for errors as well as an unexpected change. The problems that are presented to the firm usually make the firm to develop alternatives to various problems which make the company to be better and have a well thought plan that is strategic.

The fact that Stop IT LTD is having this problem that involves their braking system, it means that they will have an alternative to this problem so that they can grow to be better and have a strategic advantage over competitors who have not yet faced this particular problem. The problem solving skills allow easy evaluation and the relevance to determining the main cause of the problem within this designed braking system.

The solution that will be used will be accompanied by a risk assessment that will guide and enable the solutions to the problem be obtained.  These solutions include the delivery to clients who are well within the target market that the firm focuses on.

Project Plan

The project plan involves coming up with a variety of steps that can be used to come up with a more effective problem solving value. The planning involves having the problem so well recognized that it is well fathomed what the firm is dealing with. This is known as problem recognition. The diagram above shows the project plan that would be used by the firm.

There is the planning step that is the most important element within any organization that is trying to solve a particular problem. During the planning process, it is noted that there are a number of sub elements that are used to define the planning design. They define it as being critical and significant when it comes to determining the possible solutions that could be used to improve the entire Stop IT firm.

The first element that is used includes identifying the problem. This however may pose a problem because the firm is seen as being bureaucratic. This means that there is a hierarchical arrangement in the organization that makes access to information to be difficult if not impossible. The problem identification in Stop IT firm however is seen as being the failure of the AB7 braking system.

Quality improvement is seen as the other plan that can be taken into account. This is seen as another critical step that can be taken into account so that the actual variance in the firm that is in trouble can be noted. The problem trickles down to the inefficiencies that are within the departments of the organization as well as the deficiencies that are related by the same departments.

The teams here have the latest styles as well as the latest technology that forms an effective problem solving team. This is because the firm will have creativity and proper innovation mentality. The teams that are involved in this project plan include the horizons of creativity against the environmental affiliations.

Problem definition is the next step that is taken in rectifying the arising issue within the firm. With proper research it is seen that the focus did not only lay in the failure of the rally brakes but also in the organizational structure. Some of the operational variances in this study include in-built variances as well as the other external factors.

Problem analysis: the value of the human resource department is seen as a critical section that as to be adhered to. The staff was found to have had limited access to training facilities and modules when the new design structure was introduced.  The employ training was a major problem because it was needed in order to maintain the quality standards of the manufacturing industry. To solve this problem, training should be done every year to ensure that the firm is able to maintain the effectiveness and efficiency of the firm production sector.

Sustainability is another element that has to be adhered to so as to make sure that the firm’s problems dealt with. The term sustainability is used to mean an operation that is able to withstand the test of time and have investors seeing the continued success.

The braking system of Stop firm has a policy that makes their products be preferable to other companies. The need to expand can, however hamper the skills and the quality of the products that result from the company (Parsley 1995). When looking at Stop firm specifically, the expansion policy resulted in a gap that was introduced within the realistic demands of the company. This means that there was an overproduction of the braking system without any statistical improvement in the commodity’s design.

Some of the examples that show operational variances include the in-built and external factors. The operational conditions show competencies as well as values that are within the HRM which determine the X factor used in the analysis.

Possible cause for the failure in the company may be associated with various elements. As discussed earlier, employee training is a basis of the expansion of Stop firm. From past experiences, it is noted that the larger the management staff is, the greater the difficulty that arise in dealing with the firm’s management. Having a larger staff means that there has to be a better training technique and also better appraisals within the firm. The lack of training means that there is a limitation that results due to the lack of competitive advantage within the firm.

When trying to come up with solutions, it is best to find the best qualified individuals within the company that allows the long term stability of the firm to be ensured. This will create a sense of faith from the stakeholders who will eventually invest in the firm. While the normal operations continue within the firm, the end user needs should be made a priority.

PDSA elements and tools of QC

There are various tools that are used to ensure that the system that is used in every management of a firm is stable and works at efficiency. These tools help to show the creativity index of the entire process of planning that has been listed above. Brainstorming is another method that has been used to come up with plans and also solutions to problems within the firm. Pareto analysis is a critical way that is used to analyze and evaluate the operational failures that are associated with Stop IT. According to Dale & Ivalwarden (2013) the why-why diagram approach is an effective means of enhancing any standards of the association in factors of production.

FMEA Analysis on product

This is an analysis that is enclosed together with a failure mode in it. It is also a design activity that is vital in the design of the braking system. This tool is seen as being universal since it is applicable to any other industries that are involved in the manufacture of the system.

This technique is used to prevent any future failure as well as improve on the existing product design. This gives the firm flexibility in the product design for future sustenance which includes testing an evaluation. By utilizing such a technique, then failure is substituted by risk which allows a preventive measure to be taken that allows the errors to be mitigated.

The common area of application of the FMEA is within the following areas;

  • Discovery of future failure of the mechanism and the risks involved in the design schematic of the braking system.
  • The steps that can be used to lower the occurrence of risk or failure in operation.
  • A follow up plan that allows the firm to evaluate the results and come up with a contingency plan.

 

This is a diagram showing the fish diagram that can be used in comparison to the FMEA analysis. It includes sub systems as well as the causes which can be placed orderly within the fish diagram in order to come up with the general concept of the braking problem. This will in the end result in having the desired output.

The FMEA has steps that are followed, which ensure that development of a product is done at its best. The steps are as discussed below.

Step 1: Pre-work

This section is used to evaluate the past errors that were in the firm so as to achieve a better performance of the FMEA.  The documents that are used in this step include the FMA that is availed within the failure mode. Another tool that is used includes the block diagram tool that becomes necessary when one tries to determine parametric diagrams. The list that is generated here is used to come up with the second step.

Step 2: Development (available in failure mode)

This can be termed as the insertion phase after all variables in other sections have been analyzed. This step helps the Stop firm to view the signs that may lead to withdrawal as well as an increase in stakeholders.  In this step, the elements of failure are brought out to the clear. The development failures arise from within the problem itself together with ideals about the product features and its outputs.

Step 3: Development (Bias to causes and occurrences)

The causes within this step were as a result of conflict with the parameter diagram that links the firm to past failures hence gets the elements within the cause column.

The RPN shows the relativity in risk management while the FMEA has itemization. In this step, there is a fast activity that takes place and involves realistic values. The principle of criticality is based on the severity of the operational protocol.

The table below shows an example of the FMEA done to the braking system design from Stop IT LTD of a vehicle to try and mitigate some of these errors that are arising from the braking system.

Item

Potential failure mode

cause

Local effect of failure

Higher level effect

End effect

severity

Dormancy period

Risk level

mitigation

Brake

mainfold

Leakage from channel A to B

O-ring compression

pressure decreased in the main brake  system

Absence of left wheel braking

Loss of position control

catastrophic

In built test of 1 minute

unacceptable

Require hydraulic independent system

When analyzing the FMEA in terms of design within the Stop IT firm, the focus is on the deficiencies that the system has and the mitigation procedures that can be used to counter the effect of this faulty braking system. The table below shows the modes that can be undertaken to ensure that the problem has been dealt with.

item

Potential failure mode

Potential failure effects

The handbrake provides the correct level of friction between the brake pad, assembly and wheel rim.

insufficient friction that leads to poor braking system

Braking does not occur in the desired time thus prone to accidents.

The diagram below best shows how the elements within the FMEA are related to each other. This shows that one element has an effect on others, thus to rectify one, means that the entire system has been changed.

In the Stop IT LTD firm, there is the FMEA analysis that can be used to show the probable causes of failure for this braking system design. Some of the causes are as listed below.          

  • Cable binds due to poor lubrication as well as having a poor routing system.
  • The cable might break.
  • The presence of external material causing friction to be reduced. i.e. poor terrain, mud etc.

To mitigate these errors it is best to come up with solutions that will reduce if not eliminate the problem entirely. There has to be a proper selection of the material used for the cable so that it has durability as well as proper operation as initially designed.

 

 

Corrective action plan

The FMEA analysis has some of the corrective measures below that have been taken into account to ensure that the plan outlined is adhered to. The measures are as listed below.

  • The firm focuses on the tolerance design accompanied by very minimal cases of operational nuances. This action should have reduced the variation that is involved with input.
  • Control methodology plan; this is used to control improvement. The tools that are used need to be mistake proof to ensure that the evaluation process is well enhanced. The evaluation technique is also enhanced to hasten the operational costs.
  • There are error-proofing values that are accompanied in the approach also. The error value of FMEA of this Stop firm shows that there is a failure value as well as a relatively high cause that arises within the system.

Other Tools & Techniques that can be used to improve the Product

The other element that can be used to improve the product quality is lean. This is a system that increases the critical reflection of individuals in a manner that makes them think appropriately. Other than just eliminating the waste from the system developed, it enhances the tool that can withstand any critical procedure (Park 2006).

The system under lean allows the managers to come up with ways that show and enhance direction within the firm. This is basically a problem solving technique which allows better if not the best forms of management.

Another tool that can be used is the Jidoka technique that was developed by the Toyota (Noboeka 2002) company. This system functions in a manner that allows the authority to be alerted whenever an error has occurred. This system disrupts normal work flow such that every function is halted until the error has been dealt with by management. This system is advantageous but also has its own flaws. This is due to the fact that it requires additional production units to enhance the factorial inputs.

Limitations of using other tools

  1. There is the aspect of loss of time within Stop IT LTD thus made the resources be hard to be used and implemented.
  2. There is the lack of clear expectations when new tools are being used within the firm.
  3. The number of the collaborating staff individuals was insufficient.
  4. When using the new tools, the leadership becomes inadequately engaged thus conflicts arise in management and the technical staff resulting in error within the end product design.

Recommendations

The normal operations of a firm need proper responsibility and a collective role from the company. The output can be contributed to effectively by the use of proper human resource and other external elements such as demand and supply. In this firm respectively, the Stop IT LTD has efficient productions that result from the human resource system being effective and efficient.

Training of the individuals is also necessary so that the employees remain up to date with the latest technology. This ensures that their skills do not become obsolete. With the constant training, the operational innovativeness will improve. To make sure that they are well trained, the best technique would be an on-job evaluation that allows the staff to learn from each other within the motivated environment.

This technique however requires that the clients and the staff have adequate motivation skills in order for them to adapt to the pressure and haste of production (Batalden 2007). According to researchers such as Maslow, for proper motivation to be instilled within an organization, it is necessary that management has direct contact with the staff and allow them to meet their required needs and standards.

Managers of the traditional era used to worry about the averages while the real operational drives of the firm may be hampered.

References

Van Iwaardeen & Dale, B. (2013). Managing quality. J. Wiley & Sons.

Noboeka, K. (2002). Creating and managing high performance network: Toyota Scenario.

Parsley, K. (1995). Int J Health Care Qual Assur (7): 9-13

Batalden, P. (2007). Teaching Quality Improvement; 298:1059-1061.

Park, S.M. (2006) Lean production, TQM and Culture of Company. 18(3), 263-281.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                     

 

 

Persuasive argument demonstrating you are alive

 

 

 

 

 

Demonstration that I am Alive

 

 

 

Name:

 

 

 

College:

 

 

 

            How many times do we discuss the topic of death with our friends? The idea of death terrifies a significant section of world population. This has made discussions on death a taboo in many societies, that one can easily be considered inconsiderate for attempting to talk about the topic. As a result, people have not been able to fulfill their potential as they postpone things that they would rather pursue at the moment. This because consider death to be a remote subject, something far away from them. Scholars like Robert Kastenbaum have discussed the topic in depth even discussing the anxiety itself. We all consider ourselves to be alive, but do we use any framework to prove that we are actually alive? In this paper, I will be using Kastenbaum’s notion of life and death to prove that I am actually alive.

            The first characteristic about dead people is that they are non-responsive. They cannot respond to both internal and external stimuli. The body of a dead person cannot express pain when pinched and it cannot even respond to someone trying to pierce the eye. The same cannot be said of me, as I can respond to the same stimuli as well as react when a certain stimulus is causing damage to my body. The fact that I am responsive, which is an attribute that cannot be found in dead persons, is a proof that I am alive. This also includes awareness of what is around someone and perception of events and experiences that take place. In this line, I would not be able to perceive what is required of me had I been dead. The fact that I could read and synthesize the subject matter is further proof that I am alive.

            The other proof concerns my heartbeat and respiration. These activities are controlled by the brain; if the brain is dead, the heart does not know that it should beat and neither do the lungs know that they should function to take in air. The fact that my heart is currently beating means my brain is functioning, something that is reminiscent of life. Kastenbaum talks about brain death as being the prolonged nonreversible cessation of brain activity, with complete absence of voluntary movements, reflexes of the brain stem as well as spontaneous respirations (Kastenbaum, 2011). This thus means respiration is an indication of the absence of brain death and a proof of life. Therefore, the fact that I am able to respire means that I am alive. People in a permanent vegetative state are also able to respire, but they can also not be considered as dead people.  

            Kastenbaum (2011) also alludes to low body temperature and stiffness as a characteristic of death, or rather, a dead person. He said that it was a way used even in the traditional society to ascertain whether someone was still alive or had given up the fight. The body of a dead person has the same body temperature as the environment; it takes up the room temperature under normal circumstances. My case is different; my body temperature is different from that of the environment. This is supported by the fact that in extreme temperatures I feel the temperature gradient. When the environment is cold, I feel the difference (feel cold) as I lose heat to the environment and when it is hot I feel the heat as I absorb it. This is proof to the difference in temperature between me and the environment. This is testament that my temperature is a way constant, something only found in living people. In other words, the body temperature of the dead is not constant. Stiffness of the body is another attribute that Kastenbaum attributes to the dead. Stiffness is the inability to be bent using force. The dead are unable to do that, may be because their brains that are supposed to control such functions are dead. However, I can bend my body parts and this is the reason I am even able to type. However, there are people that are alive but cannot be able to move their body parts even if they want to; for example, people who have had incidences of stroke that paralyze their body parts. However, they can be able to move some parts, unlike a dead person who cannot move any body part, and is not even aware that they should move them anyway. This is another proof that I am alive. Even permanently vegetative persons are able to make some non-purposive movements as their bodies are not stiff.

            The other proof is in regard to decomposition. Cells die and are usually replaced by new ones for persons that are alive. This does not apply to dead people; as they die, so do their cells and they are not replaced. There is no process to convert them to good use and therefore they decompose. This cannot happen to the living as the cells are replaced. The lack of decomposition in my body is another proof that I am alive.

            Proving that one is alive is quite a daunting task. This is because different people view the idea of death differently. Some people look into the idea of one being dead as a member of a society. This is when isolation and loneliness engulfs a person to the extent that s/he is not literally dead but her social interactions are so much altered, just like those of a dead person. Nonetheless, in this case I was dealing with death as the cessation of existence. I tried to prove that I am alive by alluding to characteristics that Kastenpaum believes are used to distinguish the living from the dead. This includes the ability to perceive experiences happening around them, making movements, body temperature and stiffness and respiration and heartbeat. Ascertaining that I have the attributes of a living person, vis-à-vis a dead person I was able to rest my case.             

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

Kastenbaum, R. J. (2011). Death, Society and Human Experience. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.